Henry VIII: February 1544, 1-15

Pages 46-60

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 19 Part 1, January-July 1544. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1903.

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February 1544, 1-15

1 Feb. 81. Henry VIII. to Charles V. (fn. n1)
R. O.
vii. 44.]
It has been shown you, both by the bp. of London and Seigneur de Brian, lately our ambassadors, and by our ambassador now resident with you, how the Scots, by invading our countries and breaking their faith and contravening their oaths, seals and promises, compelled us to take arms against them as enemies; and thereupon our said ambassadors sued that the Scots might also in your realms be taken for common enemies, and were answered that, upon our giving you authentic information that war was open between us and the Scots, you would take them as enemies, conformably to the treaties between us. Writes this to signify that he reputes the Scots his enemies, for the reasons aforesaid, as will be declared more fully by his ambassador, for whom he begs credence.
Fr. Modern transcript of a contemporary copy at Vienna, p. 1.
1 Feb. 82. William Latimer.
R. O. Bill of receipt by Edmund bp. of London, from Wm. Latymer, master of the College of St. Lawrence Pulteney, of 7l. 19s. 9d. for an annual pension and 7l. 3s. 10d. for the first payment of a subsidy, due to the King at Christmas last, by authority of Parliament. 1 Feb. 35 Hen. VIII. Signed by Thos. Staunton, the Bishop's vice-collector, who adds note of a further receipt of 25s. from four stipendiaries.
A small printed paper with spaces left for names and amounts.
1 Feb. 83. Suffolk to Henry VIII.
Add. MS.
32,653, f. 270.
B. M.
ii., No. 160.
Has received his letters dated Westm., 29 Jan., for an invasion of Scotland in March (points recapitulated). It is impossible to furnish necessaries for either army within so short a time. Even if bread and drink and grain might be purveyed, the carriages, which must be 500 at least, each to carry a ton, are not in this country and "must be purveyed where the great oxen and the great wains be." Grass and fodder is spent and spoilt about Edinburgh by the Scottish armies lately there, and is also spoilt on the Borders; and the Scots are determined, if an army is sent in before grass time, and no aid comes from France and Denmark, to rid away what grain they can and burn the rest. Provender for 20 days, giving each beast but a peck a day, would require 8,000 qr. and 800 carts to carry it in. Has thus declared his mind; but, if the King or the Council think that it may be done, he will do his best to set it forward. Darnton, 1 Feb. Signed.
Pp. 3. Add. Scaled. Endd.: 1543.
2 Feb. 84. Chapuys to Charles V.
R. O.
vii. 24.]
Four days ago received his letters of the 14th ult.; and, thereupon, made every effort to persuade the King's Council to declare the duke of Holstein enemy, especially if they insisted upon the Emperor's so declaring the Scots. After consulting the King several times, they answered that it was scarcely less important to the Emperor to declare against the Scots than it was to their master; for to do so would withdraw the Scots from the amity of France and be no small blow to the French, whereas if the Scots (with the aid of the French) were to invade this realm the Emperor would be bound to great expenses for the defence. As to the declaration against Holstein, they pray the Emperor to consider that the Duke cannot invade or harm his countries, and that it would be very inconvenient to this realm which has great trade in that quarter and from thence obtains all necessaries for shipbuilding; and, moreover, it might cause the Duke (with French assistance) to pass, or send Almains, into Scotland to invade this realm; also the English have much goods in Denmark which would be all lost; and, lastly, just as the Emperor wished to be sufficiently certified of the overture of the war between them and the Scots, so they ought to be sufficiently instructed of the causes whereby the King might lawfully declare against Holstein. Could not persuade them otherwise, they not doubting, as they said, but that the Emperor would forthwith proclaim the Scots enemies, and requiring Chapuys to beg him to do so. They informed him that the King had, for the Emperor's sake, released the Milanese physician imprisoned for maintaining the Pope's authority (fn. n2), in whose favour the Emperor wrote.
Three days ago arrived a king of arms of Scotland (fn. n3) to demand safe-conduct for three or four ambassadors from the Estates of Scotland. The Council said nothing about his charge, but one of Chapuys's men learnt from him that Scotland desired only peace with this King and would not contravene the treaty last made, but meant that the marriage capitulated between the Prince of Wales and Princess of Scotland should take place when the parties attained suitable age. Those here give little credit to this language, but provide for the frontiers of Scotland more diligently than ever. There are daily forays but hitherto to the disadvantage of the Scots. Understands that the same herald pressed for a passport and safe-conduct for the patriarch of Aquilea, who wished to return this way.
After several disputes and altercations, the King has unwillingly consented that safe-conducts granted by the Emperor and Queen of Hungary shall be observed; but those who bring merchandise out of France are not to sell it here.
This King and those about him could scarcely contain themselves with laughter (a paine se sont ilz peu souler de rire) at the new conscience of the king of France; and this King hopes that, whosoever gives him absolution for his wicked practices with the Turk, the Emperor and himself will give the penance.
Must not forget to say that this King thinks to gratify the Emperor by avowing the safe-conducts as above, which will be observed, provided that those of Flanders lade no artillery, munition, arms or victuals for France; also that the Council made no mention of the two points proposed to the Emperor by their ambassadors, viz., touching the Spanish arquebusiers and the centiesme denier. London, 2 Feb. 1544.
Fr. Modern transcript of the original at Vienna, pp. 4. Original endd.: "receues en Spiere, le xie dud. mois 1543."
2 Feb. 85. Chapuys to the Queen of Hungary.
R. O.
vii. 27.]
Has received her letters of the 22nd ult., chiefly concerning the solicitation of this King to declare the duke of Holstein enemy; in which Chapuys could effect only what she will see by the copy herewith of his letters to the Emperor. The herrings mentioned in her letter were already sold, and the Council added to former excuses that last year their people, for several reasons, were not in Iceland for ling and other fish, and, being unable to obtain provision elsewhere, had retained all the herrings: the safe-conducts of their Majesties would be observed, but always with condition that they do not intend that merchandise coming from France should be brought from Flanders or elsewhere; as she will see by the said copy. The King took well her declaration to his ambassador of the propos of the Legate and her allowance (notwithstanding the declaration against the Scots) of the King's safe-conducts, in which Chapuys thinks that those who wish to use these safe-conducts should ask her confirmation of them. London, 2 Feb. 1544.
Fr. Modern transcript of the original at Vienna, pp. 2.
ii. Note appended to the preceding of another letter of the same date in which Chapuys begs the Queen to use her benignity towards Count Bernardin de Sainct Boniface, and thus gratify the King.
2 Feb. 86. Suffolk to Henry VIII.
Add. MS.
32,653, f. 272.
B. M.
ii., No. 161.
Begs pardon for omitting, in his last, to answer some points in the King's letters. Thanks for offer of the leading of the enterprise upon Edinburgh in March, wherein he trusts to do service and yet have time to wait upon the King into France. If this go forward, begs that Hertford, my lord Admiral (or else lord Parre) and Mr. Comptroller may be sent to assist him. Mr. Bowes also might do good service. As to men in these parts who can skill in conducting an army, has had no experience of any of them; but Norfolk, Brown, Hartford and Mr. Comptroller can tell which are meetest. Darneton, 2 Feb. Signed.
Pp. 3. Add. Sealed. Endd.
3 Feb. 87. Chapuys to the Queen of Hungary.
The letter noticed in Spanish Calendar VII., No. 28, as of this date is of the 2nd Feb. See No. 85 (§ii).
4 Feb. 88. Jewellery.
Royal MS.
7 C. xvi, f. 52.
B. M.
List of jewellery headed: 4 Feb. 35 Henry VIII., in portu London:—
"T. Xpro. Carcano all. per quand. bergain. et per licenc. D'ni Regis sibi concess.
"One martron skynne with the head and claws of gold, the head garnished with iij emeralds, ij diamonds and iij rubies. A carcan of gold garnished with iiij great table diamonds, iiij great rocke rubies, viij great pearls and a pearl pendant." And a chain, a girdle, two crosses and two rings, all of gold, similarly described.
P. 1.
4 Feb. 89. The Privy Council to Wotton.
R. O.
St. P., ix. 592.
The King has seen his letters from Colen, of his discourse with Mons. de Bure (about serving the King with 2,000 Almains) and his communication with Grandvela; and requires him to obtain from Grandvela a book of the ordinary "sould" which the Emperor pays, as a guide in proceedings with De Buren and in obtaining horsemen out of Almain.
The Emperor's ambassador, by commission of the Lady Regent, said that the Scots should be declared enemies by the Emperor if the King would so declare the duke of Holst, king of Denmark, for enemy; adding that, to gratify the King, the Emperor would continue to take for friends such Scots as had the King's safe-conduct; and pressing for the King's pleasure touching the safe-conducts which the Emperor granted to merchants to repair to France.
The reply was (1) that the King marvelled at this apparent wish to frustrate the treaty; for, upon the first request about the Scots, the Emperor remitted the matter to the Lady Regent, then, upon your request to Grandvela, an "authentic declaration" was required (sent herewith), and now, upon the third request, conveyed by the Viceroy to the Lady Regent, comes this addition of the duke of Holst, showing plainly "that the other answers were only dilatory." If the Duke was to be so declared the Emperor should first satisfy the King and then observe such order in "authentic signification" as the King now does. The Duke has made no such invasion that, by the treaty, he should be declared enemy; and, if he had, it was not now expedient thus to cause him to send aid into Scotland and encourage the Scots to invade this realm (when the Emperor should be at like charge to aid the King against the Scots as the King was at last year to aid the Emperor against the French). The King's policy of entertaining certain lords of Scotland against the practises of France and making "fair weather" with the Duke benefits the Emperor; and the Duke, who is poor, has in his country great substance of our merchants' goods, whereas the Emperor's merchants have no trade into Scotland. These reasons satisfied the Ambassador, who promised to write for the Scots to be declared enemies without delay, passing over the request about the Duke.
(2.) As to the Emperor's accepting such Scots as had the King's safe-conduct; the King was glad to see such conformity, but it was not to be accounted for gratification, considering that the King finds no fault that the Emperor retains both Italians and Frenchmen, who should else be common enemies; just as the King retains Scots who would otherwise strengthen the French.
(3.) As to the safe-conducts; the King is content, provided that the Emperor will be content with such safe-conducts as he will grant, and that no victuals, munition or artillery are carried into France, and provided that wares brought out of France are not brought into this realm contrary to the late proclamation, for this realm has been so hindered by trash brought from thence during the amity that the King intends now to establish acts to avoid that inconvenience hereafter.
By solicitation of the patriarch from Rome and the Cardinal, such lords as pretended to be the King's friends in Scotland have joined the adverse party and made a "solemn procession;" but the King's friends still intimate that they are his in heart and have only ceded to force. Now suit is made in the name of all that the King should hear ambassadors, but the King will give no hearkening unless they will profess to observe the treaty lately concluded, and sent hither sealed by their commissioner; for otherwise it were vain to give ear to them, "as men with whom, for want of faith, nothing can be surely bargained and agreed."
Draft in Gardiner's hand, corrected by Paget, pp. 10. Endd.: Minute to Dr. Wotton and Dr. Layton, iiijo Feb. 1543. (fn. n4)
4 Feb. 90. Prince Philip of Spain to Chapuys.
Add. MS.
28,593, f. 302.
B. M.
vii. 31.]
Has received his letters of 9 and 29 Nov. and is sorry for his illness. Prays God to give him the health which, by what he writes of that realm and Scotland, he needs. Rejoices much that the King's affairs go so well; and would have him continue to write of the King and the Emperor, because by the Eastern sea, owing to the Turkish armada wintering in France, it is difficult to get news. It is here learnt that Don Fernando de Gonzago went to the King on the Emperor's behalf. Desires to know the result. As the armadas of the Turk and of France are wintering respectively in Tolon and Marseilles, the Spanish coasts make preparations against an attack next spring.
The writer and the Princess celebrated their marriage at Salamanca on 15 Nov. and afterwards came to this town. Has been a little unwell for some days, but feels better. Chapuys shall inform the King who, as a friend and confederate, will doubtless be pleased. He shall also give the Princess the writer's good news, who will be glad to learn hers.
Spanish, pp. 3. Modern copy from Simancas, headed: Copia de minuta de carta del Principe al Embaxador de Ynglaterra, de Valladolid, a iiii de Hebrero 1544.
91. Henry VIII. to Cardinal Betoun.
Add. MS.
32,653, f. 244.
B. M.
ii., No. 164.
Has by bearer (fn. n5) received his letter showing how he travails by words to dispel the opinion which his deeds have raised, persuading that he means the quietness of both realms when he has practised the contrary. Arran in the name of the whole realm concluded and ratified articles of peace and marriage, which were approved by the seven personages whom Betoun, at his unlawful assembly at Lythcoo, sent to convene with seven of Arran's party; which fourteen personages also took order that, as Betoun feared to come to Edinburgh, and Argile and Huntley had to repair home, a Parliament should be held 20 days later, when Betoun would appear and give his consent to the articles, and, if the matter might not be deferred so long, Arran should, with such lords as were near at hand, proceed to the ratification. Nevertheless, contrary to the fair words he then gave to the King's ambassador and now writes to the King, he has travailed to subvert all that was determined, without respect to the wealth of his Sovereign Lady and the realm, or to the shedding of Christian blood which might follow,—whereby he has offended God, slandered his profession and used little loyalty to his native country. If he intends "to meddle in the affairs of the world, and to leave aside the charge of the office of a minister of God's word" which he professed when made bishop, he should regard better the honor and weal of that realm than he has done. The answer touching safe-conduct for his ambassadors is given, by the King's Council, to his herald to be declared to him and all the lords of the Council there.
Draft in Paget's hand, pp. 6.
Add. MS.32,
653, f. 239.
B. M.
ii., No. 163.
2. "A memorial" of the answer made by the Privy Council to Rose herald of Scotland to be declared to "all the lords and nobles of Scotland."
The King has considered the suit now made by Arran (substituted for "certain of the nobles") in the name of the nobles for a safe-conduct for ambassadors. Like suit was made of late and answered by Suffolk, lieutenant in the North, that if those who made it would join with the rest of the lords and the whole Parliament of Scotland to perfect the treaty lately concluded by Arran, as Governor, and the Parliament, and lay in the hostages, and would send ambassadors for that, he (Suffolk) thought the King might be induced to give ear to their suit; but, if Arran and the Cardinal reputed the treaties invalid, and, for delay, went about to treat any other, the King would grant no safe-conduct for such a purpose, for if the former treaties were of no force none could be made of force. That answer has not been thoroughly considered in Scotland; for the present suit is not set forth plainly but in words of doubtful meaning. The King's answer is therefore that, if they will write plainly whether they wish to perfect the treaty already concluded or to enter a new treaty, suitable answer will be made; and meanwhile it is Arran's part (for whose commodity, in the time of trouble in Scotland, delay of entry of the prisoners was granted), now that there is unity and quiet, as he writes, to cause the prisoners to make their entry.
Draft corrected by Paget, pp. 5.
Ib. f. 242. 3. Fair copy of § 2, with slight variations and some further corrections.
Pp. 2. Endd.:Copie of the memorial delyvered to Roos herald.
5 Feb. 92. The Privy Council to Suffolk.
Add. MS.
32,653, f. 274.
B. M.
ii., No. 162
The King has seen his letters to them of the — (blank) inst. and will in a day or two send his formal resolution touching the main invasion; for which everything is to be prepared, and the writers are devising for the King's satisfaction. Considering that the Scots, by desiring peace, seek to win time for sowing their corn and getting aid from France and Denmark, and that the King's garrisons and others on the Borders, by forbearing to make raids, are leaving furniture for the men whom the Scots intend to send to the Borders in garrison, the King has determined that great raids shall be made forthwith, sparing neither Douglasses nor others. Wharton shall appoint Robert Maxwell, as hostage for his father, "a very short day to come in," according to his promise to him and the Master of the Horse (who now writes to him for that purpose), and on the night of the day so appointed a great raid shall be made on his father's lands. If he comes in, this shall be alleged to be done because of his and his father's untruth; and if he comes not, that alone is sufficient. As Sir George Douglas and his friends might think it strange to have their lands devastated, they are to be informed that in case the Humes shall have Coldingham and Cobber-spit given them by the Governor, as the King is informed, it is expedient to waste them; and, albeit Sir George still keep Coldingham and the rest, it is necessary to overrun them that the Governor and Cardinal may think him out of credit with the King. Assuring him that, serving according to his promise, and as he and his brother are bound by the King's goodness, he shall be recompensed. These raids to be done with speed, and so raid upon raid, as the Council wrote before.
Where Dunlanrik complains, in his letters to Wharton, of the small regard had to his charges, he having had but 200 cr.; Wharton shall show him that the fault is theirs who distributed the money, for the King meant that both he and the sheriff of Ayr should have presently 500 cr. and also yearly pensions, and has now appointed to each of them 300 cr. (for which shift is to be made, and Suffolk shall, with all haste, receive "a mass of money" from hence) and 500 cr. pension, provided they will swear to serve the King, "as the rest have done," or else make promise in writing. They are also to be put in hope of larger benefit if they serve effectually.
The King requires to know what works are necessary at Wark and Berwike, and the cost. The comptroller of works at Berwike and the master mason at Wark can certify it.
Draft in Paget's hand, pp. 6. Endd.: Mynute to the duke of Suffolk, vo Februarii 1543.
5 Feb. 93. Chapuys to the Council.
R. O. Sends letters from the Viceroy of Sicily, answering theirs received by him at Dover. The Viceroy also sends a cipher for use of the two camps in the field, which (the business approaching) shall be delivered as the King shall command. The King has declared that inhabitants of the Emperor's countries navigating into France shall not be molested; but, as mariners in all places are sufficiently ill conditioned, and delay sometimes causes the loss of a ship, desires that the King will provide for the case by letters patent with clause that transumpts signed by notary shall be as valid as the original. Supposes that, as the conditions dictated to him made no mention of French ships, the Emperor's merchants will be able to lade in French ships (provided these ships are not armed), as those who last obtained the King's safe-conducts were. Understands that here and at Eye some of the herrings still remain to be sold. Begs that they may be restored to the merchants, upon obligation not to sell them except at the taxed price, whose credit would be suspected if the King's deputies sold them.
Refers to bearer for the affair of his physician and of the wines taken at Gravizende. London, 5 Feb. 1544. Signed.
French, pp. 2. Add. Endd.:1543.
5 Feb. 94. Eleanor Countess of Rutland to her Father, Sir William Paston.
Add. MS.
27,447, f. 76.
Her brother Leeke will have explained her chief business. Prays him to move Henry Digby to go forward in the probation of her lord's testament and touching the finding of the offices, and to keep her informed how he proceeds. Sends "humble duty" to her mother. Belvoir, 5 Feb. Signed.
P. 1. Add.
7 Feb. 95. Suffolk to Henry VIII.
Add. MS.
32,653, f. 278.
B. M.
ii., No. 165.
Wrote, in his last, his opinion that an invasion of Scotland could not be made in March for lack of forage and of carriages for 20 days' victual. Understanding, however, by the Council's last letters, the King's earnestness to have it done, has devised a plan for it which he sends in a book herewith. The chief causes of his devising the book, "and also the proportion of victuals to be brought by sea to meet the army at Edinburgh," are, first, the saving of carriages for the whole 20 days' victuals and provender (for, by this way, 30 carts, for all that belongs to the ordnance and artillery, will suffice); and, secondly, that, as ships must be sent to waft the things sent to Berwick, they may, with a little more strength, go into the Fryethe. Darnton, 7 Feb. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add. Sealed. Endd.
7 Feb. 96. Charles V. to Chapuys.
R. O.
vii. 32.]
Encloses the resolution he has taken upon the charge of Don Fernande de Gonsaga at his return. It will serve for Chapuys's instruction. Spire, 7 Feb. 1543.
Fr. Modern transcript of the original minute at Vienna, p. 1.
R. O.
vii. 22.]
2. [The resolution mentioned above.]
It seems best to conform fully to the treaty made by the said Viceroy and our Ambassador with the King's deputies, seeing that any opposition (contradiction) or remonstrance could only generate irritation in the English; and, besides, the said treaty is entirely conformable to the preceding and adds nothing except as to the time of the army of the sea, which is not unreasonable, and also the Queen does not oppose it, by what she writes. As to the instance which was made for assistance in the enterprise of Italy, and for which the King of England granted 20,000 cr. if he might be given 1,000 Spanish harquebusiers, 600 of them paid by the Emperor for three months, this 1,000 Spaniards should be absolutely excused, both for the need of them (as has already been answered) and because they would be unwilling to go in such small number to the frontier of Scotland, as they have themselves answered Don Fernande in his passing by Luxemburg. Our Ambassador to advertise the King of the great provision which the Emperor now makes on the side of Italy against the forces sent thither by the King of France to hinder the common enterprise here; in spite of which his Majesty remains resolved to entirely fulfil his part, and is certain that the King of England will likewise do his; and to press for at least the 20,000 cr. without the said condition of the Spaniards, not, however, persisting too much if he sees them disinclined. Also it seems requisite to advertise our said Ambassador to tell the King that, although the Emperor intended to use the Sieur de Buren in his own army, to please the King he is content to give him the Sieur de Buren, with the charge of the 2,000 horse and 2,000 lanceknechts; and desires the King to provide money to furnish the other 2,000 Almains with whom he wishes to charge the Sieur de Buren, and also to provide money quickly for the raising of the other 4,000 footmen and 2,000 horse, in order that they may be good men and well equipped. If the said King has not yet sent his deputies to the Queen in Flanders let him do it, to see to the other provisions. As to furnishing some money to gain the Swiss, our said Ambassador shall still try to induce the King thereto although there is little or no hope.
The said Ambassador shall ascertain as much as possible from the King and ministers touching the army there; and shall be vigilant and continually advertise the Emperor and Queen of all preparations, and whether there will be any difficulty; how the King stands with the Scots and whether they could hinder the army's marching in time; whether the French practise (tiennent quelque practique) to turn the English from it; and whether the King still wishes to come in person and who will have the principal charge in his army. Whereas the King's Commissioners made great instance to Don Fernande and the Ambassador for our army by sea and the Sieur de Beures, admiral, or whoever has charge of it, to be under the English admiral (which was excused, and yet the commissioners asked Don Fernande to speak to the Emperor therein); besides the reputation, it seems that our army would thus only serve the King of England "ou pour aller au coustel d'Escosse, et si vouldroient par cy apres qu'on feit tousjours de ce coustel le semblable." Our Ambassador should persist in the said excuse, and answer that there will be no lack of co-operation. As to the declaration required by the King of England against the Scots, the thing is reasonable provided that he does the reciprocal against the duke of Holstein, the Emperor's open enemy, who has defied his Low Countries. The Queen has replied well touching the safe-conducts, and there is now no more to be said until answer comes from our said Ambassador.
The English ambassador here should be told that the Emperor entirely agrees with what has been done by the Viceroy and our Ambassador and the point of Mons. de Buren, for which he has pressed; remitting the rest to our said Ambassador.
Fr. Modern transcript of a copy in cipher at Vienna, pp. 4.
8 Feb. 97. John Banister.
R. O. Grant to John Banister of the reversion of Beningburghe Grange, Yorks., etc. Westm., 8 Feb. 35 Hen. VIII. See Grants in February, No. 13.
Later copy, on 16 large paper leaves, written only on the one side and fastened with a strip of parchment at the top.
9 Feb. 98. The Privy Council to Suffolk.
Add. MS.
32,653, f. 280.
B. M.
ii., No. 166.
Suffolk knows by sundry letters from hence the King's desire to invade Scotland about March. Considering the difficulty, by reason of the multitude of carriages required, Suffolk's second device, to increase the Border garrisons by 2,000 men, is taken. Suffolk shall see this done forthwith; and —— (blank) Bowes is this day despatched to him with 10,000l. Secondly, the King will send 15,000 soldiers and mariners to land in the Frithe about Lithe and burn Edinburgh, if the castle will not yield, and waste the country of Fife to St. Andrews. At the same time the 3,000 in garrison shall keep the Scottish borderers occupied, and a bruit shall be raised that a main army is to enter by land. As the men and ships must mostly be levied within Suffolk's office, he is to certify where and within what time they may be ready; and send to Newcastle (which is thought the meetest place for them to mount the sea), Hull and other havens to stay all ships, and cause owners to put them ready for service at a day's warning; and send hither the names of the owners and all his devices to further this enterprise, giving out that, being appointed (as he is) to wait upon the King into France, he means to ship himself and his folk there and meet the King at Calays.
Draft, pp. 3. Endd.: Mynute to the duke of Suffolk, ixo Februarii 1543.
9 Feb. 99. Suffolk and Tunstall to the Council.
Add. MS.
32,653 f. 282.
B. M.
ii., No. 167.
Enclose a letter of Wharton's with a letter of Angus and Robert Maxwell jointly, a letter of Robert Maxwell's apart, and a copy of a bill from the Elwoodes, showing that the Scots make assembly. The purpose is uncertain; but, as the Governor comes down in person, Suffolk has warned the wardens of the East and Middle Marches, when they know that the Scots assemble, to fire beacons, proclaiming that all between 60 and 16 shall be ready to go towards the Borders at the burning of the beacons. Suffolk has also written to Wharton to make a raid in the West Borders, and has made like proclamation here in the Bishopric, and intends to go to Alnwik, having stayed the raid that should have been made, so that if the Scots come on they may be fresh to defend the Borders. The raising of the King's people shall be to good purpose, for they shall not return without doing some notable exploit. Suffolk will not call any part of Yorkshire nor go further than Alnwik unless he see cause; and has commanded Wharton to call for the entry of Robert Maxwell. Beg for money with haste. Had to borrow from Mr. Shelley, of the victualling money, to pay the garrisons for 14 days. Darntone, 9 Feb. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add. Endd.: 1543.
9 Feb. 100. The Queen of Hungary to Chapuys.
The letter placed under this date in the Spanish Calendar will be found under the 19 Jan. See No. 47 note.
11 Feb. 101. Fuel in London.
Harl. MS.
442, f. 196.
B. M.
Proclamation, made 11 Feb. 35 Hen. VIII., licensing all persons, until 1 March next, to sell fuel in London though it be not of the assize required by the late Statute; as transport by water of fuel which should have been sold before the Act came into force, at Candlemas, was hindered by the continual frosts and ice.
Modern copy, pp. 2.
Soc. of Antiq.,
Procl., ii. 130.
2. Another modern copy.
11 Feb. 102. Peter Vannes.
R. O. Bill of receipt, by Petrus Vannes, from Sir Thos. Arundell, farmer of his parsonage of Mere, Wilts, of 23l. for the half year's rent due at Christmas last. 11 Feb. 35 Hen. VIII. Signed.
P. 1. Endd.:"Acquittance," &c.
11 Feb. 103. Suffolk to the Council.
Add. MS.
32,653, f. 284.
B. M.
ii., No. 168.
Has received theirs of the 9th, showing that 2,000 more men are to be laid on the Borders forthwith (wherein he will make shift until the King's money come) and that 15,000 shall land in the Frythe, &c. (recapitulated). Sends his opinion in a schedule herewith. The "farthest man" may be at the port where he shall ship within twelve days. Where they write to know the number of ships, &c., has sent to all the places within his commission and will send the certificate to them or the lord Admiral. Leaves the estimate of ships and victual to them. Northumberland, the Bishopric, and a great part of Yorkshire, to the seaward, lack grain; and there is no cask in these parts, except it be 100 tun at Berwick. In Northumberland and all the Borders is scarcity of bread, drink and horsemeat, as shown in the books herewith, so that if these 2,000 more are laid in garrison they must have relief out of the south. Sends a certificate and letter showing the state of Newcastle.
Captain Bourdoke tarries here still for a servant whom he sent to the earl of Lenexe to learn what he should say to the King on the Earl's behalf. He seems determined to serve the King truly; "howbeit he is a Scot." But, for the matter of which the Council wrote, viz., the obtaining knowledge when the King shall be beyond sea, he seems most meet, for he has a brother and other Scottish friends in France "and many that he did help to livings when he was there," by whom he doubts not to have intelligence. He is "a sober wise person and a man of good experience." As soon as his servant comes he will go to the King. Darnton, 11 Feb. Signed.
P.S.—Explains that, in view of the King's sending an army by land into Scotland, he defers laying the garrisons.
Pp. 4. Endd.
12 Feb. 104. Anthony Whytt to John Johnson.
R. O. London, 12 Feb. '43:—By your letter I perceive you have sent up all the wool. It is like to be shipped, for the stranger bought of other men because I could not tell when he should have it; and you know "they never buy no wool that is packed in pocket, lightly, but all in serplars, and they would have had it in the country rather than here, so that you might have saved the carriage; " and yet the stranger is aggrieved, and it will hinder my mother another time in selling her wool to them. I sold one Coucheman a serplar received from you, which weighed at our beam 10 ½ cwt. and 14 lb., with the 2 cl. abated for tare and cloth. When packed in horse packs in my mother's house, there was "a tode and more of the refuse"; and it was very ill "reuerd" wool for that country. "And where my mother had thought to have bestowed more money in wool, I ween we shall wish that we had bestowed less, for I fear we shall have little doings or none this year, and here is such cessing as was never seen before, nor never shall be again I trust, so that she will buy no more as yet till she see the world somewhat more quieter."
Hol., p. 1. Add.:at Polbrook. Endd.:Answered, 18 Feb.
12 Feb. 105. Layton to Paget.
R. O. Has received the Council's letters of 4 Feb., reporting the debate betwixt the Emperor's ambassador and them touching the arrest of the Scots. Will certify how it is taken here; "but I say unto you, my nigh friend, that 1 am afraid that ye shall have slack expedition in declaring openly the Scots to be their enemies. What they will do by th' Emperor's commandment I know not, but, else, tu ridebis quod multa pollicebuntur et nihil prestabunt." Because you take up the herring by sea they have sent 20 or 30 cartloads into France, by St. Umbers, as Nicole the post says. "I am glad of your wife's good fortune in my house, and of your young champion. I can write no more for faintness."
Continues in a looser handwriting to describe how in following the Regent from Brussels to Gaunt, in the breaking up of the frost, he caught a severe chill and flux, and in one day swooned fifteen times; but, chancing upon "a very cunning physician, xxvj year student in Paris, ix year practitioner in Italie, great companion with D. Clerke ep'o Batt," (fn. n6) is now almost cured. One of his men died and others are sick. "Such a base country of waters, mire, dirty and devilish, I never came in since I was born, specially now at the breaking up of the frost. If the great legion of devils have any habitation in centro terre it is surely here; and I daresay Pluto his palace cannot stand far off from Gaunte. Even now I am informed that my men will needs go seek Saint James, divers of them. Nicole the post, your old servant, told me that ye said paper was dear here. I pray you say not so for I shall make you weary of my letters." Commendations to Lady Paget. When the Surveyor of Calais came to Bruxelles "for licence of harness, &c., for my lord Wrisley and you, I never dronk till I had sped it with the Queen's hand and seal." 12 Feb., at Gaunt "scribbled with great pain."
The "poor knave" whom the Scots took on the Norfolk coast and brought to Camfier, having gotten out of the Scotsmen's hands, never returned for his 30l. and goods worth 30l. or 40l., which remain there in an officer's hands. As the "poor knave" is so simple that he "believeth he shall be hanged if he come there again," it were well to cause him to make a letter of attorney to Mr. Gresham's factor to receive the goods. "Although the person be a syly body yet he is the King's subject."
Hol., pp. 3. Add. Endd.:1543.
12 Feb. 106. The French in Italy.
R. O. From Amthwerp, 12 Feb. 1543:—Two days ago, letters from Milan, of 29 Jan., reported that the French had recovered Mondyvy and taken Yvrea, "and yt they did follow toward Cermona; and it is supposed yt the Vynychians and the Byshoppe of Rome shall be together, insomuch that in that or poor Ytalye shalbe some troubles." The Genovesses have consented to receive an ambassador from the French king, keeping theirs with him, and to receive 6 French galleys in their havens.
P. 1.
13 Feb. 107. Herre Andereson to Suffolk.
R. O. This Wednesday, 13 Feb., at 2 a.m., received Suffolk's letters dated Darn ton 10 Feb., and has with all possible diligence made the schedule (enclosed) (fn. n7) of the names and tonnage of all ships of this town. His own ship "now in making," the Martyne of John Hylton, the Mary Grace of Wm. Car and the Christopher of Thos. Bell are "in making and reparation," and cannot be ready to sail before Easter. No foreign ships are now here; and no ships save those recited in the schedule, viz., the Elizabeth of Jas. Lawson, Mary Katheryne of the writer, Anne of Edw. Penrethe, John of John Hylton, Marie of Geo. Davell, Nicholas of Robt. Bynkes, and Trinitie of Bartram Orde. Here are sufficient masters and mariners for them. Has stayed them; and upon further instructions will "procure them to be put in readiness." All ships of this town now forth, saving two lately sailed into Flanders, are expected home with the next four days of "southern winds." At the request of his neighbours, begs to know "in what rate and sort the said ships here now being and stayed shalbe demeaned, other by way of prest, tonnage or otherways"; and that Hilton's and Davell's ships, being now laden and ready "to pass on this coast," may make their voyage, and they will be home again by the end of this month. The Elizabeth of Jas. Lawson "is over chargeable for Calice haven by reason of her great burden," and also difficile to be made ready in the time limited by Suffolk's letters. Newcastle upon Tyne, 13 Feb. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add. Endd.: 1543.
13 Feb. 108. Layton to Henry VIII.
R. O.
St. P., ix. 596.
Layton being for two or three days past somewhat acrased, the Queen sent the President to show him the Emperor's answer to Cardinal Fernesa at Spires (Henry's ambassador made privy to it there), and declare that her sister the Queen of France, at the Cardinal's passing this way, having sent her hawks, tokens and letters, as Layton wrote, she has now sent the bringer of them (who tarried here ever since and was thought by many to be a spy) back to the Queen to declare this answer of the Emperor's to Fernesa, lest the latter would "now at his return thither" misreport it. She expects the same messenger shortly to bring secret notice from her sister of "what things they will intend," and will forthwith certify Henry of it. Gaunte, 13 Feb.
Hol., pp. 2. Add. Endd.: 1543.
14 Feb. 109. Peter Robynson, Mayor of York, to Suffolk.
R. O. There are two crayers of 36 ton apiece now at York and able to go to sea. They sail with six men apiece and shall be at Suffolk's commandment. The owners are Mich. Bynkes and Fras. Trotter, of York, mariners. The Owse is often so low that they cannot pass from York to Hull. There are belonging to this city "ten vessels called keylls which are of forty and thirty ton, not able to go to the sea but only to convey merchandise from Hull to York," which shall be always at his command. York, 14 Feb. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.:1543. "Sartyfycathes (fn. n8) to be sente up to the Cownsell."
14 Feb. 110. Wharton to Suffolk.
Add. MS.
32,653, f. 286.
B. M.
ii., No. 169.
Describes how, upon Tuesday the 12th inst. at 8 p.m., he assembled all gentlemen and rulers of men in the castle and read to them his determination, taken that afternoon with the most experienced of them, for the Papers, annoyance of Scotland. Then, at 10 p.m., all horsed at Carlisle and passed to West Linton Lees, and thence to Blakebank in the Debateable Land, where Wharton appointed his son, John Leigh, John Mwsgrave and the Grames with a strong foray to burn Anande, and followed himself with 2,000 foot. Anande which has been in summer a Warden's raid is now more surely burnt than it has been. Reached it at 7 a.m.; and burnt also Tordof, Dronoke, Blayt, Blaytwod, West Hilles, Staillis, Stokes, and other houses with what little corn they had. Describes, how, about noon, laird Johnson appeared, with 700 men, and so harassed Wharton's men that, through their misorder, he could not halt them at Loughmaben Stone, "standing in Scotland," or make proclamation to them till they had passed the Esk and come to the Cross in Carlisle, where he commanded all to lodge within three miles of Carlisle and all gentlemen and rulers to come before him on the morrow at 9 a.m., for the affair commanded in Suffolk's letters of the 11th anempst the 8 days' victual. Brought all the King's subjects home safe, with 20 prisoners, and insight and other goods. Begs him to command no more warden raids till he hears more "of the order hereof." Intends to send his son to Suffolk. Had in the field the earl of Essex's standard with 120 Kendal men, a gethon of the earl of Cumberland's with Westmoreland men, his own and his son Pennyngton's standards, and sundry men of lord Dacres, the lord Marquis and Sir Henry Knewette, and also 40 Ledysdalles who served honestly,—in all 3,000 men. Might have done better service against the Scots that came if he could have kept order; yet the thing done was never done without loss of men, and they had none hurt, and many Scots were hurt with arrows and had spears broken upon them. Carlisle, 14 Feb. Signed.
Pp. 3. Add. (as despatched at 9 a.m.) Endd: 1543.
14 Feb. 111. The Queen of Hungary to Chapuys.
R. O.
vii. 34.]
Having received his letter of the 2nd inst. with the copy of that to the Emperor, she advertised the Emperor of her opinion of the King of England's excuses from declaring against the Duke of Holstein. Has since received the packet herewith, and (as the Emperor now writes that he is content to declare against the Scots if the King declares against the Duke) sends also a copy of her reply to his Majesty thereupon; so that Chapuys may show the King and Council how important it is to make the said declaration, reminding them of the assurance they gave when treating the closer amity that they would hold the said Duke enemy as soon as the treaty was concluded and sworn. It would come à propos, now when the Duke is sending his deputies to the Emperor to treat, the sooner to bring him to reason; for if war continues with Holstein it is impossible to dissemble without making the said declaration.
The writing which the Emperor sends Chapuys, upon the business of the Viceroy, contains this, viz. that the King should send deputies to her to view the provisions to be made here. However, it seems unnecessary to make great instance for this as yet, but first to send in writing the provisions of victuals, wagons, &c., which the King intends her to make for his army, as she wrote in her last. Chapuys shall enquire also what footmen the King intends the Comte de Buren to levy, High or Low Germans, besides the 2,000 horse and 2,000 foot which he is to have at the charge of this country. Would know this soon.
Has certain news of an assembly of footmen about Holstein, who now number 10,000 men and increase daily. They intended during the frost to make une reeste in the countries of Friesland and Groningen; which was accidentally prevented. In spring, as soon as they receive the money they expect from France, they will put to sea—to throw themselves either upon this country or Scotland, or else to go straight to France. Their whole difficulty is to get ships and artillery, which they hope to get of the Duke of Holstein; wherein they will misreckon if the Duke accords with the Emperor. Any ships which the French might wish to send them could easily be captured on their way eastward.
The Comte de Roeulx has continual news of the French assembly to revictual Terroaine and Ardre as soon as they can keep the field, and he may hinder them or perhaps get the said places, which are in great want both of victuals and munitions.
Advertised him in her last of her notification to the ambassador resident here of the passage of Cardinal de Frenez and of his words to her. The ambassador has since thanked her on his master's behalf. Has now caused the Cardinal's despatch to be declared to him, who, for overture of peace, required that Milan should be left to the King of France together with what he occupied in Piedmont and Savoy. To this the Emperor would not consent, but maintained that the said King should leave Italy altogether and pay what he owes, "qui fust adjouste point dudit roy d'Engleterre comme avez entendu." Has, moreover, caused the ambassador to be told that the Queen Treschrestienne, her sister, sent one of her officers, a native of this country, with a present of hawks, desiring to know what answer the Emperor made the Cardinal. Would not tell this without informing the Emperor, whose reply she received yesterday, and thereupon she despatched the officer with the answer as above. Told the ambassador this, lest he should suspect the officer's long sojourn here.
As to the impost of the centiesme, of which she has written because of the instant and eager suit which the dean of Canterbury made therein before his departure; unless mentioned by the English, it need not be spoken of. The dean of York, since resident here, has made no sign of it, and if instance is made hereafter Chapuys will do well to advertise her how to remedy it; as he writes that he has heretofore sent his advice, but she does not know whether he means that in his letters of 11 June last or some other.
Chapuys has done well to make agreement about the safe-conducts. She will thereupon order that no hurt be done to such as show the King's safe-conducts, observing the restrictions enforced here since the war began; for no safe-conduct has been despatched to take victuals, artillery or munitions of war into France, except only the herrings last arrested (and that was allowed in order to get wines from France for the coming season). Finds one difficulty, viz., that the English will not permit any enemies to enter their havens, which might be inconvenient if ships coming hither with merchandise should be driven into English havens. Desires him, if possible, to obtain that ships so driven by stress of weather may not be taken if they have safe-conduct and land nothing. Here when a French ship comes with safe-conduct neither cargo nor crew may land until their coming is announced to the principal officer.
Chapuys must also point out that the Scots who shall have the King's safe-conduct, to whose coming hither she has consented, ought also to take a safe-conduct from her in order to know how to proceed at their arrival here and that she may see that, under colour of the said safe-conducts, they make no enterprise after they shall be enemies; also that it is no small grant to admit enemies to whom the King shall give safe-conduct, and she will deliver them hers for his sake.
As to the herrings arrested, since they are sold, it only remains that they be paid for reasonably, that the merchants may have some gain, to be assessed there. Has satisfied their instance for some provision here by promising to write to Chapuys in their favour, and she begs him to obtain payment for as much as the herrings cost here, together with expenses, and let the merchants' profit be remitted to arbitration. As the said merchants fear that they will not be able to get their wines out of France without taking herrings thither, Chapuys shall feel whether the King's Council would consent to her giving them safe-conduct in recompense for the loss which they sustain by this arrest.
Fr. Modern transcript of the original minute at Vienna, pp. 6. Original headed: A l'ambassadeur Chapuis, du xiiije de Fevrier, dois Gandt, 1543.
14 Feb. 112. Covos to Eraso.
Add. MS.
28,593, f. 304.
B. M.
vii. 35.]
Since Martin Alonso de los Rios left, I have received your four letters, viz. of 17 and 27 Dec. and two of 3 Jan. (one by Don Luis d' Avila and the other by the Comendador Mayor de Aragon). Will not answer them particularly, having already done so by Martin Alonso, whom this bearer goes to overtake, as will be learnt by the Emperor's letter. Thanks him for sending continual news of everything there, and recommends him to show Secretary Idiaquez all letters from hence (including the writer's to Juan Vasquez de Molina). Valladolid, 14 Feb. 1544.
Spanish, pp. 3. Modern copy from Semancas headed: Copia de otra de carta del Comendador Mayor de Leon a Eraso, fecha en Valladolid a 14 de Febrero, 1544.


  • n1. The R. O. transcript is from an undated copy, but the original letter also is at Vienna dated Westm. 1 Feb. (Sp. Calendar, VII. No. 23).
  • n2. Balthasar Guerci.
  • n3. Ross herald. See No. 58.
  • n4. This letter itself was clearly addressed to Wotton, but a copy of it no doubt was sent to Layton, with a letter to himself, of which no separate draft seems to have been preserved.
  • n5. Ross herald. See No. 58,
  • n6. Clerk, bp. of Bath.
  • n7. See No. 115.
  • n8. See Nos. 114 to 117.