Henry VIII: October 1545, 6-10

Pages 245-265

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 20 Part 2, August-December 1545. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1907.

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October 1545, 6-10

6 Oct. 530. The Privy Council.
A.P.C., 254.
Meeting at Windsor, 6 Oct. Present: Norfolk, Privy Seal, Essex, Winchester, Gage, Browne, Wingfield, Paget. Business:—Letter to Deputy of Calais recommending two Italians sent to serve there at 15 or 16 cr. the month. Letters of appearance to John Reconger and to Ric. Waller, of Hastings. Letter of countermand to the sheriff, &c., of Berks, commanded by letters of my lord Arondell to come forward with 1,000 men. Letter to Arondell to countermand the country as there was not yet so great appearance of the Frenchmen's coming. Warrant to Tuke to deliver 10l. reward to Peter Saxton. (fn. n1)
6 Oct. 531. Michaelmas Term.
Soc. Of Antiq.
Procl. ii., 157.
Mandate to the mayor and sheriffs of London to proclaim that the King, notwithstanding his former proclamation that Michaelmas Term should end the 18th Nov., now signifies that Parliament shall be held at Westminster, not Windsor, and that this present term shall continue till the Quindene of St. Martin as has been accustomed. Westm., 6 Oct. 37 Hen. VIII.
Modern copy, p. 1.
6 Oct. 532. Border Garrisons.
R. O. Indenture witnessing receipt, 6 Oct. 37 Hen. VIII., by Sir Ralph Sadleyr, high treasurer of wars against Scotland, from Wm. Billingesley, of 5,000l. sent from the Privy Council, for Border garrisons and other Northern affairs. Signed: By me Wyll'm Byllyngsley.
Small paper, indented, p. 1. Sealed.
5 Oct. 533. John Elder to Paget.
R. O. Although natural love moves him to lament the misery of his native country, yet, considering how the Governor and lords of it have broken faith with the King, who since his nephew's decease concluded by marriage to have Scotland joined to "this noble empire of England," the writer concludes that the pest, hunger, fire and sword are the beginning of a punishment ordained of God for the double dealing of them of Scotland, and that Henry the Eighth is appointed "to learn them to do their allegiance and fealty, which of a long time, but yet within years of memory, hath been out of use and in captivity," the French king, chief cause of their woe, being banished from their hearts and the Bishop of Rome extinct, under whose bloody captains' banners Scotland from the beginning has in England "ever, to her reproach, shed (alas!) and spilt her best blood." Omitting to speak of the King's benefits to the lords of Scotland, and their ingratitude, known to all Europe, the writer reports that the earl of Hertford, lieutenant general in the North, passed the river of Twide, 2 miles above Warke, on 9 Sept., except that the whole rearward of 4,000, by the sudden rising of the river were compelled to march on this side and encamp two miles higher up, where, in the morning, the river being fallen, they rejoined the army. The army numbered 16,000, of whom 12,000 were footmen. My lord Lieutenant, representing the King's person, with Lord Stourton as lieutenant under him, had the mid-ward, the earl of Combreland the fore-ward and Lord Dacre the rear-ward. Lord Navell, with 1,000 horsemen "bairdede and armed" and 1,000 light horsemen, waited upon the mid-ward or battle; Sir Robert Bowes, warden of the Middle Marches, with 1,000 horse upon the fore-ward, and Sir Richard Maners with another 1,000 horse upon the rear-ward. The strangers attended each of the wards as wings under the rule of Sir Henry Knevet, the marshal, who was general of the 4,000 horsemen; and the ordnance, sometimes on the right hand and sometimes on the left, had Sir Philip Hobbye as master. These three wards marched towards the abbey of Kelso in such array "that if Vegecius Frontinus were present, which wrote the Stratigemes, Ordre and Policies of Civill Warres," he could not have mended our proceedings. In the abbey certain monks and hackbuttiers, 100 and more, thought to resist and shot at our men, killing two Spaniards. My lord Lieutenant, nevertheless, sent heralds to offer them their lives if they would submit, but they refused, thinking that the army had no great ordnance. Seeing "the stifteneckide lymmers" so high minded, my lord Lieutenant ordered Sir Philip Hobbie to draw near with a demi-cannon, a culverin and two sacres, his own hacbuttiers and certain Spaniards meanwhile shooting so fiercely at every hole and window that none could peep out; and two hours' battery threw down the choir, top over tail ("where such a noise was as I have seldom heard, what of those that entered, and what of them that were within, calling and crying for mercy, of whom, by the Spaniards and others, divers were killed as they deserved, a great sort beaten down and overthrown with shot of ordnance according unto their demerits, and some taken and after pardoned, for God's sake and the King's, by my lord Lieutenant's compassion and pity") and made all the abbeys upon Twide tremble in a day. There has been a prophecy in Scotland that a "hart" should come out of the South which should make all the abbeys on Twide tremble on a day, burn the Merse and make the burgesses rue for aye; which prophecy was expounded by the idle priests of Scotland after the King's decease to refer to the earl of Anguise's home coming, whose arms give a bloody heart and who laid violent hands on the pillar of their church when the Cardinal was taken. But, seeing how the abbeys of Melrose, Drybroughe, Heckles and Jedwourth did surely quake that day, and the Merse, Twideside and Tevedaill may well mourn, the writer concludes that the "hert" is my lord of Hertford, who at his first invasion "made the proud burgesses of Edinburgh, the malt merchants of Leith, the colliers of Hadingtoun and the cock lairds of Lothean mourne for ever" and has now made all the places upon Twide tremble and has burnt the Merse. My lord Lieutenant camped by the abbey of Kelso from Wednesday until Sunday, (fn. n2) "always looking when the Governour, and his lords, the Queen and her ladies, and the Cardinal and his priests would offer themselves to fight"; and, to spur them, these 36 places were burnt and razed on the river of Twide, viz.:—
The abbey, town and water mill of Kelso, the abbey and town of Melros, the abbey and town of Drybrugh, Darnycke, Gawtonside, Danielton, Overtowne, Hieldone, Newton of Heildon, Maxtowne, Lafeddon, Marton, Beamonside, Lowghflat, Bateshele, the tower and town of Dawcowe, Rotherfourde, Strokestrother, Newtowne, Trowes, Makarston, the Manerhill, Charterhowsse, Lugtowne Lawe, Stotherike tower, East Meredeane, Weast Merediane, Flowres, Gallow Lawe, Brox Lawe and Brox mylne.
Then, perceiving the Scots' hearts "to be in ther hoyses (as Homer saith)," my lord Lieutenant on Monday, 14 Sept., passed the Twide just above Kelso, and camped a mile thence at Rockesburgh, where Edward Balliol surrendered the title to Scotland to King Edward III. After viewing the castle there (which may be made a strong fortress to daunt the Merse, Twideside and Tevedaill) my Lord departed next morning "the high way to Jedwourth," six long miles, and that day burnt on the river of Teveot 34 places, viz.:—
The Friars, castle, town and barns of Rokesburgh, Ormestowne, Ormestowne tower, Nether Nesbett, Ovirnesbett, Ancram Spittell, Bune Jedwourth, Bune Jedwourth tower, Ovir Ancram, Neither Ancram, East Barnehill, Weast Barnehill, Mynto Crag, Mynto town, Mynto place, Weast Mynto, the Crag End, Whitrike, Hessingtowne, Banke Hessingtowne, Over Hessingtowne, Cootes, Esshebank, Cavers, Breare Yardes, Denhome, Langtowne, Rowcastell, Newtowne, Whitchester Howsse and Tympintowne.
At the camp that night at Bune Jedwourth, the lairds of Bune Jedwourth, Fernyhest and divers of their accomplices, according to Orace's saying turn tua res agitur paries cum proximus ardet, submitted themselves to serve the King and Prince Edward, and were received humanely and their places assured, excepting some belonging to the laird of Bune Jedwourth which were burnt already. Here also two posts arrived within one hour, the one from the West Marches "declaring Sir. Maxwelles welcoming in England against his will" and the other from the East "shewing Erll Bodwellis invasioun, whois feminatt face durste ventre no strypes but turnede his bake like a coarde capitane, usinge his spurris for best defennce, whom for this his valiaunt and first interpres in Englaund, wher he thought no men but wyeves to be at home, I doubte not Lorche Mungumbrye, who now wisseth him self in the hight of Fraunce, will praise and writ shortlie to his master the Frennce kinge, of whois chief Scottiche guarde certane now waiteth on the capitane of Norram castell." Next day these 13 places were razed and burnt on the river of Jed, viz.:—
The abbey, town, and Friars of Jedwourth, Hundylee, Bunegate, the Banke End, the Neithir Milnes, Houston, Over Cralinge, the Welles, Nether Cralinge, Over Wodden, and Nether Wodden.
My lord returned thence due east towards Tevedaill, burning these 11 places on the water of Roulle, viz.: —
Rowle Spittell, Bedrowle, Roulewood, the Woulles, Crosebeugh, Donnerlees, Fotton, Weast Leas, two walk mylnes, Tromehill and Dupliges.
That night my Lord camped at Egfourde or the Moss Howss and next day, 17 Sept., in his way to Warke, burnt these 44 places on the river of Keale in East Tevidaill, viz.:—
Overhownam, Nethir Hownam, Hownam Kirke, Newe Gateshawe, the town of Gateshawe, Over Grobbett, Nethir Grobett, Grobett mylne, Wydeopene, Crewkedshawes, Prymeside, Milne Rigge, Marbottell, Otterburne, Cesforthe tower, burn and mains, Over Whitton, Nethir Whitton, Hatherlaundes, Samerstowne, the Bankede, Marche Cleughe, Mowe Howsse, the Cowe Bogge, Lyntoune, Cavertone, Sharps Rygge, Throgden, Pringlestede, the Mayne Howsse, Egfourde, Moss Howsse, Westir Barnes, Greymesleye, Synles, Hieton on the Hill, Newe Haw, Masendieue, the Brigge Ende, Sainct Thomas Chapell, Maxwell Hughe, East Woddonn, Weast Woddon and Howdene.
Moreover, the same day, these 19 places were burnt on the river of Bowbent, viz.:—
Mowe, Mowe Mensles, Cliftone Cote, Colerust, Eleshewghe, Awtoune Burne, Cowe, Woodeside, Owesnopside, Feltirshawes, Cliftone, Haihoipe, Kirke Zethame, Towne Zethame, the Bogge, Longe Howsse, Fomerden, Cherytrees and Bair Arss.
That night the army camped at Warke "within a pair of bout lynthes of the townne, est from the same," by the river side, where they remained making good cheer and giving thanks to God all Friday and Saturday; but my Lord Lieutenant meanwhile passed into Scotland with 3,000 light horseman and burnt these 57 towns in Heclis parish in the Mere, viz.:—
Long Ednam, Litle Newton, Newton Mylne, Nanthorne, Nanthorne Mylne, Over Stitchell, Nethir Stichell, Lagers Moure, Oxmoure, Kenedside, Mekle Harlee, Litle Harlee, Hassingtowne, Hassington Maynes, Landen, Harde Acres, Stane Fawde, Newtownne, Boughtrigge, New Bigginge, the abbey and town of Hecles, Hecle Sheales, Graftowne Rigge, Pittelshewth, "Over Plue a laund," "Nethir Plewa laund," Over Toftes, Nether Toftes, Clerke Leas, Headdrigge, Pwddingrawe, Howdenne, Mersintowne, Marsintowne tower, Letame, Belclester, Wrangham, Westir Peles, the Kernes, the Burne Howsse, Thanckles, Roumston, Gryneley Rigge, Cowis Werk, Whinkerstanes, Fowga Rigge, Erneleye, Greate Rigge, Fowga Banke, Rysseleye, Bettrikeside, Elbawke, "Sir James Trennates houss," the two Prentowns and Cownge Carle.
Scottish prisoners said that the Governor with 30,000 men would camp that night at Lawdir Mour, coming to revenge Twideside, Jedwourth Forrest and Tevedaill. So my lord Lieutenant, trusting in God to avenge the King in his just cause against the Governor and popish priests, at his coming home on Saturday commanded every man to be ready next morning to enter Scotland; and, hearing that the Governor purposed to fight, all were eager to shed their blood against those "who so oftentimes with their crafty deceits (playing bo-peep) deluded his Most Royal Majesty." So, on Sunday, 20 Sept., my lord Lieutenant invaded Scotland in like order as before, but with 4,000 fewer men; and, in marching through the East Mers towards Langtoun tower, burnt Hair Hughe, Est Fwllawes, Est Manis, Weast Manis and Caldreff. This night they camped at Fowga, 7 miles from Twide and 10 from Lawder Mour. Next morning the laird of Langtoun and his adherents came in and submitted. My lord Lieutenant (perceiving that the longer he staid the further the Governor was from him, who could never make 6,000 men, because the commons of Scotland begin to disobey him for his evil governing and their acquaintance with English stripes) commanded the army to stay until these 49 places in Dounce parish were razed and burnt, viz.:—
Fowga town and mylne, Sisterpetis, Sisterpetis mylne, the Walke mylne, the Hill, the New Mylne, Sleghdenne, Estefelde, Hardans, Stane Mour Lawe, the Biers, Woodehede, Cawdside, Lownesdaill, Redbraye tower, Pollerde tower, Pollerde town, Pollerde wood, the Bow Howsse, Selburne Rigge, Stoke Foote, Weast Nesbet tower, Nesbett Hill, Crongle, Cawedraw, the Brigennde, Great Rigge, Growell Dyckes, the tower and town of Dounce, Dounce Lawe, Harelawe, Bortike, East Bortike, Parkehead, Blak Dykes, Brikenside, Kaidsheale, Redhughe, Manderston, Nane War, Elfoile, Cromesteyne, Kawkeye Lawe, Sampsounis Walles, the Cheeke Lawe, Dounce Mylne and the Knoke.
The army removed and camped that night, 2 miles thence, at West Nesbed. Next morning, having "true knowledge that physicians had seen the Governor's water and would not come, which now, being so grievously vexed with colic and stone, as an excuse, can nother ride nor go, and, finally, whom, for lack of pence, his familiar friends beginneth to forsake," the Lord Lieutenant sent the army towards Norram and took 1,000 horsemen with him to burn these 19 places in Edram parish, viz.:—
The castle of Wedirburne, Mongouse tower, Pele Rigge, Kemergeyme maynes, Rede Hughe, Redes Howsse, the East Mylne, the Kell Law, Edrame, the Newtowne, Blakater castle, Blakater town, Whitelawe, Est Lawes, Weast Lawes, Swyneton, Whitesome, East Nesbett castle and Goddis Malyson.
That done, his lordship rejoined the army, being camped at Ladie Kirke alias Setlingtowne, and on Wednesday, 23 Sept., after making 13 knights in token of his triumph, departed to Norram.
Newcastell upon Tyne, 6 Oct. 1545, 37 Hen. VIII.
Pp. 8, with fly leaf entitled, "For Mr. Secrrie Paget." Endd.: John Elder, Redshank, his booke.
6 Oct. 534. Parliament of Scotland.
Acts of the
P. of Sc.,
ii., 455.
Held at Linlithgow, 1 Oct., 1545, by Arran. Present: Cardinal; Abp. of Glasgow; bps. of Murray, Galloway and Dunblane; abbots of Paisley, Cowpar, Lundoris, Newbotle, Culross, Driburgh, and Dundrynane; Secretary, Clerk of Register, Clerk of Justiciary, Advocate, Sir Adam Otterburn; earls of Angus, Huntly, Argyle, Both well, Merschell, Glencairn, Montrose, Cassillis, Caithness, and Menteith; lords Lyndesey of Byris, Ruthven, Seytoun, Ros, Symple and St. John's; masters of Rothes, Hume and Symple; Sir Neil Mungumry of Langshaw for the earl of Eglintoun, and commissaries (named) of Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Ayr, Perth, Cupar, Lanark and Stirling. Business:—John Hammiltoun appointed judicator for the time of the Parliament. Proceedings against Lennox and others (resulting in Robert bishop of Caithness being referred to the judgment of of his ordinary, Lennox and Bischop condemned, and the summonses against Wm. Murray and against Roderik McCloid and his colleagues continued to 1 Dec. next).
p. 459. 2 Oct. Present: the Cardinal and 30 others (named). Business:— Prohibition of the lieges from sitting under the assurance of England. Device to raise 1,000 horsemen to lie on the Borders for their protection for three months from 15 Oct. next.
p. 460. 3 Oct. Present: the Cardinal and 24 others (named). Business:— Bond of Hew master of Eglintoun to pay a debt due upon the last tax. Collectors appointed for the tax for payment of the 1,000 horsemen. Complaint of Malcolm lord Fleming against Sir George Douglas and James Twedy of Drummelyar; and declaration of his innocence of the charge of treason laid against him by the young laird of Drummelyar.
p. 461 4 Oct. Business:—Assurance (that all may concur against the English) agreed upon by Walter Kar of Cessfurd, John Kar s. and h. apparent to Andrew Kar of Farnihirst (for himself and his father), Wm. Douglas, son to unquhile James Douglas of Caveris (for himself and his brother James Douglas, now of Caveris), Nichol Rutherfurde of Hundole, and John Rutherfurd of Hunthill, on the one part; and William Scott, son and apparent heir to Sir Walter Scott of Branxholme (for himself and his father, and John Cranston of that ilk), on the other part. Distraint ordered for money due to the laird of Bukclew from the town and sheriffdom of Perth as part of the tax of 26,000l. Bond of Wm. lord Simple to pay a debt due upon the great tax of 26,000l. Bond of the lords and gentlemen of the Merse and Tevidale (signatures given of Alex, master of Houm, John Howm of Couvinous, George Hovm of Atovn, George Howm of Wedderburn, John Howm of Blakatter, John Hateslie, Alex. Howme, Patrick Howm of Polwart, John Dikson of Belchester, Thos. Makdowell of Makkerston, Walter Ker of Cesfurd, Wm. Scott, John Ker, Wm. Douglas of Bunjeduard, the laird of Hundoli, James Ker of Mersyngton, the laird of Hunthill, George Ker of Lynton, Alex. Makdouell of Stedrig, Dand Ker, Johne Mow of that ilk) to maintain good rule there, considering that Parliament has granted 1,000 horsemen to remain on the Borders: ordered to be inserted in the Council books.
5 Oct. Present: the Cardinal and 20 others (named). Business:— Division and captains of the 1,000 horsemen to be laid on the Borders. Distraints for payment of arrears of the tax of 26,000l. Declaration that albeit John lord Erskyn and Alex, lord Levingstoun undertook the keeping of the Queen's person, in company with the Queen her mother, as contained in the Act made 34 (sic) April last, they shall not incur the prescribed penalty if invaded by an army of Englishmen or Scottishmen which they cannot resist. Taxation for support of the 1,000 horsemen.
6 Oct. Business:—Grant of 200l. to James Ker of Mersingtoun who has suffered great skaith and has done good service against the English. Summons of treason against Wm. Murray of Tulibardin continued to 1 Dec. next. Parliament continued to 1 Dec.
6 Oct. 535. The Laird of Brunston to Henry VIII.
R. O.
St. P., v. 549.
At this Parliament Lennox is "for faltite," and his brother the bishop and the laird of Tulibarn "continewit" till next Parliament, before Christmas. Of those who have nothing else to live by, 500 horsemen are provided to lie in the Mers and 500 in Tividail. The Cardinal passes into France with the French king's lieutenant, their ships being already sent for, and means to bring us great supports the "foir yere." He labours to have He young Queen in Sanctandros castle, persuading the Governor that it is to keep her for his son; "and the Queen Dowager makis hir angrie wythal bot I beleif site dissemblis." Protests desire to advance the King's godly intent. Ormiston, 6 Oct.
All in cipher, p. 1. Fly leaf with address lost.
6 Oct. 536. Chamberlain to Paget.
R. O. Finds it true, as he has a ways written, that these people are but consumers of princes treasure. Yesterday (having arrived here the night before, as contained in their general letter, the footmen's first month expired and the ordnance not yet come from Colloigne), I bade Riffenbergh consider the dishonor of this waste of time, since it must be 10 days of the second month ere we could enter the enemy's land, and, as the King would be charged with but three months in all, the 10 days required for returning to Acon would leave but 10 wherein to do any exploit. He answered that he could make no more haste, and hardly understood the King's pleasure last signified touching three months, wishing rather that he were quit of the charge than that should be which was contrary to the customs of these people. Such questions arise hourly. This chief point we made Bastian declare to him three or four times until he said that he understood. In all reekonings methinketh I have to do with merchants and lawyers, not men of war. Bucholt refused to take crowns of the sun at 23 bats apiece like Riffenbergh and Eidelwolff, and also would have weighed them. Experience shows that he who would use men of this nation must never reckon upon any bargain with them, "but to have treasure enough to satisfy their insatiable greediness." Begs that there may be "no want of money for their dissolution, counting upon three months' soulde and one for their conduct home"; and remembering that to every gentleman a page to bear his head piece, and to every 12 horse a four horse cart must be allowed, whether they have them or not. When money enough comes, will save what may be saved. Doubts their doing of any honest exploit. Wezet upon the Maese, 6 Oct. 1545.
P.S.—This other day Mr. Averey went for money to Andwarpe; for, the month being ended, the footmen cry for the other half month's wages, which I shall be able to give if Mr. Averey bring 12.000 cr. I have written to Mr. Vaughan to haste the rest to Acon.
Hol., pp. 4. Add. Endd.
6 Oct. 537. Charles V. to Scepperus.
viii., No. 146.
Yesterday received letters from the ambassador in France; who has induced the King to consent to this suspension of hostilities for six weeks, and meanwhile to send representatives to discuss terms of peace, on condition that this is done in the Emperor's territory; out of respect for the Emperor he will send the most dignified personages of his realm, mentioning Tournon and the Admiral. The French ambassadors here have since reported that the Admiral is shortly to leave on his journey hither, the King thinking that Scepperus will have obtained a similar agreement to the suspension of hostilities. Desires to know (by this courier if his continuance there is necessary) what he has done. The ambassador also reports that, in communicating with Tournon and the Admiral, Tournon remarked that the suspension was greatly to their disadvantage, their land and sea forces being ready, and a conference, unless the King of England would give up Boulogne, being merely time wasted. The King is to be sounded upon this point of restitution; but it need not be pressed, the first thing being to get him to send representatives. Brussels, 6 Oct. 1545.
7 Oct. 538. The Privy Council.
A. P. C., 254.
Meeting at Windsor, 7 Oct. Present: Norfolk, Privy Seal, Essex, Winchester, Gage, Browne, Wingfield, Paget. Business:—Mathew Moore of the Stilliarde had licence to export 40,000 of bell metal, bringing in return its value in wheat and rye, in consideration of the scarcity of grain in the realm. Letter to Mr. Wingfelde of Dover to dismiss certain crayers stayed for transport of soldiers.
7 Oct. 539. Cranmer to Henry VIII.
R. O.
C's. Works,
According to the King's commandment sent by Secretary Pagett, has translated into English certain processions to be used on festival days. As they were but barren in the Latin, has been compelled to use more than the liberty of a translator, having altered words, and added and taken away others. Has left out some whole, either because the matter appeared to be little to purpose, or because the days were not festival days with us. Has added some whole, thinking he had better matter for the purpose than the procession in Latin. Advises the King, when he has corrected it, to have some devout and solemn note added as to the procession which he has already set forth in English. The song added thereto should not be full of notes, but as near as may be for every syllable a note, so that it may be sung distinctly and devoutly, as in matins and evensong, Venite, the hymns Te Deum, Benedictus, Magnificat, Nune Dimittis, and the Psalms and Versicles, and in the Mass, Gloria in Exeelsis, Gloria Patri, the Creed, the preface, the Pater Noster and some of the Sanctus and Agnus. As to the Salve festa dies, thinks the Latin note sober and distinct enough. Has travailed to make the Latin verses in English and put the Latin note to them, but those who are cunning in singing can make a much more solemn note thereto. Made them only for a proof, to see how English would do in song. His English verses lack the grace and facility that he would wish, and the King can cause some other to make them again in more pleasant English and phrase. Supposes the sentence will serve well enough. Bekisbourne, 7 Oct. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add. Endd.: 1545.
R. O. 2. Modern copy of the above.
Pp. 2. Endd.: The Bishopp of Cantuarien' to the King's Majestie.
7 Oct. 540. Hertford, Tunstall and Sadler to the Council.
R. O.
St. P., v. 543.
Hertford received the Council's letters of the 3rd. inst. on the 6th, and perceives the King's pleasure to have some good raid made upon the West Marches, and to have order taken to keep the Scots out of England, who, being now harried in the Mershe and Tyvydale, will, "thick and threefold," repair thither for relief. Had already sent for Lord Wharton, who will be here to-morrow to devise annoyance to the enemies in the West Marches, and also how Lord Maxwell's house of Carlaverok may be gotten. Lord Maxwell says that albeit Loghmaban cannot presently be had, because of his second son's refusal, yet, Carlaverok, which is of his own inheritance, and in the keeping of a priest, his kinsman, may be had, and is both stronger and more propice for a garrison. Lord Maxwell says that, afterwards, if sent home, he doubts not to put Loghmaban also in the King's hands. The enclosed proclamations, made before receipt of the Council's letters, show what order has been taken for keeping out of the Scots. Send a letter to Hertford from the laird of Langtoun about affairs of Scotland; which advertisement is confirmed by an espial just come to the Warden of the Middle Marches, being now here, who says further that the Scottish lairds lately assured have made incourses into Lowdyan, and brought thence three or four droves of cattle to be sold in England. Newcastell, 7 Oct. 1545. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add. Endd.
7 Oct. 541. Thirlby to Paget.
R. O.
St. P., x. 613.
Receiving the Council's letters, by John Gartia, yesternight, sent for speech with President Scorye; who, because of business in the morning, put him off till after dinner. Said he had things to declare on the King's behalf, but his French was yet so base that the Emperor could not well understand him. Scorye answered that if he had not come he (Scorye) must have come to him; for this day the Emperor had letters from the bp. of Liege that our soldiers entered Veseye over the walls, and so opened the gates, and now must come through Brabant unless they re-crossed the Mouse. And Scorye enlarged upon how the Emperor would take this, and asked if we would force him to join the French, and other words such as Thirlby wrote on 4 Oct. (copies of that letter and of his letter to the Commissaries herewith). Said that, since dinner, his man had returned with letters (copy also herewith) from the Commissaries, of which he gave the purport. Scorye replied that they made like answer to him whom the Emperor sent: What was the Emperor to do when they did otherwise than was said to be commanded by the King? At length he waxed colder, and said he could not tell how the Emperor could wink at the spoiling of his subjects; for, even if they paid for everything, an army could not pass through a country without spoiling it, and there was great scarcity of corn, &c. Seeing him colder, said that, where he asked if we would have the Emperor join our enemy, it was trusted that the Emperor would join us and not his newly reconciled enemy. He answered that the Emperor esteemed not the French king and the King's Majesty alike; and told (as a secret) how the French had sought to raise money at Andwerpe, but the Emperor hindered it.
Passing from that matter, the writer delared his commission according to the Council's letters. Scorye promised to report it; and could say that the Emperor had been grieved, and had so declared to a gentleman whom the French king sent to excuse the matter, but how could the Emperor answer the Frenchmen "as else he might, seeing your army passeth through his country?" Thirlby prayed him to think the Commissaries honest men; but, of a truth, Thirlby's man reports that they entered Veseye over the walls.
Scorye asked if Skipperius had told him the cause of his return to England. Said nay; but he thought it was for the peace. He was gone, said Scorye, to move the King to appoint commissioners to meet others from France at a convenient place, and meanwhile to have an abstinence of six weeks: the French king was content therewith, but no answer was yet come from Skipperius.
Sends two letters which the Commissaries require to be sent with speed. Mons. de Gregnham, French ambassador resident here, departs tomorrow with 1,500 cr. reward and a like sum to be given to Mons. Morette, who was ambassador here before and departed thinking to return shortly. Bruxelles, 7 Oct., in the night, 1545.
"You shall receive herewith the copye of a combate, etc." Signed.
Pp. 3. Add. Endd.
7 Oct. 542. Carne to Paget.
R. O. Letters from the Commissaries of the King's army of Almayns, at this time, will declare their state. Can only add to his letter of the 5th, by way of Andwarp, that Mons. Molambyes is sent back to the French king. Heard that, touching his last embassade, the French king desired three months wherein to answer, and the Emperor has sent him back for an answer out of hand. It is thought to be about restitution agreed upon by last treaty. My lord of Westminster will have written of the licences for the King's money to pass. Sent Paget a fair mule on the last of last month. Thought she would be with him ere this, but learns by John Garseus, who arrived yesternight, that yesterday morning his man and the mule were at Calais tarrying for passage, "the tempest being so ragious that he could not pass." Bruxells, 7 Oct. 1545. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add. Endd.
7 Oct. 543. Fane and Others to the Council.
R. O. After sending yesterday our letters written the day before, were instantly desired by Ryffenberge that Lucas, this bearer, might carry his letters to the King and to Mr. Secretary Pagett, concerning the fourth month that the soldiers expect for their conduct home, although they serve but two of the three months they have sworn to serve. He said that he would instruct Lucas, and would be loth to make any of his privy to the matter. In truth, considering that one month is already past, the second will be a short time wherein to attain to the enemies, do an exploit, return to Acon, and pay and despatch the army before the beginning of the third month. Weasett upon the Mase, 7 Oct. 1545. Signed: R. Fane: Frauncys Halle: T. Chamberlain: Tho. Averey.
Pp. 2. Add. Endd.
7 Oct. 544. Friderich von Reiffenberch to Henry VIII.
R. O. Learns by his Commissaries his intention to use the army which the writer has assembled for about a month in the enemy's country, and then dismiss it, paying two months' wages and the third month for the return. Dare not disclose this to the army. It would ruin him and cause an ill bruit of the King, seeing that his Majesty consented to three months' service and a month for return, and on that understanding the army was levied, the writer's instructions being to entertain his horsemen in the same manner as those of Ytelwolff and Boeckholt. Touching the muster and discontent of the horsemen; the Commissaries refused to allow one page upon 12 horses, as the King allowed last year, at Calais, and disputed much thereupon, especially Chamberlyn, who knows very little about war. When several days had been wasted the writer paid it himself, upon the trust that he has in the King, although the thing was forgotten in his letters of retainer. In other and small matters the Commissaries make delay. Will make haste, and hopes to do some good exploit. Wieset in Liege. 7 Oct. 1545. Signed.
French, pp. 2. Add. Sealed. Endd.
8 Oct. 545. The Privy Council.
A.P.C., 255.
Meeting at Windsor, 8 Oct. Present: Norfolk, Essex, Privy Seal, Gage, Browne, Wingfield, Paget, Ryche. Business:—Letters to customers, &c., of London, to permit Ph. Gonter and Thos. Chappell to carry certain mattresses and bedding to Bullen free of custom; to the Council of Calais to "casse" Lyghtmaker and his band; to the Commissioners with the Almains to "see them to proceed according to their commission and, that done, to dismiss them in such sort as they had none occasion to quarrel at their departing"; to Mr. Vaughan to send to Acon for two months' wages of the Almains 24,000l. and for rewards at their departing 3,000l.; to my lord Chancellor to make out commission for John Hawtrey, Frenchman, to gather shipwrights and artificers for making a bark.
*** Next entry is 11 Oct.
8 Oct. 546. Henry VIII. to Charles V.
viii., No. 148.
Need not write at length as D'Eick is now returning, and the bp. Of Westminster will declare what Henry thinks desirable to bring about the realisation of their mutual affair. Windsor, 8 Oct. 1545.
8 Oct. 547. Henry VIII. and Charles V.
R. O. "Responce de la Majeste du Roy sur ce que les commis de l' Empereur luy ont exposé et communiqué de la part dudit Seigneur Empereur, le quatriesme jour d'Octobre l'an 1545."
1. He thanks the Emperor and Queen for their salutation. 2. Seeing the obstinacy of his adversary, he can add nothing to his said answer. 3. He thanks the Emperor for showing him a certain letter about an intrigue to his prejudice. 4. He much desires the interview; but, for him to cross the sea before the end of October is impossible, since it depends upon the truce which the Emperor's ambassador is to procure from the King of France. When the truce is obtained, if the Emperor defers his journey to Germany for some days (and he need not be there exactly at the day prefixed), the King will be at Calais within a month after he is certified of the truce, which truce he would have to be by sea and land, for six months, "marchande et communicative," during which neither party may fortify places in Boullonnoys but may victual there, war to cease within ten days after its publication (at a date to be fixed by the commissioners) at places (named) in each country; and to conclude it he sends power to the bp. of Westminster, his ambassador. Also, in case of the said truce, he will send commissioners, or authorise those already there, to communicate with those of France upon the peace. 5. Although, not to bring the Emperor out of the way towards Germany, he would gladly come to one of the places named, it is impossible at this season to take over horses for his train; and he, therefore, prays the Emperor to come to Calais, which shall be cleansed from all danger of infection.
6. In pursuance of the Emperor's wise suggestion, the King has requested Skipperus to go to the Emperor and, besides the above, to declare that the interview is put forward, not to importune the Emperor, but, out of affection, that the King may see him before he leaves the Low Countries, and to let it be known that they remain perfect friends and allies. And because, since their war with France, disputes have arisen about the treaty which ought to be cleared up, he would know the Emperor's resolution thereupon, especially upon the 6th and 7th articles (gist stated) now that the king of France has thrice invaded the King's countries (the Emperor's saying that the invasion was for Boulogne being insufficient, as it might be similarly alleged that any invasion of the Emperor's territories was for Milan, or Naples, or Sicily, and the bp. of Arras's untrue report of the King's consent to the peace not being valid against the 6th and 7th articles, nor that peace, by the 14th article, valid against the treaty) and upon the 24th article as to the passage of his armies through the Emperor's countries.
Finally he would desire the Emperor to declare, for himself and his successors, that he will never cause or allow himself to be absolved from his oath to the treaty; and, reciprocally, the King will again be bound for himself and his successors, the above points amicably settled, to observe the treaty, and, notably, to enter into no alliance to its prejudice without the Emperor's consent, in pursuance of the 14th article, that consent to appear by the letters signed and sealed of the prince consenting. Windesor, 8 Oct. 1545.
French, pp. 6. Endd.: Thartycles of thanswer made to Skyepperus. (Articles in original not numbered).
Add. MS.
25,114, f. 321.
B. M.
viii., No. 147.
2. Another copy.
French, pp. 6.
3. Full abstract of another copy at Vienna.
8 Oct. 548. The Privy Council to the Commissaries.
Add. MS.
5,753, f. 151.
B. M.
The King has seen the contents of their late letters, and is pleased with their "good, witty and painful proceedings." As it appears that they began to march about Tuesday or Wednesday was sevennight, they will now be entered into the enemy's country, and the King trusts that the Almains, "the rather at your following of them," will serve according to "your instructions." That there may be no stay, the King has taken order to send to Acon 44,000l. st. for the whole pay of two months and 10,000 cr. or 12,000 cr. more for the "perfect ending of all things," leaving to your discretion to reward or otherwise, so that there be no occasion for sending hither or expecting more at his hand. He makes no account of 4,000 or 5,000 over or under, not doubting but that you will "both husbond his highness" and have regard to his honor. Wyndsour, 8 Oct. 1545. Signed by Norfolk, Russell, Gardiner, Gage, Paget and Wingfield. In Mason's hand, p. 1. Add. Numbered outside "4."
8 Oct. 549. William Watson to the Council.
R. O. Whereas they have written to the lord Mayor of London that the King thinks that his Grace has bought the Morryon of Breme, otherwise called the Morryon of Dansyk; it may please them to understand that the said Morryon is not bought for the King, but is in the King's wages. London, 8 Oct. 1545. Signed as "servant to the Kynges Hythnes."
Hol., p. 1. Add. Endd.
8 Oct. 550. Vaughan to the Council.
R. O. On the 7th inst. received theirs dated Wyndsor, 2 Oct., warning him to have regard to the conveyance of the King's money, because certain wagons laden with merchandise have lately been searched at Gravelyng. Like as my lord of Westminster and he lately signified to Secretary Paget the arrest here of the King's money, so he was compelled to change the valued gold for crowns and made suit to the Emperor for licence to transport to Calles and elsewhere such as could not be changed, as the King's affairs would not suffer delay. The Emperor resolved that he might transport out of these dominions any gold and silver that was not of the Emperor's stamp, and also 25,000 carolus gilderns. Has now received from my lord of Westminster three passports, viz., one for the carolus gilderns, one for other money provided for the King in Andwerp, and one for money provided by the King's agent in Andwerp to pass towards Almayn, if it be not of the Emperor's stamp and forge; the transportation to be made within 15 days after the date of the passports, which is 3 Oct. Has already delivered to him (fn. n3) that was appointed 25,000 carolus gilderns and 30,000l. Fl. in angels, English crowns, groats and French crowns; and it will be brought to Calles within the stated time. In changing the rest of the valued gold finds scarcity of crowns and other coins meet to be paid to the Almayns, and the ravenous merchants here in every corner lay baits to charge him with interest; but, doing his best, he trusts to have the King's favour.
Will send on their letter to Mr. Mount. As to Dymock's letter, encloses one received from him whereby it appears that he should be ere this departed towards the other Commissaries with the Almayns, letters from whom are also enclosed. Mr. Averey lately came hither and received of Vaughan 12,000 cr., praying him to put ready the money needed at their return. It will be hard to get money meet for them. " 'Dallers' I find either few or none." The Emperor's ambassadors, and especially Skipperus, might be spoken to, that, if need be, I may pay them in the Emperor's coins. To receive and pay in white money would be an endless matter both for him and the Commissaries. Hitherto in changing valued gold for French crowns has gained for the King 1 per cent., and would be loth to lose that. Andwerp, 8 Oct. 1545.
Yesterday the Commissaries were to be at Liege. The Duke of Brunswike has invaded the Lansgrave van Hesse's countries with an army out of Estland, and the Lansgrave makes provision against him. Would not have Jasper Dowch know of his bargain of alum.
Hol., pp. 3. Add. Endd.
8 Oct. 551. Vaughan to Wriothesley.
R. O. On the 4th inst. received his letter by Mr. Gresham's servant, with the obligation of London and the King's promise for the Fowker, and two packets of letters, viz., to John Carolo and Balbany. Has not yet delivered these letters because unable to bring Chr. Haller to take any other surety than was promised. Will make the bėst end he can with Haller, and then try to get money upon some other credit; but any merchant strangers in England other than those whom Wriothesley wills him not to meddle with (as Bonvice, Salvage and John Girald) have little credence here. The Emperor has granted him three passports, (1) for 25,000 carolus gilderns of gold, (2) for the gold and silver he has provided here for the King, so that it be not of the Emperor's coins, and (3) to transport towards Almayn gold and silver not of the Emperor's coin or forge. Has thereupon delivered to the man (fn. n4) whom Wriothesley appointed 25,000 carolus gilderns and as much gold and silver in French crowns, angels and groats as will make 30,000l. Fl. It goes tomorrow with two of the passports. As to "keeping counsel of th'exchange," Jasper Dowche knew of it twelve days ago. That Bonvyce, Salvage, Girald and Compagny will go no further shall be kept secret. A servant of my lord of Westminster has just brought a letter from Mr. Chamberleyn, one of the Commissaries, who writes that in these Almains he has to do with lawyers and merchants, "which dispute their matters to unreasonable devourings of money, and, in the end, I fear they will do little or no service." They now insist on four months' wages. Mr. Gresham's post who brought your letter is sick of an ague. Has great difficulty in exchanging valued gold for crowns, in which Jasper Dowche is always a gainer, and wishes that the King's own merchants were equal in riches to those here, so as to serve his turn. The Duke of Brunswike has entered the Lansgrave's country with 10,000 or 12,000 footmen and horsemen and burnt certain villages. "That coal will kindle a shrewd fire." Andwerp, 8 Oct. 1545.
In nowise let Jasper Dowche know of the bargain I made with the Spaniards for alum; for he is wondrous troublesome.
Hol., pp. 3. Add. Endd.
8 Oct. 552. Vaughan to Paget.
R. O. Is so thoroughly occupied with receiving and paying money and with business amongst wily merchants that he has no time to write to Paget, whom he refers to the letters to the Council. Pray discover to no man the bargain of alum that I made, for the King, with the Spaniards; for they would not have Jasper Dowche know of it, who is an "exceeding troublous fellow." Please help my servant that Mr. Wymond Carrew, treasurer of the First Fruits and Tenths, may pay the rest of my diets. I had a prest from him of 3 months at my departing. Our warrant was from the end of April forwards, I to have 30s. a day; and I have been out of England six months "come th'end of this month." I take up money here by exchange at 24s. 6d. Fl. for a pound, which is great loss; and have also paid much for posting money. Andwerp, 8 Oct.
Hol., pp. 2. Add. Endd.:1545.
9 Oct. 553. Henry VIII. and Francis I.
R. O. Commission to Cuthbert bp. of Durham, Sir Wm. Paget, secretary, and John Tregonnel, LL.D., master of requests, to treat with commissioners of Francis king of the French for peace, &c. Wyndesore, 9 Oct. 1545, 37 Hen. VIII.
Lat. Draft, large parchment, p. 1. Endd.: Copie of two commissions sent to th'ambassadours with th'Emperour and the Regent. (fn. n5)
Oct. 554. Henry VIII. to Charles V.
R. O.
St. P., x. 616.
The Sieur d'Eecke lately arrived here to treat upon the matter in hand, and returns to learn the Emperor's pleasure more fully upon certain articles which he will declare. Has charged the bp. of Westminster, his ambassador, to communicate what he (Henry) thinks suitable for the perfection of the common affair. Windsor, — (blank) Oct. 1545.
French. Copy, p. 1. Endd.: The Kinges Majestie to th'Emperour.
9 Oct. 555. Van der Delft to Charles V.
viii, No. 149.
D'Eick will report verbally their communications with the King and principal Councillors. The Council promise restitution of the gold, as soon as Renegat shall return from sea; and the writer will not fail to press for it. Will do his utmost for private subjects and trusts that in time the claimants will get justice, as some have already. D'Eick will report Scottish affairs and occurrents here. Windsor, 9 Oct. 1545.
9 Oct. 556. The Same to Mary of Hungary.
Ib. No. 150. Has repeated to the King and Council the excuses contained in her letters touching the seizure of the King's money in Antwerp; whereupon they have shown no great annoyance. As to restitution of private property the Council promise to do strict justice, as D'Eick will report. Windsor, 9 Oct. 1545.
9 Oct. 557. Bonner to Matthew Parker, Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge.
Corp.Ch. Coll.
MS., 119,p.37.
Parker, i. 33.
Annals, i. 428.
Marvels that so few of the University have been to preach of late at Paules Cross, and supposes that either they have not been incited thereto, or else their zeal is not what it has been. For the love I bear you for your brother's sake, and for my affection to the University, I write this that you may exhort such as you know apt for that purpose to take the pains to come here and preach. London, 9 Oct.
9 Oct. 558. Boulogne.
Lambeth MS.
306, f. 56.
"A memorial of the King's Highness' whole charges sustained at Boulogne," from 27 Sept. anno 36 to 9 Oct. anno 37.
Wages of garrison: paid 70,066l. 3s.; unpaid 28,600l. 19s. Wages of artificers and labourers about the fortifications: paid, 17,488l. 5s. 6½d.; unpaid, 3,387l. 19s. 1½d. Wages of officers and ministers of the victuals: paid, l,600l.; unpaid, l,000l. Waste and loss of victuals 11,191l. 12s. 5½d. Foreign and necessary payments besides provisions made and paid for in England, 694l. 12s.
[Receipts?]: out of the King's coffers, 83,308l. 2s.; in price of victuals 7,094l. 16s. 8d.; for "frysses" and mattresses, 135l. 8s. 0½d.; yet due for victuals 5,408l. 10s. 10d.; in the hands of the executors of Sir John Jenyngs, 520l.
The charges of fortifications: at the High town, Base town and Young Man, 10,832l. 6s. 8d.; at the Old Man, 7,655l. 19s. 1d.
Due to the garrison and workmen, 22,705l. 0s. 4½d.
Item, there remaineth in victuals unspent, 30 Sept., over and besides the 11,800l. 7s. 6½d. received and to be received for victuals, 2,300l.
Modern copy, p. 1.
9 Oct. 559. Vaughan to Henry VIII.
R. O. Has delivered to Thomas Gresham, by appointment of the Lord Chancellor, money received here of the Fowger, to be openly conveyed to Calles, 31,827l. 11d. Fl., viz., in carolus gilderns 25,000 pieces, in French crowns 84,031 half pieces and the rest in angels, crowns and groats of Henry's "own forge." Gresham carries two passports for it, one for 25,000 carolus gilderns and the other for any coins not of the Emperor's forge. Thus it goes without danger of search, and Vaughan keeps the rest of the King's treasure for his Almayns. Andwerp, 9 Oct.
"To-morrow morning it shall be laden for Calles."
Hol., p. 1. Add. Endd.; 1545.
Oct. 560. The Ambassadors of the Protestants to Paget.
R. O. Have decided to depart to-morrow, to go as far as London if possible; and they beg him to despatch to-day the King's letter for seven horses for them as far as Dover. Have just despatched a messenger with word to their companions in France of what the King has said. Are sure that they will do their part to be at Ardres with the King's men; but if the King of France should decline to speak first, this matter will be at an end and they must return home. If, on arriving at Calais, they find it to be so, they will forthwith leave for Germany; and they beg Paget to make their excuses to the King if he has no news of them after Calais. Subscribed; Les ambassadeurs des Princes Protestans.
French. In Sleidan's hand, p. 1. Add. Endd.: — Octobr. 1545.
10 Oct. 561. The Privy Council to Thirlby.
R. O.
St. P., x. 617.
Are, for his instruction, commanded to communicate the proceedings of Skepper, which, "as they have desired here the same to be kept secret," are only to be opened to Mr. Kerne. To show himself desirous to bring the King to an honorable peace, the Emperor sent Skepper hither, and another (fn. n6) to the French king. Skepper announced that the French king had moved the Emperor to offer the King the pension and arrears and require restitution of Boulloyn and comprehension of the Scots; and the Emperor had advised him not to press the King therein nor to do anything which the King thought incompatible with honor. With the first point the King was content, if he might have hostages for the payment; but he answered that evidently his enemy meant not to have Boulloyn or he would offer recompense (and indeed he himself had no will to forego it), and as for the Scots they were no party to the quarrel, and the French king must leave them out of this treaty as out of that with the Emperor.
In discourse of these matters, Skepper declaring the Emperor's good will to the King, overture was made for a meeting between them; which Skepper undertook to open to the Emperor, and "was sent unto him for that purpose" with charge that it must be shortly, as the time of the year grew fast unseasonable, and that, for the safety of the King's crossing, a "surceance" of hostility with the French were expedient.
Scepper returned with answer that the Emperor desired nothing more than the continuation of their amity, and that, by interview or otherwise, all things between them might be "eclarcyd" and the clouds caused by untrue report "netted and taken away"; and Skepper "brought with him a certain letter (fn. n7) to be showed to his Majesty, written to the Emperor, for a practice against the King's Majesty of great importance, which letter was desired to be kept very secret." Secondly, as to the interview, Skepper reported, there was the risk to the King's health in crossing the sea, and the Emperor must be at the Diet of Regensburgh on the 1st of January, a journey which, through Utrecht and Gueldres, would require a long time when the days are so short, but, so it might be by the end of this month at latest, the Emperor would come to Gravelyng, St. Homer, Bourburgh, Dunkerk, Berghes, Newport or Bruges at the King's choice; and Skepper brought the Emperor's commission to conclude upon the said meeting, and desired that the things for which it was required might be put in articles, and rough hewn and squared before the Princes met; adding that, to induce the French king to a truce, the Emperor had signified that, in his desire for peace between the Kings, he would resort to the frontiers of both, and prayed the French king to send to him commissioners for that purpose and he would move the King to do likewise.
As the Emperor thus shows himself not much desirous of the meeting; and either would by these means break the practices now in hand, by the French king's desire, between ambassadors sent from the Protestants as mediators to both Kings, and go through with all himself for the sake of reputation and his treaty with the King, or else, after his ill handling of the King, fears a peace concluded without him, and specially by means of the Protestants, and (the knot of his amity with France being now dissolved (fn. n8) ) wishes to redubbe the past and satisfy the treaty:—Weighing these things, the King has, to answer Skepper's propositions (copy herewith) not taken the way which peradventure was looked for, but a way whereby to "decipher" the Emperor and yet show him nothing but good will (which indeed is meant if he mean the same and will perform that whereto he is bound); and has answered Skepper, by us the bp. of Winchester and the Secretary, that the Emperor prudently considered that the points whereupon the meeting should be founded might be first cleared; and therefore, as the principal point was the declaration to the world of their continued amity, the Emperor should declare his mind upon those points of the treaty wherein he had not fulfilled the King's expectation. This overture Skepper and his colleague here thought necessary, both for the amity between their Majesties and the surety of their natural country, whatsoever should chance to the Emperor, being but mortal. We then declared that the treaty was divided into two parts, viz., that which was to be observed against the French king, and that which bound their Majesties and their successors; and of that concerning France we sorted out the 19th and 21st articles, (fn. n9) the one declaring that the Emperor ought not to have taken peace with France without the King's consent, the other binding the Emperor to keep a certain army upon the sea. Skepper "excused but barely" their want of men upon the sea by saying that it was his special charge, and he ordained the proper number and the Emperor paid for them, and if the captains, for their own gain, did not maintain that number, it was not publica culpa. To the other article they alleged briefly Mons. d'Arras's false reports of the King's consent, which we refelled with such answers as have been often made therein and we need not repeat, to the effect that the King was content that the Emperor should make peace if he the King were provided for according to the treaty; and we added that the words of the treaty are both "consent and satisfaction." (Skepper asked to see the word "satisfaction" in the treaty and was shown it). But, as the common invasion of France is past, we proceeded to a further confirmation of the justice of our quarrel and a charge to them to observe that which the Emperor and his successors are now bound to observe. And for the first we alleged the 14th article, that no treaty shall prejudice this treaty of strait alliance, so that any treaty with France is void so far as it is prejudicial to this, and, even if the King consented simpliciter (as he did not) and were satisfied, the 6th and 7th articles of the treaty bind each to be enemy to the other's enemy invading places mentioned therein, without exception of any person invading or cause of invasion, and to give aid against invasion with 10,000 men; and, the French king having notoriously so invaded, the Emperor ought now to take him for enemy, and cannot fall to amityagain without consent, as expressed in the 13th article. Skepper answered with a cavillation brought from thence, viz., that the invasion was for Boulloyn, which was not a place mentioned in the treaty; but he seemed, himself, to think little of that argument, and, when answered that if the French king hereafter invaded the Emperor's places we would answer that it was done for Milan, Naples, Sicill or Rossillyon, and therefore we were not bound to be enemy or give aid, he and his colleague asked that these reasons might be advertised to you to be discoursed with the Emperor or his Council.
This you shall do, and learn how they understand the foresaid articles, and also the 9th, 10th, and 12th, touching no reprisal or letter of contremark to be granted, but controversies to be decided at a Diet; for here they said that none was granted, and we replied that it might be that no writing was granted to take our merchants and goods, but, both in Spain and Flanders, they were attached. Also it is to be known how they understand the 24th article, touching their furniture, for the King's money, of men, munition and victual, and the passage of the King's soldiers through the Emperor's country. The King thinks it expedient, before the interview, that the Emperor declare his meaning upon the said points, viz., the 6th, 7th, 9th, 13th, 14th, 17th and 24th articles, and all the rest of the treaty concerning the amity between them and their successors, and supposes that the Emperor will stand by the right sense of them, and that the 19th and 21st articles, and all that concerns the invasion of France (viz. the 18th to the 23rd articles and the appendix to them made by the Viceroy of Sicil (fn. n10) ) should be clearly taken out of the treaty. Also that to the 13th article, requiring consent of both parties to an agreement with a common enemy, it should be added that such consent must be in writing signed and sealed. And, because of "a doubt put now into our heads here upon occasion ministered from thence," a new article is to be added that neither prince nor his successors use any privilege whatsoever for the discharge of his oath to observe the treaty, nor consent to anything prejudicial to its observance; and that each shall govern his realms and subjects as he thinks good without the other attempting, or consenting to, the alteration thereof.
And (because the Emperor will probably "make some courtesy to enter again into enmity with France") you may ask if they now refuse to do for us as they ought by the treaty (which in their last treaty with France is reserved), how can they hereafter require us to be enemy to their enemy and to aid them? Having to do upon more quarters, they will have three occasions to our one. Let them consider that, as the delivery out of their hands of Mylan or the Low Countries was of such importance to the Emperor and his heirs that they may thank God that the motive of their bond for the delivery of one of them is taken away, (fn. n11) so the Frenchmen without the one of them will never be satisfied. Under the truce of Nice, when the Emperor was occupied otherwise and the Frenchmen denied to his ambassador (fn. n12) their purpose to invade, they invaded Flanders, Luxemburgh, Rossilyon and Piedmont at once. Is the Emperor more assured of the French king now, who has since renounced the superiority of Flanders, Hainault, Artoys, &c., in "hope to have, that which he feareth now, and it is to be thought he shall never have, Milan or the Low Countries"? If the Emperor will show himself enemy to the French king now, he will not only drive him to renounce his title to Milan and all other claims, but also be sure of England as a bulwark against France; and now is the time, when the French are so bare of all things that they have not at Turwayn, Monstreul, Heding nor Abbeville one month's victuals, nor wot whence to supply them.
As to the meeting, we have answered that it cannot be by the end of October, but will be within a month after it is known that the enemy agree to a truce for six months, provided that it does not disturb any of the Emperor's proceedings; and, because at this season the King cannot bring over many horses, and therefore could not well pass Calays, he prays the Emperor to meet him there, where there is no contagious sickness.
And because the Emperor desires the King to send him special commissioners, or else commission your Lordship, to meet others of France and treat a truce or peace, a commission is sent to you and Mr. Carne. Unless the meeting, which is the motive of the truce, is like to ensue shortly, you shall treat for peace first; but if you see no likelihood of agreement you shall treat a truce for six months, making such delays as shall put off the conclusion of it for six weeks at least. For conditions of peace you shall require the pension and arrears, with hostages for the payment of the pension hereafter, and that the King may peaceably enjoy Bulloyn and Bullonoys. If they mislike this demand, you must say that, if they desire these, they must make reasonable offers, for the King, having no great mind to leave them, can make no other overture; and thus pressing them to come to offers, you shall tell them that you will inform the King and afterwards make further answer. This you shall do both in treating peace and truce before concluding either. If you come to treating a truce, the principal points must be "communicatyve and merchande," for six months, the King to remain in peaceful possession of Bulloyn and Bullonoys, and within ten days after the publication (to be at a time agreed upon made at Calais, Guisnez, Bulloyn, London, Dover, Rye, Hampton and Plymmowth for the King, and at Arde, Mounstrell, Abbeville, Amyens, Parys, Rowen, Diepe, Brest, Rochelle and Burdeaulx for the French king) all hostilities to cease and spoils taken later to be restored. When Scipper was here, mention was made that neither party should fortify. But that point may be left out; for we trust before the truce is concluded, "to leave them nothing to fortify."
The King will have you open these matters and hear their mind, but looks for Skipper to return with the final answer; whose despatch you shall pray them to accelerate.
Draft corrected by Paget, pp. 41. Endd.: Mynute from the Counsail to my lord of Westm., xo Octobr. 1545.
Add. MS.
25,114, f. 325.
B. M.
2. Original letter of which the above is the minute. Dated Windsor, 10 Oct. 1545. Signed by Norfolk, Russell, Winchester, Browne and Paget.
Pp. 15. Add. Endd.: R. xiij. Octobr. per Fraunc.
10 Oct. 562. St. Leger to the Council.
R. O.
St. P., iii. 535.
On 28 Sept. received their letters to him and the Council here for the advancement of 2,000 men to attend Lenoux, under Ormond's leading, with other letters to himself alone concerning the nomination of men of this land meet to lead men next year, &c. Has moved the matter to others of the Council and to "the same earl, upon whom we have rested especially, and upon three or four others," as will by next letters be advertised. If Ormond shall repair to the King for "the same," the best time will be after this enterprise; for, from Scotland, he may be as soon in England as return hither. Lenoux's journey having come so lately to our knowledge, 2,000 such Irishmen are not so soon levied, and we have neither commission nor instruction as to wages, and are driven to hire 10 or 12 ships of this land for their transporting. Most of the ships which (as Lenoux shows) should come from Chestre and Bewmarres are not yet arrived, and such as are come demand wages. No one here knows whether they are paid or not, or for how long they were prested. We have, to save the tract of time, despatched all charges; so that the 6,000l. which the King sent is almost employed, and the soldiers here cannot be fully paid. Begs that more money may be sent. Although this journey into Scotland is strange to the men of this land, and the bruit of slaying of their countrymen in the late conflict on the Borders of Scotland lets them, the writer trusts to have them ready for shipping in 14 days. Lenoux has made such instant request to have with him John Travers, master of the Ordnance, and Anthony Fortescue, with certain gunners and archers, that the writer has, by persuasion of others of the Council, put them ready to go, with a son of his and 100 gunners and archers, and reckons that, with the mariners, they shall be 2,400 men with ten or twelve ships, besides other boats. Here is no cannon but one demi-cannon, which shall be sent with Lenoux together with a sacre and two fawcons and 50 demi-hakes. Begs that bows may be sent hither, where there are not 40 left in the Ordnance. Those lately sent out of England were so worm eaten that they would scant hold the bending, and the corn powder such that it would only mar the guns, so that all last year we were driven to buy what we occupied. Begs that in future he may have longer notice of the King's wish to use the service of Irishmen, whose captains must keep their countries furnished with men against their neighbours, for this land is not like England or other civil realms. Lenoux much desired to have morispikes, of which there are none here. Thinks that some should be sent. Within three days after his arrival, Lenoux despatched his servant, Patrick Colwhyn, with letters to McConel, earl of the Isles, to be ready to join him. We daily expect his return. Kilmaynam, 10 Oct. 1545. Signed.
Pp. 3. Add. Endd.
10 Oct. 563. Charles V. to Scepperus and Van der Delft.
viii., No. 151.
The troops retained for the King of England about Confluence and Treves, after doing inestimable damage there, passed by Aix through the Emperor's territories beyond the Meuse and forced their way into the bp. of Liege's town of Wesel, intending to cross the Meuse into the Emperor's dominions in violation of the promise given by the King and his ambassador here. If they continue along the main road (Chausée), as they say they will, they must traverse Brabant and Hainalt. Their payments are not proportionate to the expense they incur, and they pay nothing to horsemen for fodder. It is to be pointed out to the King that in this his agents have exceeded their authority and should be severely chastised, and to his ministers that the French are rejoicing and spreading rumours that the understanding between the Emperor and England is not cordial. Has received Noirthoudt's reply to the instruction sent when Scepperus left here, viz., that the king of France is willing to appoint commissioners to treat for peace and will consent to a suspension of hostilities for six weeks. Awaits their report impatiently, as time is passing. Brussels, 10 Oct. 1545.
10 Oct. 564. Vaughan to Henry VIII.
R. O. As charged by the lord Chancellor's letters, has sent to Sir Edw. Wotton, treasurer of Calles, of treasure provided in Andwerp, 31,827l. 9s. 11d. Fl., in such coins as are mentioned in the enclosed paper. For its conveyance to Graveling out of danger of search, has delivered to Thomas Gresham, who conveys it, two passports of the Emperor's, viz., for 25,000 carolus gilderns and for other coins not of the Emperor's forge. Desires instruction as to the rest of the money which shall remain after he has paid the King's Almayns. Andwerp, 10 Oct. 1545.
Could send no more money because he had no more valued gold changed into crowns and the day granted for its conveyance was short. Signed.
P.S.—It is bruited that the Duke of Brunswike has entered his duchy of Brunswike, with 10,000 footmen and 2,000 horsemen, and burnt certain villages and will besiege Wolven Buttell, the strongest hold there. It is said that he is aided by the French king and Bishop of Rome. The Landisgrave van Hesse makes men against him and is aided by all the cities of Almayn.
Hol., pp. 2. Add. Endd.
R. O. 2. List of the contents of the 25 bags in which the money abovementioned is delivered by Vaughan to Gresham, for Wotton at Calles.
In Vaughan 's handy pp. 3
10 Oct. 565. Vaughan to Wriothesley.
R. O. On the 10th inst. despatched Thomas Gresham with 31,827l. 9s. 11d. fl. and the Emperor's passport for its transportation, to [avoid] search at Gravelynes. Suggests that he could send other money by water. Is much overworked, to the danger of the King's service. "I have sent your letters to Christopher Mount [to] Frankfort by an express messenger. As to Dymok I wot not where he is. He wrote me lately that he would depart towards the King's Majesty's commissaries with th' Almains; and therefore I keep his letter by me till I know where he is." I will deliver your bills of exchange, but would fain know what kinds of money to receive. Hereafter it will be hard to send [money by land] to Calles by Gravelyng. It may safely be sent by sea to London, packed in merchants' packs. Cannot yet agree with Chr. Haller, who now writes to Wriothesley and Mr. Secretary. Haller has delivered a remembrance for the restoring of a ship of his and of one Lazarus Tucquer, which was taken in England, as I signified to Mr. Secretary Paget long ago. I send the remembrance herewith "for your Lordships (sic) to devise some pretty answer for him, such as may further my doings with him." Andwerp [10] Oct. 1545.
Hol., much mutilated, pp. 4. Add. Endd.: xo Octobr. 1545.
ii. Remembrance to Stephen Vaughan to write to the King of England and his Privy Council in favour of Messire Lazarus Tucher, councillor of the Emperor, and Chr. Haller, of Hallersteen, for recovery of a ship named Sainct Jorge, Jan Ubautterson, of Antwerp, master, containing 44 bales of woad (marks given).
French, mutilated, p. 1.
10 Oct. 566. Vaughan to Paget.
R. O. By letters to the King, signifies the sending to Calles with Thos. Gresham, of 31,827l. 9s. 11d. Fl., and a paper specifying the kinds of coin and two passports (described) for it. Gresham is to deliver it to Sir Edw. Wotton, treasurer of Calles. The Emperor granted but 15 days for its transport out of these countries, and all that the writer had ready, not being valued gold, is sent. Can send no more unless the King speak to Skipperus for a larger licence, or will have some sent by sea with merchants' goods. Would know what coins to receive for valued money. "I may have some dallers; if they were good I would send some unto you, or else I will pay them to the Almayns, which I fear will do but little service and yet spend an infinite heap of money." Without help "it is not possible I shall now bargain with men, now change, now receive, now keep account, now write into Almayn, now into Estland, now to th'ambassadors, now to Calles and continually to you and other to the Court." Fears that his health will give way; and, as Damesell is sick, desires Gresham returned hither. Would be glad to come home. Andwerp, 10 Oct.
Pray help my servant to receive my diets of Mr. Wymond Carew, treasurer of the First Fruits and Tenths, who owes me "for all the days that I have been out, accounted from the last of April to the end of October present," except for 84 days for which I received in prest at departing 126l, at 30s. a day. I have paid much for postage, but will leave that till my coming home. Not signed.
Hol., pp. 3. Add. Endd.
10 Oct. 567. The Bishop of Caserta to Cardinal Farnese.
R. O. * * * *
Friar Gusman had left this before I arrived, going by short journeys to the French Court, so that I could not speak with him or give him the letter; but I have sent it him, directed to Mons. di Ajace. He spoke only once with the Emperor, who answered that he was at peace with both France and England and meant to remain so; but if, with their mutual consent, he could interpose to agree them he would gladly do it. Afterwards the Emperor made the Confessor tell him that he should exhort the King to be content to make a truce with England. It is said that the practice of Friar Gusman does not please the Emperor, who calls him "un sciempio et un innocente," and that for this reason Grignano has gone. Grignano seemed satisfied with the words which had been said to him: would God they might bear fruit!
* * * *
As to France the Confessor affirmed that the Emperor was not adverse to the marriage of Madame Margaret with the Prince of Spain, and that there was the same inclination on the part of France he knew from Friar Gusman (who was sent to him and not to the Emperor). As to causing the Emperor to join France against England, he said that the Emperor was likewise well inclined, but, having this other enterprise to make, it did not seem well to put so much flesh to the fire. He hoped that there would be time for everything, and he himself would not sleep when he saw opportunity, because he held that the Emperor was most bounden thereto, with many good and religious words.
* * * *
Brussels, 9 Oct. 1545.
With postscript dated "a di sopradetto a 2 hore di notte."
Ital. Modern transcript from Rome, pp. 13. Headed: Al Cardinal Farnese de giorni 9 et 10 Ottobre 1545. II Casertano.


  • n1. Not "Sapton" as in Dasent, though the forms of p and x are almost indistinguishable in the MS.
  • n2. Sept. 9th to 13th.
  • n3. Thomas Gresham. See No. 559.
  • n4. Thomas Gresham. See No. 559.
  • n5. In this draft the names Thomas bp. of Westminster and Sir Edward Carne, as commissioners, and the King's signature at the top have been crossed out; then the name Stephen bp. of Winchester has been substituted for Thomas bp. of Westminster and also cancelled.
  • n6. The Sieur de Noirthoudt.
  • n7. Probably No. 417.
  • n8. By the death of Orleans.
  • n9. Vol. XVIII, Part i, No. 144.
  • n10. Vol. XVIII., Part ii. No. 526.
  • n11. By the death of Orleans.
  • n12. Marvol. See Vol. XVII., index.