Henry VIII: January 1528, 1-10

Pages 1672-1689

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 4, 1524-1530. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1875.

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January 1528

R. O.
List of new year's gifts to various persons, Jan. 19 Hen. VIII. First, to the Cardinal, in plate, 40¼ oz.; to the abp. of Canterbury, 31 oz.; to the bps. of Winchester, Lincoln, Exeter, Carlisle, and Llandaff, various, from 31 to 20 oz. To 13 of the nobility, among whom are the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the earl of Northumberland and Viscount Rocheford, gifts varying from 31 to 20 oz. To 11 knights, among whom are Sir Wm. Fitzwilliam and Sir John Wallop, from 28 to 13 oz. To Mr. Norris, 26 oz., Mr. Wyat, 183/8 oz. To Dr. Chambers, 243/8 oz. To the Queen's physician, 25½ oz.; her apothecary, 16¼ oz. Mr. Philip, 20¾ oz. Similar presents to Giles Dues, Peter (Carmelianus), luter, and his wife, to the Princess's schoolmaster, to Mr. Abell, and to the Queen's chancellor, almoner, and secretary. To 33 noble ladies, among whom is the French queen, the elder and younger duchess of Norfolk, the duchess of Buckingham, the countess of Sarum, lady Rocheford, lady Russell, &c. To 10 mistresses, sc., Norris, Jane (sic) Bollen, Baker, &c., from 22 to 10 oz.
Paper roll. Endd.
1 Jan.
Vit. B. x. 4. B. M. Burnet, IV. 37.
Visited the Pope on his liberty. He told me how dangerous it was for me to be at Rome, and that I had not left it for two hours when 200 Spaniards searched the house;—that he had received the King's letters, and had desired that I should depart, and he would send the dispensation. He begged you would have patience for a time, and not proceed at once to trial, as he is in great perplexity, "and it should not be long or your Highness should have not only that dispensation, but anything else that might lie in his power."
I told him I had sent off news of the dispensation, "so that I could not imagine by what reason I might persuade unto you to believe that he would perform the promise that he had once broken." In conclusion, he was content you should have it, but on the condition that Gambara and I should beseech you not to proceed till the Pope was at liberty, and this could not be whilst the Almains and Spaniards reigned in Italy. I thought it best to have the dispensation at all hazards. Then he desired St. Quatuor to reform the minute; and this done, he showed it to me, desiring I should leave, and that Gambara should follow with the bull in the form and substance like your Highness's minute. I send you a copy of it. (fn. 1) The commission and protestation is void because it was conceived when the Pope was in captivity. On my return I met with Thadeus with "certain expeditions triplicate" to Gambara, Gregory de Casalis, and myself. In these there was a duplicate commission, one for Wolsey, and if that was refused because he might be thought partial, the same for Staphylæus;—also a copy of a dispensation, which, I perceive by your letter, was to be drawn according to the minute sent by Barlow, already sped and passed. I returned to Orvieti, and with Gregory have obtained a commission directed to the Legate, not in the form it was conceived in England, but in a manner sufficient. It and the commission were drawn up by St. Quatuor.
Though everything is passed as you desired, the Pope is undone if you proceed to execution at this time. The Imperialists destroy the towns about Rome. Lautrec remains at Bologna doing nothing. The Pope has no friend but you, and fears to displease the Emperor. This morning I return home, and Gregory de Casalis goes to Florence. Orvieti, 1 Jan.
R. O.
St. P. VII. 36.
My letter was written before I left the Pope. He begs you will keep secret the commission, and not proceed till you have given him notice of fifteen or thirty days, when he may issue a new commission. If Lautrec were here, he thinks he might have a sufficient excuse with the Emperor. Orvieti, New Year's day morning.
I have written to the Legate that the commission and dispensation for you has been obtained, "inasmuch as he sent hither the minute of a dispensation to be sped; but I specify not after what form your dispensation is granted and passed."
Hol. Endd.
1 Jan.
Vit. B. x. 2. B. M. Burnet, IV. 34.
3751. KNIGHT to [WOLSEY].
He and Gregory congratulated the Pope on his restoration to liberty, at which he was greatly pleased. He then enlarged on the King's devotion to the Church, the danger of a disputed succession, &c., desiring him to have the dispensation examined as in the form sent by your Grace. He admitted the difficulty, but as he was not familiar with granting commissions, he proposed to consult with St. Quatuor. We therefore visited St. Quatuor, and promised him a competent reward, and showed him the commission, "which he said could not pass without perpetual dishonor unto the Pope, the King, and your Grace; and a great part of such clauses as beth omitted, he hath touched and laid reasons for the same in a writing which I do send unto your Grace with this." We then begged of him to make the minute of a commission sufficient; which he did. When we took it to the Pope, he said that when he was in the castle of St. Angelo, the general of the Observants in Spain required of him in the Emperor's name to grant no act whereby the King's divorce should be judged in his own dominions. "The Pope answered inhibitio non datur nisi post litem motam; and as unto the first, his Holiness was content, if any light thing were demanded, to advertise the Emperor before that he did let it pass; and this was in a manner for his Holiness being in captivity." He urges, as he is still in captivity in effect, he cannot grant this commission without evident ruin; but he is willing to run the hazard, rather than that the King and you should suspect him of ingratitude; and he heartily desires you, cum suspiriis et lachrymis, not to precipitate him for ever, which would be if, on delivering the commission, your Grace at once began process. He intends to save all upright thus.
If Lautrec would set forward, which he neglects doing, the Pope might have a pretext to tell the Emperor that he had been requested by the English ambassador to grant such and such a commission, and when he refused, he was required by Lautrec to do it; and so it might appear to the Emperor that the Pope had not granted it out of displeasure to him, but as an indifferent prince he was required to do justice, and could not refuse it. He will then send a commission dated after Lautrec's arrival. He begs that the King and you will be satisfied with this arrangement. We have given St. Quatuor 2,000 cr., and 30 cr. to his secretary. Herewith you will receive the Pope's letter, and a counsel of Oldrand on the King's cause. I am returning home. Orvieti, 1 Jan.
1 Jan.
Vesp. F. III. 107 b. B. M.
Desires credence for Dr. Johannes Reyunkius, who will speak to Wolsey on the Archbishop's affairs. Vordi, 1 Jan. 1528. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add.
1 Jan.
R. O.
Incloses letters received this morning from France. Those to himself from the Great Master are very short, and contain no news but the death of Ant. Levianus. London, kal. Jan. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add.: Ill., &c., D. Card. Ebor. legato et Angliæ Cancellario, &c. Endd.
Calig. D. x.
184. B. M.
3754. _ to _
"Mons. de Brosse, avez ... au Roy par ... actendu ce qui est depuis se ... et les bons ... le Legat son bon amy, tient ... luy et moy ... sont j ... la ... dudit sieur ... tresbien ... bon vouloir que mondit sieur le Legat luy porte en toutes choses ... redoutter ... de plus ... a . te congnoissance de la vraye et p[arfaite amitie] ... a luy et au bien de ses affaires, dont et de tous autres ... et grandes demonstracions lesdits sieurs sont tant ... pourroit assez affectueusement remercier, ce qu'il m'a commande ... expressement ainsi le faire de sa part; vous priant aussi ... tres humblement remercyer de la myenne, tant de la bonne amy[tie qu'il luy] plaise me porter, que de la seurete et fiance que par ses honnestes p[arolles il a] en moy, l'asseurant que en toutes choses ou je lui pourray [servir,] et que je congnoistray estre selon son intencion, il me trouvera ... tel que celuy qui desire sur toutes choses autant luy obeyr ... en ce qu'il luy touche. Mais pour ensuivre son bon vouloir ... en ce qu'il luy plaira me conseiller et adviser estre bon et ... de jamays mectre peine de conserver et tousjours de plus [augmenter] la grande et indissoluble amytie d'entre ces roys noz [maistres], ne voulant oublier de luy presenter mes tres humbles re[commandations a sa] bonne grace, et au surplus me advertir tousjours de sa s[ante]. Au demeurant je vous renvoye le double de la [lettre] ... le Legat vous avoit baille pour faire le semblable a ... vous a este envoyee pareillement vous est ... et oblacions qui dernierement ont este" * * *
(The rest of the document is illegible, with the exception of a few phrases, of which the most important are—"la dessus le protonotaire de Gambres est ... icy pour s'en aller," and a reference to "frere Bernardin," which is too mutilated to be made out.)
His will. Proved, 1 January 1527. Printed in Nicolas' Testamenta Vetusta, p. 625.
1 Jan.
R. O. St. P. VII. 35.
I have received your letters. I have sent the dispensation you ask for in your former letters by the secretary (Knight) and Gambara. The demand in your subsequent letter, beyond the dispensation, I have granted, though not without great hazard to myself, as a token of my affection for you. Begs credence for the secretary and the Nuncio. Orvieto, 1 Jan. 1528. Signed: "J."
Hol., on paper. Add. Endd.
2 Jan.
Le Grand, III. 57.
On De Brosse's arrival on Tuesday morning, we went to the Legate, to whom we could not immediately communicate everything, because he was going to take advantage of the tide to visit the King; but we gave him your cordial thanks, and told him of what had been proposed to you for the marriage of the king of Scots, and of the words of the Emperor's chancellor, and the state of the affairs of Italy, especially of the Pope. He was incredibly pleased to hear of his Holiness's liberation, and the safety of the hostages, and also of Lautrec's diligence in following up his victory, and asked us to come next day to Greenwich. Thither we were conducted by Mr. Russell in the morning; and, while waiting till the King was ready, we again met the Legate, when De Brosse informed him of his whole charge. Wolsey expressed himself in the best possible manner towards Francis and Madame, and De Brosse offered to show him his instructions, stating that Francis wished him to see everything that concerned himself. During their conversation, Wolsey was called to see the King, to whom we were shortly afterwards conducted; when De Brosse presented his letters, and declared his charge. The King was not less delighted than Wolsey had been, and expressed himself in a most warm and cordial manner towards Francis and Madame, his speech occupying little less than an hour (ne fut moins que d'une petite heure), and he expressed himself strongly about the Emperor's chancellor, whom he evidently regarded as the wickedest man in the world.
After we had accompanied him to mass, and returned to his chamber, he caused us to be entertained by the bishop of Bath, viscount Rocheford, and others, and then return to him. He then brought us to visit the ladies, and introduced me, Brosse, to the Princess; to whom, after doing reverence to the Queen, I delivered your letters and those of Madame. She gave me the most honorable thanks, and could not have conducted herself with better grace. Before we left, the King took part in a dance, and had some further conversation with us, then dismissed us till he and Wolsey should have con- sidered the answer to be made to Brosse's instructions. Next morning Wolsey asked if Brosse had a procuration to be installed in the room of Francis with the knights of the Order at Windsor, saying that the thing was necessary, and would be a great satisfaction to the King. Was obliged to apologise that he had not thought it requisite, and Wolsey desired him to send for one with all diligence. Represented the delay that might occur, the sea being so variable as it is at present. Discussed with Wolsey for an hour what was to be done. At last, Du Bellay, being left alone with Wolsey while the King spoke with Brosse, perceived that he wished Brosse to remain, but to get the procuration sent over with all diligence. He said the King was very desirous that Brosse should perform this office, finding him the most agreeable personage Francis could have sent him. Determined accordingly to send a courier express for the procuration, of which he desired Wolsey to draw up a minute. Have been obliged to wait for it till now. Begs Francis to send it with all diligence, for the King will detain the knights of the Order, who are here in great number for the feast, till he hear news of it.
Are desired by Wolsey to write the views entertained by the King and him, touching the proposals made to Francis. They are much pleased that Francis communicated to them privately the language he used about the marriage of the king of Scots, and think that as the attention of the world is at present fixed on the great interests of Christendom, and considering the age of the parties, it would be better to wait the issue of affairs, which will probably necessitate other alliances. The King is not less displeased at the Emperor's chancellor than we ourselves, considering the great justification of your cause; and if the Emperor were to use such words, and Francis (which God forbid) was not in a position to clear himself (empesche de sorte que ne les peussies relever) with that courage and magnanimity which distinguish him, he himself would challenge the Emperor to combat. But they think that Francis ought not to be so disquieted by the words of such a worthless villain (pour la parolle d'un ribault belistre, garcon trompereau, homme de neant, villain en toute perfection de villenye). They will, however, send their advice by Brosse about what should be done if the Emperor avow these words.
When talking of the Emperor's treatment of the Pope, I, Du Bellay, finding Wolsey sufficiently indignant, said that Emperors had been deposed by Popes for much smaller offences, and that the Pope ought to depose Charles for his own surety. On this, Wolsey drew near a window, and swore to me he would do his best to bring it about. I said no one could do more to induce the Pope to it than he; but I did not wish to go further without instructions. I think it would be well if the Pope could be brought to it, and the right of election returned to the electors, a law being moreover passed that no one but one of themselves should be elected, which would be a sugarplum (la friandise) to make them find the deprivation good. Thinks Francis might speak of this to the prothonotary Gambara when he sees him on his way to England. London, 2 Jan.
2 Jan.
Vit. B. IX. 215. B. M.
3758. ITALY.
Extract of the letter of Gregory Casale, dated Orvieto, 31 Dec.
The Pope and Cardinals recognise the benefits rendered them by the King and Wolsey. Came to the Pope from Lautrec to urge him not to keep his agreement with the Imperialists. Wrote back to Lautrec that the Pope would do anything if Lautrec would only advance, which he had not yet determined to do, because on the 26th the Germans had not yet arrived at Bologna, having thus wasted four pays.
There seems no necessity for Lautrec's urging the Pope to declare against the Emperor, as it is likely he will do it of his own accord; for the Imperialists will be compelled to violate the treaty, and the Colonnas have already laid waste many of the Papal towns, so that the Pope knows what to expect from them.
Had a long conversation on the matter with the Pope, who says he cannot remain here unless Lautrec advances, and wishes Casale to urge him in the King's name to do so. Told him he could not leave until the King's business was despatched, and his Holiness therefore spoke about it yesterday to card. St. Quatuor. Has sent a nobleman and a captain to Rome, to practise with the Germans. Galeazzo Farnese took by night Castro, a papal town occupied by the Imperialists, killed all the garrison, and now holds it for the Pope. Federigo Bossolo is dead. Has spoken on the Pope's behalf to the Florentines, who will send an ambassador to him, when they see that he is considered as a friend by the kings of England and France.
From letters dated Pigaium, 2 Jan.
The French king has sent to the Pope a secretary of Albert de Carpy for the same purpose as ourselves. It seems to Casale very impious to leave his Holiness in the middle of the Spaniards, and to ask him to declare against them, which would be of no use to us. He continues to fortify his towns, and delays the promised payment. Lautrec has not yet left Bologna, and will not meet the Imperialists before they arrive at Sienna, as was proposed to him. Wrote yesterday to the marquis of Saluzzo, to guard the passes strictly, and let no friend or foe go to Rome, so that the Imperialists may have no means of getting sure information.
The Pope has sent him to Lautrec, with a letter of credence to urge his advance. Hopes to succeed, but meanwhile time slips away.
Lat., pp. 3. Endd. The first extract is printed in Pocock, I. 36.
2 Jan.
R. O.
A bill indented of certain household property, &c., in the custody of Thomas Apowell and Davy Hanmer, 2 Jan. 19 Hen. VIII.
In the Chapel.—A pair of vestments of blue velvet, embroidered with a cross of crimson velvet; ditto of crimson velvet, with a cross of imagery, embroidered with silk and gold; ditto of black velvet, with a cross of crimson velvet; 3 ditto of black velvet, made of cloth of estate, with crosses of white satin of Bruges; one of green velvet with a cross of crimson velvet; ditto of green taffeta, with a cross of red ditto; of white with a cross of blue taffeta, and an image of Our Lady embroidered; ditto of cranecoloured damask, with a cross of blue velvet, embroidered, and my Lord's arms upon the Cross, with an image of Mary Magdalene; and many others specified. 10 altar cloths of linen. 3 towels. 4 super-altares. 4 mass books in print. 2 matins books of my Lady's grace; one covered with tawney velvet, with silver and gilt clasps; the other with black velvet, with silver and gilt clasps, engraved. Various other furniture for the chapel, such as pyxes, cruets, and chalices, silver gilt. Among the books, (1) The Appostelar, (2) Ortus Vocabulorum, (3) Catholicon, (4) Legenda Aurea, and a book of law.
Of the "yory stuff;"—various basins and candlesticks of silver and silver gilt, with my Lord and Lady's arms. Numerous articles of napery.
Articles in the pantry and the kitchen.
In the Stable.—Two litter horses, one palfrey, "white lyarde foskew white," a Cornish nag, a bay colt received from Master Haydon and Master Collis, and a white lyard prowys; my Lady's litter, covered with black velvet; saddles, headstalls, pillions, and similar furniture, all exactly described. A web bridle for my Lord's great horse. 8 leather halters, whereof my Lord had four at his last going up.
Articles in the Buttry.
Implements of the household.—40 standing bedsteads. 6 truckle beds. 16 standing presses. 11 cupboards. 11 joined forms. 27 stools. 1 table board, 35/8 yards long. 4 ditto, 8 yards long. 5 coffers bound with plate, in the tower over the gate. A great ship coffer, in Sir George Speke's chamber. Implements for kneading and baking. Chopping boards, &c. Images of St. Katharine, St. Dorothy, St. Lybell, St. Michael, St. Ann. A crucifix with Mary and John. A table cover 7 yards long. 12 halberts. 2 poleaxes. 1 hhd. of plaster of Paris.
Furniture of the Armoury.—Materials for cleaning the harness. Furniture in the stables and the outhouses. In the gate, 2 great guns. Furniture of the Privy Chamber and the Great Chamber. In the church:—3 new altars; a great hearse; a bier which my lady's Grace was carried to church upon. "A trendle to scald brawn in, that Golde occupieth." In the store:—17 whole loaves of sugar, cinnamon, cloves, mace, ginger, grains, rice, "sawnders," turnsole, aniseed, saffron, dates, 32 cakes of white soap, 3 clavicords, wax of various kinds, tapers. Wine, 1 hhd. of claret. Carpenters' instruments. 12 cloths of lead, 2,829 lb., and a sow of lead 65 lb. "Over the gate in the Great Chamber, a joined chair for a dry drafte." A turned chair in Master Speke's chamber.
Horses at the Leghes:—A bay mare, 18 hands high; a great horse sent down by my Lord by Petty John; various other horses. A horse received from Mr. Chamburne; another received from John Gawnte. A bay mare given by Anthony Harvey. Horses at Chymney:—a dun mare, 15 hands high, 17 years old; a stallion called "Parker." Horses at New Park; one named "Master Wyse's mare." A cage for the parrot. In North Exe an "eryare" of swans, beneath Exe Bridge two "eryares" of swans, and at Tiverton three swans.
A list of stuff lost "at the surrender of the stuff" in the ewery, kitchen and stable. Chapel stuff delivered to London, unto my lord's Grace's chantry. Other similar entries.
6 leaves of paper in form of a roll.
3 Jan.
R. O.
The inhabitants of the Suffolk coast, who are destitute of grain fit for man's use, have asked him to request Wolsey for a licence for them to carry white and red herrings and sprats to Flanders, to barter for corn. His almoner will say more on the subject. Norwich, 3 Jan. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: To my lord Cardinal's grace. Endd.
R. O. 3761. SCARCITY.
Considerations as to the dearness of all manner of victuals:—
1. The King's foreign wars, which have continued for two or three years, have been one cause of dearth. 2. The year that the war ended there was as great a rot and murrain among cattle as has been seen for 40 years before ... nourished and kept, for in pasture there is very little murrain seen, or none. 3. There have been three or four marvellously dry summers, which produced surfeits among the cattle and sheep, owing to the scarcity of grass and lack of hay and water. In many parts of England cattle had to be driven five or six miles to water, a thing that had not been seen by any man now living. 4. Owing to this there were little or no fat cattle in the common fields from Michaelmas to Martylmas, as there usually are. 5. The lack of fodder has prevented husbandmen from breeding lambs or calves, and those that were bred were hunger bitten, and worth little, except those bred in pasture. 6. In times past, after wars or murrains, the killing of lambs and calves was restrained, but no such order has been made since this dearth began. 7. The great droughts in summer and frosts in winter have destroyed the freshwater fish and fowl in the fens, so that they are at treble their usual price. 8. Pork is very scarce, owing to the dearth of beans, pease, and mast. It was necessary to use pease for the horses and beasts, but, nevertheless, many horses died. 9. The dearth of cattle has also been the cause why all "pultree ware and whit meyte" have been so dear. 10. Regraters and forestallers of cattle have been another cause. In Wales, Cheshire, Lancashire, and the North, where beasts are bred, no grazier can buy either lean or fat beasts, except at third or fourth hand. 11. Notwithstanding all this, "thanked be God, all thing is plentiful at this day as ever it was, and like to be if God send seasonable weathers, also if the pastures at this day may continue, and then can dearth never long continue," for the murrain in the common fields hardly attacks the cattle in the pastures at all. The latter relieve the common fields again with their breed of cattle, "to the increasing of the husbands and the composing of their land, which is the chief cause of the plenty of corn, which will never be scarce as long as there are plenty of sheep." At the time when meat is scarce, between St. Andrew's tide and Midsummer, cattle and sheep are brought out of pastures and marshes, except the few that are stall fed. If there were no pastures within 40 or 50 miles of London, the butchers could not sell so cheap, for they bring up the beasts as they want them, and are put to no charge for grass. The beasts lose little flesh by their long journey, and do not cost much for carriage.
Pp. 4. Endd.
3 Jan.
R. O.
Has received by Leonard Musgrave his letter offering to meet him at any place for the good order of the Marches. Will be glad to do so. If he wishes to take a day of truce, and make redress for attemptats, open proclamation must be made, and they can meet at Cornell. If he wishes merely to determine what order should be taken, will meet him at Berwick. Asks him to make proclamation that good rule and peace may be kept, according to the league between the Kings. Will do the like in his wardenry. Asks for an answer by the bearer. Alneweke Castle, 3 Jan.
P. 1, copy. Headed: To my lorde of Anguishe, chanceler of Scotland at the first tyme. Endd.
3 Jan.
R. O. Pocock, I. 69.
Writes nothing about this business committed to him, but refers to the letters of Master Secretary, who has acted most discreetly. Has only written a few things in cipher to Peter Vannes. Wolsey can undoubtedly make use of the Pope's authority as his own. His Holiness prays him to continue his help more now than ever. Begs Wolsey to pay the Cavalcanti, and increase his pension, as he promised. Florence, tertio nonas Januarii 1528.
Hol., Lat., p. 1. Add. Endd.: Messire Gregory de Casalis, iij. nonas Januarii 1527.
5 Jan.
Vit. B. x. 6. B. M. Fiddes' Coll., p. 179. Pocock, I. 54.
On Sunday, 5 Jan. 1527, between 8 and 9 in the morning, the Cardinal landed at Blackfriars, and with a large company proceeded to St. Paul's. With the Imperial ambassador on his right hand, and the French on his left, he advanced to the Arches, and was there met by the bishops of London, St. Asaph, Lincoln, Bath and Llandaff, the priors of Westminster, St. Saviour's, Christ Church and St. Mary's 'Spital, and the abbots of Stratford and of Tower Hill, and conducted to the high-altar. At the choir door Dr. Capon declared the great misery which the Church suffered from Lutheranism, and the shameful injuries inflicted on the Pope. When the service was done the Cardinal went to dinner, and the ambassadors with him.
Modern copy.
5 Jan.
Vit. B. X. 29 b. B. M. Pocock, I. 49.
Credence for bishop Stafileo, whom the French king is sending as an ambassador to his Holiness.
Lat., draft, in Vannes' hand, p. 1.
Add. MS. 15,287, f. 190. B. M. Theiner, 556. 2. Copy from the Vatican, dated Greenwich, 5 Jan. 1527.
Vit. B. x. 45*.
B. M. Pocock, I. 50.
Credence for Stafileo, who is going to Rome as the joint ambassador of the kings of France and England. London.
Lat., draft in Vannes' hand, p. 1.
"Instructiones datæ a (fn. 2) Ser. Rege Angliæ, &c., Rdo in Christo patri Episcopo Staphyleo, nonnulla gravissimi momenti negocia concernentes, quæ ipse dictus Ser. Rex ejusdem domini Staphylei fidei in hunc qui sequitur modum in Italia tractanda ac peragenda commisit."
The King, hearing from Wolsey of the prudence and other virtues of the Bishop, and that Francis intends to send him to reside as ambassador at Rome, to work for the liberation of the Pope, and for the benefit of the Holy League, and in consequence of the community of interest of the two Kings, desired him to come to England; and seeing the truth of what he had heard, has appointed him as their joint ambassador, and sent letters of credence to the Pope, which he will use as he thinks fit.
If he finds the Pope liberated he must condole with him on his misfortunes in the name of the two Kings, and say that they, bound by perpetual amity, would think nothing more glorious than to act for the establishment of peace and the restoration of authority to the Holy See, for which purpose they have sent the said Bishop to declare their mind, and to ask the Pope's advice. It is most needful for him to be safe from wrong, and not to trust his enemies more, whose perfidy and cruelty have so often been experienced; and he should therefore betake himself to the army of the allies, or to some other place safe from the enemy, when he will be able, with clear conscience, to revoke the unjust conditions extorted by the enemy, and will not allow himself to be led into any compact prejudicial to the confederates. The Bishop shall assure him that the Kings will spare nothing to restore his Holiness to his ancient state, all his family to their rights, and Italy to freedom from a disgraceful yoke. If he find the Pope still prisoner, and is able to visit him, he must console him in the two Kings' names, and say that they will leave nothing undone to liberate him; he must ask him if he consents to these terms, which will produce irreparable injury, persuaded by the arts of the enemy. If he is forced to them by hope of his liberation, he must first protest. The enemy intend only to enslave the Church and lay waste every thing. There are two means of safety: one in the help of the League, which the Kings will so help that success may be shortly hoped for, but the Pope does not wish to be hasty; the other is, that if the Imperialists see that the affairs of the Church are managed by the Pope so that they cannot get any profit from his captivity, they will obtain nothing but infamy and the hatred of Christendom. The Kings advise him to delegate his authority to the absent Cardinals, that they may meet and take measures for the safety of the Church, and elect as vicar and moderator him who by his own prudence and the authority of the kings will be best able to perform this duty. The Pope must promise his assistance. By this means the liberation of the Pope will be hastened, and the Papal States will be held in subjection, knowing that the Head of the Church is established, and that the Imperialists cannot do as they please with the Church.
Lat., pp. 7.
Vit. B. X. 15.
B. M. Pocock, I. 45.
2. Secret instructions for the same.
The King has disclosed to the Bishop the invalidity of his marriage with the Queen, and the scruples of conscience arising partly from his own learning, and partly from the advice of theologians and other learned men; but wishing, as a Catholic prince, to do nothing contrary to the laws of the Church, he desired the Pope to grant what was necessary;—either to give a commission to men who seem most fit to decide the matter, or to send a Legate with sufficient authority to England,—because the wars in Italy make it unsafe for English subjects to go to the Pope, and because the facts cannot be examined with sufficient accuracy elsewhere than in England. The King trusts that his Holiness will grant these petitions, and not inform many people of them, lest the objections of the contrary party cause a hindrance. As it is uncertain how far the Pope will go, and the matter is of the greatest importance for the safety of the King's soul and for the tranquillity of his realm, by the advice of his councillors he has decided to use the assistance of all persons, either his subjects or foreigners, who are fitted to examine it, so that if it is referred by the Pope to the Cardinals or other learned men, the truth may the more easily be brought to light. The King therefore desires Stafileo, on his arrival in Rome, to communicate with his agents, and, if the matter must be discussed before sending a commission or a legate, to assist the ambassadors and agents of the King in all places and with all persons by his erudition and prudence. He constitutes him for this purpose his chief advocate, councillor and proctor, desiring him to expound to the Pope, the Cardinals, and all others, the reasons which have been shown to him, and of which he has a memorandum; but he must not allow a copy of them to be made by any one. He desires the Bishop to show the Pope that a refusal to grant his just request may cause a diminution of the authority of the Holy See. He promises the Bishop to procure for him a bishopric from the French king, and to favor his promotion to the cardinalate.
If the Pope has left the castle of St. Angelo, but is still in the hands of the Imperialists, he is to urge his Holiness to nominate Wolsey his vicar general, or to appoint a meeting of the absent cardinals, and to depute Wolsey as their head during the Pope's captivity.
Lat., pp. 7. In Vannes' hand.
Vit. B. X. 24.
B. M. Pocock, I. 40.
3. Instructions given by Card. Wolsey in the King's name to bp. Stafileo, of matters to be treated of at Rome.
He is sent to reside with the Pope as the common ambassador of the French king and Henry, and to assist in matters concerning the state of the Church, and for the advantage of the Holy League. After presenting his letters of credence to the Pope, he is to condole with him on his misfortunes, and congratulate him on his escape; and to say that during his captivity the two Kings have thought of nothing so much as procuring his liberation, promoting universal peace, and restoring the authority of the Holy See. As the League has a powerful army in Italy, the Bishop must by all means urge the Pope not to perform the conditions extorted from him by the Imperialists. He need not be moved by regard for the hostages, for by Lautrec's valour, or in some other way, they will soon be liberated. If the Pope uses the present opportunity, with the assistance of these Princes, he will be able to compel the enemy to accept his terms; and by the use of ecclesiastical censures and other means will make them an example to all who may in future attempt anything against the vicar of Christ and the See Apostolic. His Holiness must put no more trust in the enemy, but betake himself to the allied army; or some other safe place. The Bishop must assure him that the kings of England and France will do all that could be expected from the most obedient sons.
Lat., pp. 9. These instructions were signed by Wolsey before hearing of the Pope's liberation, and were then altered.
6 Jan.
Vit. B. IX. 17. B. M.
3768. PIETRO PISANI (fn. 3) to [the DOGE OF VENICE. (fn. 4) ]
Informs him that Gambara had been sent from the Pope to Monsignor Illustrissimo (de Medici) to go to the Most Christian King and then to England, among other things to request the King, as he has already done Lautrec, to use his intercession with Venice to give Ravenna and Cervia to the Pope. This has been done by the procurement of the prothonotary Gambara, who is not favorable to Venice. Thinks it right to give him advice of it, that he may do his best "per tuorli el credito." Gives an account of the numbers and intended movements of the army and of the duke of Urbino. When its efforts are crowned with success, hopes the Pope will no longer continue neutral. Bologna, 6 Jan. 1527. Signed: Petrus Pisan', Proc' Or'.
Ital., mutilated, pp. 2.
On a slip attached: Signor Casale by his letters has done much service in this matter with Wolsey; so you may do your work bravely.
7 Jan.
R. O. Pocock, I. 70.
Lautrec will not leave tomorrow, as he promised, on account of the heavy rains, but will move his army hence on the day after. In the accompanying letters to Vannes there are certain matters to be told to Wolsey. Bononia, 7 Jan. 1528. Signed.
P. 1, Lat. Add. Endd.: D. Gregorius de Casalis, 7 Jan. 1527.
7 Jan.
R. O. St. P. VII. 37.
Is delighted with the news of the 10th and 15th ult. In my letters of the 7th, 15th, and 26th Dec., I gave you copious instruction of the Legate to be sent, the commission for me and the King's dispensation; and I sent you instructions of the King's mind on the 26th, when we had great hopes of the Pope's liberation. The news of it has filled us with delight, and the King hopes you will now have free access to his Holiness for his matter. I make sure you have already gained the dispensation, commission, and appointment of the Legate, and that all things are in good train. This courier will deliver you our letters of congratulation to the Pope. You are to visit him, and congratulate him on his delivery, according to the letters enclosed, and state that the King and I consider that he has acted for the best in his difficulties, and that he was justified in obtaining his liberty by an external compliance with the hard terms demanded of him, which, under the circumstances, he is not bound to observe, especially as they are so prejudicial to the Holy See. We expect that he will find a means of evading the danger which threatens the See and his confederates if these terms be observed. You must warn him against running into fresh hazards; for if Lautrec were defeated the Pope would be at the mercy of the Imperialists. You shall tell him what plans we were engaged upon for his liberation. First, the King sent me to France to form a solid alliance between the two crowns. Next I omitted no occasion of urging on the expedition of Lautrec, to which the king of England contributed not less than the king of France. Then we encouraged the Venetians and the other states of Italy, and prevented the Florentines from revolting tot he enemy. Then we kept the French and other people in their obedience to the Holy See, when, in consequence of the Pope's captivity, they thought of having recourse to some inferior authority. Then we made a requistion to the Emperor, insisting on the Pope's liberation, and sent letters for that purpose from the whole clergy of England to the clergy of Spain, and twice in a week had a fast and a litany through the whole kingdom to procure God's favor for that purpose, which it must be thought were heard by Him, and the Pope was more speedily liberated; and the King's majesty and I would take no rest, but were ready to shed our blood, he, as an excellent and Christian prince, and I as his most obedient minister.
After you have dexterously employed these arguments you shall wait a time, and see how the Pope takes them; and as there is no doubt that he will use some very complimentary expressions, you shall take the opportunity of edging in the King's matter, and tell his Holiness that, although the King is a most devoted and disinterested son of the Church, even if he obtain nothing by his services, yet as this matter is of such paramount importance to himself and his kingdom, and the Pope has granted the same to others who have less deserved it, his Highness trusts that he will not refuse his just and modest petition. You shall also remind him of the danger of incurring the loss of the King's friendship by refusing his request or delaying it. Urges Sir Gregory to use the same ability and dexterity as he has hitherto done in getting a legate appointed and sent. Sends a copy of the declaration of war against the Emperor in the event of his not acceding to the Pope's liberation. London, 7 Jan. 1527. Signed.
Lat. Add.
7 Jan.
Theiner, p. 557.
Congratulates the Pope on his liberty. The King was greatly delighted at the news. Does not think the Pope is bound to fulfil the terms extorted from him. Would strongly recommend to him the King's cause, which is now most ardently pursued before his Holiness, were it not that he has full trust in the Pope's affection. The King asks no more than what is just, and will contribute to the repose of the Holy See. Writes to Gregory Casale on the subject. London, 7 Jan. 1527.
Vit. B. x. 19.
B. M. Pocock, I. 51.
2. Corrected draft by Vannes.
Lat., pp. 4.
7 Jan.
R. O. Ellis, 3 Ser. I. 200.
Wrote lately about the privation of the abbot of St. Bennets (Hulme), (fn. 5) and has had no answer. Hears now that the King, who is founder, has commanded the abbot "not to intermeddle any further in the same monastery." All the gentlemen here will depose to his innocence of the crimes objected against him. As to 'dilapidations, the house, at his installation, was deeply in debt, of which the abbot has paid off great part, notwithstanding the dimes and other heavy charges. Asks favor for the abbot, especially as he has promised to be ordered by Wolsey, and has always been kind to the Queen and Suffolk. Norwich, 7 Jan. Signed.
P.1. Add.: To my lord Cardinal.
7 Jan.
R. O.
Hears that Albany intends to come to Scotland by the assistance of the king of France. Asks him to write to Francis to stop him. If he has any writings to say that he comes by James's desire, they are false, or procured during his nonage. Has written to the same effect to Francis and the Duke by the bearer, Marchmont Herald. Knows that the castle of Dunbar being in the hands of Frenchmen is a great occasion for the Duke to come to this realm. Asks him, therefore, to solicit Francis to cause Albany to deliver it into his hands. Believes it is held by the French rather for evil to both realms than good. Edinburgh, 7 Jan. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.: 7 Jan. 1527.
7 Jan.
R O.
3774. ANGUS to THE SAME.
To the same effect. Halyrudhouse, 7 Jan. Signed.
P. 1, mutilated. Add.
7 Jan.
R. O.
3775. JAMES V. to WOLSEY.
Asks him to use his influence in the above matter. Edinburgh, 7 Jan. Signed.
P. 1, mutilated. Add. Endd.: The king of Scots, 7 Jan. 1527.
7 Jan.
R. O.
3776. ANGUS to THE SAME.
On the same subject. Edinburgh, 7 Jan. 1527. Signature lost.
Add. Endd.
7 Jan.
Received on the 6th Jan. inst. his writings, dated Alnwick, 3d inst. Does not think a general convention would be advisable till they have first met by themselves, to determine what should be done. Suggests that they should meet on Thursday, the 23 inst., at Rydenburn, "as place maist commodious and ganand,...considering it stands dry, but (i.e. without) confluence of greit [streams or other] impediment, sa we ma surely resort on athir syd therto...baith mare ewest (used) than Berwyk or Cornwell (Cornhill) that ar...e greit ryvere, that ma hald ws sundry." Before receiving his letter, had caused proclamation to be made for keeping good rule and concord. Edinburgh, 7 [Jan.] 1527. Signed.
P. 1, mutilated. Add.: [To the] erle of [Northumberl]and, wardane [of the East and] Medill Marches.
8 Jan.
R. O.
3778. [JAMES V. to ALBANY.]
Hears that he intends to come into the realm, and fears that his doing so will cause trouble amongst the people. Desires him to send his intentions by Marchmont Herald, and to postpone his coming till James gives him leave. If any persons have begged him to come, saying that it is the King's pleasure, they deceive him, and do not wish for the weal of the kingdom, but try for their own purposes to put division between him and his subjects. Edinburgh, 8 Jan.
Copy, p. 1.
8 Jan.
Vat. Trans. Add. MS. 15387, f. 192. B. M. St. P. VII. 44.
Congratulating the Pope on his liberty, and urging him not to observe the conditions extorted from him in his captivity. Lautrec has orders to advance. He will learn from the English ambassadors, especially from Gregory Casale, the efforts made in his behalf by his Majesty. Greenwich, 8 Jan. 1527.
Lat. Add.
Vit. B. X. 21.
B. M.
2. Corrected draft. (fn. 6)
Pp. 5. Marginal note: Alexander cursor Anglus has tulit. 8 Jan. 1528.
9 Jan.
R. O.
Encloses letters received this present 9 Jan., the contents of which he desires him to communicate to my lord Legate. "Ye know Welshmen ben poor and charged with many bonds and payments further than any other the King's subjects, for the which claim their old customs" (sic); so it would be a good thin to stay the parties "aparans" at this time, which would quiet the country, and further the King's duties. It is important that the Princess's council should know my lord Cardinal's pleasure in the matter.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: To the right worshipful Mr. Russell, secretary unto the Princess's good grace. Endd. in a later hand.
9 Jan.
R. O.
3781. JOHN TAYLOR, Master of the Rolls, to WOLSEY.
On the 8th "Baily Robert Tett" told him that a spy had come from Spain with letters from the French ambassadors there, which the King is sending to the bishop of Bayonne for Wolsey to see. The King and Madame will do nothing without informing Wolsey. They are pleased to hear that he is content with their last advertisement out of Spain. On the 7th sent to Calais for Wolsey a letter in answer to that which my lord of Rocheford's servant brought him, letters from Italy, and one from the Grand Master in answer to Wolsey's, with an account of Lautrec's proceeding, and the provision of money for him. Wolsey's letters were calcar acutum, for a man was immediately sent to Lautrec. No news but what he will hear from the bishop of Bayonne. Has told the post to enquire for the letters he sent to Calais and take them on. Paris, 9 Jan. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: To my lord Legate's good grace. Endd.: Dr. Taylor xix. Jan. 1527.
9 Jan.
Vesp. C. IV. 2. B. M.
Has had letters from Flanders complaining of the injury done to the Spanish ships in an English port by the French, and tolerated by the English. Begs Wolsey will use his endeavors to remove all obstacles to the peace and the good understanding of the two nations. "Ex hac domo suburbana, v. id. Januarii." Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add.: D. cardinali Eboracen. atque Angliæ legato. Endd.
9 Jan.
(fn. 7) Le Grand, III. 67.
He will learn from his joint letters with De Brosse the few things that have happened since the despatch of the last courier. The ceremonies have been great for the Pope's deliverance. Hopes similar ones will be done in France. I beg you will get me an answer about this ceremony of ranks (des rangs), and also a letter from the King which I can show, that he approves the language used by Wolsey, and the comedies which have been acted to his advantage, for Wolsey asked me particularly if I was not writing to him; also, if you write to me, you had better thank him for the declarations of friendship he has made towards you. He wishes to obtain a copy of the offers which were sent into Spain, of which he has lost the duplicate. I beg you will also send the copy I sent you of the procuration of De Brosse, of which neither he nor I have kept a duplicate. The ambassadors of Florence and Ferrara had some dispute at the ceremonies, which they referred to Bayonne; and he advised them to protest that what they did then should not be taken for a precedent, Florence already having gained prior place, but write to their fellow ambassadors, and those with Francis, who was chief of the League.
The day after he spoke to Wolsey about the deprivation of the Emperor, Wolsey spoke of it to Staphileus, who did not fail to aggravate it; but Wolsey did not speak of me, nor that I had opened the matter to him. When Staphileus spoke of it to me I pretended to know nothing about it, not wishing to deprive Wolsey of the honor of suggesting it. After the departure of Staphileus, the dean of the Chapel spoke of it to me as a thing that would be for the good of the Church, which, as he had just come from Wolsey, made me think he had been told it was my proposal, but I passed it over without pretending to know about it. I believe firmly that Staphileus carries the despatch "dont l'autre voyage vous ay escript," and I am sure it would give satisfaction here if you would despatch it soon. Russell will follow in post very close. Staphileus has express charge from the King and Wolsey to say to Francis and Madame wonders of_. (fn. 8)
It may be that if it come to his knowledge he will presume I may have been the cause; but you know in what terms he spoke of it to you when you were here, which was not owing to me.
Petitions for the command of the galleys vacant by the death of Friar Bernardin, for his brother. London, 9 Jan.
P.S.—Has omitted to write to the King that De Brosse was two days at Greenwich, where he was very well received by the King.
9 Jan.
Vit. B. X. 33. B. M. Pocock, I. 56.
This courier Thadeus left Florence on Saturday last. The King's dispensation is passed under lead in as ample a form as the minute brought by Barlow. Brings also a commission for Wolsey, which is sufficient, though not like the minute. Cardinal St. Quatuor made the draught, so that whenever it is required, or a copy thereof, it may be given and stand with the honor of the Pope, the King and Wolsey. Left Florence on Sunday last, and, fearing the rivers in Lombardy, went towards Genoa. At Alexandria, his host informed him that Barlow had passed, leaving letters with Thadeus, whom he would find at Aste. Went thither the same day, and received the King's letter with a double of the minutes. As there was nothing in them to cause him to return, will continue his journey. If the courier had not been hindered by the floods, he would have been at Paris before Knight arrived at Aste. Aste, 9 Jan.
Hol., pp. 2.
9 Jan.
R. O. Pocock, I. 57.
Arrived today at Aste, and there received his letters dated Westm., 27 Dec., with the duplicates of the minutes that this courier lately brought him. By accompanying letters, he will perceive what is being done in the King's causes here. Sees no reason in Wolsey's letters for remaining, and trusts therefore to be soon with him. Thanks him for his letters of exchange, without which he would have been "clean comfortless." Aste, 9 Jan. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: To my lord Legate's grace. Endd. Sealed.
9 Jan.
R. O.
"Item," 28 Oct., for a boat that carried stuff of my Lord's from London to Greenwich, 6d. 31 Oct., a boat from Greenwich to London to fetch stuff, 8d. 30 Nov., the same, 6d. For two "cares" that carried 2 puncheons of wine and 2 barrels of herrings from Billingsgate to my Lord's place, 6d. To 2 porters who stowed it in the cellar, 8d. To a cooper for putting 11 hoops on the puncheon, 11d. 8 Jan., boat hire when "I went with my Lord's stuff to my lord Carnolle (Cardinal) from Grenwyche," 8d. 6 Jan., reward to a woman who brought my Lord a present, 3d. 7 Jan., for a boat to carry a hogshead of wine from Lymuse to the Crane of the Ventre, 6d. Carriage of the wine from the Crane to my Lord's place, 3d. To a porter for stowing it in the cellar, 4d. 9 Jan., hire of a boat to carry my Lord's stuff from Greenwich to London, 6d. My boat hire from London to Greenwich, 1d.
Total, 10s. 5d. Signed: H. marques of Exeter.
Pp. 2, imperfect.
10 Jan.
R. O. St. P. VII. 46.
The dispensation is sped and under lead according to the minute brought by Barlow; also a commission devised by St. Quatuor. Gambara, who is now in France, will convey both to you. Having obtained them, I had returned thus far homeward when I found letters from you and my lord Legate, instructing me to get the Pope to send a special legate to England to determine your cause. But as Gregory de Casalis, who has similar instructions, is nearer the Pope, and on receipt of my letters you may perhaps be satisfied with what has been obtained already, I will wait here till I know your pleasure. Aste, 10 Jan.
Hol. Add.
10 Jan.
Vit. B. x. 31. B. M.
Despatched this courier Thadeus on the 1st, from Orvieti, with letters about the success of his charges here, supposing he would shortly have been with Wolsey, but the impassable state of the rivers in Lombardy has delayed him, and as he met my lord of Rochford's priest, (fn. 9) who gave him letters from Wolsey for Knight, he waited here to deliver them. The priest passed on his way to Mr. Gregory two days before Knight arrived. As to the reasons that moved the King and Wolsey to have the King's cause committed to some Cardinal to be sent purposely into England, supposes he sees that as the Pope makes a difficulty about granting a commission to Wolsey, it will be much more difficult to induce him to send a legate purposely, for the continual fear that he and the cardinals are in, in consequence of the reports of the Emperor's preparations for war. Does not think the Pope would send, or any cardinal go, who intends to live quietly in England.
(fn. 10) The commission and dispensation are sped, with a request to be made by me and Gambara to the King at the time of their delivery. What it is you will perceive by my letters. I send them by Gambara, and, considering the time, you will be right well content with what has passed without asking for what could not be had without longer delay. Gregory and I will do our diligence, and if I am to return to Orvieti I will wait your pleasure hereby at Turin. The Datary has wholly abandoned the Court. Campeggio is ill at Rome with gout. Pisano, Triulcio, Orsini, Gadi and Cesi are hostages. De Monte, St. Quatuor, Ridolfo, Ravenna and Perusino are with the Pope. Aste, 10 Jan.
Hol., pp. 3. Add. Endd.
10 Jan.
R. O.
Has received his letters by my lord of Rocheford's priest, and has accordingly exhorted Lautrec to go forward with all speed, showing him that although the King's contribution for August, September, and October has been idly spent, he will contribute for two months more, and has paid ready money. He is greatly encouraged at this, saying that he trusts Henry as much as his own master, and will make no dealy. He leaves here today, and has promised not to rest till he meets the enemy, except for the repose of his footmen. Bononia, 10 Jan. Signed.
P.1. Add. Endd.: Sir Robt. Jernegan, 10 Jan. 1527.
10 Jan.
Vit. B. x. 34. B. M.
On Monday last received his letters dated Dec. 15. The Pope will not yet declare himself friend to the League, but Lautrec says that he trusts he will do so shortly, for success is impossible without his help. Thinks his Holiness delays because he does not feel sure of Lautrec's advance, and if that failed he would be in the greatest danger. Supposes he will join the League as the army approaches. The King's and Wolsey's letter's will persuade him more to do so than anything else. Lautrec has received letters from the French king, by which he sees that Wolsey has spoken for him to Francis. For this he is very grateful.
Has urged him to proceed, and told him that it was only for that purpose that the King contributed. He leaves this town today to march forwards, and says he will not rest till he meets the enemy. Bologna, 10 Jan.
My lord of Rochford's priest arrived on Monday. Signed.
Pp. 2.
10 Jan.
R. O.
3791. JAMES V. to FRANCIS I.
Since he took upon him the government of Scotland, dissensions have abated, and law has been maintained; but it has been lately rumored that John duke of Albany, at the instigation of Robt. ab Oubinze (D'Aubigni), or both together, by aid of Francis, have been hiring ships and sending them to Scotland without leave of James. Has written to them to dissaude them from their voyage, that he may the better consider their affairs without injury to his kingdom; for if they really have documents as they pretend, from himself, giving them licence to come, he is entirely ignorant of them. Requests that Francis will stay them if they will not listen to his entreaty. Edinburgh, 10 Jan. 1527.
Lat., p. 1. Endd.


  • 1. See 23 Dec. 1527.
  • 2. From the asterisk is struck out, and "R. D. Cardinali Eboracensi, Apostolicæ sedis de latere legato" is substituted.
  • 3. See Mr. Brown's Cal., July 18, 1528.
  • 4. Magnifice et Clarissime.
  • 5. John Redinge.
  • 6. At the end, Knight is put in place of Casale, as in "State Papers."
  • 7. In the heading to this letter, supplied by the Editor, it is dated 29th January, which appears to be an error.
  • 8. A line left blank here in Le Grand.
  • 9. Cranmer ?
  • 10. Printed from this point in Burnet, IV. 40.