White Roding

Pages 256-258

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 2, Central and South west. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1921.

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101. WHITE RODING. (D.b.)

(O.S. 6 in. (a)xxxii. S.W. (b)xlii. N.W. (c)xlii. N.E.)

White Roding is a parish and scattered village 5½ m. E.N.E. of Harlow. The Church and Colville Hall, with its outbuilding and gateway, are the principal monuments.


b(1). Within a circuit of half a mile of Colville Hall, coins from the 1st to the 4th century, keys, and urns containing bones are recorded to have been found in 1848. (Brit. Arch. Assoc. Jour. iv. 156.) Nothing further is now known of these discoveries, but they seem to indicate a house or houses in this neighbourhood.


b(2). Parish Church of St. Martin stands on the W. side of the village. The walls are of flint-rubble with some admixture of brick and with dressings of clunch; the roofs are tiled and the spire is lead-covered. The Nave was built in the 11th or early in the 12th century, and the Chancel was re-built probably in the 14th century. Early in the 16th century the West Tower was re-built and early in the 17th century the South Porch was added. In 1878–9 the North Vestry was added and the building generally restored.

The Church, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (21½ ft. square) has in the E. wall a window, all modern except the 14th-century splays, which have attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. In the N. wall is a window, all modern except the splays and two-centred head, which are probably of the 14th century; further W. is the modern opening for the organ and N. vestry. In the S. wall are two windows, also modern, except the splays and segmental hollow-chamfered rear-arch, which are probably of the 14th century; between the windows is a doorway, modern externally but with splays and segmental-pointed rear-arch and label, probably of the 14th century. The 11th-century chancel-arch is of two plain orders on the W., and has a semi-circular head with slightly projecting springers.

The Nave (43 ft. by 25 ft.) has angle quoins of Roman brick and stone. It has in the N. wall two windows; the eastern is of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil under a two-centred head, all probably of late 14th-century date, partly restored; the western has a semi-circular head and is of the 11th century. Below this window is the N. doorway, of the same date, now blocked, and with plain jambs, chamfered imposts and semi-circular head; the tympanum, now plastered, is carried on an oak lintel; E. of the eastern window in a recess are the stone stairs to the former rood-loft. In the S. wall are four windows; the easternmost and westernmost are modern, except for the splays and rear-arches, which are probably of the 14th century; the second and third are round-headed windows of the 11th or early 12th century, with external arches of thin bricks and with some of the jamb-stones pierced as if for bars; under the third window is the S. doorway, uniform with the N. doorway, but with the jambs mortised to receive a bar.

The early 16th-century West Tower (12 ft. by 11½ft.) is of three successively diminished stages with splayed plinth and embattled parapet. The early 16th-century tower-arch is two-centred and of three orders; the outer orders are moulded on the E. side, the inner order is chamfered and has moulded capitals and bases. The W. window is modern. The second stage has both in the S. and W. sides a narrow window of two trefoiled lights in a square head. The bell-chamber has in each wall a much-restored window; the labels have head-stops, possibly of the 15th century, restored.

The early 17th-century South Porch (Plate p. 186) is of timber-framing; the open sides have wooden segmental arches on turned balusters. Curved struts form a two-centred head to the entrance archway. The gable has foliated and cusped bargeboards, much decayed.

The Roof of the chancel has a moulded tie-beam with curved braces, supported by stone corbels carved with grotesque figures; on the beam is an octagonal king-post with four-way struts and a moulded capital and base of late 14th or 15th-century date. The roof of the nave has five plain king-post trusses, probably of the same date.

Fittings—Altar: In pavement, under communion table—large slab with five consecration crosses. Bells: five; 1st 1664, 2nd 1665, 4th 1664, all by John Hodson; 3rd and 5th by R. Oldfield, 1614. Chair: In vestry—back with carved top and flanked by balusters, turned legs with carved rail, late 17th-century. Chest: In nave—hutch type with bolection moulded panels, early 18th-century. Communion Table: with moulded top and rail turned and twisted legs, early 18th-century. Doors: In entrance to tower staircase, probably 15th-century. In S. doorway—of wide battens with one hinge and a strap, both with ornamental foliated ends, foliated plate with drop-handle, 13th-century. Font: of Purbeck marble, square tapered bowl, moulded and carved with rough zig-zag pattern; the spandrels on the top surface have con-centric grooves; circular stem on square chamfered base; early 12th-century. Glass: In nave—in S.W. window, ornamental roundel, 15th-century. Indent: In chancel—of figure with inscription plate and shield. Piscina: In chancel —sexfoil drain, damaged, under a cinque-foiled ogee arch, probably 15th-century. In nave—in S. wall, with square head and cinque-foiled drain, 14th-century, Recess: In chancel—W. wall, S. of chancel arch, with moulded N. jamb and trefoiled arch, 13th-century. Miscellanea: loose on steps of rood-stair, broken and defaced head, probably 14th-century.

Condition—Good, restored.


Homestead Moats.

b(3). At the Rectory, immediately E.of the church.

b(4). At Snow's Farm, 2/3 m. S. of the church.

b(5). At Pottings, 1¼ m. S.W. of the church.

b(6). ½ m. N.W. of the church.

b(7). At Merks Hall, ½ m. N. of the church.

b(8). At Elms Cottage, ¾ m. E. of the church

a(9). Cammass Hall, house, outhouse and moat, 1¼ m. N. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably late in the 16th century on an H-shaped plan with the cross-wings on the E. and W. and a staircase-wing in the N. angle of the W. wing. The original chimney-stack has four attached diagonal shafts. Inside the building in the W. wing is an original fireplace with moulded stone jambs and an original doorway with moulded jambs and three-centred head. There is also an original moulded ceiling-beam.

The Outhouse, N.E. of the house, is of two storeys; the walls are of brick. It was built probably in the 17th century.

The Moat surrounds the house.

Condition—Of house and outhouse, good.

c(10). Lucas Farm, house and moat, about 1 m. E.N.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. The N. wing was built in the 16th century, and in the 17th century a wing was added at the S. end and extending E., making the plan L-shaped. The upper storey of the N. wing projects on the E. and W. sides with curved brackets and exposed joists; on each side also is an original doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head. The E. wing has a 17th-century chimney-stack, T-shaped on plan, and some old casement windows. Inside the building in the N. wing is a fireplace with an original moulded oak lintel, and several original windows with hollow-chamfered mullions, and now blocked. The roof has tie-beams with curved braces.

The Moat is fragmentary.

Condition—Of house, good.

b(11). Gatehouse Farm, house, barn and moat, nearly ¾ m. E. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and weather-boarded; the roof is thatched. It was built in the 17th century. Inside the building are exposed ceiling-beams and an open fireplace.

The Barn, N. of the house, is weather-boarded and has a projecting porch on the E. side. It was built in the 17th century and has a queen-post roof.

The Moat is fragmentary.

Condition—Of house and barn, fairly good.

b(12). Mascallsbury, house, barn and moat, about ½ m. S.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys partly timber-framed and partly faced with modern brick; the roofs are tiled. The earliest work in the house is of the 17th century, but the whole building has been entirely altered. Two chimney-stacks are original, one with grouped shafts set diagonally and one with flat pilasters.

The Barn, S.W. of the house, is of six bays, with a porch on the S. side. It is probably of the 16th century and has a roof of the queen-post type.

The Moat is fragmentary.

Condition—Of house, good, much altered.

b(13). Colville Hall, house, outbuilding and gateway, about ½ m. W. of the church. The House is of two storeys with basement, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built c. 1500, probably on an H-shaped plan with a central Hall and cross-wings at the N. and S. ends. The N. cross-wing was re-built in the 16th century, overlapping the central block and including a porch on the W. side. In the 17th century the space between the wings on the E. side was built over.

The House is an interesting example of the period, and the outbuilding and brick gateway are both noteworthy.

The W. front has most of the original timber-framing exposed. The upper storey of the main block originally projected, but has been under-built, except in the porch, where the later N. wing has been added in front of it. In this porch is the original entrance doorway with moulded jambs, and four-centred arch with carved spandrels all of oak; the door is of moulded battens. In the S. wall of the porch is a window of four lights with 16th-century moulded mullions. At the N. end is a 16th-century window of four lights with moulded oak mullions. At the S. end is a chimney-stack with two 17th-century shafts set diagonally. On the E. side one of the gables of the 17th-century addition has traces of a date in the plaster, possibly 1692. Inside the building, the Hall has original moulded ceiling-beams, and in the N. wall an original doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred head; there is also some panelling of c.1600. The room on the S. appears to have been partitioned off from the Hall, and is lined with original linenfold panelling, and has two doorways with rough four-centred heads. The middle room of the S. wing has a wide open fireplace and an original window of four lights with moulded oak mullions, and now blocked; there is a considerable quantity of linen-fold and later panelling. The cellars are of brick and have a series of niches in the walls. On the first floor is some panelling of various dates. The roofs of the original portions of the house have king-post trusses.

The Outbuilding (Plate p. 44), W. of the house, is of two storeys, timber-framed and with brick nogging; the roofs are tiled. It was built c. 1500. The upper storey projects on the E. front and has curved brackets and exposed joists. The doorway is original and has a four-centred head. On the first floor are five small windows which formerly projected; only one retains its original moulded mullions. At the back, the windows have bar-mullions set diagonally. Inside the building, the ceiling-beams rest on curved brackets with traceried spandrels, probably not in situ.

The Gateway (Plate p. 270), stands in a field S. of the house, and probably formed one of the entrances into the grounds. It is of red brick and was built c. 1500. The archway has moulded jambs and four-centred arch with a moulded label externally, and with a square head and moulded label internally; above the arch is a low gable with a weathered coping and the bases and part of shafts of three octagonal pinnacles.

Condition—Of house, fairly good; of outbuilding and gateway, poor.

Monuments (14–23).

The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century, timber-framed and plastered or weather-boarded; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Several of the buildings have original chimney-stacks, wide fireplaces and exposed ceiling-beams.

Condition—Good or fairly good.

b(14). Nash Farm, house, about 1,000 yards N. of the church, contains some original panelling.

a(15). Prows Farm, house, 500 yards N.E. of (14).

a(16). Philpotts, house, about 15/8 m. N. of the church.

a(17). Walker's Farm, house, about 1 m. N.E. of the church. The upper storey projects and is gabled at the E. end of the N. front. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts.

b(18). Warwicks, house, nearly 1 m. S. of the church, has a later wing at the back.

b(19). Hole Farm, house, now three tenements, ¾ m. S.E. of the church, is of T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the E. end. The upper storey projects at the S. end of the cross-wing. The original central chimney-stack has grouped shafts set diagonally on a square base with a moulded capping.

b(20). Kingston's Farm, house, ½ m. S. of the church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.W. and S.W.

b(21). Cottage, about 650 yards S.E. of the church.

b(22). Cottage, 50 yards E. of (21).

b(23). Rectory Cottages, three tenements, 200 yards E. of the church.