Henry VIII: April 1528, 11-18

Pages 1837-1848

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 4, 1524-1530. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1875.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by the Arts and Humanities Research Council. All rights reserved.

Page 1837
Page 1838
Page 1839
Page 1840
Page 1841
Page 1842
Page 1843
Page 1844
Page 1845
Page 1846
Page 1847
Page 1848

April 1528

11 April.
Vesp. C. IV.
B. M.
Guillaume des Barres has come hither from my lady Margaret. As this is holiday time, wishes Wolsey will appoint a day for audience. London, 11 April. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add. Endd.
13 April.
R. O.
The sooner he departs it will be the better for his health, which is every day getting worse. Has determined, as was resolved at the last conference, to send his servant before him to the Emperor, with Wolsey's letters to my lord of Worcester, that he may solicit liberty for him to come to the frontier, and not be kept waiting. Requests Wolsey to instruct the English ambassador in France to procure letters of safe-conduct for him to go to the Emperor. Hopes Wolsey will get them as ample and as speedily made out as possible. Requests his interposition in a dispute between the Lord Mayor and the Spanish and other foreign merchants. "Ex hac domo suburbana," 13 April. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add.: Rmo. domino Cardinali Eboracensi atque totius Angliæ legato. Endd.
13 April.
Vesp. C. IV.
B. M.
Sends his servant, as agreed upon, that before he returns to Spain the bishop of Worcester may come to the Borders. Begs he will obtain for him from the king of France an ample safe-conduct for himself and his family, to be left at Calais. "Ex hac domo," 13 April. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add.: Mag. Dom. Briano Tuk, Ser. Regis Thesaurario atque Secretario.
13 April.
R. O.
Rym. XIV. 237.
Bull of Clement VII. empowering cardinal Wolsey, as his vicegerent, to take cognisance of all matters concerning the King's divorce, in conjunction with the archbishop of Canterbury. Orvieto, 13 April 1528.
Lat., vellum, leaden seal.
13 April.
R. O.
Strype's Mem.
I. ii. 24.
Pocock, I. 120.
Since the despatch of my lord of Rochford's priest on the 1st April, Gardiner with Fox and Sir Gregory have been with the Pope, telling him we had despatched our post to report his Holiness's good mind, and that we expected short expedition to the satisfaction of the King and Wolsey; the specialties to be sent by Mr. Fox, who must return shortly. Told him, "Bis dat qui cito dat, et aliquid dare videtur qui cito negat." His Holiness said it was a question of law, in which he must depend on the opinion of learned men whom he had consulted on the point. He had pressed them to come to a determination with speed whether the marriage should be declared nought, and the dispensation void. Gardiner hoped the Pope would accept the evidences of the King's book, and Wolsey's relation of the opinions of learned men in those parts. The Pope said he would do so, "the thing being such as should not come in judicium orbis," but that when the matter should be in everybody's mouths he could not use such testimony. He was sorry and ashamed that he had no learning in the law himself, and feared his most trusted councillors would oppose whatever was done without their advice, even if it were right. But if he could get any comfort of these men he would obtain their opinions in the King's favor, to be published hereafter. Remonstrated that this was a practical refusal of the King's just request, and quoted the Pope's former words, by which he had encouraged us. Told him, that in a matter of such manifest truth he ought not to be afraid of men's sayings, especially as he had admitted the justice of the King's petition. The Pope said he would await the coming of Staphileus. The latter arrived that night, and on the ambassadors consulting with him next day, he regretted he had not been able to come sooner. When Gardiner said the commission should be directed either to Wolsey alone, or jointly with another legate, he said his instructions were quite to the contrary, and referred to words spoken by the King at the More, the evening he was with your Highness and his Grace; "at which time, he saith, the King's highness said that the Queen might and would refuse your Grace, and therefore it should be well done your Grace meddled not as judge in the matter." Could not get him to change his opinion for a good while, but at last he promised to conform to our instructions.
Staphileus being here as the French king's ambassador, he has been twice to the Pope without us. Sir Gregory learned in the evening, at a secret interview with the Pope, all that Staphileus had said to him on the King's matter; viz., that he thought the cause good; and on the Pope's wondering about the form of the commission, said he was never privy to it, but was only instructed that a general commission should be given to a legate sent from Rome, and that the King did not wish Wolsey to be judge, because the Queen might object to him. After his audience Staphileus told us that he had spoken with the Pope in our matter, and hoped to obtain short expedition for us. "Nevertheless, rounding us in the ear, he said it was not to be sticked at for obtaining the commission decretal, inasmuch as by a general commission the King might have his purpose, the sentence to be given there shortly, and so afterwards to be confirmed here." He promised to bring this about by his dexterity. We, dissembling our knowledge of what he had said to the Pope, said we had without him "obtained grant of such a commission, with secret promise of confirmation, and had ordered the matter in such sort as it was on their part offered us, and we desired by them to take it," but that as by our secret instructions we were not allowed to accept it, we still insisted upon the first.
On Friday before Palm Sunday, the Pope appointed solemnem consessum of the cardinals De Monte and Sanctorum Quatuor, Staphileus, ourselves and the dean of the Rota, to discuss the King's matter. We met in the Pope's little chamber, there being present Paulus, an auditor of the Rota, and the prothonotary Gambara. Staphileus made a two hours' oration, containing his whole book, and the reasons of the same. He was answered by card. S. Quatuor. The discussion grew warm, and Gardiner obtained leave to reply to the Cardinal, whose reasonings he thought very frivolous, and exposed so thoroughly, that the Pope saw clearly how little they weighed. After a long discussion, in which, for lack of arguments, they repeatedly asked us to be content with a commission in general form, to be confirmed here after sen- tence, Gardiner desired the Pope, and those present, to note and ponder what he should say touching the Pope's authority; viz., that inasmuch as the King's matter had been debated here, unless some other resolution were taken than they seemed inclined to take, it would create a "marvellous opinion" of his Holiness and the College, for people would say that they either would not or could not make any certain reply; that if they would not show the way to the wanderer, a task entrusted to them by God, and especially to a prince to whom they were so much indebted, people would exclaim against their cunning and dissimulation, for they made large promises and performed nothing; that England asked nothing but justice, and had a special right to the Pope's counsel, having always assisted the Pope, both with counsel and otherwise; that the King and lords of England would be driven to think God had taken away from the Holy See the key of knowledge, and would begin to adopt the opinion of those who thought pontifical laws, which were not clear to the Pope himself, might well be committed to the flames. To this no answer was given, except the old advice to come to a compromise; and Gardiner told the Pope plainly that he saw nothing else was meant than that every man might pretend ignorance hereafter and keep himself at liberty, so that if the Emperor were victorious they might lean to him. Moreover, that the granting of such a commission was practically an admission of the justice of the King's cause, which they would not make in words; for how could the Pope grant a commission for a cause he considered bad? On telling the Pope privately afterwards that he must see the justice of the King's cause, "his Holiness said, that he was not learned; and to say truth, albeit it were a saying in the law that Pontifex habet omnia jura in scrinio pectoris, yet God never gave unto him the key to open illud scrinium;" but he would consult with the cardinals and auditors "to what point we shall rest." He did so, and told Sir Gregory that they advised him in no wise to grant the commission in the first form.
Next day we returned to the Pope, and spoke roundly to him, according to our instructions, that the King would do it without him. The Pope said he would it were done, "and to the other words nothing, but sighed, and wiped his eyes, saying, that in a matter in qua vertitur jus tertii he could do nothing without the counsel of them." He wished it were in his power to do something for the King, if it were to his own hurt only, and so forth. On this we were obliged to resort to the second degree, which was afterwards set forth by Sir Gregory, who, in talking familiarly with the Pope, said, as of himself, that he would ascertain if his colleagues would be satisfied with a general commission, provided the Pope would pass in secret manner the decretal commission; the same not to come in publicum, unless the Pope did not confirm the sentence. The Pope answered, that it would be well to mention it to his colleagues, and he himself would consider the matter.
On Palm Sunday we again visited the Pope, when his Holiness said, that as to the passing of the decretal commission, there was this dilemma: if it were just, it should be done publicly; if it were not just, it would be a great scandal, and would trouble his conscience in secret. Gardiner replied, that it was just, and should be done publicly; but as the fear of the Emperor prevented this, it might be done without fear in secret, and that, if so done, there was some hope that, by Wolsey's dexterity, it might be taken by the King in good part. Could get no answer, and departed. The Pope sees all that is spoken better and sooner than any other, but no man is so slow to give an answer.
That night we sent for Simonetta, the dean of the Rota, as we had done several times before. Thanked him for what he had done in the matter, and said that, although it had not borne fruit, the King would reward him for his pains. We then asked him as a friend, setting apart his judicial character, to give us his opinion in the King's matter, saying that he might do so freely, as we were not going to stick any further in the first commission. He answered that, the facts being proved, he considered the cause great and just. We said we would signify his opinion to the King and you, in confirmation of that which was held there pro comperto. We then asked familiarly, why he had not said so to the Pope. To this he could give no direct answer, but said it was better to keep the common course than have such a commission as we desired. After he left, Gardiner drew up a general commission for a legate, with the clauses contained in our instructions. Send by Master Fox a minute, with annotations.
Hitherto we have done as they do; for they always praise the present flavor of the meat, though they are compelled to blame the cooking. Hitherto they had been quite in favor of a general commission, but when it comes to the point we find it is not agreeable. We had always been told it should be of our own devising; but when we had made it they all took counsel to catch us in our speech, and pervert the meaning of the plainest words, as Mr. Fox will more amply show you. We first, by the Pope's direction, showed the commission devised by us to Simonetta, who said he thought the matter good, except at the end, but it was too ornate. Next day we went to the cardinal S. Quatuor, who, having heard of it beforehand from Simonetta, said, before he read it, that it could not be granted; for the sick man, on consulting the physician, did not prescribe the medicine himself. Gardiner said that in many cases the sick man's advice might help the physician, especially when he knew his own complaint, and had some learning in physic. On its being read to him, the Cardinal said that he did not like the beginning, and returned to read to us that which he had sent by Master Secretary. After some discussion we were told to come with him to the cardinal De Monte, where, after reading the commission in presence of them all, we were desired to leave, the Cardinals telling us that they would consult over it, and not alter very much. We urged them to determine shortly, for Master Fox must depart, and Easter was at hand. Could learn nothing more that afternoon or next day, though we were kept going between the Pope and them.
On Tuesday after Palm Sunday, about two hours before night, the Pope showed us a draft commission, corrected and signed by them, but, when we saw the amount of correction in it, Gardiner accused the Pope of a breach of his promise in choosing such men as instruments; that his Holiness first protested he cared nothing for style, but only for justice; and when the question of justice was set at rest, difficulties were raised about the style. The Pope said he was obliged to use other men's counsels, but finally consented to let us have the minute after our devising, if Simonetta would say it was not contrary to justice. On this Simonetta was called for, but declined to answer directly in the absence of the Cardinals. Discussed the matter warmly for five hours during the night till 1 a.m., when we departed with no other answer but that we should have a definite reply next day before dinner. That day, Wednesday, we repaired to the Pope's presence before mass, with books of the law to justify those parts of our commission to which they had objected, adding somewhat as to the disrepute brought upon the office of judge. The cardinals De Monte, St. Quatuor, and Simonetta, were present, and entered into a new discussion, in which we showed the Pope, by the authority of the book, that they had done wrong. At last, they began in friendly manner to read the commission, and correct it by consent, "saving in certain points, as more plainly appeareth in the corrections." He then left at 2 p.m., with a promise that we should have the minute before night, clearly finished to our satisfaction. On visiting the Pope again that evening, we found our minute altered from what it was agreed on. Began a new discussion with Simonetta, the Cardinals being absent. At last we differed but in two words, omnem to be added to potestatem, and nolente to the clause nolente impedito. This Simonetta would not do without advice of the Cardinals; and the night being then far past, the Pope sent him and Gambara to the Cardinals' houses, who sent word that they were making collation, but would look up their books tomorrow. "Here began a new tragedy." The ambassadors complained that they were deluded; and Gardiner told the Pope that these men had shown no learning, but only ignorance, in their corrections, fearing a scorpion under every word. We believe, however, that this is all done by the Pope's order, who has eyes but sees not. Gardiner began then to expostulate with Gambara for persuading the King to send ambassadors, and trying, when they came, to intoxicate them with fine words to circumvent their friends (meaning Staphileus), and to lure them as men do hawks to the fist, "prætendere pugno carnem et inhiantes ac sequentes semper ludificare." Gambara said he had only done according to his commission; upon which Gardiner turned to the Pope, and taxed him with ingratitude. The Pope said nothing, and sighed, and wiped his eyes; and Staphileus, turning towards us, "said he took it as God's will that we should come after him, or else the difficulty here should not have been believed." Gardiner said he thought it God's will, indeed, that when we should report what sort of men be here, the favor of that Prince who is their only friend should be taken away, and that the Apostolic See should fall to pieces with the consent and applause of everybody. "At these words the Pope's holiness, casting his arms abroad, bade us put in the words we varied for, and therewith walked up and down the chamber, casting now and then his arms abroad, we standing in a great silence." After a while, regaining his composure, he said he was sorry he could not satisfy the King without counsel. Gardiner said he was as sorry that his Holiness had so little confidence in the King. After the commissions were written and sealed, we again resorted to the Pope and Cardinals, when things were discussed in a friendly manner on their part, with acknowledgments of the King's benefits, and their great desire to satisfy him. We persistently told them this commission would not do so, although we, as the lowest members of the Church, would do our best to further its acceptance. Finally, the Pope bid us inform the King that he committed himself to his protection, as, things being in their present state, the sending of this commission is a declaration against the Emperor. He has not yet required the King's promise; and Gardiner has not offered it, as we await your answer to the letters we wrote from Paris. Gardiner waits also to know how Wolsey is satisfied with the commission, which he thinks as good as can be devised, though not in all so open as could be wished. It is in effect all that can be wished, except the clauses of confirmation and revocation, of which he has written his opinion in the margin.
There is no cardinal here, except Campeggio, fit for this legation. Sir Gregory has written their disqualifications to Wolsey. Gardiner now repairs to Rome to know his mind. The commissions in any case are directed to Wolsey and Campeggio; and their not being written "in so fresh hand" as they should have been may be excused, as there are so few writers here, and only one that can skill, who has written these commissions and dispensation twice, "and at the last scaped sine aliqua menda in notabili loco." As to sending letters to the Queen; the Pope has devised to send a Friar with a brief of credence; but as the commission decretal does not pass, the letters cannot contain all specialties. Desires instructions about this point, and about the deliverance of the King's promise, and of rewards to Simonetta and others, and to know whether he may return if Campeggio cannot shortly come.
The Pope is willing to make short process for the canonization of Hen. VI., but the matter must be examined by a number of cardinals. My lords of Canterbury and Winchester, who have examined the matter at home, had better send the process hither. Can do nothing about the pardon to Windsor College till wé hear the certainty about the name and the incorporation. Spoke to the Pope about the matters of Wolsey's College, and was told that all things should pass which I could reasonably desire. Orvieto, Easter Monday. Signed.
Pp. 25. Add.: To my lord Legate.
Harl. 419.
f. 92 b.
B. M.
2. Copy of the preceding.
Vit. B. X. 195.
B. M.
"Ex gifris D. Gregorii ... ex Orvieto."
The Pope has passed the commission as the Secretary desired. His Holiness is not averse to pleasing the King and Wolsey, but fears the Spaniards more than he ever did, as they hold all the lands of the Church. The Friar General has forbidden him, in the Emperor's name, to grant the King's request. He fears for his life from the Imperialists, if the Emperor knows of it. Told him to trust entirely to the King and Wolsey, which he said he would do. He expects ruin without the King's assistance, if the Emperor is allowed to possess more than the kingdom of Naples. There is now a good opportunity for the French to act. The Pope advises a contribution, stipulating that they shall immediately march to liberate the States of the Church, and not stop at crossing any river or besieging any town on the plea that they are not strong enough. Thinks nothing should be done without the joint consent of the Pope and the French. It would be a pitiful thing to leave the Pope in the hands of these dogs. Unless Lautrec does all that he has been so often ordered to do, the Pope and all Italy will be irremediably in the power of the Imperialists. Advises a present to be sent to the cardinal St. Quatuor, as he has much power with the Pope, and says that what dispensations are required he will obtain. Begs for assistance for himself. The Pope desires, if peace is concluded, the restitution of [Ravenna] and Cervia, and does not wish to ratify the capitulation with the duke of Ferrara. He begs the King not to force him to give up these cities for the good of peace. Spoke of this alone during the day, and at night took the Secretary to the Pope, lest the Spaniards should suspect anything. Vannes may tell Wolsey that if he wishes to have the commission brought by the Secretary, under lead, he can have it. His Holiness refers the matter between himself and the Florentines to the King.
Before the Pope would grant this brief, he said, weeping, that it would be his utter ruin; that he was at the mercy of the Imperialists, for there was no hope from France, and the Venetians and Florentines desired nothing more than his destruction; that his sole hope of life was from the Emperor, which hope was now lost, for the Imperialists would say that he had moved the King to this from hatred to the Emperor. (fn. 1) He used many arguments to prove this; which Casale answered, and bade him be of good courage. He asked Casale to swear whether the King would desert him or not. Satisfied him on this point, and then he granted the brief, saying that he put himself in the King's arms, and would be drawn into perpetual war with the Emperor.
The Pope desired him to write separately to Wolsey that he had willingly incurred this danger, trusting in his continual declarations of goodwill, without which he would never have dared to do it; and that Wolsey might dispose of him and the papacy as if he were pope himself. He considers also that Casale has done him good service during these wars.
Lat., mutilated; in Vannes' hand; pp. 5. Endd.
Add. MS.
6874, f. 112.
B. M.
Promise of Clement VII. that, now he has issued a commission for trying the cause of Henry VIII. and Katharine, he will not yield to any request to issue letters or bulls restraining the said commission.
Lat., copy, pp. 2. Endd.: "Promissio Clementis PP. VII. ejus manu scripta in causa divortii Regis et Reginæ Angliæ, cum sigillo signata, absque die et data."
13 April.
S. B.
To be treasurer of the Chamber, vice Sir Henry Wyat. Del. Hampton Court, 13 April 19 Hen. VIII.
Pat. 19 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 20.
Harl. 419,
f. 101.
B. M.
Strype, Mem.
I. ii. No. 25.
Pocock, I. 136.
The Pope, hearing that the Emperor, in answer to the King's intimation, had mentioned the King's matter, thinks he will take it more displeasantly than if his Holiness had declared himself specially. The general [of the Franciscans] also hath made suit to the contrary. He is therefore in great perplexity, and can only trust the King. The Venetians, Florentines and the duke of Ferrara have banded together. The French king will do nothing. If he had been in earnest the Venetians would have restored Cervia and Ravenna. He says that Lautrec has sent him word that if he do not declare himself he shall be treated as an enemy, although no conditions are proposed to him. He begs, therefore, you will take the management of these things; and as to the proposal of depriving the Emperor upon declaration made, that, he thinks, would be a very precipitate step, impolitic in itself and in its consequences. What is to be done with Naples if the Emperor be deprived of it, or if Francis should help the Emperor to recover it in the hope of regaining his children? By letters of the 30th ult. from Salviati, the Pope is advertised of the coming of Turenne, but only with compliments. As Lautrec is so successful, thinks the French should speak roundly to the Venetians. No favorable answer has yet come from them.
A letter has come to Gambara, stating that when Morette was in England he reported that the Prothonotary much pressed the French king for Modena and Reggio. The Prothonotary desires me to say that after one denial of it by the French king he spoke no more of it. He wishes to have a nuncio resident in England, and would be glad to know who will be acceptable to you and the King. He showed us letters from Genoa, and thinks that if care be not taken the French will lose that city. Fox will report the other news by mouth.
Copy, from Gardiner's letter book.
14 April.
R. O.
Writes as one of his humble servants, requesting that the bearer may be allowed to pass towards the Emperor on his business. Mortaigne, 14 April '28, puis Pasques. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Au Roy. Endd.
14 April.
R. O.
4173. THE LOAN.
Petition to William archbishop of Canterbury, from the inhabitants of the Lowy of Tunbridge, Hadlowe, Penshurst, Bitboroughe, Spelherst, Lye, Soundryshe, Shepstede, Sevenoke, the vill of Brasted, the hundred of Coddeshoth, Somerden and Westerham, praying that he will move the King to repay them the amount of the loan which the Archbishop undertook should be refunded to them, seeing that they are so sore impoverished by the great dearth of corn.
P. 1, large paper. Headed: "This is the copy of a bill of supplication, not fully drawn, but interlined and stricken out in divers places, which such as were at Knoll on Easter Tuesday last to desire my lord of Canterbury to speak to the King's grace for their loan, after it were corrected and perfected, intended to deliver unto the said lord of Canterbury the 3rd day of May next ensuing."
R. O. 2. The original draft, with corrections and interlineations above alluded to.
Pp. 2.
15 April.
S. B.
4174. HENRY FANE alias VANE, of Hadloo, alias of Tonbridge, Kent, late sheriff of Kent.
Pardon; with release to Sir John Norton, of Norwood, parish of Middelton (Kent), and Richard Fane alias Vane, of Tewdeley, Kent, of their recognizance of 40l. made 29 Jan. 17 Hen. VIII. Del. Westm., 15 April 19 Hen. VIII.
Pat. 19 Hen. VIII. p. 2, m. 22.
R. O. 2. Draft of the preceding.
Pp. 2.
R. O. 3. Petition for the above pardon, stating that Fane was appointed sheriff of Kent in 17 Hen. VIII., but had no knowledge of his appointment till after the Purification of Our Lady, when he could get no under-sheriff or bailiffs to assist him in the office, and lost all the profits of his county court and tournes. He was thus unable to levy certain moneys, out of which he should have paid some annuities due by the Crown. He also sustained loss to the extent of 50l. when he was sheriff in 22 & 23 Hen. VII.
Pp. 2.
R. O. 4. Extract from the Memoranda Rolls of the Exchequer, Hil. 17 Hen. VIII., relative to the bail given, 29 Jan., by Henry Vane, sheriff of [Kent], and Sir John Norton of Norwode in Middelton, and Rich. Fane of Tudeley, that Vane shall duly account to the Exchequer for the fruits of his office.
16 April.
Harl. MS. 421,
f. 19.
B. M.
Thursday, 19 March, Cuthbert bishop of London, in an inner chamber in his palace, forbade Robert Forman, S.T.P., rector of All Hallows, Honey Lane, to perform mass or preach, for retaining Luther's books after their condemnation. Present, Dr. Geoffrey Wharton, the bishop's vicar, Robert Rydley, and John Royston, S.T.P., Richard Sparchford, M.A., and Matthew Grefton, notary._The same day, in a great chamber in his palace, the Bishop examined John Thompson, William Pykas, Robert Best, John Gyrlyng, John Bradley, and Alice Gardyner of Colchester, and John Hubberd of Est Donyland, who all refused to acknowledge and reveal their heresies, expressly denying them. He admonished them, and advised them to consider until the morrow._Friday, 20 March 1527, the Bishop in his chapel administered to John Thompson of Colchester the articles previously administered to Hacker and Pykas, receiving as witnesses John Pykas, John Hacker alias Ebb, and William Raylond. William Pykas, refusing to swear, was sent to the Lollard's Tower, and put in the stocks._The same day, John Bradley appeared, and at first refused to swear, but, being admonished, did so. The same witnesses were received as against John Thompson; and on 23 March, William Pykas and John Thompson, John Hubberd of Est Dony- lond, John Girlyng, Robert Best, and Alice Gardyner of Colchester, also appeared, and were sworn to reply to the articles, and the same witnesses were received.
23 March, William Pykas took the oath, and acknowledged his replies. Henry Raylond was admitted as witness on 16 April 1528.
Lat., pp. 4. Contemporary foliation, clxxxvj.—clxxxvij.
Harl. MS. 421,
f. 21.
B. M.
2. Examination of John Pykas, of the parish of St. Nicholas, Colchester, baker, about thirty-three years of age.
About a year ago, had communication with Best, twice, in his own house, concerning the epistles of James, which Best could say by heart. Best has been taken for a known man and a brother in Christ for a year. He borrowed an English New Testament of Pykas. Spoke with John Gyrlyng, two or three years ago, concerning Christ's words in the xxi[v.] chapter of Matthew, about the destruction of Jerusalem, by which he meant that priests and men of the Church, who have stony hearts because they punish heretics, should reign a while, and then God would punish them. Spoke also to Gyrlyng about a chapter of James, saying that God is Father of light, and overshadowed all sin, wherefore we should pray only to God. All this Gyrlyng consented to and approved of. Gyrlyng has been reputed a known man and a brother in Christ for three years. Was told by Robert Bishop, son of Gyrlyng's wife by another husband, about sixteen years of age, that his mother did public penance; but wherefore he knows not. Has talked with William Raylond about the Lord's Prayer and the Apostles' Creed in English, about the Epistles of James and John, and about the eight Beatitudes. William Raylond and Henry his son have often talked against pilgrimages and worshipping images, saying that only Saints in heaven should be worshipped; none of the known men ever set up lights before images. Raylond also said that baptism with water is but a token of repentance, and that when a man comes to years of discretion, and keeps himself clean of the promise made by his godfathers, then he shall receive the baptism of the Holy Ghost. Henry Raylond also approved of the above. Marion Mathew alias Westdon has the Epistles and Gospels in her house, and knows them by heart, and has been a known woman and of the brotherhood for twelve years, as he has heard say. Has often communed with Dorothy Long, who belongs to the same sect. Knows not about Catharine Swayne, but she is reputed for a known woman. Has known Alice Gardyner for twenty years, and has talked with her about the Lord's Prayer, the Salutation of the Angel, the Apostles' Creed, and certain Epistles in the vulgar tongue. Knows not about Mother Denby. Thomas Parker has often, in the presence of John Thompson, fletcher, his son-in-law, said that pilgrimages should not be used, and that men should worship God, and not Saints.
Pp. 6. Contemporary foliation, clxxxviij.—clxxxx.
Harl. MS. 421,
f. 24.
B. M.
3. Examination of William Raylond, of the parish of the Holy Trinity, Colchester, formerly of St. Botolph's, and of Ardeleghe.
Has heard John Pykas say, in his house, that the host was but bread; that the body of Christ was in the Word and not in the bread; that God is in the Word, and the Word is in God, and God and the Word cannot be departed; and that bread was but in remembrance of the Passion. This heresy his son Henry gladly heard and believed.
Has often heard John Pykas and Henry Raylond, his son, say that it is "mysavory" to go on pilgrimages to Walsingham, Ipswich, or elsewhere, for it is idolatry; [the images] cannot help themselves, and therefore cannot help another; that men should pray to God, and no Saints, "for Saints in heaven have their reward." Has often rebuked his son, who told him to set his heart at rest, and learn the true laws of God. Has heard John Gyrlyng rehearse an epistle of Paul in his house. Gyrlyng has been reputed a known man. About four or five years ago heard John Gyrlyng's wife speak of the Gospels and Epistles, and open "the Pokalyps" in her own house. About 12 years ago, when she lived with Sir Thomas Eyers, curate of Skells, she abjured, and bore a fagot. Heard that the priest was afterwards burned for heresy. Five or six years ago asked John Gyrlyng's wife what the Sacrament of the Altar was; to which she replied, that it was but an host, and that the body of God was joined in the Word, and the Word and God was all one, and could not be parted. She said also that images of saints were but idols.
Robert Best has been a known man and one of the brotherhood for about four years. Has had similar conversations with Dorothy Long and Thomas Parker, who abjured and bore a fagot in London about 24 years ago, when the archbishop of Canterbury was bishop of London, and gave the deponent the four Evangelists, the Epistles, and Gospels, in English, about six years ago. Robert Bate is also a known man, and more learned in this law than the deponent. Knows nothing of Thomas Bowgas or his wife. Has spoken to Mrs. Cowbridge of the Gospels and Epistles, and has heard that she is of the same law and brotherhood.
Pp. 6. Contemporary foliation, clxxxxv.—clxxxxvij.
Cal. E. III. 60.
B. M.
4176. _ to [WOLSEY].
* * * "... hym he said that he hade 1 ... being in Inglond, which the Kyng's [highness desired to] heer reede, and causid the chieff pres[ident to] reede unto us the said letters; the conty[nue] ... whatt matters the ambassadors off Flan[ders had shewed] to the Kyngs highness, and what answer ... [his Highness] hade made unto the said ambassadors, upon [which] the saide Frenche ambassadors hade madde [report] off the Kyngs highnes fryndlye and lovyng [mind] in that behalfe, in soche manere that [they] said that the Kyng heer and his consaill re[joiced,] saying that they themselfis cowd nott a dev[ised for] the Kyngs highnes to have doon more; grett[ly praising] the Kyngs highnes vertue and goodnes, and ge[ving him] ryght hartye thanks therfore. And by cause [they read] in the said Frenche ambassators letter that your G[race had] wrytyn unto us off thos same matters, they de[manded of] us whether we had anythyng in our letters, mor[e than was] contaynyd in the letters off ther ambassadors, saying [that if] we hade, the Kyngs pleasure was that we shold d ... [it] unto them, and nott resort otherwise to the Kyng [or to] my Ladye for that purpose, for they war nowe re[tired], and wolde have no resorte unto them tyll after the [holy]days; we shewid theym that at that tym we hade [received] no freshe letters from your Grace. They said that Mons. [Langes] had letters for us, wherapon we tooke tym to see our l[etters, and] therapon to be agayn withe the Chancellore the nexte [day]. That nyght laat Langes sent us a paquett of letters ... * * * ... [res]ortyng to the coorte for ... by the same.
"[Accordin]g to owr appoyntment we war the next day ... [with] the Chancelore, and declaryd unto hym the contine[w of your G]race is letter, and in effect what the ambassadors off [Flanders] hade proponyde, and what the Kyngs highnes had [answered to] theim agayne, the same being moche conforme un[to the re]porte off the Frenche ambassadors redde unto us th[e d]aye before. We showed allso the Kyngs desyre concer[ning] the second salfe-conducts for Master John de la Sawch ... wherin they made some difficultie, sayinge that the s[alfe-]conduyct sent all redye myght suffyce, howbeit fyna[lly] they ware content, and said that they wold send unto t[he] Coorte therfore. We proponyd unto them your Grace is dy ... for the farther assurance of the revocation off the a ... powderyng on off the ways withe the mariage off M[adame] Elionora ther allso to remayn in Spayn after the con[clusion of the] matrimonye ostage with the duke of Orleance in [the same] forme and maner as is sent unto your Grace in a s[chedule] herwithe, assuryng your Grace that it was nott gre[atly] myslykyd, speciallye the primere president passyd [it] very well. Howbeit finallye they stak verye sore [at two] poynts: the on that they shold paye the holle some ... for the on off ther hostagis; the other that they ... hostagis in themperor's hands, the duke of Orleance a[nd Madame] Elionora, shold allso geve hostages to the Kyngs hig[hness]; howbeit, after moche reasonyng, they said they wold [speak] unto the Kyng ther master, and that we shold be" * * *
Mutilated, pp. 2.
16 April.
R. O.
If the safe-conduct for La Sauche be not come, blame not us, for the Chancellor promised us it should have been sent seven days ago. Refers him to a letter enclosed in my Lord's, touching the King's welfare, "unto whom yet no man resorteth, ne yet unto my Lady," and touching the sacking of the city of Melfi, and surrender to Lautrec of the towns of Apulia. Paris, 16 April.
Hol., p. 1. Three words in cipher. Add.: Master Bryan Tuke, treasurer of the King's chamber.
16 April.
R. O.
4178. JAMES V. to WOLSEY.
Desires restitution to Alex. Bertoun and Will. Guld, merchants of Edinburgh, of certain wines taken by the customers of London from a ship which had paid all duties at Berwick. Edinburgh, 16 April 15 Jac. V. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.
16 April.
R. O.
4179. LADY LUCY.
Bill of Wm. Wilkinson of London, mercer, to lady Lucy, 16 April 1528.
1 ell 3½ qrs. holland, at 22d., for Mrs. Anne Lucy. 1 ell ½ qr. holland, at 12d. A black velvet bonnet, 18s. A frontlet of purple velvet and crimson satin, 11s. For new pasting a bonnet, 16d. 2 "byllyments" of black velvet, 10s. A French partlet, 4s. For stringing a paper of beads, 2s. Mending a bracelet, 4d. 50s. 10½d.
For the boarding of Mrs. Anne for 8 weeks and 3 days, whatsoever it may please you.
16 April.
R. O.
4180. MONTMORENCY to the BISHOP OF BAYONNE, and MORETTE, Ambassadors in England.
They have been informed how the Imperialists in Naples have evacuated Troys. Lautrec marched on and attacked Melphe, which was defended by 4,000 or 5,000 men at arms, under the prince of Melphe, and carried it after three assaults. Several other towns have surrendered, so that Lautrec is master of the greater part of the kingdom. Sends a memorandum of the towns taken. The enemy have retired to Naples and Gaeta. They are to communicate the news to the King and Wolsey. Expect even better tidings. Francis has retired to keep the feast of Easter. "D'Annet(?)", 16 April.
P.S.—Francis wishes Morette to come back as soon as possible with the entire resolution of the King. He is at great expence in the payment of his lanceknights, of whom he has already raised 6,000, chiefly in his own countries. He will have 10,000 more, according to the treaty. Signed.
Fr., pp. 2. Add. Endd.
17 April.
R. O.
Promised in his last to attend on Wolsey at the beginning of this term. Will therefore wait on him the 1st or 2nd day after St. George's, or, if Wolsey be not then with the King, on St. George's day itself, when the Cardinal will be at better leisure than on a working day, unless the Archbishop is prevented by the disease of his head, from which he now suffers. Hopes Wolsey will not detain him long, as the pestilence is beginning to be severe in London, and it will be hard to keep his servants out of the city. Otford, 17 April. Signed.
P. 1. Add.. My lord cardinal of York and Legate de Latere.
17 April.
R. O.
Is so ill he cannot remain here without danger; and it would be much better, in a business point of view, that he should be speedily with the Emperor. Begs Wolsey to send the accompanying letters to Spain, and dispatch a safe-conduct as soon as possible, allowing him to await its arrival at Calais. It is no use his waiting for the Emperor's letters. 17 April. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add.: Cardinali Eboracensi atque totius Angliæ legato.
18 April.
R. O.
Received his letter his Saturday, at 7 p.m., intimating the King's pleasure that Suffolk should be with him on St. George's Day. Has not time to put his household in order, and riding would be painful to him; besides, the tidings are somewhat heavy to the French queen. Will, however, come up as soon after the said Feast as possible. Westacre, 18 April. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: To my lord Cardinal's grace. Endd.
18 April.
R. O.
Received, on the 13 April, Wolsey's letter, dated Hampton Court, 16 March, in reference to the complaint made against him by the duke of Suffolk and others for entering on the manor of Erysby, Linc., contrary to an order made by Wolsey and the Council with the consent of lady Willoughby and Sir Christopher. Has no doubt he can prove Suffolk has been misinformed, as Wolsey's displeasure would be no less punishment to him than death. Entered quite peaceably. Encloses two schedules: the first containing instructions to his Council, which they would have shown Wolsey long ago if they had had an opportunity; the second giving an account of his demeanor. Sutherey, 18 April. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add. Endd.: Sir Christofer Willoughby, 18 Aprilis 1528.


  • 1. Continued at f. 189 b.