Edward III: June 1369

Parliament Rolls of Medieval England. Originally published by Boydell, Woodbridge, 2005.

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In this section

1369 June

Introduction 1369


3 - 11 June

(C 65/26. RP , II.299-302. SR , I.390-392)

The proceedings of the parliament of 1369 are contained in C 65/26, a roll of 4 membranes, each approximately 360 mm. in width, sewn together in the chancery style. The condition of the roll is generally good, although membrane 4 is stained with gallic acid and membrane 1 is torn along the left-hand side, rendering certain sections illegible. The text, written in a small, clear chancery script, occupies the rectos of the membranes only. The dorses are blank, apart from the headings, 'Rotulus parliamenti anno .xliij. E. tercii', at the top of membrane 1 and 'Rotulus parliamenti de anno regni regis E. tercii quadragesimo tercio', at the foot of membrane 3. There are no marginal headings. Arabic numerals throughout the roll are later. The roll does not appear to be incomplete. It contains no mention of the clerk of this parliament.

On 6 April 1369, Edward III's government issued writs for a parliament to assemble at Westminster on 3 June. (fn. f1369int-1) The list of lords spiritual and temporal in receipt of personal summonses was the same at that used for the previous assembly, of 1368; nine royal clerks and lawyers also received instructions to attend. (fn. f1369int-2) The names of 72 of the 74 knights of the shires, and of 146 citizens and burgesses, and recoverable from the surviving election returns and the enrolled writs de expensis ; in addition, the two representatives for Norwich, John Welborn and Thomas Bumpstead, can be identified from references in the city's archives. (fn. f1369int-3)

The parliament was summoned within the context of war. (fn. f1369int-4) In 1368 Prince Edward, in his capacity as resident prince of Aquitaine, had quarrelled with the count of Armagnac and other Gascon lords, who had accordingly decided to appeal their grievances to the parlement of Paris. These appeals were directly contradictory to the terms of the treaties of Brétigny and Calais of 1360, which had aimed to establish Aquitaine as sovereign territory under the supreme authority of the Plantagenet dynasty. At the end of January 1369 the count of Tancarville was sent to England to negotiate a way forward, arguing that, since the terms of 1360 had never been formally ratified, the crown of France had never given up its claim of sovereignty over Aquitaine and was therefore fully in its rights, and determined to proceed, in the hearing of the appeals of the Gascons. The English response was unequivocal: to pursue such a strategy was a breach of good faith and was bound to lead to war. Already in February 1369 English commanders and troops were being despatched to the continent. The French had already entered some of the territories claimed by Edward III under the treaties of 1360 when, in early May, Charles V pronounced the Black Prince a contumacious vassal and thus asserted his right to seize Ponthieu and Calais as well as Aquitaine itself.

Events between the summoning and the assembling of the 1369 parliament had therefore created a highly charged atmosphere: the fact that it was able to begin its business on the official day of opening (rather than having to adjourn pending the arrival of latecomers) perhaps says something about the concern and excitement of the political community. William Wykeham, the chancellor, was charged (for the first time in his career) to make the opening speech in the assembly: although the record of this speech is damaged, it is clear that Wykeham recounted the terms of the 1360 settlement and presented their breach as an act of French aggression. His speech ended with a statement that the Black Prince's councillors had already agreed that Edward III should resume the title of King of France: the point is not made explicitly on the parliament roll, but the effect of such a resumption would be to invalidate both the treaties of 1360 and return the diplomatic agenda to that pursued since 1340, with Edward III using his claim to the French throne as a means of invalidating the Valois claim to sovereignty over the hereditary Plantagenet lands in France (items 1-2). The peers (though not, interestingly, the commons) were then charged to discuss the issue of the imminent resumption of war (item 3). On Wednesday 6 June, they confirmed that Edward III ought indeed to resume the title of king of France; the roll records how this was confirm by the peers and commons in full parliament and how, on 11 June, the great seal in use since 1360 was put away and another, whose legend incorporated the title 'king of France' (in fact, the seal used during the period 1340-60) was put into use (item 8). (fn. f1369int-5) That Edward had never formally renounced the title was further emphasised by the fact that the period from 11 June 1369 to the following 24 January (the last day of the regnal year) was taken to be the thirtieth year of his reign in France, as though the sequence had never been broken. (fn. f1369int-6) It is interesting to note, however, that neither the parliament roll of 1369 nor those for the remainder of the reign use the re-asserted double style in their headings: the only regnal years given there are the English ones.

The inevitable request for war finance followed on Thursday, 7 June. The crown asked the lords and commons to consider how best to fund the new commitments, and the assembly granted the king an extension of the wool subsidy at the highest rate yet regularly established: £2 3s. 4d. per sack of wool for both denizen and alien exporters. The rate was to take effect from Michaelmas 1369 and to run for three years, which meant that the last stage of the subsidy granted (at a lower rate) in 1368 to run to 1370 was superseded (items 9-10). It was a sign of the supportive mood of the assembly that the crown felt able to ask for this subsidy in advance of the submission and answering of the common petitions, though the fact that the government had no apparent plan to request a grant of direct taxation at this point may well have made the negotiation easier: the wool subsidy had, after all, become an effectively permanent levy as a result of its prolongation during the years of peace in 1360-9, and it is possible that, as has been suggested for 1355, parliament saw a generous grant of the maltolt as actually shielding the country from the imposition of direct subsidies (see Introduction to parliament of 1355). (fn. f1369int-7)

It was also apparent that the crown had no intention of being held up in the pursuit of urgent business by a lot of troublesome petitions. The parliament roll records the appointment of receivers and triers of private petitions on 4 June (items 3-7), but contrary to usual form does not specify the date by which such petitions had to be delivered by the suitors. The fact that the commons asked for an adjournment of the date for submission of the common petitions to Saturday 9 June, just two days after the grant of the wool subsidy, suggests that considerable pressure was being applied to bring the assembly to a speedy close. This no doubt explains why the chancery rolls yield nothing in terms of references to private petitions heard in this parliament - though the roll itself refers to a petition from the citizens of London which presumably came via the route of private petitions and was scheduled for a hearing before the council on 11 June, and there is an interesting record of a petition entered in this parliament concerning a dispute between the crown and the bishop of Lincoln over the right of presentation to a church benefice, which was judged before the chancellor, the bishops of London and Lincoln, the duke of Lancaster, the earl of Arundel and the chief justices of both benches in chancery again on 11 June (Appendix no. 1). The statement in the Handbook of British Chronology that the responses to the common petitions were also given on Monday 11 June is, however, erroneous: (fn. f1369int-8) the roll states clearly that the petitions were entered on Saturday 9 June and were answered on Sunday 10 June (items 10, 25).

In the limited time available, the commons managed to collect 12 items on which to make formal representation to the crown (items 11-22). These dealt with a variety of matters from the preparation for the new war (items 11-13) via the perennial problems of the limit of legal memory (item 16), (fn. f1369int-9) the tithe of silva cedua (item 17) (fn. f1369int-10) and the decline in the yields of the county farms (item 19) (fn. f1369int-11) to an interesting petition cautioning the crown against an over-zealous policy towards the treatment of Scots resident in England as enemy aliens (item 15). (fn. f1369int-12) Nevertheless, although the crown gave positive responses to a number of these petitions, it is to be remarked that the statutory legislation arising from this assembly, issued in chancery instruments dated 11 June, included only one matter arising directly from this sequence of common petitions: the king's concession that he would issue a general pardon for trespasses of the forests (item 18). (fn. f1369int-13) The other formal legislation arose, in contrast, from the discussions that took place in full parliament on Thursday, 7 June, before the common petitions were presented, concerning the wine trade with Gascony (item 23) (see Introduction to parliament of 1368) (fn. f1369int-14) and the removal of the wool staple from Calais to England (item 24). (fn. f1369int-15) The parliament roll is laconic on these issues, especially the latter, and it remains unclear as to whether the lords and/or commons understood that the revival of the domestic staples under the terms of the Ordinance and Statute of the Staple of 1353-4 would be accompanied by a concomitant ban on the export of wool by denizen merchants, imposed by the new statute of 1369: it may be that the negotiation of the wool subsidy on the same day was conducted in this light, and that parliament was more inclined to accept a high rate of duty on the grounds that it would be borne by aliens. (fn. f1369int-16) Whatever the case on this specific matter, it is evident that the common petitions themselves made comparatively little impression on government policy at this moment in the reign.

The plenary session of parliament on Sunday 10 June, at which the replies to the common petitions were announced, was the occasion for a declaration by the crown, spoken by the chancellor, that those who would participate in the coming war with France could expect to acquire rights of possession over the lands that they were responsible for taking in the king's name (item 25): this promise (which in practice would be very difficult to enforce) in reality amounted to a statement of good intent towards the military elite that their service would be appropriately rewarded with grants of patronage. Finally, it was decided that the clergy should be required to participate actively in the array of able-bodied men for the defence of the realm (item 27). This measure has been identified as an important step forward in the integration of the clergy into public obligations associated with military defence. (fn. f1369int-17) This matter concluded the parliament roll records that the session ended. It is conventional, however, to date the formal end of the assembly on the next day, Monday 11 June, presumably because this was the day on which the king formally resumed the title to the throne of France and issued both the statues arising from the parliament and the writs de expensis for county and borough members. (fn. f1369int-18) The evidence contained in the roll that the petition from the city of London was referred before the council for 11 June (item 25) would not in itself provide justification for extending the terminal dates of the parliament to this day, but the petition of the bishop of Lincoln was endorsed with a note that it should be heard before the 'lords of parliament' and was heard before 'certain great men of parliament in chancery' on 11 June (Appendix no. 1): this suggests that a form of parliamentary authority was still deemed to be exercised by delegated tribunals on that day, and that it is therefore appropriate to maintain the traditional date of dismissal even though no formal plenary session seems to have been convened after 10 June.

Text and translation

[p. ii-299]
[col. a]
[memb. 1]
Au parlement sommons a Westm' a les oetaves de la trinite, l'an du regne le roi Edward tierce quarant tierce, primerement, feust crie faite en la sale de Westm', qe touz prelatz, ducs, countz, barons, chivalers des countees, citeins des citees, burgeis des burghs et touz autres qe furent venuz au parlement se treissent devers la chambre [...] et apres le roi, les prelatz, ducs, countz, barons, chivalers, citeyns et burgeis esteantz en mesme la chambre, l'evesqe de Wyncestre, chanceller, monstra les causes du sommons de parlement en manere q'ensuit: [Opening of parliament.]
At the parliament summoned at Westminster in the octave of the Trinity in the forty-third year of the reign of King Edward the third, first, an announcement was made in Westminster Hall that all the prelates, dukes, earls, barons, knights of the shires, citizens of the cities, burgesses of the boroughs and all others who had come to the parliament should proceed towards the [...] Chamber and afterwards, with the king, the prelates, dukes, earls, barons, knights, citizens and burgesses being in the same chamber, the bishop of Winchester, chancellor, declared the reasons for the summons of parliament in the manner that follows:
'Sires, le roi en touz les grosses busoignes qe toucherent lui ou son roialme de tout temps ad fait et overi par le conseil et [...] ses grantz et comunes de son roialme, queux il ad trove en toutes ses affaires bons et loialx, dont ils les merci de grant cuer et volunte; et n'est pas disconuz a eux touz [...] nostre dit seignur le roi avant ces heures sur le cleym et droit queux nostre dit seignur le roi ad en le roialme de France, par l'avys et conseil de ses grantz et communes, prist une pees [...] adversari de France, sur certeines condicions, c'estassavoir, qe le dit adversari ferroit liverer au roi certeines terres et paiis par dela le meer, et aussint lui paieroit certeines [...] certein temps limite en mesme la pees; et ovesqe ce son dit adversari ferroit desporter de sa part de user resort en toutes les terres et paiis de Gascoigne, et toutes [...] terres et paiis qe le roi tenoit et avoit par dela la meer. Et nostre seignur le roi de sa part ferroit desporte de soi nomer roi de France pur mesme le temps; et coment [...] qe le dit adversari ad falli de tout de faire liveree des dites terres et paiis issint acordez par la pees, et de son paiement aussi; nientmeyns le dit adversari ad [...] ealx del counte d'Ermynak, le Sire de la Bret et autres qe sont gentz lieges a nostre dit seignur le roi en Gascoigne, et par virtue de ceux appealx ad fait [...] le prince de Gascoigne d'apparer devant luy a Paris le primer jour de Maii darrein passe, de respoundre a lour appealx, contre la fourme de la pees. 'Lords, in all the important affairs that concern him or his realm, the king has always acted and worked with the counsel and [...] his great men and the commons of his realm, whom he has found to be good and loyal in all his affairs, for which he thanks them wholeheartedly and willingly; and it is not unknown to them all [...] our said lord the king before this time, on the claim and right which our said lord the king has in the realm of France, by the advice and council of his great men and commons, accepted a peace [...] enemy of France, upon certain conditions, that is to say, that the said enemy would cause certain lands and regions overseas to be delivered to the king, and also would pay him certain [...] certain time specified in the same peace; and in addition to this his said enemy for his part would refrain from using resort in all the lands and regions of Gascony, and all [...] lands and regions which the king held and had overseas. And our lord the king for his part would refrain from calling himself king of France for the meantime; and how [...] that the said enemy has entirely failed to cause the said lands and regions thus agreed by the peace to be delivered, and his payment also; nevertheless the said enemy has [...] those of the county of Armagnac, the Lord d'Albret and others who are liege people of our said lord the king in Gascony, and by virtue of these appeals has made [...] the prince of Gascony to appear before him at Paris on 1 May last, to answer upon their appeals, contrary to the form of the peace.
2. Et outre soit maunde grant nombre de gentz d'armes et autres qe chivachent de guerre en les terres nostre dit seignur le roi de Gascoigne, et illoeqes ont pris afforce villes, chasteaux, forteresces et autres lieux, et les tiegnent et les lieges gentz nostre seignur le roi illoeqes pris, ascuns tuez et les autres mys en prisone ou a grief ranceon; et plus outre ore tart manda un grant nombre des gentz en les demeyns terres le roi de Pountieu, q'ont pris afforce ses villes, chastealx et forteresses. Et par causes des attemptatz issint faitz par le dit adversari en la dite principalte contre la fourme de la pees, le prince manda a nostre seignur le roi ses solempnes messages de les monstrer a lui pleinement, et outre les pointz des ditz attemptatz, monstrerent a nostre seignur le roi coment le prince avoit pris devers lui les plus sages de la dite principalte, et trete ovesqe eux si par les causes des attemptatz [col. b] si overtement faitz contre la fourme de la pees le roi poait de droit et reson reprendre et user le noun de roi de France. Queux disoient et affermerent qe le roi le poait faire de droit et bon foi.' 2. And further, he sent a great number of men-at-arms and others who ride to war into the lands of our said lord the king in Gascony, where they have taken towns, castles, fortresses and other places by force, and hold them and the liege people of our lord the king taken there, some of whom have been killed and the others put in prison or to great ransom; and further, he recently sent a great number of people into the king's own lands in Ponthieu, who have taken his towns, castles and fortresses by force. And the prince sent to our lord the king his formal messages to describe to him fully the attempts thus made by the said enemy in the said principality contrary to the form of the peace; and the said messages also described to our lord the king how the prince had taken to himself the wisest men of the said principality, and discussed with them whether, as a result of the attempts [col. b] so openly made contrary to the form of the peace, the king could by right and reason resume and use the title of king of France. Which men said and affirmed that the king can do so of right and in good faith.'
3. Et sur ce point l'ercevesqe de Canterbirs et les autres prelatz furent chargez par le roi de parler et treter et monstrer au roi lour avys et conseil. Et puis dist qe le roi voet, come ad este usez einz ces heures, qe touz ceux qe se sentont grevez mettent avant lour peticions et serront responduz. Et a ce faire ad assigne certeins clers de les receyvre, et seigneurs et autres de les respondre; les nouns des queux ensuent: 3. And the archbishop of Canterbury and the other prelates were charged by the king to discuss this point and to declare to the king their opinion and counsel. And then the chancellor said that the king willed, as had been the custom before this time, that all those who felt themselves aggrieved should put forward their petitions and would be answered. And to do this he assigned certain clerks to receive them, and lords and others to answer them, whose names follow:
4. Resceyvours des peticions d'Engleterre, Irlaund, Gales et Escoce:

  • Sire David de Wollore
  • Sire Wauter Power
  • Sire Thomas de Cotyngham.
[Receivers and triers of private petitions.]
4. Receivers of the petitions from England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland:

  • Sir David Wollor
  • Sir Walter Power
  • Sir Thomas Cottingham.
5. Pur les peticions de Guienne < et autres terres > et paiis par dela la meer et des Isles:

  • Maistre Johan de Branketre
  • Sire Johan de Codyngton
  • Sire William de Mirfeld.
5. For the petitions from Aquitaine and other lands and regions overseas and from the Channel Islands:

  • Master John Branketre
  • Sir John Coddington
  • Sir William Mirfield.
Et ces qe voillent liverer billes les liverent entre cy et meskerdi, le jour acompt. And those who wished to deliver bills should deliver them between that day and Wednesday, the day assigned.
6. Et sont assignez triours des peticions d'Engleterre, Irland, Gales et Escoce:

  • L'ercevesqe de Canterbirs
  • L'evesqe de Loundres
  • L'evesqe de Nichole
  • L'evesqe de Salesburs
  • L'evesqe de Norwicz
  • L'evesqe de Kardoill
  • L'abbe de Westm'
  • L'abbe de Waltham
  • L'abbe de Seint Austin de Canterbirs
  • Le duc de Lancastre
  • Le counte de Hereford
  • Le counte d'Arundell
  • Le counte de Warrewik
  • Le counte de Suff'
  • Le counte de Salesbury
  • Le Sire de Percy
  • Monsir Johan de Nevill
  • Monsir Guy Brian
  • Monsir Johan Knyvet
  • Monsir Robert de Thorpe
  • Monsir Thomas de Lodelowe
  • Monsir William de Fyncheden
6. And the following are assigned triers of petitions from England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland:

  • The archbishop of Canterbury
  • The bishop of London
  • The bishop of Lincoln
  • The bishop of Salisbury
  • The bishop of Norwich
  • The bishop of Carlisle
  • The abbot of Westminster
  • The abbot of Waltham
  • The abbot of Saint Augustine's, Canterbury
  • The duke of Lancaster
  • The earl of Hereford
  • The earl of Arundel
  • The earl of Warwick
  • The earl of Suffolk
  • The earl of Salisbury
  • Lord Percy
  • Sir John Nevill
  • Sir Guy Brian
  • Sir John Knyvet
  • Sir Robert Thorp
  • Sir Thomas Ludlow
  • Sir William Finchden
- appellez a eux chanceller, tresorer, seneschal, chamberlein, quant mestir serra, et ils purront entendre; et aussint les sergeantz le roi, s'il busoigne. Et tendront lour place en la chambre du chamberlein pres la la [sic] chambre Depeint. - consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward and chamberlain when necessary, and when they are able to attend; and also the king's serjeants when necessary. And they shall hold their session in the chamberlain's chamber near the Painted Chamber.
[p. ii-300]
[col. a]
7. Et sont assignez triours des peticions d'Aquitaigne et autres terres et paiis par dela la meer et les Isles:

  • L'evesqe de Duresme
  • L'evesqe de Hereford
  • L'evesqe de Cicestre
  • L'evesqe de Seint David
  • L'abbe de Seint Albon
  • L'abbe de Seint Esmoun
  • L'abbe de Burgh Seint Piere
  • L'abbe de Evesham
  • Le priour del hospital Seint Johan
  • Le counte de Stafford
  • Le counte de Devenshire
  • Le counte d'Angos
  • Monsir Roger de Beauchamp
  • Monsir Johan de Moubray
  • Monsir Thomas de Ingelby
  • Monsir William de Wychyngham
7. And the following are assigned triers of petitions from Aquitaine and other lands and regions overseas and the Channel Islands:

  • The bishop of Durham
  • The bishop of Hereford
  • The bishop of Chichester
  • The bishop of Saint Davids
  • The abbot of Saint Albans
  • The abbot of Bury Saint Edmunds
  • The abbot of Peterborough
  • The abbot of Evesham
  • The prior of the hospital of Saint John
  • The earl of Stafford
  • The earl of Devon
  • The earl of Angus
  • Sir Roger Beauchamp
  • Sir John Mowbray
  • Sir Thomas Ingelby
  • Sir William Wichingham
- appellez a eux chanceller, tresorer, seneschal, chamberlein quant mestir serra et ils purront entendre; et aussi les serjantz le roi, s'il busoigne. Et tendront lour place en la chambre Marcolf. - consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward and chamberlain when necessary, and when they are able to attend; and also the king's serjeants when necessary. And they shall hold their session in the Marcolf Chamber.
[memb. 2]
8. Et le meskerdi suant, l'ercevesqe et prelatz, eu sur la charge qe lour feust done devant mature deliberacion, d'une acord respondirent, et disoient qe nostre dit seignur le roi par les causes susdites poait reprendre et user le noun du roi de France de droit et bone conscience. Et a ce acorderent les ducs, countes, barons et autres grantz et communes en plein parlement. Quele noun de roi de France le roi reprist, et le .xi. jour de Juyn le grant seal le roi quel il usa adevant mys en garde, et un autre seal emprente de noun de France repris, < et > furent chartres, patentes et briefs ensealez; et toutz [col. b] les autres sealx en les autres places le roi en mesme la manere chaungez le dit jour. [Resumption of title of 'king of France'.]
8. And on the following Wednesday, the archbishop and prelates, having had mature deliberation on the charge that was previously given to them, answered of one accord and said that for the aforesaid reasons our said lord the king could resume and use the title of king of France by right and good conscience. And the dukes, earls, barons and other great men and commons agreed to this in full parliament. Which title of king of France the king resumed, and on 11 June the great seal which the king had previously used was put in custody, and another seal imprinted with the title of France was taken up again, and charters, letters patent and writs were sealed; and all [col. b] the other seals in the king's other courts were changed in the same manner on the said day.
9. Et judy suant, feust monstre as grantz et communes l'estat le roi; et coment par cause de la guerre q'est overte il lui covendroit faire et mettre grosses custages et despens sibien par terre come par meer; a quoi sustenir et faire il ne poait suffire de perfournir sanz le bon eide de les prelatz, ducs, countz, barons et communes, empriant a eux q'ils se voleient sur ce aviser, et treter coment il purroit mieulz estre eide a greindre profit de lui et meindre damage et charge de son poeple. [Subsidy.]
9. And on the following Thursday the great men and commons were shown the state of the king's finances and how, because of the reopening of the war, it was necessary for him to incur great charges and expenses by land as well as by sea, which he would not be able to undertake without good aid from the prelates, dukes, earls, barons and commons; and he prayed that they would advise him on this, and discuss how he could best be aided to his greatest profit and with the least damage and burden to his people.
10. Queux prelatz, ducs, countz et barons par eux, et puis les communes d'un acorde, granterent au roi un subside les leins, peaux lanuz et quirs qe passeront hors du roialme d'Engleterre, de la feste Seint Michel proschein avenir par trois ans pleinement acomplitz; c'estassavoir, de chescun sak de leine qe passera hors du dit roialme d'Engleterre quarant et trois souldz et quatre deniers, et de chescun dusze vintz de peaux lanuz .xliij. s. .iiij. d., et de chescun last de quirs quatre livres, aprendre outre l'anciene custume de demi marc de chescun sak de leine, et demi marc de dusze vintz peaux lanuz, et un marc de chescun last de quirs < des denzeyns, et des aliens de chescun sak de leyne quatre marcs, et de dusze vyntz de peaux lanuz quatre marcs, et de chescun last de quirs oet marcs. Et apres furent les communes chargez de mettre avant > lour peticions, qi prierent jour tanqe a samadi. 10. Which prelates, dukes, earls and barons by themselves, and then the commons of one accord, granted the king a subsidy from the wool, woolfells and leather exported out of the realm of England, from the feast of Michaelmas following for three full years; that is to say, 43s. 4d. on each sack of wool exported out of the realm of England, and 43s. 4d. on every 240 woolfells, and £4 on each last of leather, to be taken in addition to the ancient custom taken from denizens of a ½ mark on each sack of wool, a ½ mark on every 240 woolfells, and 1 mark from each last of leather, and that taken from aliens of 4 marks from each sack of wool, 4 marks from each twelve score of woolfells, and 8 marks on each last of leather. And then the commons were charged to put forward their petitions, which they asked to be adjourned until Saturday.
[col. a]
11. A nostre seignur le roi et a son bon conseil; prient ses comunes: pur la guerre apparante qe toutes les forteresces tout envyron la terre d'Engleterre assis sur la costere de la meer, < ou sur la marche de guerre, c'estassaver chastialz, > abbeis, priories, citees, villes et burghs soient hastiement surveues et mys en sauve garde pur les meschiefs de la guerre qe sont apparantz de jour en autre; et qe comande soit as mairs et bailliffs d'iceux, qe les mures, fossees et portes soient duement appairaillez. [Defence of the coasts.]
11. To our lord the king and his good council; his commons pray: for the impending war, that all the fortresses all around the land of England situated on the coasts of the sea or on the march of the war, that is to say, castles, abbeys, priories, cities, towns and boroughs, shall be swiftly surveyed and put in a state of defence in preparation for the hazards of war, which are apparent from day to day; and that the mayors and bailiffs be ordered to make ready the walls, ditches and gates of the same.
[editorial note: Responsio . ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest a roi. It pleases the king.
12. Item, prient les dites communes: qe remedie en soit ordeine pur touz les religious aliens, issint qe parmy eux les privetees du roialme ne soient descovertz, issint qe peril ne damage par eux ne viegne au dit roialme. [Alien religious.]
12. Also, the said commons pray: that remedy be ordained as regards all the alien religious, so that the secrets of the realm shall not be disclosed by them and no peril or damage come upon the said realm because of them.
[editorial note: Responsio . ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi. It pleases the king.
13. Item, priont les communes: pur ce qe les armurers et coceours de chivalx qe vendent les armures et chivalx a trop excessive pris, a grant damage de tout le roialme; qe remedie ent soit fait, issint qe tielx singulers profitz ne soient my soeffertz a grant damage du dit roialme. [Cost of arms and horses.]
13. Also, the commons pray: because armourers and shoers of horses sell armour and horses at too excessive a price, to the great damage of all the realm; that remedy be made thereon, so that such private profit shall not be permitted to damage the said realm.
[editorial note: Responsio . ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi voet mander pur le meir, viscontz et aldremans et ascuns des communes de Londres, de ent faire covenable amendement; et outre mander as autres meirs et baillifs des citees et villes parmy le roialme, de semblable remedie faire. The king will order the mayor, sheriffs and aldermen and some of the commons of London to make suitable amendment thereon; and he will further order other mayors and sheriffs of the cities and towns throughout the realm to make similar remedy.
[col. b]
14. Item, prient les communes: pur le bon governement de la terre, qe touz les estatuz faitz avant ces heures soient duement gardez et executz al effect q'ils furent faitz, sibien l'estatut de la foreste, come touz autres estatutz, < les queux deivent > suffire a bon governement s'ils soient bien gardez; et qe nul soit mys a respondre ne grevez a l'encontre. [Confirmation of the statutes.]
14. Also, the commons pray: for the good government of the land, that all the statutes made before this time shall be duly observed and executed to the intent that they were made, the Statute of the Forest as well as all other statutes, which should be sufficient for good government if they are properly observed; and that no one shall be put to answer or be aggrieved to the contrary.
[editorial note: Responsio . ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi voet qe ensi soit. The king wills that it shall be so.
15. Item, prient les communes: qe come diverses commissions sont grantez as certeines gentz d'enquere et certifier en la courte des nouns des Escotz et autres aliens mariez, enheritez, habitantz et laborers deinz la terre; qe lour plese declarer a quel effect la dite commission est grantee, depuis q'il semble as dites comunes qe tielles gentz sont demorantz es dites parties pur le commune profit d'icelles. [Commissions of inquiry into aliens.]
15. Also, the commons pray: that whereas various commissions are granted to certain people to inquire into and certify in court the names of Scots and other aliens who have married and inherited or are living and working within the land; that it may please the king and his council to declare for what purpose the said commissions are granted, since it seems to the said commons that to have such people dwelling in the said parts of the realm is to the common profit.
[editorial note: Responsio . ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient les commissions repellez; et si nul soit greve par cause de tielle commission soit hastiement redressez. Let the commissions be repealed; and if anyone shall be aggrieved by reason of such commission, it will be swiftly redressed.
16. Item, purce qe tout le temps le roi Richard est tenuz pur temps de memoire, de quel temps nul homme puet avoir verroie cognissance; qe plese limiter en certein le temps de memoire, issint q'il ne passe le coronement le roi Edward aiel nostre seignur le roi q'ore est. [Limit of legal memory.]
16. Also, because the entire time since the reign of King Richard is considered to be within legal memory, of which time no man can have true knowledge; may it please him to specify the limit of legal memory so that it does not go further back than the coronation of King Edward, grandfather of our present lord the king.
[editorial note: Responsio . ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Estoise la loi q'ad este use avant ces heures tanqe autrement soit ordeine. The law that has been observed previously shall continue in force until it is otherwise ordained.
[p. ii-301]
[col. a]
17. Item, prient les communes: q'il soit declarez en quele cas disme de bois ou de subbois doit estre donez de droit es lieux ou il n'estoit done avant ces hures; et aussi soit mys en certein, quel manere de bois doit estre dit cilva cedua; et en cas qe ascun de sa terre soit empledez en court Cristiene de disme de bois ou de subbois, qe prohibicion soit grantee desore enavant, et attachement sur ce en la chancellerie, sibien as juges come as parties, come est acustumez en autre cas sanz consultacion ent avoir. [Tithe of wood.]
17. Also, the commons pray: that it shall be declared in what cases the tithe of wood or underwood ought to be given by right in places where it was not previously given; and also that it be determined what kind of wood is meant by 'silva cedua'; and in the event that any of his land shall be impleaded in court Christian concerning the tithe of wood or underwood, prohibition shall be granted henceforth, and an attachment thereon in the chancery, to judges as well as to parties, as is customary in other cases, without having consultation thereon.
[editorial note: Responsio . ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit l'estatut en ce cas ordene gardez et tenuz. The statute ordained in this case shall be observed and upheld.
18. Item, prient les communes a lour seignur lige: qe lui plese pardoner de sa grace especiale les trespas faitz en forestes avant ces heures. [Trespasses committed in the forests.]
18. Also, the commons pray their liege lord: that it may please him of his special grace to pardon the trespasses committed in the forests before this time.
[editorial note: Responsio . ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi le voet, sauve as justices de foreste, chiefgardeins et gardeins de foreste et de parkes et chaces, sibien en fee come autrement, verders, regardours, agistours, lieutenantz des gardeins et southgardeins, soutzforesters et touz lour servantz, et vendours de bois et subbois et qeconqe autre ministre de foreste, park ou chace. (fn. ii-299-76-1) The king wills it, with the exception of justices of the forest, chief wardens and wardens of the forest and parks and chaces, in fee as well as otherwise, verderers, regarders, agistors, lieutenants of keepers and deputy keepers, assistant foresters and all their servants, sellers of wood and underwood and any other officers whatsoever of a forest, park or chace. (fn. ii-299-76-1)
19. Item, prient les communes: qe come les fermes le roi en chescune countee d'Engleterre sont grandement abbessez par les grandes mortalitees, et divers franchises granteez par nostre seignur le roi puis le temps qe les grandes fermes estoient primerement assis; qe les viscontz soient chargez de tant come ils ont resceus, ou purront, et nient outre, a desheriteson des plusours gentz de roialme. [Sheriffs' farms.]
19. Also, the commons pray: that whereas the king's farms in each county of England are greatly diminished by the great plagues and by the various franchises granted by our lord the king since the time when the great farms were first assessed, to the disinheritance of many people of the realm; that the sheriffs be charged as much as they have received, or can receive, and no more.
[editorial note: Responsio . ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Suent ces qe se sentent grevez, et le roi lour fra grace solonc ce q'il verra qe soit affaire. Those who feel themselves aggrieved shall sue, and the king shall show them favour according to what he wills to be done.
20. Item, prient les communes: qe par la ou ascuns de ses lieges hommes soient empeschez par enditement des oppressions, extorcions ou d'ascun autre trespas ou felonie qeconqe fait a nostre seignur le roi, ou a son poeple, et de ce se mettont en enquest de bien et de mal; qe les parties qe issint pledent au paiis poont avoir nisi prius a lour priere, devers nostre seignur le roi come devers autre persone. [Access to justice.]
20. Also, the commons pray: that whereas some of his liegemen are impeached by indictment for oppressions, extortions or any other trespass or felony whatsoever done to our lord the king or to his people, and they put themselves on an inquest for good or evil; that the parties who thus put themselves on their country can have nisi prius at their request, against our lord the king as well as against other people.
[editorial note: Responsio . ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Sue al chanceller, ou clerc du prive seal en cas qe ne touche crime, et il mandera as justices de ce faire en cas qe soit resonable. He shall sue to the chancellor, or to the clerk of the privy seal in the event that it does not concern crime, and the chancellor or clerk of the privy seal will order the justices to do this in cases where it is reasonable.
21. Item, prient les communes des villes assis sur braces du meer: qe en salvacion d'icelles et du paiis envyron, puissent franchement sanz destourbance de nully ficcher pales, cheynes mettre et autres instrumentz, a qi qe le soil soit, la ou le meer crest et descrest, en salvacion sibien de la navie de icelles repairrant, come de tout le paiis envyron. [Barriers on rivers.]
21. Also, the commons of the towns situated on the inlets of the sea pray: that for the safety of the same and of the surrounding regions, they may freely, without disturbance from anyone, fix stakes and set chains and other instruments to whatever soil there exists, where the sea rises and falls, for the safety of the fleets based there as well as of all the surrounding regions.
[editorial note: Responsio . ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi pur le temps de guerre, a meindre damage qe puet estre fait, et apres la necessite soit de tout oustez. It pleases the king during war, with the least resulting damage; and after the necessity is over, it shall be abandoned completely.
22. Item, prie la commune: qe par la ou homme fait plusours executors et devye, et les uns des executours refusent administracion, qe acquietances faites par celui qe refusent administracion ne soit prejudiciel a celles qe acceptent l'administracion; mes qe tielles acquitances soient voides. [Executors of wills.]
22. Also, the commons pray: that when a man appoints several executors and dies, and one of the executors refuses administration, the settlements made by him who refuses administration shall not be prejudicial to those who accept the administration; but that such settlements shall be void.
[editorial note: Responsio . ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit la lei devant ces heures sur ce point use tenuz et gardez. The law practised on this point before this time shall be upheld and observed.
[memb. 3]
23. Et le judy avantdit feust monstre as grantz et communes coment par cause qe les Engleis estoient restreintz de passer en Gascoigne de quere vyns illoeqes [col. b] sicome ils soleient, grantz meschiefs et damages feurent avenuz a les inhabitantz en Gascoigne, qe vivent pur la greindre partie de celle marchandie, et auxi les custumes et subsides queux le prince soleit prendre des vins grandement apetisez et amenusez, sicome il par ses messages sovent ad monstre au roi et a son conseil, empriant au roi et son conseil de ent ordeiner remede; queux grantz et communes eu sur ce point deliberacion, disoient qe le pris des vins estoit grandement amende puis l'ordinance ent faite en le darrein parlement, a grant profit des seignurs et communes; et outre prierent qe celle ordinance feust tenuz et garde. Mes apres monstrez et mues divers resons tochantz celle matire, feust acorde pur profit et encres du prince, soulement qe le roi suffreroit de sa grace les Engleis qe ne furent artificers, sur certein condicion et avys affaire par le conseil le roi, passer en Gascoigne pur quere vyns illoeqes, au fyn et entent qe les Engleis facent et vendont a si bon pris ou meillour qe les Gascoigns ont fait. Et est l'entent du roi, grantz et communes qe la dite ordenance des vyns ne soit repellee, einz soit mys en suspens tanqe l'en voet quele profit ou damage cest acord ferra au roialme. (fn. ii-299-98-1) [Wine trade with Gascony.]
23. And on the aforesaid Thursday, the great men and commons were told how, because the English were restricted from crossing into Gascony to fetch wine there [col. b] as they were accustomed, great misfortunes and damages have come to the inhabitants of Gascony, who for the most part live off this trade, and also how the customs and subsidies which the prince was accustomed to take from wine were greatly diminished and reduced, as he has often declared to the king and his council in his messages, praying to the king and his council to ordain remedy thereon. The great men and commons, having had deliberation on this point, said that the price of wine was greatly improved since the ordinance made thereon in the last parliament, to the great profit of the lord and commons; and further they prayed that this ordinance be upheld and observed. But after various other opinions had been declared and exchanged on this matter, it was agreed, for the prince's profit and increase, that the king of his grace would allow Englishmen who were not artisans to cross into Gascony to fetch wine there, upon certain conditions and advice to be made by the king's council, to the end and purpose that the English should buy at as good or better a price than the Gascons. And it is the intention of the king, great men and commons that the said ordinance of wine shall not be repealed, but shall be suspended until it is agreed what sort of profit or damage this agreement will do to the realm. (fn. ii-299-98-1)
24. Ensement feust dit et monstrez as grantz et communes qe par raison de ceste guerre l'estaple des leyns ne se puisse tenir ne ester a Caleis, et par celle cause est acorde de le mettre ariere en Engleterre, es lieux ou il serra acorde par le roi et son conseil. (fn. ii-299-100-1) [Wool staple.]
24. Likewise, the great men and commons were told and shown that by reason of this war the staple of wool could not be held or exist at Calais, and for this reason it is agreed to return it to England, to the places to be agreed by the king and his council. (fn. ii-299-100-1)
25. Et le dismaigne, le disme jour de juyn, le roi, prelatz, ducs, countz, barons et communes esteantz en la chambre Blanche, et lues adeprimes les peticions des communes et les respons d'icelles, et monstrez au roi par le chanceller la bone volunte de ses grantz et communes devers lui, et le grant eide qe eux lui avoient fait en ce parlement del subside des leines, quirs et peaux lanuz, come devant est dit; et la parlance du passage des Engleis en Gascoigne pur vins; et le remuer de l'estaple de Caleis; et aussint lue devant eux une peticion qe les citeins et burgeis de Londres avoient donez en parlement, et jour done a ces de Londres d'estre devant le conseil lendemain; le roi mercia moultz a ses grantz et communes de lour venue, et del grant eide q'ils lui avoent fait. Et apres le chanceller, du commandement le roi, dist as seignurs et communes: [Speech by the chancellor.]
25. And on Sunday, 10 June, with the king, prelates, dukes, earls, barons and commons being in the White Chamber, the petitions of the commons and the answers to the same were first read; and the chancellor declared to the king the good will that his great men and commons had towards him and the great aid which they had made to him in this parliament of the subsidy of wool, leather and woolfells, as is aforesaid; and discussion was had on the crossing of Englishmen into Gascony for wine and the removal of the staple from Calais; and also a petition was read before them which the citizens and burgesses of London had given in parliament, and the Londoners were given the next day to appear before the council. Then the king greatly thanked his great men and commons for coming and for the great aid which they had made to him. And then the chancellor, at the king's command, said to the lord and commons:
'Sires, le roi eant bone conissance et memoire de touz pleinz de eides, grantz travalx, mises et coustages qe les seignurs et communes de son roialme lui avoient fait et sustenuz tout son temps, come lour fu monstre, et voillant par tant et par les causes desus nomez faire a eux ascun recompensacion, ordeine, voet, grant et acord qe touz ses seignurs et autres persones, de quel estat, degre, condicion ou nacion q'ils soient, meyntenantz sa partie et querele contre ses enemys de France, eient et tiegnent heritablement quanqe ils recoverent et conquerront sur ses ditz enemys, soient duchees, countees, viscontees, citees, villes, chastiaux, forteresces ou seignuries, assises deinz le dit roialme de France, par queconqe noun ou title q'ils soient appellez, a tenir a eux et lour heirs et successeurs, de roi et ses heirs rois de France, par les services ent dues et acustumez. Horspris et reservez par expresse et especial au roi et ses ditz heirs toutes les domains, regalitees, services, homages, devoirs, resortz et sovereintees appurtenantz as rois et a la corone de France; et aussi exceptez et reservez les terres et possessions de seinte esglise, et de touz ces qe sanz ascun constreinte ou difficulte voillent obeier, aherder et demorer al obeissance le roi de lour bon gre et franche volunte, et lui eider de fait, conseiller et conforter en la pursuite de sa dite querele, et [p. ii-302][col. a] a le recoverir de son droit avantdit. Et aussi le roi voet, acorde et promette loialment q'il ferra et durra bones et sufficeantes lettres et chartres particulers sur lour dit conquest, et de ses ditz grant, acorde et ordenance, a toutes les persones qe les voillent avoir ou demander, a toutes les foitz q'il serra sur ce requis, sanz ascun difficultee.' 'Lords, the king, having good knowledge and memory of all sorts of aids, great hardships, expenses and costs which the lords and commons of his realm have made to him and sustained for all his reign, as he has declared to them, and willing therefore and for the reasons named above to make some compensation to them, ordains, wills, grants and agrees that all his lords and other people, of whatever estate, degree, condition or nation they may be, maintaining his side in the quarrel against his enemies of France, shall have and hold in right of inheritance whatever they shall recover and conquer from his said enemies, be they duchies, counties, bailiwicks, cities, towns, castles, fortresses or lordships, situated within the said realm of France, by whatever name or title they are known, to hold to them, their heirs and successors, of the king and his heirs, the kings of France, by the services due and accustomed from them. Except, and expressly and specially reserving to the king and his said heirs, all the dominions, regalities, services, homages, duties, resorts and sovereignties belonging to the kings and the crown of France; and also excepting and reserving the lands and possessions of holy Church, and of all those who, without any requirement or impediment, will obey, adhere to and remain in the king's obedience of their good grace and free will, and aid him in their deeds and counsel and comfort him in the pursuit of his said dispute and [p. ii-302][col. a] in the recovery of his aforesaid right. And also the king wills, agrees and loyally promises that he will make and give good and sufficient letters and special charters upon their said conquest, and of his said grant, accord and ordinance, to all the people who will have or demand them, whenever he will be required thereupon, without any impediment.'
26. Aussi estoit acorde et assentuz en parlement mesme le jour, qe par cause de ceste guerre toutz les terres et possessions de religious et autres persones aliens enemys soient seizez en la meyn le roi, et lessez ariere a les priours, procurours et presidentz d'icelles, rendant au roi certeines fermes come serra acorde parentre le conseil le roi et les fermers par certeine et sufficeante seurte sur ce affaire par le roi et son conseil. [Confiscation of alien priories.]
26. It was also agreed and assented in parliament on the same day that because of this war all the lands and possessions of religious and other alien enemy persons should be seized into the king's hands, and leased back to the priors, proctors and presidents of the same, rendering to the king certain farms which will be agreed between the king's council and the farmers by certain and sufficient security to be made thereon by the king and his council.
[col. b]
Et outre ce, le roi comanda empriant as touz les prelatz illoeqes assemblez qe eux eu regarde as grantz perils et damages qe purront avenir par cas au roialme et l'esglise d'Engleterre par cause de ceste guerre, si par cas son adversarie voleit entrere le roialme pur le destruire et subvertir, q'ils voleient en defense du roialme mettre lour eide et faire arraier lour subgitz, sibien eux mesmes, et toutz de religion come parsons, vikers et autres gentz de seinte esglise qeconqes, pur reboter la malice de ses enemys, si par cas ils voleient entrer le roialme. Queux prelatz granterent de ce faire, en eide et defense du roialme et de seinte esglise. [Clergy to be arrayed for defence of the realm.]
And further, the king, praying all the prelates assembled there that they would consider the great perils and damages which could occur by chance to the realm and Church of England because of this war, ordered that if by chance his enemy enters the realm to destroy and subvert it, they will give their aid in defence of the realm and array their subjects (themselves and all the religious as well as parsons, vicars and all other people of holy Church whatsoever) to repulse the malice of his enemies, if by chance they intend to enter the realm. And the prelates granted that they would do this, in aid and defence of the realm and of holy Church.
Et issint departy le parlement. [End of parliament.]
And so ended the parliament.

Appendix 1369


Petition of John Buckingham, bishop of Lincoln, complaining of the process of quare impedit brought by the crown against the bishop, Thomas Southam, the archdeacon of Oxford, and the prior of Kenilworth concerning the benefice of Iffley, Oxfordshire, in an attempt to uphold the king's presentee Richard Pencrich against Southam. Endorsed: let the chancellor call the parties and the lords of parliament and deal with this. The provenance, and the outcome, are known from a subsequent petition from the bishop, attached to the first, which specifies that the petition was made in the parliament of 1369 and records that the bishop of Winchester, chancellor, called certain great men of parliament in chancery on 11 June (namely the bishop of London, the bishop of Lincoln, the duke of Lancaster, the earl of Arundel, the chief justice of king's bench, the chief justice of common pleas and other justices of the king), where it was decided that Pencrich ought not to hold the benefice and should have his presentation annulled.

Source : SC 8/210/10463-4. See also CPR 1367-70 , 93.


  • f1369int-1. The parliament was summoned for the octave of Trinity. Although it was rare for parliament to meet on a Sunday, this assembly also convened on Sunday 10 June (item 25), so it is possible that it did indeed have its opening session not on Monday 4 June (a possible interpretation of the octave) but on Sunday 3 June.
  • f1369int-2. RDP , IV.644-6.
  • f1369int-3. Return of the Name of Every Member of the Lower House of Parliament 1213-1874 , 2 vols. (London, 1878), I.181-3; CCR 1369-74, 100-1; M. McKisack, The Parliamentary Representation of the English Boroughs during the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1932), 146.
  • f1369int-4. For good recent summaries, see A. Curry, The Hundred Years War (Basingstoke, 1993), 71-80; J. Sumption, The Hundred Years War , in progress (London, 1990- ), II.578-85.
  • f1369int-5. For the details, see A.B. Wyon and A. Wyon, The Great Seals of England (London, 1887), 35-6.
  • f1369int-6. Handbook of British Chronology , ed. E.B. Fryde, D.E. Greenway, S. Porter and I. Roy, 3rd edn (London, 1986), 40.
  • f1369int-7. See further discussion in G.L. Harriss, King, Parliament and Public Finance in Medieval England to 1369 (Oxford, 1975), 504-5.
  • f1369int-8. Handbook of British Chronology , 563.
  • f1369int-9. For background, see T.F.T. Plucknett, A Concise History of the Common Law , 5th edn (London, 1956), 719.
  • f1369int-10. For background, see N. Adams, 'The Judicial Conflict over Tithes', EHR 52 (1937), 20-1; and Introduction to parliament of 1371.
  • f1369int-11. For background, see W.M. Ormrod, 'The politics of pestilence: government in England after the Black Death', in The Black Death in England , ed. W.M. Ormrod and P.G. Lindley (Stamford, 1996), 169 and n. 65; R. Virgoe, 'The crown, magnates, and government in fifteenth-century East Anglia', in The Crown and Local Communities in England and France in the Fifteenth Century , ed. J.R.L. Highfield and R. Jeffs (Gloucester, 1981), 73-4.
  • f1369int-12. For context, see C.J. Neville, 'Local sentiment and the "national" enemy in northern England in the later Middle Ages', Journal of British Studies 35 (1996), 419-37.
  • f1369int-13. 43 Edw III c. 4: SR , I.392.
  • f1369int-14. 43 Edw III c. 2: SR , I.391-2. It may be that this was also the occasion for the complaint of the 'great men and commons' concerning the rights of the king's butler to prise of wine, which resulted in the statute 43 Edw III c. 3 ( SR , I.392): there is no mention of this matter on the parliament roll itself.
  • f1369int-15. 43 Edw III c. 1: SR , I.390-1.
  • f1369int-16. For discussion, see T.H. Lloyd, The English Wool Trade in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1977), 216-17.
  • f1369int-17. B. McNab, 'Obligations of the Church in English society: military arrays of the clergy, 1369-1418', in Order and Innovation in the Middle Ages: Essays in Honor of J.R. Strayer , ed. W.C. Jordan, B. McNab and T.F. Ruiz (Princeton, 1976), 293-314.
  • f1369int-18. CCR 1369-74 , 100-1.
  • ii-299-76-1. SR , I.392 (c. iv)
  • ii-299-98-1. SR , I.391-2 (c. ii)
  • ii-299-100-1. SR , I.390-1 (c. i)