Henry VIII: February 1525, 12-20

Pages 471-486

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 4, 1524-1530. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1875.

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February 1525

12 Feb.
Vit. B. VII. 28. B. M. St. P. I. 156.
Has received two letters from Pace, dated the 26th and the 28th, by which he will be informed that the Venetians remain firm to the Emperor,—that Bourbon intends to offer battle to the French,—that his return to Italy has encouraged the Imperialists,—of Bourbon's reply to the Pope's desire for some arrangement with France, "that it should be tried with the sword,"—and of the ill success of Francis against Pavia. On the 26th Bourbon was at Marignion, as is seen also by the letters of Pescara. Francis has lost many men at Pavia. The archbishop of Capua had arrived "in the Emperor's field" to devise some arrangement, without effect. The result must be dangerous for the French king; bloody if he wins; if he loses, the Imperialists will not fail to pursue him, "so as hard and almost impossible it shall be for him to escape into his country, the great snows yet lying in the mountain."
The coming of Gregory Casalis will encourage the Imperialists, confirm the Venetians, and make the Pope change his mind; by which means, and the grant of 50,000 crowns, it will be known that whatever good effect arises is to be ascribed to your Highness, "who, in the time of extreme desperation of the Emperor's affairs in Italy, have been the only reviver of the same." The duke of Milan will be no less grateful for the methods adopted by the King for securing the investiture, which he could not obtain from the Emperor. Should the Imperialists get the worst, which is not probable, "thanked be God! your affairs be by your high wisdom in more assured and substantial train by such communications as be set forth with France apart, than others in outward places would suppose." Westminster, 12 Feb. Signed.
12 Feb.
Galba, B. VIII. 106. B. M.
It has been long since she wrote to him with her own hand, for two reasons: first, because Wolsey did not write, and she was informed by his ambassador that he was displeased with her for not having despatched the business of the boat, and made the sign [agreed] between them. Has done her best to expedite it; but when matters are undergoing adjudication, it is not possible, at least in these countries, to conduct them according to the will of princes, who are often condemned by their very judges and councillors. Nevertheless, has determined to satisfy him, as he may learn by her ambassadors, especially by the president, bearer of these. Would not have delayed so long, even if she had paid a part with her own money. The second cause of her not writing was that she perceived from her ambassador some coldness in Wolsey, which she imputes to the reports of their enemies, who are trying to dissolve the alliance between England and the Emperor. Can never rest till she is assured of the good will of the King and Wolsey in everything, and especially about the marriage. Remains still firm, "et en suis la chandoile de tenebres qui demeure seulle en lumiere." Cannot suppose that Wolsey will break off the marriage, about which he and she have taken so much pains. Brussels, 12 Feb.
Hol., Fr., mutilated, pp. 2. Add. three leaves further on: "A Mons. le legat d'Angleterre, mon bon fils."
12 Feb.
Lettere di Principi, I. 146 b.
Commends their diligence in notifying the commissions with which the Cavalier (Gregory) Casale came charged. Yesterday the bishop of Bath showed the Pope a letter of the cardinal of York, full of the same matters that you write of, and very brave; but you, the Prothonotary, will have been able to answer all their objections. The Pope trusts the King and Cardinal will admit that he has acted with sincerity and prudence, and sends an answer to their objections in writing, which you are to read to them, but not to let it go out of your hands, just as the bishop of Bath did not leave the Cardinal's letter with the Pope. They do wrong in blaming the Pope for consenting that the French king should take Milan, as they themselves have explicitly declared that they saw no prospect of peace in Christendom unless the French king recovered it, and that they did not care to defend it otherwise, as you, M. Marchionne (Langus), have frequently written. The King and Cardinal are far removed from all peril, but the Pope is in danger. It was necessary to do what he has done, and the authority of so great a king and of the Cardinal ought not to influence him to the contrary, as he has never ceased to labor for the agreement; yet his Holiness is reprehended, and menaced that every province will become Lutheran,—a threat certainly little worthy of the prudence of the Cardinal, not to speak of revenge being forbidden by the faith, even if the Pope had offended. But the Pope has such trust in God and in his own conscience that he does not care for such menaces, which might perhaps move an inexperienced and timid man, but not his Holiness, who well knows that the King's Majesty and his most reverend Lordship are so prudent that they would not, out of displeasure with him and without any cause, even if it were to gain all the kingdoms of the world, offend against God and that faith in which they were born, and in which they have lived with such great glory that they have merited the title of its defenders.
But, putting aside this consideration, the Cardinal can well imagine how perilous it would be to permit that poison to commence to infect the kingdom, which, after throwing off the yoke of religion, would be less willing to remain subject to that of the King; and his most reverend Lordship would be one of the first to feel this, nor do I believe that he is so little cognisant of the greatness of his fortune that he would place himself in peril of losing it. On considering the reasons which you will have set before him, the Cardinal will doubtless change his sinister opinion of the Pope. Rome, 12 Feb. 1525.
12 Feb.
R. O.
Release by John More and Edw. Wodde to Thos. Prior and the convent of St. Mary and St. Nicholas, Ledes, Kent, of a tenement called the Castle, with its appurtenances, at Osprenge, in the parish of Feversham. 12 Feb. 16 Hen. VIII.
Lat., p. 1. Endd.
13 Feb.
R. O.
1. "12 Feb. ao xvi." Present, the Cardinal, the bishops of London and Lincoln, the abbot of Westminster, the Marquis (Dorset), Fyneux, Brudenell, Broke, Fitzjames, Ric. Wingfield, and Thos. Moore.
For the City of London.—The Mayor, and every alderman in his ward.
St. Martin's.—Sir Thos. Nevill, Sir Wm. Fitzwilliam the elder, Sir Robt. Jones (in the margin).
Southwark, Bermondsey, The Banke, St. Olaves, Kentishe Strete, and Parys Garden.—The duke of Suffolk, and such as he shall appoint.
Lambeth and Lambeth Marsh.—The duke of Norfolk.
Kennington, Newington, Camberwell, Clapham, Wandsworth, Battersea, and Wimbledon.—Lord Edm. Haward, John Scotte.
St. Katherine's, Tower Hill, East Smithfield, Whitechapel, Shoreditch, and Hexton.—Sir John Daunce, Sir Wm. Skevington, and Sir Edmund Walsingham.
Hackney, Newington, and Kingsland.—Robt. Elrington and Wm. Jekett. In the margin: The earl of Rutland and Robt. Wrothe.
Islington, Cowcross, Trillmislstrete, Holloway, St. John's Street, Charterhouse Lane, Clerkenwell.—My lord of St. John's. In the margin: Sir—Weston, Sir—Babyngton, Mr. Scuse.
Holborn, St. Giles, Paddington, and Kingsland.—Sir Henry Wiat, Sir Ric. Weston. In margin: Sir John Husee, Halis, Solicitor.
Tothill Street, King Street, the Sanctuary, St. Stephen's, and the Palace.—Sir Wm. Gascoign, Sir Andrew Windsor, Thos. Lucas.
From Temple Bar to Charing Cross—Thos. Hennedge, Ric. Page, Mr. Scews. In margin: John Mordaunt, Mr. Audeley, Mr. Benham (?)
Chaunceler Lane.—The King's Attorney, Ric. Clerc, of Lincoln's Inn.
Kensington, Hammersmith, Knightsbridge, and Chelsea.—Sir Thos. Moore, Mr. Solicitor, Sir Wm. Essex. In margin: Mr. Attorney.
Kilburn and Willesden.—Nic. Jenyns, of London, Thos. Roberts.
Highgate and Hornsey.—Ric. Haukes, John Palmer.
Stepney, Milesende, Poplar, Radclif, Lymehoost, and Redereth.—Lord Fitzwalter, Sir Robt. Constable, Sir John Nevile. In margin: Lord Darcy.
Pp. 3. Endd.: Privie Serchis. The names in the margin are added in a different hand.
R. O. 2. Certificate of Sir Thos. Nevile and Sir Wm. Fitzwilliam of the prisoners within St. Martin's Sanctuary, 13 Feb. 16 Hen. VIII.
In Bland's Alley.—Walter Hall, late of the King's "Barbary," lodged with Thos. Morehous. Thos. Talbot, sanctuary man, for murder. Eliz. Troublefeld, with Anne Jenyns. Richard Green, sanctuary man, for murder.
In the Cok Alley.—Robt. Cokkes, tailor, for felony, at Simon Bright's house. Wm. Broun, sherman, for felony. John Carre, tailor. Thos. Craker, for murder. Wm. Wodde, vintner. Thos. Johnson, turner, late servant to Chas. Knevet, for trespass. Thos. Lewes, yeoman. John Floyd, tailor, for debt.
P. 1.
13 Feb. (fn. 1)
Vesp. C. III. 3. B. M. St. P. VI. 386.
Wrote by De Rieux of the offers made by Bourbon, and the King's resolution for the common affairs, in the event of no peace being formed. Considering the time of year, we are anxious for the Emperor's answer. Meanwhile the King makes the best preparations to advance the Emperor's affairs in Italy. Are surprised that no word had come from the Emperor into Italy. Are surprised that no word had come from the Emperor into Italy since the descent of the French king into the Milanese. The King had despatched Sir Gregory Cassalis to Bourbon, and Pace, then lying at Trent, to Venice, appointing Russel to reside with Bourbon, to prevent the Pope and Venetians from siding with the French, who had sent Albany to Naples. The French had made their boast, under color of Joachim's being here, that they were assured of the king of England. Is to explain these proceedings to the Emperor, by translating the copies of the letters sent into French or Latin.
Regrets he has to inform the Emperor of a matter which, if not duly explained, might be detrimental. It has been frequently reported that De Praet, his resident here, had made sinister and false reports, ascribing to himself "the gratuities showed by the King's highness." I have remonstrated with him at various times, in perfect confidence. On the 11th inst. I showed him Pace's letters dated Trent, 26 and 28 Jan., touching the news of Italy, in the presence of the duke of Norfolk and others; and in speaking of the state of the armies in Italy, I observed that the coming of Cassalis would be advantageous in bringing comfort and money to the Imperial troops; and I alleged that as Cassalis left when the Emperor's affairs were apparently desperate, the Pope would "change his copy"; with other conversation. On the 11th, at night, one was taken by the ordinary watch riding to Brentford, and on being searched a packet of letters was found upon him, broken open, brought to the King's solicitor, sent by him to Sir Tho. More, and by him to me, sitting in Chancery the next morning. Perusing the same, and finding their falsehood, I countermanded the Ambassador's letters sent by one of the Fulkers the day before, and a packet also to the lady Margaret, which I here with send, that the Emperor may understand that De Praet has contrived no few and false matters, both in Spain and in Flanders. I leave the Emperor to judge what the King will think of the Ambassador's letters directed to Allemayn, condemning the King's amity as being only faint and slender. Had the King not put great trust in the Emperor, he would long since have objected to De Praet as inexpert and unmeet for his office. As for myself, his malicious words touching myself and the Pope are little to be regarded.
After the discovery, I sent for De Praet, and in the presence of Norfolk, the lord Marquis, the bishop of London, Sir Ric. Wingfield, and others, explained these circumstances, taxing him with untruth for imputing remarks to me derogatory to the Florentines and the Pope; likewise objecting another expression in his letter to this effect:—"if we should gain the battle all will be well; our master will escape the danger of such friends and confederates as he has had hitherto; and let me say that he is little obliged to any of them, whoever they may be." And elsewhere:—"when matters succeed well, he (Wolsey) knows not what to say (il ne scet que dire), and when otherwise he talks wonders. I hope one day to see our master avenged, for he is the main cause of all his misfortune," &c. What suspicion he would have the lady Margaret conceive by the King's coming to Bridewell, because John Joachim was lodged near it, will be seen also by his letters.
To these remonstrances De Praet, being not a little abashed, made exception, complaining of his letters being intercepted, and saying that ambassadors wrote what they thought good; that hitherto he had made no ill report, and had written thus in consequence of John Joachim having been here eight months; that the King refused to contribute to the defence of Italy, &c. Among other arguments, I replied that on the return of the archbishop of Capua, Joachim, who was a merchant, had come here for his own affairs, and as soon as I found that he had a political purpose I apprised De Prate of the same, and have always made him privy to the communications with Joachim, who is lodged in a house within the Black Friars, belong- ing to Mr. Larke. I advised the King not to consent to the truce proposed at Rome before the decease of De la Roche, as I considered it prejudicial to the King, and for other reasons; and when at last the King, postponing his own interests, sent a commission to Rome for concluding a truce till May twelvemonth, it was for the Emperor's sake. Wolsey then proceeded to answer the other objections of De Praet:—one, that the King had refused to send over an army into France; the other, to contribute to the affairs in Italy. De Praet could make no reply, and said that, whenever the Emperor commanded, he would explain. I ordered him to forbear writing, "saying that the King's highness and I would advertise the specialties whereof, with the original letters and writings of the King's titles and rights." (fn. 2)
Modern copy.
2. Modern copies in Harl. MSS. 297 (f.221), 6260 (f.39), and 6345 (f.22 b, dated 13 Feb. 1525); and one in Lambeth MS. 245.
R. O. 3. Draft, corrected by Tuke, imperfect, the last sentence ending at the word "advertise."
A leaf evidently lost.
Vit. B. VII. 20. B. M. 4. Draft of the same, in Latin. (fn. 3)
Pp. 11, mutilated. Endd.: Extracta quibusdam literis missis a D. de Prat ad Cæsarem.
13 Feb.
R. O.
Has already written to the King of the pleasure with which he received Casale's message. The King's energy in the common cause is owing to Wolsey. Thanks him for his services. Insprugg, 13 Feb. 1525. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add.
13 Feb.
Vit. B. VII. 43. B. M.
1085. CLERK to WOLSEY.
Has received his letters of the 16th ult. Though the Pope's outward demeanor does not seem to require so sharp or plain a [rebuke], yet, as many think there is more concealed than seen, and that the Imperialists fear lest he will make some demonstration to the benefit of the French, thought it well to declare to him the contents of Wolsey's letters, without exasperating him too much, which the Imperialists have done already more than necessary, and would have done more still but for Clerk's advice. That the Pope might better see Wolsey's pleasure, translated the letters into Latin, and read them to him, not omitting protestations of Wolsey's good will to the Pope, nor anything that might mollify what seemed too sharply spoken, so that he took this "sowir saws swetly powderd," as Clerk trusts, to edification hereafter, and, he is sure, to no displeasure. He then, smiling, asked Clerk how it seemed to him. Told him his demeanor had been long suspected; that, supposing all he did was for the benefit of the confederates, or for the common weal and for peace, the confederates have tolerated his demeanor, and have long expected some good effect from it, but now it is rather the contrary, for the enemy has more presumption than ever, and attempts Naples and other things which he never thought of before; that men must think that all these practices were for his own pr[ofit]; and it is said that there are other secret covenants. He asked what Clerk had written to Wolsey, telling him always to have [re]spect not to affections but to the truth. Told him (what is the truth) that he had always had a good opinion of his Holiness, believing that he never intended anything but peace,—that he [did not] seek farther with Francis than for his own assurance,—that he was driven to this [not] so much by fear of the French as by the Imperialists, who were too importunate to him to assist in the [war]ris,—and that he did it rather for an excuse to keep out of the war than for any fear of Francis. The Imperialists before this were discontented at his neutrality, and told him they must consider him as against them, which words were highly taken.
As to Clerk's writing, Wolsey must consider that, as long as Clerk is in favor, he will have better expedition in the King's and Wolsey's affairs; and, therefore, his Grace must not show that Clerk writes anything but the best of the Pope and his ministers. Considers his favor here for his own interests as nothing compared to the fulfilment of Wolsey's desires. Said that, as to public affairs, he wrote his own opinion and other men's, and that others wrote as well as he, but that he knew Wolsey believed his Holiness would act according to his honor and the common weal of Christian princes, especially his old friends; but since report and the French king's acts showed that the Pope had some privy secret with him that might be the occasion of more war, Wolsey could do no less than show him the danger that might ensue to him, the Holy See and all Christendom. His Holiness answered that he took it in good part, and it comforted him to think that, whatever was reported, Wolsey had a good opinion of him; but, as it seemed to Clerk, recalling part of Wolsey's letter, "the powder whero[f] [seems] to be molton, and the bitternes nott all digestid," he said, sighing, that it comforted him most that he knew his own conscience clear, and called God and all the saints for his judges that he had done nothing with the French king, secretly or openly, but what all the world knew, to which he was compelled for his own assurance, and by the undiscreet and unkind treatment of those who ought to have been his friends. For the justification of that, he referred to what Clerk had written and his Nuncio declared; that the world would soon see that what he has done is not for his own p[rofit] nor that of his kindred, but to avoid many dangers which daily happen because the Imperialists do not trust him nor care for his counsel. He said he had kept Albany at Sienna for three weeks, and that he had brought Francis to consent to the Imperialists having all they now have in the duchy of Milan, except Pavia, the siege of which he would raise, and return to France, leaving the city in the Pope's hands, with a caution of 500,000 ducats that it should be restored to the Imperialists after the truce, if peace were not made. These conditions the Viceroy refused, which, the Pope said, was such an evil service to the Emperor that he could never compensate; for Francis would never be brought to that point again. He also complained much of the double-dealing and causeless mistrust of the Imperialists; and he would show that he had cause not only to be ware of them, but to assure himself with France.
The same day he sent the Datary, who, under pain of excommunication both to Clerk and Wolsey if they revealed it, showed him intercepted letters from the Viceroy to lady Margaret and the Archduke, mentioning the diffidence and doubleness of the Pope, and saying plainly that he is not to be trusted. Told the Pope that the King was determined to stick to the Emperor in Italy, and that, the battle once struck, [Clerk] had orders to deliver to the Viceroy the 50,000 crowns which were sent for the war in Provence. This money had been remitted by exchange into I[taly], and could not be recovered so shortly without great loss; and he therefore asked the Pope, in the name of the King and Wolsey, to advance the money for a m[onth] or two, and he would arrange with the merchants who had received it to repay him. He answered that, for the King's sake, he would procure from the merchants that the money should be returned as soon and with as little cost as possible, but that he had not 30,000 ducats in ready money. Could get no other answer from him; and, considering the short time he has had the see, and the debt in which he found it, he cannot be much beforehand. Russell, who had part of this money, has gone. Does not know whether he spent any at Naples. Has sent a post after him, for he only left three days before the arrival of Wolsey's last letters. What Clerk kept is already diminished, but he will manage that it shall be all forthcoming. My lord of St. John's and Fermar's money is without remedy, as he is sure it must be in England by this time. The other merchants say they have returned the money to Venice, Lyons, Bruges and other places, and can get none here but at great loss. There is truly very little here. Wolsey has retained the letters of exchange; but [if they were returned] and a gain allowed, the merchants would repay the money. Asks for further instructions.
As to the bishopric of Dunkelme, the Pope will do therein all [that] may be. Finds that it was sped in May and the bulls sent by France, so that the solicitor thinks they are in Scotland already. The bulls can be [no] clearlier sped than they are. There are pensions assigned, one of 200 ducats to a Friar, and one of 100 ducats to a servant of Albany was in peaceful possession of the governorship. The Friar is learned, and in great favor with the Pope and many Cardinals, especially the Datary, because he can right well ... and pratt after his country fashion, and can find com[muni]cation in learning, wherein the Pope delighteth much; for a pastime at his table at dinner, the Pope has the Friar present. Clerk himself assisted the Friar to obtain it, but has now asked the Pope to provide him something else, which he said he would do for Wolsey's sake. Advised the Friar to be content with 100 ducats with the Bishop's consent rather than risk it all. Albany is still marching slowly towards Naples. Part of his forces have passed through the town here. He is expected here today or tomorrow. He has 400 spears and 5,000 foot, but the Ursyns have raised for him 3,000 or 4,000 foot and 100 men-at-arms. The Pope allows both parties to get as many men as they can.
The Imperial army has taken by force Castell Angell, where there were little less than 1,000 horse. The French king said he would rescue it, but it is not the first promise he has broken. The Imperialists then marched on towards Pavia; their vanguard is within half a mile of the town, and the enemy between. They have been thus since the 7th inst. Has heard of no attack by the French, though they have double the number of horse that our men have. "As yett apperyth nott that they [dare for their] lyffys steer," our men have used them so hardly. They have had sundry skirmishes, and a report of some good success is hourly expected. Rome, 11 Feb.
P.S.—Master G[regory] and Russell arrived after writing this. Kept the letter to hear their news. Took master Gregory to the Pope, to whom he declared Wolsey's pleasure. The Pope received him well, and answered him much as he had answered Clerk.
Assures Wolsey that himself and the other ambassadors have spoken as vehemently to the Pope as became them, but it will be hard to cause him to help the Imperialists, either openly or secretly, in the defence of Milan. He himself wishes, and he has brought the Venetians to the same opinion, that the French king should have the duchy. If it were not for shame, thinks he would help the French in the invasion of Naples, that the Imperialists might the sooner leave the duchy. He has suggested this to the Venetians. The Imperialists are in great fear. When Wolsey is once at a point for his own matters, advises him to cause them not to be so stiff in that of Milan, for the Pope, the Venetians, and the other Italian powers are determined that the Emperor shall make no monarchy here. The Pope tells him that the Venetians would not enter the league in Adrian's days until they were assured that the King and Wolsey would never allow the Emperor to have the duchy for himself. Showed him that this is now out of doubt, as the investiture has been delivered to the Duke. He answered it was too late now; that it should have been done before other men had been forced to provide for themselves; that the delivery of the investiture was to no purpose, for Francis was so obstinate that, if now repulsed, he would again attempt it; that the Duke could not resist him himself, and would still be subject to the Imperialists.
Alba[ny] is expected here tonight. He and Laurence de Medices married two sisters, heiresses, in France, who are both dead; Albany's wife without issue; De Medices left one daughter, his sole heir, now six or seven years old. She lies at a "meanlye fayr hows" beside the palace, where Albany, as the Pope's kinsman, is lodged, that he may be excusably the better entertained. The Pope has received letters of the _ inst. from the camp, but with no news, except that the garrison had made a sally, spoiled cer[tain lod]gyngs of Memorancy and others, and taken four ca[rts] loaded with powder, which they needed; and that the captain had sent word to the Viceroy that he need not make more haste than he sees fit, as the garrison can endure well enough for a while. Rome, 13 Feb. Signed.
Kept the courier yesterday [in hopes of] good news. Albany came at night,[recei]vyd by no great men, and with no sole[mnity]. It is thought he was ashamed to come in openly, as he and his company are so badly horsed. No man rode with him but the Datary. He will not go much farther towards Naples till there is news from Lombardy, and the Pope considers that there is now pro[vision] made in Naples to resist him. His Holiness mindeth nothing le[ss than] that Francis should have Naples, and Clerk has showed him that if the French conquer in Lombardy he must keep them from [Naples], especially as Albany is so near, and has intelligence there. He asked why the Emperor's agents did not hinder it, as it would be better to preserve Naples than risk both. Said, that though they were obstinate, he should look to the matter for his own interest, for it did not seem that he would be best at ease if the French king had both. He answered that it was not in his power to remedy it, and he will not give the Imperialists any hope, that they may the more readily leave their hold in Milan, or at least consent to truce. However, Clerk knows that if the French are victorious, and then proceed to Naples, he will prevent them; first, by a promise of Francis that he will meddle no further no leaving Milan; and if he break his promise, he intends to re-assemble the remains of the Imperial army, and, with the help of the Venetians, the Florentines, and his own power, he thinks he can stop the French till other provision can be made. Hopes he is not deceived.
As to the money, the 18,000 crowns in my lord of St. John's and Fermar's hands is without remedy; and the merchants say all the bankers in Rome could not supply the rest. If they do supply it, must take it by way of loan, and pay as much interest as though the bankers had none of the King's money in their hands, as they have passed it on to other men, and could not recall it without great loss. Does not think it is greatly needed, for though the armies are so close, it is thought they will not fight, as they could not attack the French in their strength, and the latter will not come out, and thus those who can longest continue will win. This is against our men, who are short of money. The 200,000 ducats promised by the Emperor are not yet come, and there is no news of them, "and in Naples there is no spekyng for none in this season." The army has served gratis for a long time, and all fear that mere lack of money will give the victory to the French without fighting. The King has commissioned him only to pay after fighting, but it is a great pity that they should lack, for if they have money all will be theirs. If Francis had not been in danger he would not have consented to leave Pavia in the Pope's hands, and the rest to the Emperor. The Pope thinks the Imperialists would never have refused these conditions if they had not some intelligence in the French camp. News has just come from the camp that the garrison have done much hurt to the French, and that the Imperialists can send as often to the town as they like. They ha[ve sent into] Pavia 60 tall men, well horsed, with as much go[npowder as] they could carry in mails behind them. Never heard of men better disposed. The Spaniards not only are content to wait for their wages, but have given what money they have to pay the Almains. Is much importuned for the King's money. Is sorry his commission is no larger. Rome, 14 Feb. Signed.
Pp. 19, mutilated. Add.: To my lord Legate's good grace. Endd.
13 Feb.
Vit. B. VII. 54. B. M.
Had left Rome before the r[eceipt of Wolsey's] letters to [him] and Clerk, dated 16 Jan. Received a letter of recall from Clerk after four days' journey. Hears from him that the money is to be recalled and paid to the Viceroy; which will be difficult, as the merchants cannot raise 10,000 crowns in ready money; and, if they had, would not supply that sum without great profit, and the return of their [bills] which are in Wolsey's hands. My lord [of St.] Jones, receiver, and Ric. Fermer, have taken 18,000 crowns to England. Clerk, my lord of Worcester, and Russell, will all return what they had.
Clerk is raising all the money he can to pay them after the battle, till means can be found for the payment of the rest. It is dangerous to send money, and so Clerk thinks they had better come here to received it. Wolsey says they are to pay the Viceroy 50,000 cr., but Russell received from Weston, the Turcoplier, only 46,145cr. 3s. 8d., and he says he received no more from Wyatt. Clerk tells him he is to go to Bourbon, and that Gregory de Casale has instructions for him. Casale has, however, come here, and left the instructions 100 miles hence, for fear of Albany's party, who rob all posts and carriages. He was taken and brought before the Duke, but not being known as the King's servant, and no letters found on him, he said he came from Sayne (Sienna ?), and so escaped. He has, however, declared to Clerk great part of the contents of the said letters. Will stay here till he receives the letters, and can have Clerk's advice. Will then make all haste to the camp.
In returning towards England, went by Lorret, to avoid Albany's party, but before he had gone a day's journey he met horsemen and footmen with baggage, who said that 100 men-at-arms were coming within a mile of him. Turned aside to Civitas Castelane, where the same night a great number of French men-at-arms arrived. "Th[en I waited] til they wer passed, and so scaped." On his return to Rome, while baiting at the same place, about 600 French horse arrived, and Russell left secretly by another gate. A company of horse also came to the place where he intended to lodge that night, 7[miles] from the city, so that he was forced to forsake his lodging. When questioned, said he was the Pope's servant. The foot are "a very simple sort," evil ar[rayed] and weaponed, and there are not a fourth part of the horse horsed, armed, or w[eaponed] like men of war. It is said they are 4,000 or 5,000 foot, and 400 men-at-arms. The Orsyns are also raising men, but they have received no prest or payment. It is a very poor nation that would be conquered with such a sort, but if they had been at Naples when Russell was there, they might have gained it without a stroke. They are now more prepared. R[ome], 13 Feb. Signed.
Pp. 3, mutilated. Add.: To my lord Legate's grace. Endd.
14 Feb.
R. O.
Lease, for 100 years, by Wolsey, of the lands of the priory of Raunston, Bucks, which is dissolved to be part of the foundation of the new college at Oxford, called St. Fresworth's College, to Geo. Throkmerton, at a rent of 100 marks, payable to the Dean. Ten marks will be allowed to him for the finding of ... yearly to sing in the priory. When the premises are incorporated with the college, the Dean shall grant him a similar lease, and shall keep the priory in repair. 14 Feb. 16 Hen. VIII.
Throkmerton shall annex a terrier of his lands in Raunston to this indenture.
Pp. 2, draft.
14 Feb.
Cal. B. II. 135. B. M. St. P. IV. 321.
The Lords met at Stirling on the 6th. Many messages have passed between them and Queen for an accommodation; and to be nearer at hand they have come to Dalkeith. The Queen had intended Arran and the Lords who came hither for the King's surety to give battle to the others; but they declined, unless the King went forth in person, and was attacked. The Queen was then willing to submit her differences with Angus to arbitration; but next day all was turned to the contrary. Magnus offered his services to go to others as mediator, but the Queen would not allow him. A conference was held at Dalkeith on Saturday last, but the Queen would not agree to what had been arranged. On Sunday she invited the Lords to confer with her, provided they would not attempt to diminish her authority; but they refused. On this, Arran and his party dismissed their servants, and went to the King and the Queen in the castle, with one or two attendants. The inhabitants of this town sent word to the Lords that the gates should be thrown open to them, and Angus and Lennox entered soon after midnight with 600 or 700 men, leaving about 2,000 at Dalkeith with the other Lords. Yesterday night the others came and took up quarters in and near the town, out of reach of the castle guns. They intend to keep a Parliament for the weal of the young King, and, as Magnus thinks, for peace with England. Thinks they are more inclined to it than the Queen's party. The Queen has been anxious to have a divorce from Augus, and said she would be glad to give him 1,000 marks out of her lands for it. Yet even now she is making secret motions through Magnus for a better understanding with him. Edinburgh, 14 Feb. Signed.
Add. Endd.
His will, 1523. Proved, 14 Feb. 1525. Printed in Nicolas' Testamenta Vetusta, 612.
15 Feb.
R. O.
Notification by Ric. Pace to Antonio Vivaldi, that he has paid at Rome, into the bank of Andrea Gentile, merchant of Genoa, 1,000l. for the expedition of the bulls of the church of York, in the name of the cardinal of York. 15 Feb. 1525.
Ital., hol., p. 1. Endd.
15 Feb.
R. O.
1091. RESTON.
Indenture, dated 15 Feb. 16 Hen. VIII., of the sale by Sir Edw. Chamberlayn, and his son Leonard, of Woodstock, Oxon, to Thos. Hennedge, of the manor of Reston, in the parish of Reston, Linc., of the yearly value of 24l. 16s., for the sum of 396l. 16s.; 200l. to be paid at the sealing of the indenture, and the rest when the manor is made over to him.
A view of the manor will be taken by Thos. Catlen, of Woodstock, servant to Sir Edw. and Ric. Adlard, of Heynton, co. Linc., servant to Hennedge; and if it is found that the manor is worth more or less than 24l. 16s., the price shall be raised or lowered at the above rate of 16 years' purchase.
Draft, pp. 8. In Cromwell's hand. Endd.
R. O. 2. Another draft, dated Feb. 17.
Pp. 7. In Wriothesley's hand, corrected by Cromwell.
R. O. 3. Receipt by Sir Edw. Chamberleyn, of Woodstock, Oxon., and his son Leonard, of 200l. from Thos. Hennege, Esq., part of the price of Reston manor, paid on the day of sealing the indentures.
Draft, corrected by Cromwell, p. 1. Lat.
16 Feb.
R. O.
When the president of Mechlyn left for England, the lady Margaret sent for Knight, and told him she feared Wolsey was displeased at the way in which Norfolk's cause was handled, but that her authority could do little where suit was continually made by the adverse party. She means, however, that Norfolk shall have reasonable restitution, and would rather suffer greatly than see the confidence between the Emperor and Wolsey broken. Encloses a letter in her own hand, in which she likens herself to the candle upon Tenebre Wednesday, that is last to be put out after lauds. She desired Knight, who had often heard her use this simile, to explain it to Wolsey. "She likeneth the Lords and councillors here unto the said candles, and the hopes that they have in the promises of England unto the light of the candles, so that oftentimes where many of the said candles lost their whole light, and many were dim and in jeopardy to extinct, her candle was ever fresh and never perished." Advises him to receive and entertain the ambassadors honorably, for they have suspected that their coming would not be most acceptable. Wolsey knows them all well. Bevers says he would always be ready to conform to the desires of the King and Wolsey; and Tuke can testify that he has done so in one special case. The President has as much power as any lord of the Council, and, in matters depending on learning, the whole Council is persuaded by him. He is likely to be of great authority if the Chancellor die, and the friendship with England continue. Advises Wolsey to try and win him. Brussels, 16 Feb.
Pp. 3. Add.: To my lord Legate.
16 Feb.
R. T. 137. R. O.
Has received their letters of the 29th ult., relating their conferences with Wolsey touching peace, and the difficulties they found in it. Commends their conduct, and hopes that in the end Wolsey will be favorable, and urge his master to peace as she has urged her son. Henry has not hitherto made much profit by the war. As to the counties of Boulogne and Guignes, and the town of Ardre, they are to tell Wolsey what she told the President at his departure, that Francis will never consent to give up an inch of his territory, and if he insist on this they are to return. The Cardinal demands half the arrears of the monies promised of old for the restitution of Tournay before the ratification of the peace, but that only 100,000 cr. should be paid then, the rest to be lumped together with the principal, which shall be paid at the rate of 100,000 cr. a year during the life of the king of England. The ambassadors rightly answered that Francis ought not to be bound to any payment for Tournay, considering how he had been spoiled of it, nor to the "demourant de Londres," seeing that the treaty has been set aside by war. As to the jewels, Mary was married according to the customs of France, by which moveables are the common property of man and wife, and descend to the survivor, but only on payment of debts which she has refused. The French might, therefore, demand back "le Myroir de dyamant" which she has sent into England, one of the most excellent jewels of Christendom; so the English may well be satisfied if that is given up to them. Francis cannot agree to the obligation of 456,000 cr. of the sun which is claimed as due from the generals. It is usurious, and more than unreasonable, nor did he ever hear of such a thing till lately.
Desires them to show Wolsey what trouble she has had to get Francis to negotiate thus far. Sees no hope of an arrangement if not concluded now.
Copy, Fr., pp. 3. The original is endorsed: "St. Just-lez-Lyon, 16 Fevrier 1524."
B. IX. 133. B. M.
Desire him to annul a pension of 200 ducats, assigned upon the see of Dunkeld, to Jas. Creichton, of the Order of Preachers, in consequence of his untrue persuasions to his Holiness. The Church is only taxed at 450 fl.; and there is a pension of 100 ducats to Octavian de Olariis. Creichton is a fugitive from his Order, and associates with laymen and Jews.
Lat., copy, p. 1.
16 Feb.
Vit. B. VII. 58. B. M.
Asks him to annul the grant of two pensions from the see of Robt. late bishop of Ross, and now of Dunkeld; one of 200 fl. to Jas. Creichton, of the Order of Preachers, the other of 100 fl. to Octavian de Oleariis. Edinburgh Castle, 16 Feb. 1524. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add. Endd.
16 Feb.
R. O.
Hears that the Pope has transferred Robert bishop of Ross to Dunkeld, reserving two pensions, one of 200 florins to Jas. Creichtoun, a Preaching Friar, the other of 100 fl. to Octavian de Oleariis. Has written to the Pope to remove these pensions, and wishes the Cardinal to urge the case, as the Bishop is on an embassy to England. It is dangerous to give pensions to men of religious orders, especially mendicants, as it will turn the people against them, and make them suspected of avarice. Edinburgh, 16 Feb. 1524. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add.
R. O. 1097. THE COUNCIL.
Diets of cardinal Wolsey and others of the Council, commencing 18 Jan. 15 Hen. VIII.
Sat. 23 Jan. Daily allowance of bread, 2s., of ale, 2s., and beer, 8d.; a ling, 16d.; a green fish, 12d.; two pikes, 4s.; a side of fresh salmon, 6s.; fresh herrings, 8d.; eels to roast, 16d.; lamperns "to roast, to bake, for sew," 4s.; flounders, 8d.; eggs, 8d.; baken herring, 8d.; herbs, roots, 2d.; flour, 12d.; oysters to stew and bake, 8d.; mussels, 4d.; pikes to fry, 3s.; butter, 16d.; spice, 3s. 8d.; fruit, 14d.; cups, 5d.; trenchers, 2d.; sauce and salt, 8d.; boat hire, 14d.; cooks' wages, 2s. 4d.; oranges, 4d.; two loads of coals, at 30 qrs. a load, 5d. a qr.; 300 talewood, 14s.; 500 faggot, at 3s. 4d. the 100.
Monday, 25 Jan. Bread, 2s.; ale, 2s.; beer, 8d.; half a sirloin of beef, 2s. 8d.; two loins of mutton, 12d.; half a lamb, 3s.; a hind quarter, leg, and neck of mutton, 19d.; three breasts and a loin of veal, 2s. 8d.; a pestle of pork, 8d.; a leg of veal, 8d.; six long "marybones," 12d.; a rump of beef, 8d.; 6lb. suet, 9d.; two capons, 3s. 4d.; four hens, 2s. 8d.; a pheasant, 2s. 8d.; two partridges, 18d.; nine cocks, 3s. 9d.; two plovers, 6d.; six teals, 18d.; eight fat conies, 2s. 8d.; three doz. larks, 2s.; 100 eggs, 20d.; spice, 2s. 8d.; sauce and salt, 8d.; butter, 16d.; flour, 12d.; herbs, roots, 2d.; suet to fry, 8d.; fruit, 14d.; cups, 5d.; trenchers, 2d.; oranges, 4d.; boat hire, 14d.; cooks' wages, 2s. 4d.
Similar accounts are given for each day on which the Council sat in Hilary Term 15 Hen. VIII. and Easter and Trinity Terms 16 Hen. VIII. There are no entries for Sundays, and for a few other days on which the Council did not meet. Total, 245l. 2s. 2½d. Audited by Thos. Tamworth, and signed by Wolsey, Norfolk, Dorset, Shrewsbury, Fitzwater, Wyat, and Daunce.
Washing, 5s. per term; wine, Hilary term, 80 gals. Gascon wine, had from the tavern, 5l. 6s. 8d. Easter term, three puncheons French and one hhd. claret, Gascon, 8l. 13s. 4d.
Among the items are sturgeon, haberden, mullet, cheven, roach, "crefyshe, dodas," tench, turbot, soles, whiting, mackerel, dories, herons, quails, geese, runners, shovellers, "brews," "snights," neats' tongues, kids, &c. Continuation of the account for Michaelmas and Hilary Terms 16 Hen. VIII.
Not signed, and the totals not given.
Pp. 136.
17 Feb.
Vit. B. VII. 56. B. M.
1098. PACE to WOLSEY.
[Wrote] on the 10th inst. to the King and Wolsey about the answer of this [Signory]. Since then nothing has been done of importance, except that the Imperialists have succored Pa[via] with gunpowder, of which the garrison was in great need. They have now great hope to help it with victuals also, and stop those of the French king. The chief captain of the French king's Strad[iotes] was taken prisoner with 15 horse. Has had no news from Rome since the arrival of Wolsey's letters to Clerk, to treat with the Pope upon the c ... of the same. Expects it hourly. Will then know the best and the worst, for the Signory are equally desirous to know what his Holiness will determine after his last knowledge of the King's will.
Albany was Iately near Rome. It is thought he will stop there till he hears of the event in Lombardy, and if the French are successful will proceed and certainly win Naples; but if the Emperor's money, provided in Spain, and hourly expected, arrives, both Francis and the Duke will have other things to think of. Went today to the Senate with the Imperial ambassadors, and urged them to send their army, saying that they could not delay it for their former reason,—the hourly expectation of a battle,—for Francis would not come out, and they might send their army without fear of a sudden success, and both save their army, and be the chief causes of a manifest victory and universal peace. They made no fresh answer, but that they would debate matters amongst themselves. Perceives that they do not intend to help Francis. They are moved more by fear than evil mind. Handles them with loving and dulce words to avoid further mischief. Venice, 15 Feb. Signed.
News has lately come that Francis has published, both at Lyons and in his camp, that he has concluded peace with Henry. Does not know if it is true.
f. 57. The last credible tidings from the field._ The Almains and Spaniards sallied out of Pavia, and b[urnt ?] two places, Burgo Ratto and St. Salvator, held by the French, with their lodgings adjoining, and compelled them to take up their two bridges over the Ticino. The Imperialists have finished their tr[ench ?] going into the French camp, and one high engine to shoot into it. The shooting will begin today or tomorrow. Tomorrow they intend to try and force the French to quit their stronghold.
Pp. 3, mutilated.
Ib. f. 58*. P.S.—Many consultations are held, but in secret. They cannot determine how to act. The Imperialists, seeing the French dare not come out, have begun to fortify their army and make a trench into his field, with other engines to beat his army with artillery. They are trying also to intercept his victuals. All think it is impossible for the armies to continue so near. 17 Feb.
Hol., p. 1. Add. at. ƒ 57*b: To my lord Legate's grace. Endd.: Paceo, xvijo Februarii.
18 Feb.
R. O.
1099. ITALY.
Extracts from letters of the duke of Milan, dated 18th Feb.
Excuses himself for not writing more frequently, having met with great difficulties in bringing his forces into the field. On the 8 Feb., the foot and light horse being paid, the viceroy of Naples took the field at Benaco (Binascus) and Allasterella, where they were met that day by Bourbon with the heavy armed horse from Naples, and besieged Pavia (supersederant Papiæ). On the 8th the Marquis joined the camp, leaving in Milan a garrison of 3,000 foot under the marquis de Civitate S. Angeli, with Carracciolo his lieutenant, and the Imperial ambassador, and exhorting the citizens to keep 2,000 foot nightly, in addition to those in wages, to be ready to repel an attack on them or Lodi. On his arrival, it was agreed to abandon Benaco and Lascarella and occupy Rosatum, a place given up by the French. Two days later advanced to meet the enemy, who fortified themselves in Abiate, obtaining supplies from beyond the Ticino. Could not prevent their being joined by 3,500 Swiss. Determined that it was not prudent to attack them, but to force them out of Abiate by crossing the Ticino, and attacking Vigevolo and Novara so as to cut off their supplies; first, however, putting 6,000 foot additional into Milan. Is thus compelled to throw an additional burden on his subjects, but is ready to sell his very blood for the preservation of Milan. Is distressed that others who are equally concerned should be less zealous, and hopes the King and Wolsey will continue to exhort the Pope to support the liberty of Italy, and prevent it being wholly enslaved by the French.
Lat., pp. 3. Endd.
18 Feb.
Galba, B. VI. 3. B. M.
1100. MARGARET OF SAVOY to WOLSEY. (fn. 4)
Hears from Hedin that Wolsey supposes her to have said something to his prejudice to the English ambassador, which she never meant in that sense. The Ambassador has promised her to write in explanation. Holds him so good a friend of herself and the Emperor that there need be no misgivings on either side. Not a penny is spent by the count de Hostrate without her knowledge. Hopes Wolsey will use his best efforts for the good of both their Majesties, especially as the time is at hand when they should know the Emperor's intention by De Praet. Malines, 18 Feb.
Hol., Fr., p. 1, mutilated. Add.: "A mons. le Legart mon bon filz."
19 Feb.
Galba, B. VII. 8. B. M.
1101. KNIGHT to WOLSEY.†
Was sent for yesterday by my Lady and the Council. The President of the Great Council of Malines told him that Hesdin since his return had delivered to my Lady a bill of grievances drawn up by Wolsey; viz. (1) that the army in the Low Countries was ill treated, prices being increased wherever Englishmen resorted; (2) that it was thought the Privy Council did not administer justice; (3) that the treaty lately concluded at Calais was not kept; (4) that justice was not done in resti[tution] of my Lord Admiral's goods. He said that my Lady had never heard that the King's army felt aggrieved, and if the King send over any army she will take care they have no cause to complain; that she was not aware of any complaint by the English merchants of the violation of the treaty of Calais, but my Lady would issue proclamations for its observance. Knight here said he thought the complaint arose out of the case of Wm. Holys, merchant of the Staple, who, on demanding his duty here before the Privy Council, was put off for seven or eight months, and condemned in expences to his opponent, though he had right on his side. This, they acknowledge, was not well done. As to the matter of my Lord Admiral, they said they had done their best to expedite justice according to the ordinances of their court, and would make as brief expedition of the case as possible. Mechlin, 19 Feb.
Hol., pp. 3. Add.: To my lord Legate's good grace.
19 Feb.
Lettere di Principi, I. 147 b.
1102. GIO. MATT. GIBERTO to HIERONIMO ALEANDRO, Nuncio with Francis I.
As the Pope loves the French king like a true son, he has been very anxious about his safety since the armies have approached each other. The Pope has always desired to make peace or truce. He knows the pertinacity of the Imperalists and their army, which is serving for little or no wages; and that their courage has been increased by the favor of the king of England, although efforts have been made to prevent their receiving so much aid from him as they expected,—an intrigue which has succeeded well hitherto. He sees also that the hope of the surrender of Pavia has been disappointed; and it is to be feared the Imperialists will shortly receive from Spain 200,000 ducats and 6,000 infantry. The king of England, however, will not interfere from his quarter at this season of the year. The Pope intends to stand on the alert, so that if his Majesty (Francis) should be forced to yield, he may do so as honorably as possible. The King should write his intentions to the Pope. Urge him to consider the uncertainties of war, and to consent to an agreement.
As for the conditions, the Pope would like to know whether Francis would consent to Pavia being deposited in his hands, or in those of the king of England, and whether he will deposit Milan on the Imperialists depositing the Castle and Pavia. As the Genoese are far advanced in their endeavor to reduce their government to a republic, the Pope recommends them to the favor of Francis, who will find their friendship useful. I have informed you of the arrival here of the cavalier Casale, who has been greatly importuned by the Imperialists to disburse a portion, if not the whole, of the 50,000 ducats. He is a good servant of the Pope, and a great friend of mine; so I will procrastinate so long that 50,000 ducats from England shall not be disbursed unless the French king's affairs commence to decline, in which case they will be disbursed to drive him out of Lombardy. The Pope read with pleasure the copy of Madame's letter which you sent, exhibiting her usual prudence and greatness of mind; and the French king and Madame d'Alençon are worthy offspring of such a mother. But although they are provided with money, an agreement is requisite for Christendom. The duke of Albany departed hence the other day, but was obliged by the colic to halt on the road at Formello, 15 miles off. His people (genti) are still hereabouts. Rome, 19 Feb. 1525.
19 Feb.
Cal. B. II. 272. B. M.
She and the King "haz vryten in specyal" to the Pope for the promotion of Glasgow "tyl hyz master that lerd him (fn. 5); vylke promocyon is sped at owr request; and haz obtynet a parpetwal exsempsyon for hym, hys dyosy and provence. Besyd the Papyz halynez he vald nat lat trobyl thyz exsempcyon pervielegis (?) be the solystacyon of the arschbysope of Saynt Tandroz or hyz procotarz beand in Reume," but would have the Pope call the case before himself. Begs Wolsey's interposition, as he has great influence with the Pope. May give credence to Walter Maxwell. 19 Feb.
Hol., p. 1. Add.. "To my lord Cardynal."
20 Feb.
Cal. B. III. 135. B. M.
Was "techor and eruditor" to the King of Scots. Knows, therefore, Wolsey's friendly disposition. Is "provided" by the Pope to the archbishopric of Glasgow, and in possession of the same. Begs his interposition with the Pope in defence of his perpetual exemption from the primacy of St. Andrew's. Desires credence for Walter Maxwell, the bearer, passing to Rome on that business. Edinburgh, 20 Feb.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: To my lorde Cardinals grace of Zork, &c. Sealed.
20 Feb.
Vesp. F. III. 37. B. M.
Credence for John Cantuly, whom she sends fully informed of her intentions. Edinburgh, 20 Feb. Signed: V're cousin, Margaret R. Countersigned: "James."


  • 1. Dated in the margin.
  • 2. This passage is supplied from the MS. mentioned in the margin.
  • 3. This is followed by an extract of a letter from Wolsey to Clerk. (See Vitellius, B. VI. 262.)
  • 4. These letters may possibly belong to the year 1524.
  • 5. The Regents presented Gawin Dunbar to the see of Glasgow 27 Sept. 1524, "and on the 22nd Dec. the same year 1524, the following gift is to be seen in the Registers, viz., 'with full power and faculty to Gavin Dunbar prior of Whitern, and postulate of Glasgow, to present whatsoever qualified person or persons to all benefices that shall happen to vaik within the kirk and diocese of Glasgow induring the time of the vacancy of the see which was pertaining to the King's presentation [Offices of State, p. 76.].'—He was bishop of Glasgow, anno 11 Regis, i.e. A.D. 1524. [Regist. Cart.]" Keith, p. 152.