Longtown

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 1, South west. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1931.

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'Longtown', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 1, South west( London, 1931), British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/heref/vol1/pp179-191 [accessed 13 July 2024].

'Longtown', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 1, South west( London, 1931), British History Online, accessed July 13, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/heref/vol1/pp179-191.

"Longtown". An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 1, South west. (London, 1931), , British History Online. Web. 13 July 2024. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/rchme/heref/vol1/pp179-191.

In this section

46 LONGTOWN (B.c.).

(O.S. 6 in. (a)XLIII, N.E., (b)XLIII, S.E., (c)XLIV, N.W., (d)XLIV, S.W., (e)XLIX, N.W.)

Longtown with Clodock is a large parish on the Monmouthshire border of the county and at the foot of the Black Mountains, 12 m. S.W. of Hereford. The principal monuments are the church at Clodock and Longtown Castle, while Oldcourt Farm, Ty-mawr, Great Bilbo, and a few other farmhouses are of mediæval origin.

Ecclesiastical

Longtown, the Parish Church of St Clodock

b(1). Parish Church of St. Clodock (Plate 6) stands on the left bank of the Monnow, in the S. part of the parish. The walls are of the local shaly sandstone with dressings of the same material; the roofs are covered with ordinary slates and stone slates. The Nave was built probably in the second half of the 12th century. The Chancel was re-built in the 13th century. Probably early in the 15th century the West Tower was added or re-built. There is little evidence of the date of the South Porch which may be as old as the 13th century. The church has been buttressed at various times and restored in the 19th century.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (29¼ ft. by 18 ft.) has an E. window, probably of late 13th-century date and of three lights, the two side lights pointed and the middle light formed by carrying the mullions up to the two-centred main head; below the window is a wide recess with a four-centred head of tufa and a modern S. jamb. In the N. wall is a small 13th-century lancet-window. In the S. wall is a window, perhaps of the 16th century and of two square-headed lights, with moulded external reveals; further W. is a blocked 13th-century lancet-window, not visible internally; near the W. end of the wall is a doorway, reconstructed at some late period; it has chamfered jambs and a roughly rounded arch with a relieving-arch above it; E. of the doorway are straight joints indicating the position of a former and perhaps earlier doorway. The late 12th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of two chamfered orders; the responds are also of two orders, the outer plain and the inner with an attached shaft with a moulded base and a scalloped or fluted capital; the bases have spur-ornaments; the responds have been strengthened by the addition of a third plain order perhaps of the 17th or 18th century. The ends of the adjoining walls have been re-built at the same time and toothings left, showing the intention to rebuild the side walls of the chancel.

The Nave (61½ ft. by 26¾ ft.) has in the N. wall two windows, each of one round-headed light. In the S. wall are four windows; the easternmost is similar to the E. window; the second window is c. 1340 and of three trefoiled ogee lights with tracery in a square head; the early 16th-century third window is of one cinque-foiled light in a four-centred head, with casementmoulded external reveals; the 15th-century westernmost window is set high in the wall, and perhaps re-set, to light the gallery, and is of two cinque-foiled ogee lights with tracery in a four-centred head, with casement-moulded external reveals; E. of this window is the round head of a blocked 12th-century window; the S. doorway, of the 13th or 14th century, has chamfered jambs and two-centred head, mostly retooled.

The West Tower (11¾ ft. square), probably of early 15th-century date, is of three stages with an embattled parapet, one plain spout and one grotesque gargoyle. The ground stage has in the E. wall a doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head; the S. and W. walls have each a plain square-headed light. The second stage has in the N., S. and W. walls a square-headed loop. The bell-chamber has in each wall a window of two trefoiled lights in a segmental-pointed head. On the E. face of the tower is the weathering of a roof over the nave, of slightly steeper pitch than the existing roof.

The South Porch has an outer archway with plain jambs and roughly pointed head. There is a long vertical crack in the gable which has been patched with roofing-tiles.

The Roof of the chancel is of trussed-rafter type, but has been ceiled with modern boarding. The roof of the nave is of similar type and has also been ceiled with modern boarding; there are seven moulded tie-beams, probably of early 16th-century date, and the moulded wall-plates are of the same section.

Fittings—Bells: five; 1st by John Finch, 1663; 3rd, 1624; 5th by John Finch, 1649, with same maker's mark as 1st. Brackets: in nave—on E. wall, S. of chancel-arch, (1) semi-octagonal with chamfered lower edge, (2) rectangular, with moulded face with chamfer below, 13th-century. Chests: in nave—against N. wall, hutch type with solid ends, moulded edges to front and back, solid lid with moulded rim and hung on three strap-hinges; three lock plates on front; front carved with date 1695. Against W. wall, dug out, rebated for lid which is missing, much worn and worm-eaten, 13th-century. Communion Rails: facing front and sides of sanctuary, with square sill, moulded rail, turned balusters and two square posts surmounted by turned ball-finials on either side of entrance with gate uniform with rest of railing, late 17th-century. Communion Table: with four turned legs, moulded stretchers, chamfered top rails, c. 1700, with modern addition to top and modern front and back top rails. Doors: in chancel—to S. doorway, with segmental head, nail-studded and battened and hung on strap-hinges, 17th-century. In nave—to S. doorway, with two-centred head, nail-studded and battened and hung on two strap-hinges, 16th-century; to doorway to vise, battened, partly nail-studded and with one old strap-hinge, 16th-century. To entrance from nave to W. tower, battened and hung on pair of strap-hinges; small wicket cut in middle of door and hung on pair of strap-hinges, 16th-century. Font: with curved circular bowl, short round shaft and base, 13th-century. Font-Cover: of wood planks dowelled together and ornamented on top with incised rings; square iron handle, 17th-century. Gallery: across W. end of nave, with moulded front beam supported on two rectangular posts with fluted fronts, moulded sides, plain backs and small moulded caps planted on; under side of gallery with exposed joists (some modern) and above front beam, gallery-front with bolection moulded panels and moulded rail; floor of gallery raised in three stages forming three tiers of seats with moulded edges to seats and backs with moulded top rail supported on small turned balusters; seats stop short of S. wall and terminate in panelled sides. Staircase to gallery in two flights with moulded string and handrails, square newels and turned balusters, c. 1700. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In churchyard—S. of nave, (1) much weathered slab with lower part of effigy (?); (2) to Ann Jenkins, 1707, headstone; (3) to Howell Powell, 1712, Ann his wife, 1712, and others later, table-tomb with enriched slab and angles of baluster-section; (4) to Noah Vaughan, 1679, later table-tomb with re-used enriched slab and shield-of-arms; S. of tower, (5) to Elizabeth, wife of Joseph Simonds, 1708, table-tomb. Floor-slabs: In chancel— (1) to . . . . ., 1705; (2) to W.G., 1663, scratched inscription; (3) to . . . . ., 1663; (4) to Thomas Gwillim, 1685, and Catherin Gwillim, 1704–5. In nave— (5) to Thomas Symonds, 1661; (6) to William Simonds, 1661; (7) to Thomas Price, 1671–2; (8) to Lewis Philip, 1676, enriched slab; (9) to Abednego Prichard, 1681–2; (10) to Mar . . . Thomas, 1674; (11) to W.E., 1702 and A.E., 1707; (12) to C.N., 1710; (13) to H.T., 1703; (14) to John Edwards, 1710–11. Paintings: In nave—on soffit of rear-arch and around easternmost window in N. wall, in red on yellow and white ground traces of floral pattern on soffit, mediæval; to E. of above traces of illegible black letter inscription, 16th or 17th-century. Above gallery stairs, head of cherub in red and black and traces of (?) Decalogue, 17th-century. E. of above, two rectangular panels with semi-circular heads and conventional floral borders, inscribed with the Decalogue, 18th-century. Small fragment of painting showing what may possibly be portions of a spear and a house or tabernacle in yellow and red (?), 15th-century. On N. wall—a much defaced Royal Arms, probably of George I. Piscina: in nave—in S. wall, with trefoiled head with cylindrical cusp-points and projecting rectangular shelf with chamfered corners, under edge and rectangular drain, head probably early 14th-century, drain 12th-century. Pulpit: Threedecker. Octagonal in plan, with bolection-moulded panelled sides and moulded and coved cornice forming book-rest; S. side carried up in two bolection-moulded panels, flanked by carved and pierced scrolls and flowers and supporting octagonal sounding-board with moulded architrave, pulvinated frieze, moulded cornice and panelled soffit with central boss carved as conventional flowers, c. 1700, incorporating some earlier 17th-century panelling; approached by timber stair of late 18th-century date; lower clerk's desk below with moulded cornice as book-rest. Royal Arms: See Paintings. Seating: in chancel—against N. wall, box quire-stall, with front panelled in two tiers with plain lower panels and upper panels carved with incised conventional foliage and border and upper parts of styles similarly enriched, panelled door at E. end with bolection-moulded lower panel and carved upper panel; back against wall panelled with two tiers of panels, upper panel carved with grotesque monsters, also cut date 1657. Against W. wall, on either side of chancel-arch, two box pews with shaped ends enriched with carved floral ornament and that on N. side with two moulded pyramidal finials against N. wall and door with two moulded panels, c. 1657, probably repaired or re-built c. 1700. In nave— against N. and S. walls, formerly box-pews, partly reconstructed, but incorporating various types of panelling, including (a) 17th-century panelling with flush mouldings to framing; (b) moulded framing and splayed panels of c. 1700; (c) bolection-moulded panelling of c. 1700 with, in some cases, the mouldings planted on to 17th-century panelling; (d) panelling of c. 1600 with stop-moulded framing; in middle of nave —range of pews, mostly of box-type with doors hung on shaped hinges and some with top rails enriched with conventional carving; two pews with turned finials; pews carved with following incised dates, 1660, E TI 1668, and W 1701. Against gallery-staircase, bench with four turned legs, plain stretchers, moulded rails beneath seat and moulded rim to seat; against E. wall, S. of chancel-arch, smaller but similar bench to above with carving in relief on top of seat, 17th-century (see also Gallery). Miscellanea: Lych Gate; built into modern stone walls, on either side of gate, posts, with cross-beam supported by brackets with small truss above of pedimental form; on face of beam, incised date 1667; roof over gate re-built.

Condition—Good.

b(2). Church of St. Peter, Longtown, stands about midway between the N. and S. boundaries of the parish near the western border. The walls are of local rubble with dressings of a harder similar stone; the roofs are covered with stone slates. The only apparent evidence of the 12th century is a re-used capital serving as a piscina. The Chancel is of the 13th century and the Nave may have been of the same period, but now retains little old work. In the 14th century the existing E. window was put in the chancel. The roof is dated 1640. The building was restored in 1867 and the S. Porch is modern.

The building is of little architectural interest though the stone bench along the outside of the S. wall of the nave is unusual.

The Church, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (21¾ ft. by 15½ ft.) has a battering plinth. In the E. wall is a 14th-century window of two ogee trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil above, but with no main external arch. In the N. wall is a single lancet, old outside and with rebated jambs but modern internally. In the S. wall is a similar but wider lancet which is also modern on the inside. The chancel-arch is modern.

The Nave (52½ ft. by 21¼ ft.) has the W. wall plastered externally. In the N. wall are two modern two-light windows of 13th-century design and in the S. wall are three modern windows with a 13th-century roll-moulded string-course below; the S. doorway is modern. Externally between the S. porch and the S.E. buttress is an old stone bench. In the W. wall is a tall modern lancet; the gable supports a modern bell-cote with arched openings for two bells.

The Roof of the chancel is of braced collar-beam type with the beams forming segmental arches under each pair of common rafters; the moulded wall-plates have modern cornices; the N. wall-plate is inscribed "ANNO 1640." The nave roof is modern, but retains three old tie-beams.

Fittings—Bells: two; inaccessible, one modern, but the other may be old. Chest: in nave—at W. end, plain hutch-type with notched ornament on angles, two strap hinges to lid and formerly two locks, 17th-century. Bracket: in chancel—on E. wall, N. of E. window, with beaded edges and splayed soffit, probably 14th-century. Piscina: in chancel—on S. wall, with square drain in head of scalloped capital, late 12th-century.

Condition—Good.

Longtown Castle

b(3). The Castle, mount and bailey, and outworks, stands on the S. end of a spur at the N. end of the village, commanding the valleys of the Monnow and one of its tributaries, which flowing past either side of the Castle meet about ¾ m. farther S. The fortifications consisted of a rectangular enclosure of about three acres with a motte at the N.W. angle on which stood a circular keep. The outworks lie to the N. of the enclosure. The ground slopes away on all sides except the N. where it rises slightly. The W. half of the enclosure is divided roughly into two parts of which the northern formed the inner bailey and the southern the outer bailey. The inner bailey was bounded by a curtain wall on the N.E., E., and S. sides with an entrance gateway in the S. wall. There appears to have been no wall along the W. side where possibly the steepness of the scarp made any formidable masonry unnecessary. The general fortifications appear to be of post-Conquest work, but very possibly placed on the site of, and incorporating, an earthwork of earlier date. It has been suggested that the site is that of a Roman camp, but apart from the general resemblance of the plan of the quadrangular enclosure to that of a Roman earthwork there is no evidence to support this theory. The Keep and the remains of the curtain-walls to the inner bailey, together with the remains of the southern gateway are all of late 12th or early 13th-century date.

The circular Keep is an interesting example of this somewhat unusual form of building and the unusual lay-out of the outer courts are noteworthy.

The Earthworks consist of a rectangular enclosure with rounded angles enclosed by a high rampart (Plate 2) and fosse, but the latter is now partially filled in on the W. and N. sides; on the W. side the rampart runs into the motte, which stands at the N.W. angle of the enclosure, while on the N. side there is a gap between the rampart and the motte. Near the middle of the S. rampart is an inner fosse or sunk entrance running from it and at right angles to the outer fosse, and dividing the enclosure roughly into two halves. Only the southern part of this fosse remains, but it probably originally continued northwards across the enclosure and formed an outlet through the existing gap in the N. rampart by the E. side of the motte. The site of the possible N. end of this fosse is now level and forms part of the playground to the modern school buildings which have been erected here. Gaps in the N. and S. ramparts afford passage for a road which runs right through the enclosure; on the W. side of the S. gap the bank contains remains of built masonry, on the natural rock, which may be part of a former gateway; there is a small gap and path near the N.E. angle. An entrance through the E. rampart near the S. end may be old.

The Outworks are situated in a field to the N. of the enclosure. They consist of a bank some 130 yards long, running in a N. direction from the S.E. corner of the field and continuing in line with the E. rampart of the castle enclosure; there are signs of a return of the bank at its S. extremity extending towards the W. In the extreme N.W. corner of the field is a slight platform or terrace about 44 yards by 37 yards and immediately S. of this are some irregular slight mounds and hollows.

The Keep (Plate 177) is now a ruin; it was of two storeys; the walls are of shaly rubble with ashlar dressings. It is of late 12th or early 13th-century date, but the windows appear to have been altered at a later date, probably in the 14th century. It was circular on plan. Externally it had a plinth with a chamfered top and above the second floor the wall face is set back with a chamfered capping to the lower part. The outer circumference was divided approximately into three by nearly semi-circular projections; the easternmost of these projections was utilised as a chimney-flue and the most southerly one has a vise, of which the western part remains; the rest of this projection is now destroyed with about eight feet of the walling at this point for the whole height of the tower. The upper part of the walling, from a few feet above the second-storey level, has all gone as has also a part of the walling below this level on the N.E. side, while the whole of the facing of the plinth has disappeared. The ground floor has, in each bay, the remains of a square-headed window with external and internal segmental relieving arches of ashlar, and internally splayed reveals with a square rectangular recess in one of the splays of each window; all have been badly defaced; of the jambs of the westernmost window only one or two fragments remain; of the northernmost window two of the jamb-stones and one in the head remain, while the external relieving-arch consists of late 12th-century dressed stones enriched with carved rosettes or roundels and the soffit of one of the voussoirs, which is exposed, is similarly carved. On the E. side of the gap where the walling has been destroyed is a small portion of a splayed reveal, probably of the entrance doorway. The ground floor had a timber ceiling supported on a main cross-beam with struts; the struts rested on stone corbels which still remain; there are set-backs at the floor-levels. On the first floor the W. bay has two and the N. bay one small window with chamfered jambs and square heads with segmental rear-arches, and the S.E. bay has the remains of one similar window. S. of and against the N.W. projection is the outlet from a garde-robe, corbelled out from the wall on two stepped corbels at the first-floor level; the front and side walls of the garde-robe are carried up for a few feet vertically and the projection is roofed with a stone lean-to roof. Cutting through the chamfered capping to the upper set back in the wall are seven small square openings, more or less regularly spaced. By the gap where the wall has gone some of the steps from the first to second floor and the curved inner face of the vise may be seen. Behind the E. projection on the ground floor, the gathering for the flue remains, although the actual fireplace recess is practically destroyed. On the first floor a passage in the wall leads to the remains of the garde-robe.

The Curtain Wall ran S.E. from immediately S. of the easternmost bastion of the keep for a distance of nearly 40 yards; from here it ran S. for 30 yards and returned at right angles till it met the W. rampart, thus bounding the irregularly shaped inner bailey on three of its sides. On the N. and E. sides three portions of the wall approximately 6 ft. thick remain, the most westerly of which rises for some distance up the side of the motte and formerly joined up to the keep where a recess in the plinth indicates the junction. On the S. side the wall is continuous from the E. angle to about 10 yards from the W. rampart and stands to an average height of about 11 ft., but the inner face of the wall for the whole length has been destroyed. At the E. end about five yards of the return wall remains. In the wall towards the E. end is the entrance; it consists of a semi-circular arched opening with grooves in the side for a portcullis; flanking the opening and projecting into the outer bailey are semi-circular bastions; the outer face of the westernmost bastion has been destroyed; there is a modern pent-roof between the bastions and the archway. In the angle against the E. bastion is a modern stable.

In the Outer Bailey, immediately S.E. of the more easterly bastion of the gateway to the inner bailey, are some exposed foundations of a small building, the E. end of which is formed by part of a wall approximately 6 ft. high which also acts as a retaining wall to the outer bailey. These remains, with perhaps the exception of the retaining wall, appear to be of considerably later date than the other remains. There is a low modern retaining wall along the top of the scarp for the greater part of the S. and W. sides of the outer bailey.

Condition—Of earthworks, good; of Keep and walls, ruinous.

b(4). Motte and Bailey (Plan, p. xxxiv), known as the Mound, W. of Middle Pont-hendre, 650 yards N. of Clodock church, is situated on a spur of the foothills of the Black Mountains with the surrounding ground rising on the W. and sloping rapidly towards the streams on the N.E. and E. and with an easier fall towards the S. The motte (Plate 1) is practically circular, about 51 yards in diameter at the base, and rises to a height of between 30 and 40 feet above the surrounding dry ditch. To the N.E. is an irregularly shaped crescent-bailey protected by a scarp only, except at its junctions with the motte-ditch where there are two lengths of rampart some 11 ft. above the bottom of the ditch.

Condition—Of motte, good; of bailey, poor.

c(5). Oldcourt Farm, farmhouse and barns, 1¼ m. N.E. of the Castle. The House (Plate 14) is partly of one storey with attics and partly of two storeys. The walls are of coursed sandstone-rubble with some ashlar dressings; the roofs are covered with stone slates. The house was built in the 14th century with a central Hall, open to the roof, and Solar and Buttery crosswings on the E. and W. sides respectively. In the 16th century the wings were extended towards the S. and outer wings were added E. and W. of the crosswings. The latter possibly incorporating an earlier building. Alterations made during the 17th century probably include the insertion of the upper floor and the chimney-stack at the W. end of the Hall, while in modern times there has been some rebuilding to the S. end of the Solar-wing and other minor alterations.

On the S. or entrance-front, the roof over the Hall-block is carried down to the first-floor level; in the return W. wall of the E. wing is a blocked window of a single square-headed light. On the N. front at the end of the E. cross-wing is a projecting chimney-stack. In the main block is a 14th-century transomed window (Plate 13) of two trefoiled lights, the chamfered mullion has, on the inside, a central roll-moulding which is brought forward in the middle with a flat pierced projection, presumably for an iron shutter-bar. Farther W., opening to the Kitchen, is a doorway with an old battened door hung on strap-hinges. In the N. wall of the 16th-century E. wing is a blocked doorway with an old oak frame and a narrow segmental head below the lintel; E. of the doorway is a three-light transomed window and in the upper part of the wall is a two-light window with an old oak frame. On the E. side of the house, on both the ground and first floor of the Solar-wing, is a four-light window with oak frame and mullions, and in the gabled end of the 16th-century block is a five-light transomed window of similar type. Inside the building, on the ground floor, the Hall has the exposed beams of the inserted upper floor. In the doorway between the Hall and the Kitchen is a battened door hung on two strap-hinges. Immediately W. of the inserted chimney-stack, in the Kitchen which now occupies the original Buttery-wing, are the exposed feet of one of the original roof-trusses with a tie-beam between them. This beam appears to have formed the head of the partition between the former 'Screens' and the Buttery and has, cut in the soffit, the mortice-holes, for the posts, and two ogee-shaped arched heads of former doorways. In the ceiling of the kitchen are stop-chamfered beams and exposed joists and in the W. wall a stone doorway, with chamfered jambs and two-centred arch, giving access to the 16th-century W. projecting wing now used as a Dairy. In the ceiling of the Dairy are exposed beams. The ground floor of the Solar wing is divided into two rooms by a central passage, the S. partition of which is of small square-headed panels and the N. partition with stop-chamfered framing and ogee arch cut in framing to form a door-head. The northernmost room has an old fireplace spanned by a stop-chamfered stone lintel. The 16th-century E. extension, now used as a Cider-store, has chamfered ceiling-beams and joists. On the first floor, in the Hall block, are three original 14th-century roof-trusses (Plate 23) of steep pitch and of crutchconstruction with the crutches tapering towards the ridge. The central truss is cut away below the floor; it has the principal timbers chamfered and is tied with a cambered collar-beam supported by curved braces in the form of a two-centred arch. The other two trusses have the crutches tied together with collars but are without braces; the easternmost forms part of a partition-wall; the wind-braces are retained in the bay in which the later chimney-stack is inserted.

Sketch Plan of Old Court Farm, In the parish of Longtown

The Cart-shed and Barn, S.W. of the house, appears to have been built as a dwelling. It is of one storey with attics; the walls are of coursed stone-rubble and the roof is covered with stone slates. It was built late in the 16th century. The projecting chimney-stack at the N. end has two detached diagonal shafts. Built against the E. side of the stack is a small gabled wing containing a staircase. In the N. end of the E. wall is an unusually small doorway with a heavy chamfered frame and segmental head and in the staircase-wing is a window with an old chamfered frame. Inside the building are stop-chamfered beams and exposed joists.

The Barn, S. of the house, is partly of stone-rubble and partly of weather-boarded timber-framing on a stone base; the roofs are covered with stone slates. It is of late 17th or early 18th-century date. Internally it is in four bays with queen-post roof-trusses.

The Cow-shed, E. of the house, is of one storey with a loft. The walls are of rubble and the roof is covered with stone slates. The ground floor and the loft have each a five-light window, with diamond-shaped mullions, in the N. wall. In the side walls are loops. Inside the building the roof has queen-post trusses.

Condition—Of house, fairly good.

Ty-Mawr (Longtown)

b(6). Ty-mawr, farmhouse, 1,070 yards S.S.W. of Clodock church, is of two storeys with attics with a barn and a two-storeyed stable attached. The walls are of rubble and the roofs are coverd with stone slates. The N.E. wing dates from the 14th century, the barn which occupies the middle part having been the central Hall of a house of that date. In the 17th century considerable alterations were made when the end wings of the original house were remodelled, the N.E. end being turned into stables and a long cross-wing built at the S.W. end, making the plan of the whole building an irregular T-shape; this latter wing incorporates an earlier building. The S.E. front has, at the end of the cross-wing, a chimney-stack with weathered sides and square shafts. Some of the doorways have old frames and battened doors. The N.W. front has a small rectangular projection at the northernmost corner, possibly some form of garde-robe, but it is now blocked on the inside. The stable-wing is gabled and at right angles to the two gabled wings runs the roof of the original hall-block with low eaves. Some of the windows have old frames. In the N.E. wall of the stables are two four-light windows with old frames and diamond-shaped mullions. Inside the building, the barn, which was the Hall of the original building, has an open roof (Plate 23) in three bays with four original trusses of crutch type. Those at either end are built into the cross-walls and have tie-beams at the wall-head level and two collar-beams above, with a central post rising from the tie-beam to the upper collar. The two intermediate trusses have curved braces forming two-centred arches below a collar-beam and support two purlins on either side which have curved wind-braces between them. In the S.W. wall is a blocked stone doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head. In the S.W. cross-wing the ceilings of both ground and first floor have exposed beams and joists. The internal partitions are of timber with stop-chamfered framing and panels in one length from floor to ceiling. In the attics over this wing are some exposed trusses with chamfered principal rafters and cambered collar-beams but the tie-beams have been cut away.

Condition—Poor.

d(7). Great Bilbo, farmhouse and barn, nearly 2½ m. E. of the Castle. The House is partly of two storeys with attics and partly of one storey with attics. The walls are of rubble and the roofs are covered with stone slates. The house is built on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W., the latter being a lower wing and of 15th-century date and the former a late 16th-century addition. The earlier wing was extended a little westward in the 17th century. Projecting from the middle of the E. front is a two-storeyed porch, formerly timber-framed, with the upper floor projecting on all three sides and supported on shaped brackets. The side walls have been under-built in rubble. In front, two timber posts with shaped brackets are exposed and between them is an arched segmental head with a central projecting cantilever supporting the bressummer of the overhanging upper storey. The inner entrance (Plate 35) has a moulded oak frame with an inner segmental head and a nail-studded battened door hung on two strap-hinges with ornamental ends. On the ground floor, N. of the porch, is an original five-light transomed window and on the first floor are three four-light windows. Along the whole front, flanking the porch, runs a shallow pent-roof supported on shaped brackets. Against the W. wall of the N. wing is a similar pent-roof; on the ground floor is a blocked three-light transomed window and on the first floor two four-light windows. The S. wall of the W. wing has, on the ground floor, one four-light window with oak frame and diamond-shaped mullions. Inside the building, the 16th-century wing on the ground floor is divided into two rooms by a panelled oak partition with sunk mouldings on the framing. The doorway in the partition has a shaped under-head and a four-panelled door. The ceilings of both rooms have moulded beams and plates and chamfered joists. Two doorways in the W. wall of this room have moulded frames and segmental sub-heads and both have battened doors. A partition on the ground floor of the W. wing is of heavy chamfered framing with a doorway having a shaped sub-head. The joists are exposed in the ceiling of the passage and there are exposed beams in the ceilings of the other ground-floor rooms. There are two crutches exposed in the middle front of the W. wing.

The Barn, N.W. of the house, is timber-framed and weather-boarded with a rubble plinth, the roofs are covered with stone slates. It was built in the 17th century and is of three bays; the trusses have sloping struts between the tie-beams and principal rafters.

Condition—Of house, N. wing, good; W. wing, poor.

Monuments (8–45)

The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of one storey with attics, or two storeys. The walls are of stone-rubble and the roofs are covered with stone or modern slates. Many of the buildings have original chimney-stacks and exposed ceiling-beams and joists.

Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.

b(8). House and shop, S.E. of Longtown Church, was considerably remodelled and re-roofed during the 18th century.

b(9). Cottage, S.W. of Longtown Church, has, on the ground floor of the N.E. front, the remains of an original stone window.

c(10). House, 50 yards S.S.E. of Longtown Church, has, on the W. front, a doorway with an old wood frame; another has an old battened door hung on strap-hinges and on the ground floor is a two-light stone window. On the E. front is a doorway with a chamfered frame and a battened door hung on strap-hinges and two windows with oak frames.

b(11). Pen-y-dre, house, 90 yards W. of Longtown Church, was built early in the 17th century but was altered late in the following century when a barn was added at the S. end. Another and later barn has been built at the N.E. corner of the building.

b(12). The Greyhound Inn, on the W. side of the road, 350 yards S.E. of (10), is in part timber-framed. The S. end of the building appears to have been a small timber-framed cottage of 16th-century date to which a larger stone-built house was added early in the 17th century. The earlier building has been encased in stone on three of the sides. On the E. front the original timber-framing (Plate 21) appears in the projecting upper storey. It has heavy studs with sloping struts between, forming a herring-bone pattern. In the lower storey is a central doorway with an old frame and, flanking it, small windows of two lights with a smaller diamond-shaped mullion in each light. In the ground floor of the later building is a window of four lights with an oak frame. Inside the building some of the timber-framing is exposed. In the southern wing is a central roof-truss of double collar-beam type filled in with square framing to form a partition. In the northern wing is a blocked original doorway with the soffit of the lintel cut in triangular form with an ogee apex. In the N. room is a wide, open fireplace with a chamfered lintel.

Condition—Good, except in the smaller building which is now used as an outbuilding.

a(13). Post Office, two tenements, on the E. side of the road, 20 yards S.E. of (12), was built late in the 17th century but has modern additions. On the E. side, in the upper floor, is the oak frame of an old three-light window.

b(14). House, on the W. side of the road, 210 yards S.S.E. of (13), was built late in the 17th century. It has been largely altered and added to in modern times. In the E. wall, on the first floor, is a five-light window with moulded frame and mullions.

b(15). Tanhouse Farm, house on the E. side of the road, 240 yards S.S.E. of (14), is of rubble with some timber-framing. It was built probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th century. Late in the 17th century the E. wall, which had a timber-framed upper storey, was cased in stone and it is possible the rest of the house was treated in the same manner. At the same time the southern end of the building, which is now used as a barn, was lengthened. There are considerable modern additions. In the middle of the W. front is a projecting porch of two storeys with loops in the side walls. In the main wall are two windows with oak frames. The barn, which is incorporated in the S. end of the building, has three old roof-trusses.

b(16). Upper Pont-Hendre, house on the E. side of the road, 60 yards S. of (15), was built in the first half of the 17th century and has a modern addition built on the E. side. On the W. front is a projecting porch and the entrance-doorway has an old battened door with strap-hinges. Farther N. is a three-light transomed window with an oak frame. On the E. front is a doorway with a chamfered frame and the doorway leading to the modern addition has a similar frame and a battened door. There is a rectangular stone projection in the middle of the front containing the staircase. Inside the building are some old battened doors; the staircase has stone steps.

b(17). Middle Pont-Hendre, house, on the W. side of the road, 170 yards S. of (16), was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, but has been altered at a later date and has an extension at the S. end. Some of the windows retain old frames and there is an old battened door in the S. extension. Inside the building, on the ground floor, is an old partition with chamfered framing and wood panels.

b(18). Lower Pont-Hendre, house and barn on opposite sides of the road, 60 yards S. of (17). The House is a rectangular building with late 18th-century extensions at either end and an addition on the N. side. Two of the external doorways have chamfered frames and battened doors.

The Barn, S.E. of the house, is of eight bays, with the three easternmost and the westernmost bays of two storeys. The third bay from the W. has a gabled N. porch.

d(19). The Brooks Farm, house, barn and cattle-shed, about 1 m. S.E. of Longtown church. The House is of two storeys with attics and was built in the 16th century on a rectangular plan with a two-storeyed S. porch and a small projecting wing, containing the staircase, on the N. side. The entrance-doorway on the S. front has a chamfered frame and a battened door with strap-hinges. Some of the windows have chamfered oak frames and mullions.

The Barn and Cattle-shed, N.W. of the house, form the S. and W. wings of an L-shaped building. The Cattle-shed is of one storey with a loft above and is possibly a little later in date than the barn. In the W. end of the cattle-shed are two doorways with chamfered frames and between them is a six-light window but the diamond-shaped mullions are now missing. There is a similar window and an old doorway in the S. wall. The Barn, of three bays, has small triangular and loop lights.

b(20). Barn, 100 yards S.E. of Coldbrook Farm, nearly ¾ m. W. of Clodock church, is partly timber-framed but the walls have been largely re-built. Two four-light windows remain and have diamond-shaped mullions. The building is of four bays.

b(21). Great Cwmcoched, house, 1,100 yards S.W. of Clodock church, is of two storeys with attics. The house dates from late in the 17th century and has a cross-wing at the W. end and an addition of c. 1700 on the N. side. At the E. end of the house is a modern barn. Inside the building, one room on the ground floor has a chamfered door-frame.

b(22). Little Cwmcoched, cottage, immediately W. of (21), is of two storeys with attics. It was built c. 1700 and has, on the E. front, a three-light window. Inside the building one of the doorways has a chamfered frame.

b(23). Cwm Farm, house, 440 yards S.W. of (22), had the W. end largely re-built late in the 18th century when a barn was added at the E. end. Inside the building, between the two ground-floor rooms, is an original timber partition.

d(24). Garn-galed, house, cattle-shed and barn, 600 yards E.S.E. of Clodock church. The House is of early 17th-century date but the E. portion has been altered in modern times. The cattle-shed adjoins the house at the E. end. A doorway in the W. wall of the house has a heavy chamfered frame and an old battened door hung on strap-hinges. Further W. is a window with an original oak frame.

The Cattle-shed has, in the N. wall, a doorway with heavy chamfered frame and a battened door hung on strap-hinges. It is flanked by old windows with heavy oak frames and diamond-shaped mullions. In the W. wall is a similar window and in the S. wall is a five-light window with small diamond-shaped uprights sub-dividing the lights. On either side of this window is an old doorway with heavy chamfered frame and a battened door hung on strap-hinges. Above each of the windows and doorways is a flat stone hood supported on brackets. In the upper part of the walls are loop-lights. The Barn, N. of the house, is of late 17th-century date and of three bays with a central S. porch spanned by a beam dated 1675. The doorways in both the N. and S. walls have heavy chamfered frames. In the E. wall is a five-light window with an old frame and diamond-shaped mullions with the lights sub-divided with similar but smaller mullions. The other openings are single loop-lights.

d(25). Garn, house, 400 yards S. of (24), has a modern N. end incorporating the lower portions of old walls. Inside the building, on the ground floor, is an original partition with chamfered oak framing and long wood panels.

b(26). Lower Hunthouse Farm, 230 yards S.W. of (25), is of two storeys with attics. It is probably of early 17th-century date but has been much altered. On the first floor, the S.E. room is approached by an external stone stair. Inside the building, on the first floor, the N.E. wall is timber-framed and incorporates a roof-truss with tie and collar-beams and vertical posts between them.

e(27). Welsh Hunthouse, house and cow-shed, ½ m. S.E. of (26). The House, a few yards N.W. of a modern farmhouse, dates probably from the 15th century. A projecting W. wing appears to have been added in the 17th century when the S. end of the main block was either built or largely remodelled. In the E. wall is an old battened door hung on strap-hinges, and in the W. gable of the projecting wing is a four-light window with diamond-shaped mullions. Inside the building the main block is divided into three bays by two original crutch-trusses each of which has a collar-beam tie.

The Cow-shed is built against the S. end of the modern farmhouse and is of the same date as the old house. In the S. wall are three doorways, two of which have old frames. The gable above is weather-boarded.

Inside the building is a crutch-truss similar to that in the old house.

Condition—Of house and barn, bad.

e(28). Great Hunthouse, house and barn, nearly ¾ m. E. of (27). The House is of two storeys with attics. The E. front is gabled at the S. end, but the corresponding N. gable was destroyed in modern times. In the old gabled end, on the first floor, is a three-light window with an old wood frame, and on the attic floor is a similar window of two lights. The W. front is also gabled at the S. end and has, on the ground and first floor, three-light windows with similar frames, and on the attic floor a two-light window. There is a three-light window with an old frame farther N. lighting the staircase, and there are three other old window-frames on the S. front. Inside the building some of the doorways have chamfered frames. The old roof to the S. wing has collar-beam trusses with chamfered and cambered collars.

The Barn, N. of the house, is of late 17th-century date and of three bays. Both the side-walls have a large doorway in the middle bay with a heavy frame and segmental head; in the side bays are loop-lights. In the E. wall are some windows with old frames.

d(29). Pen-yr-heol Farm, house about ½ m. N.E. of (28), was built c. 1700 and has modern additions along the whole of the N. side and at the W. end.

d(30). Greidol, is an 18th-century farmhouse with an older barn and cattle-shed, in the Greidol Dingle, 700 yards N.W. of (29). The Barn, S.E. of the house, is of late 17th or early 18th-century date. The side walls are timber-framed on a stone base, but the end walls are of rubble. The building is of six bays. The Cattleshed, W. of the barn, is of one storey with attics. In the N. gabled wall are two loop-lights. In the sidewalls are some old windows with wood frames and diamond-shaped mullions, and in the upper part of the W. wall are two tiers of triangular-shaped openings. Inside the building the upper storey or loft has a roof of five bays.

Condition—Of both barn and cattle-shed, poor.

d(31). Lower House Farm, house 1,200 yards N.E. of (30), has late 17th or early 18th-century extensions on the N. and W. sides making the plan T-shaped.

d(32). Ruthland Farm, house, cattle-shed and barn 400 yards N.W. of (31). The House is of two storeys with attics and was built on a rectangular plan in the 16th century. Alterations made in the 17th century probably include the building of the chimney-stack at the S. end of the house and the reconstruction of the ground-floor ceiling. All the windows retain their old oak frames and were originally divided into lights by diamond-shaped mullions. Inside the building the cross-partition on the ground floor is original. The staircase against the W. side of the N. chimney-stack has solid steps of oak. The roof has four trusses.

The Cattle-shed, to the W. of the house, is of one storey with a loft above. In the N. wall is a window, with an old oak frame, originally divided into four lights by diamond-shaped mullions. In the E. wall are four doorways, three of which have chamfered frames and battened doors. In the S. and W. walls are loop-lights. The Barn, E. of the house, retains portions of an old rubble wall and an old roof-truss which belonged to an earlier barn, possibly of 17th-century date.

Condition—Of house and cattle-shed, poor.

d(33). Upper Wern-ddu, house, about ¾ m. N.W. of (32), is of two storeys with attics. It was built in the 16th century on a rectangular plan and has, at the E. end, a late 18th-century addition. In the N. wall the entrance-doorway has a square frame with a segmental sub-head. The door is of nail-studded battens with strap-hinges. One window on the ground floor and three windows on the first floor have old frames; they were originally each of six lights with diamond-shaped mullions. There are some windows of a similar type in the S. wall and in the E. end. Inside the building, the W. room on the ground-floor has moulded ceiling-beams. One of the doorways has chamfered jambs and a flat lintel with a segmental head below it.

d(34). Belpha Farm, house and barn, ½ m. E.N.E. of (33). The House is modern but incorporates at the S. end a portion of a 15th-century building of one storey with attics; this is now roofed with corrugated iron. Inside the old building is an original roof-truss of crutch-type with a collar. There is also an old battened door.

The Barn, E. of the house, is timber-framed on a stone base. It was built c. 1600 and is of five bays. About 1700, low rubble additions were built on both sides of the building. Inside the building are four old roof-trusses.

Condition—Of house, poor.

c(35). Cwmbologue, house and barn 500 yards N.N.E. of (33). The House was built probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th century. It was remodelled late in the 18th century, and there are modern additions on the N. and S. sides. Inside the building the cross-partition on the ground floor is timber-framed with wood panels between the posts. The old doorway has a stop-chamfered frame.

The Barn, E. of the house and on the opposite side of the road, has a stable at the S. end. The barn is of three bays; the side-walls are of weather-boarded timber-framing and the end-walls of rubble, as are also the walls of the stable. In the W. wall are three square-headed doorways with flat stone labels and chamfered oak frames; one of these has a battened door with strap-hinges.

d(36). Upper Bryn, house and barn, about 1 m. E. of the Castle. The House dates from early in the 17th century, but in modern times the E. end has been mainly re-built and extended and the W. end has been turned into a barn and store. Two old doorways with chamfered frames and battened doors remain in the W. end of the building, and inside on the ground floor is an old cross-partition with chamfered framing and long vertical panels.

The Barn, S.E. of the house, is of four bays and is mainly of weather-boarded timber-framing with some rubble-walling. In the N. wall is a four-light window with oak frame and diamond-shaped mullions and in the E. wall is a similar window of five lights.

Condition—Of house, bad.

d(37). Barn, at Old Bryn, 120 yards S.E. of (36), is of late 17th-century date. Portions of the side-walls are of timber-framing on a stone base with stone-slab infilling between the timbers. The building is of five bays.

b(38). Pent-yr-ynys, house and outbuilding, on S. side of the road ½ m. E.S.E. of the Castle. The House was built late in the 16th century and is of L-shaped plan with the wings projecting towards the S. and W. The S. wing was either built or largely re-built c. 1700. Some of the windows have old frames. Inside the house all the partitions on the ground floor are of timber and have stop-chamfered posts and long vertical panels. The doorways to the stairs and passage have segmental heads. In the pantry-partition is a similar doorway with large segments cut out of both jambs a little above the floor level to admit the entry, probably, of barrels. There are three old battened doors.

The Outbuilding, S.E. of the house, has a barn at the E. end, entirely re-built except the S. wall. In the N. wall are two original doorways with chamfered frames and battened doors. In the W. wall is a four-light window with an oak frame and diamond-shaped mullions.

b(39). Grove Farm, house about ½ m. E. of the Castle, was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century on a T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the E. end. In 1707 the cross-wing was extended towards the S. and a porch was added in the middle of the E. front. In the repaired E. wall is a stone panel with the date 1707 and the initials H.A.P. A projecting chimney-stack on the gabled S. wall has weathered offsets and a moulded capping and in the S. wall of the W. wing is an old doorway with a chamfered frame. Some of the windows retain their old frames and mullions. Inside the building are some original timber partitions with long vertical panels between the posts of the framing.

a(40). Llanwonnog Farm, house, 760 yards N.W. of (39), dates probably from late in the 14th century. The old part of the building is of L-shaped plan with the main wing or original hall-block projecting towards the N.W. and the shorter wing projecting towards the S.W. In the 17th century an upper floor was inserted in the hall-block and the chimney-stack at the N.W. end of the hall added. In modern times a new building has been erected on the N.W. end of the old building, partly on the site of a former N.W. wing, and there are later outbuildings at the S.E. end of the original house. On the S.W. front the eaves of the roof of the hall-block are brought down to the first-floor level; in the N.W. end of the hall-block is a doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head, and S.E. of it is a blocked single-light window; along the wall is a stone seat. On the N.E. front are two windows, one with an old oak lintel, the other with re-set chamfered stone jambs. There are two windows on the S.E. end, one with an old oak frame, the other of a single light with a deeply splayed sill. Inside the building, on the ground floor, S.W. of the inserted chimney-stack, is an old doorway with chamfered ogeehead.

a(41). Court Lacca, house, about ½ m. N.N.W. of (40), was built early in the 17th century and extended westward late in the following century. Additions have been built on the N. side of the house and a porch on the S. side.

a(42). Trewern, house, 240 yards N. of (41), has a slate roof. It is probably of early 17th-century date and has a cross-wing at the E. end. Later additions have been built along the N. side. On the S. front is a modern porch with an old cambered lintel over the entrance. W. of the porch is an original five-light transomed window, with chamfered frame and mullions and a moulded transom, below which the mullions are modern. Inside the building on the ground floor is an original panelled partition, and the doorway into the W. room has an arched head.

Condition—Poor.

a(43). Wain Farm, house and barn about ½ m. E. of (42). The House is of two storeys with attics. It is of mid 17th-century date, but probably incorporates an earlier house. About 1700 it was extended towards the N. and there are modern additions. On the E. front is an entrance doorway with a stop-chamfered frame and a battened door with strap-hinges. On the W. front is an original four-light window with ovolo-moulded frame and mullions, and on the first floor, now hidden by the modern addition, is a three-light window with moulded frame and mullions. The doorway in the S. wall of the projecting W. wing has a chamfered frame and battened door. Inside the building, some of the doorways have old chamfered frames and battened doors.

The Barn, S.W. of the house, is partly of rubble and partly of weather-boarded timber-framing; it has a projecting porch on the N. side and is of four bays.

Condition—Of house, fairly good.

c(44). Celyn, house, 740 yards E. of (43), dates possibly from the 15th century, but was remodelled in the middle of the 17th century, when a small E. extension was added. A wing has been built at the W. end in modern times. On the N. front are two three-light windows, with moulded frames and mullions. Inside the oldest part of the building, which is lower than the modern addition and no doubt originally open to the roof, are three crutch-trusses. A partly blocked fire-place on the ground floor has chamfered jambs and square head and one doorway has a chamfered 17th-century frame.

a(45). Middle Trewern, house and barn, 1,000 yards N.N.W. of (43). The House is of T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the E. end. The W. arm dates from c. 1600, but the S. end of the E. wing may be earlier. The N. end of the cross-wing is an extension or remodelling of the 17th century. Some windows have old frames and diamond-shaped mullions. Inside the building are three early 17th-century partitions with chamfered heads, posts and sills and long vertical panels between the framing. Three doorways have roll-moulded frames and elaborately shaped heads below the main heads. The doorway leading to the N. half of the cross-wing has a heavy chamfered frame, segmental arched head and a battened door. The staircase in the W. wing is original and has moulded strings and a heavy rectangular newel at the foot, of pedestal form, and supporting a chamfered post of the timber partition. One room has moulded ceiling-beams.

The Barn, S. of the house, is partly of weather-boarded timber-framing. It is of five bays and an upper floor has been inserted at the E. end. In the E. wall are three doorways, two of which have old chamfered frames.

Condition—Of house, fairly good.

a(46). Barn at Upper Trewern, about ¼ m. N.E. of (45), is partly of rubble and partly of timber framing. Cut in the head of an old chamfered doorway is the date 1684.

Condition—Derelict.

Unclassified

d(47). Mound, on S.E. border of the parish, 250 yards S.S.W. of (28). It is roughly oval and partly artificial, about ¼ acre in extent, including the defences; it has a flat top and is surrounded by a dry ditch except on the N.E. and E. where the scarp abuts on a small stream and on the S.W. where the ditch is filled in. There are traces of an inner rampart on the W.

Lower Bullingham or Bullinghope, see Bullingham, Lower.