An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 4, South east. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1923.
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42. HORNDON-ON-THE-HILL. (C.d.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)lxxvi. S.W. (b)lxxxiv. N.W.)
Horndon-on-the-Hill is a parish and village 5 m. N.N.E. of Tilbury. The church and the Old Market Hall are the principal monuments.
a(1). Parish Church of SS. Peter and Paul (Plates, pp. xxxviii–ix, 74) stands in the village. The walls are of ragstone and flint-rubble, with some Roman and later brick; the dressings are of Reigate and other limestone; the roofs are tiled. The Chancel, Nave and North and South Aisles were built early in the 13th century; shortly afterwards a N. chapel was added. In the 15th century the chancel was lengthened towards the E., the North Chapel, North Aisle and the W. wall of the nave largely re-built, and the South Porch and Bell-turret added. In the 17th century the walls of the N. chapel and aisle were lowered and the main roof carried down over them. The church has been extensively restored in modern times, when much of the S. wall of the chancel was re-built, the N. wall refaced and the S. porch largely re-built.
The church is of some architectural interest and amongst the fittings the font is noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (35 ft. by 18½ ft.) has an early 15th-century E. window, partly restored, and of four cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label and one grotesque and one defaced stop; N. of the window and set low in the wall is a small opening (2 in. by 4 in.); it is square internally and of doubtful purpose. In the N. wall is a re-set 13th-century lancet-window, with shafted splays and modern externally; further W. is an arcade of c. 1240, of two bays with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders; the restored octagonal column has a moulded capital and 'hold-water' base; the responds have attached half columns. In the S. wall are two 15th-century windows, the eastern of two four-centred lights in a square head and the western of two trefoiled lights in a square head with a moulded label; it is partly restored and re-set in the re-built wall; between the windows is a modern doorway. The 13th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of two continuous hollow-chamfered orders, much restored.
The North Chapel (18½ ft. by 12 ft.) has in the E. wall a window probably of the 15th century, but much altered when the roof was lowered in the 17th century and fitted with a wooden frame. In the N. wall is a window incorporating some 17th-century bricks, with an oak frame partly of the 17th century. In the W. wall is a modern arch.
The Nave (50½ ft. by 16½ ft.) has early 13th-century N. and S. arcades (Plate, p. 74) of four bays with two-centred arches of two orders, the inner chamfered and the outer plain except in the fourth bay on the N. and the third on the S., where both orders are chamfered; three of the voussoirs of the first bay on the N. have carved rosettes; the columns are cylindrical, except the middle one on each side, which is octagonal; the responds are semi-circular and they and the columns have moulded capitals and bases; the capitals of both E. responds and of the two eastern columns on the N. are carved with conventional foliage of varying design. Above the two eastern columns of the N. arcade are two 13th-century clearstorey windows, both originally quatre-foiled; the eastern one has now a modern external head of brick. In the W. wall is a window with a modern frame and 15th-century splays; the 15th-century W. doorway has moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head with a moulded label and traceried spandrels enclosing small heads. The 15th-century Bell-turret (Plate, pp. xxxviii–ix), at the W. end of the nave, stands on four posts supporting cross-beams with curved braces; the N. and S. cross-beams are cantilevered towards the E. and support struts to the superstructure; above the cross-beams is trellis-framing.
The North Aisle (12½ ft. wide) has in the N. wall three windows; the two eastern are of the 15th century and of two lights with the head cut down when the roof was lowered, and otherwise altered; the westernmost window is a 13th-century lancet with a modern head and 17th-century repair; the 14th or 15th-century N. doorway has a two-centred hollow-chamfered head and a moulded label; it was blocked in the 17th century. In the W. wall is a 15th-century window of two cinque-foiled lights in a square head with a moulded label.
The South Aisle (5 ft. wide) has in the S. wall three windows, the two eastern are of the 14th century and each of two trefoiled ogee lights with a flowing quatrefoil in a two-centred head with a moulded label; the westernmost window is an early 13th-century lancet with moulded splays and rear-arch, carved and foliated imposts of curious design and a restored head; the early 13th-century S. doorway has a round head of two moulded orders; the jambs have each two attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases, all much defaced.
The South Porch has been re-built except for the brick plinth, but incorporates some 15th-century timber, including the sills of the side windows and the cusped barge-boards to the gable. The roof is of two bays and has moulded wall-plates partly restored and curved and moulded principals forming two-centred arches.
The Roof of the chancel is of the 15th century and of braced collar-beam type with moulded wall-plates and one old tie-beam. The roof of the nave was altered in the 18th century, but incorporates two 15th-century king-post trusses and other timbers. The modern roofs of the N. chapel and S. aisle incorporate some old timbers.
Fittings—Bells: five, inaccessible, but said to be: 3rd by John Waylett, 1706; 5th by John Clifton, 1640. Brass: In chancel—to Daniel Caldwell , inscription with shield-of-arms. Font (Plate, pp. xlii–iii): square bowl, cusped panels cut at each end of each side, square stem with similar panelling, hollow-chamfered base, 14th-century. Glass: In E. window—quarries with yellow and black design, fragment of border, and three irradiated roundels, two with "ihc," 15th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall (1) to Daniel Caldwell, 1634 and Alice (Mayn), his wife, alabaster and marble wall-monument with Corinthian side columns, two angels and three shields-of-arms. In N. aisle—on N. wall (2) to Thomas Ashen, 1684, and Frances, his wife, 1694, white marble tablet with broken pediment and urn. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to Susan, daughter of Jonas Sandford, 163(7 ?), with achievement-of-arms; (2) to Laurence Caldwell, 1631; (3) to Phillip Newport, 1686; (4) to Phillip Newport, jun., 1690; (5) to Frances, only daughter of William Grant, 1706, with achievement-of-arms; (6) to Jasper Kingsman, jun., 1686, with achievement-of-arms; (7) to Jasper Kingsman, 1704, with achievement-of-arms. In N. chapel—(8) Susanah Sto . . ., 16(6 ?)8; (9) to Ann, daughter of Thomas Caldwell, 1652. In N. aisle— (10) to Thomas, John, William, John and Richard, sons of Thomas Ashen, 17th-century. In church-yard—W. side (11) to Samuel Banks, 1711, and Hannah Wilkinson, his daughter, 1703. Niche: In chancel—in S. wall, with two-centred head of re-used window-tracery. Painting: In nave— remains of red and black colour on columns of both arcades, traces of foliage above N. arcade at W. end and of scroll design above S. arcade. Above S. doorway, scroll with text, restored. Piscina: In chancel—with four-centred head towards chancel and smaller opening into recess of S.E. window, round drain, possibly early 16th-century. Plate (Plate, p. xliv): includes cup of 1567, flagon of 1700 and two 17th-century pewter plates. Recesses: In nave—in E. respond of N. arcade, small square recess. Outside W. doorway, two square recesses, one above the other. Sedile: In chancel—sill of S.E. window carried down to form seat. Stoup: In S. aisle—E. of S. doorway, with square head and mutilated bowl, possibly 16th-century. Miscellanea: Set on corbels on N. wall of aisle, externally, parts of head of 15th-century window; other worked stones used as borders to paths in churchyard.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered or weather-boarded; the roofs are tiled. Many of the buildings have exposed ceiling-beams and original chimney-stacks.
Condition—Good, or fairly good.
Main Street, E. side
a(2). Bell Inn (Plates, pp. xxxiv, xl), about 100 yards S.E. of the church, was built in the 15th century with wings projecting E. from the N. and S. ends. The S. wing was re-built in the 17th century and has a modern extension. The cartway, with the storey above, was also re-built in the 17th century. The upper storey projects on the whole of the E. side, with exposed joists and timber-framing. The upper storey also projects on the S. part of the W. front. In the N. wall are three blocked windows and a blocked original doorway with a four-centred head. There is a similar doorway at the back of the N.E. wing. Inside the building the N.E. wing has an original wall-post, with a shaped head and an original king-post roof.
a(3). Gates (Plate, p. 64), at house, 50 yards N. of (2), are of wood and of two folds with quadrant-shaped tops and deeply moulded panels. They date from late in the 17th or early in the 18th century.
a(4). Cottage, about 200 yards S.S.E. of the church, is thatched and probably formed part of a 16th-century house. Inside the building is a 17th-century battened door.
a(5). Old Vicarage, 50 yards N. of (4), has been much altered and added to.
a(6). House (Plate, p. xl), two tenements, at N. corner of street, 100 yards N. of (5), was built in the 15th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N. and W. The W. wing has a later extension. The upper storey projects on the S. side of the original W. wing. Inside the building both wings have remains of the original roof-construction.
a(7). House (Plate, p. xl), N. of (6), was built in the 16th century. Inside the building is an original cambered tie-beam with curved braces.
a(8). Old Market Hall (Plates, pp. xl, 65), now club-room, N. of (7), was built in the 16th century and originally had an open ground-storey three bays from N. to S. and two bays wide. It has now been closed in and the upper storey which projects has been largely re-built. The former open market hall has heavy posts and cross-beams with curved braces forming four-centred arches. Some of the curved brackets under the projecting upper storey remain.
a(9). House, four tenements, 50 yards N. of (8), is of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the W. and N. The upper storey projects on the S. side.
a(10). House, two tenements, N. of (9), was built probably in the 16th century, but has been refaced with modern brick.
a(11). Gore Ox Farm, house, two tenements and barn, 550 yards W.S.W. of the church. The House has modern additions on the W. and N.
The Barn, N. of the house, is of five bays, with a roof of queen-post type.
a(12). Linsteads Farm, house, two tenements, and barn, 1,500 yards S.W. of the church. The House was built probably in the 16th century and is of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the W. and S. Inside the building is an original queen-post roof-truss.
The Barn (Plate, p. xli), E. of the house, is of five bays, with a roof of queen-post type.
a(13). Great Malgraves, house, about 1 m. N. of the church, was built probably in the 16th century, with cross-wings at the N. and S. ends. The N. wing was extended W. in the 17th century. The upper storey projects at the end of this extension and the central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts.
a(14). Wrens Park, house, 1,100 yards N.N.E. of the church, was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century and has a modern addition on the N.
a(15). Rucks Farm, house, ¼ m. N.E. of (14), was built in the 15th century, to which period the middle portion and the N.E. cross-wing belong. The S.W. part was added or re-built in the 16th century and the original main block raised. The upper storey projects at the S.E. end of the original cross-wing. Inside the building the cross-wing has an original king-post roof-truss. The 16th-century part has curved wind-braces to the roof.
a(16). Arden Hall, house, outhouses and barns, ½ m. N.E. of the church. The House is of three storeys and was much altered and refronted in brick about the middle of the 18th century.
The Outbuilding, E. of the house, is part of a 15th-century house and has an original king-post roof-truss. S. of the house is a square building (Plate, pp. 56–7) of brick, with a pyramidal roof and built as a pigeon-house.
The Barn, N.E. of the house, is of five bays with a W. porch. A second barn, N.W. of the first, is also of five bays, with a S. porch; the roof is thatched.
a(17). The Gables (Plate, p. 57) (formerly Myrtle Cottage), house, 600 yards S.S.E. of the church, has a late 17th-century and a modern addition at the back. The central chimney-stack is original and has grouped diagonal shafts and pilasters. Inside the building the main chimney-stack has a small trefoil-headed niche on the S. side. In the N.E. room is some original panelling and there are some panelled doors in the attics. The staircase, of c. 1700, has turned balusters and some flat shaped balusters of earlier date.
b(18). Saffron Gardens, house and outbuilding, about 1,100 yards S.S.W. of the church. The House is of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N. and E. In the 18th century two small bays were added to the S. front, probably to contain two powdering closets. In the angle of the wings is a small turret, formerly containing a newel staircase. Inside the building two rooms have original panelling and one of them has a fireplace of stone with a moulded lintel carved with figures and conventional foliage, with a shield-of-arms in the middle; the lintel is supported by two helmeted terminal figures; flanking the fireplace are fluted Doric pilasters of oak supporting a panelled overmantel divided into two bays; the various parts do not fit and are evidently not in situ.