An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Middlesex. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1937.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by English Heritage. All rights reserved.
13 ENFIELD (E.a.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)II, S.W. (b)II, S.E. (c)VII, N.W. (d)VII, N.E.)
Enfield is an Urban District and large parish in the N.E. angle of the county. The church, Grammar School, Forty Hall and the house now the Glasgow Stud Farm are the principal monuments.
d(1) Parish Church of St. Andrew stands in the S. part of the parish. The walls are of rag-stone and flint rubble and brick, with dressings of Reigate and other freestone; the roofs are slate-covered. The Chancel, as evidenced by a window in the S. wall, was re-built in the 13th century and the West Tower is probably of late 14th-century date. The Nave with the N. and S. arcades was re-built in the 14th century and at the same period a N. chapel was added; a S. chapel was added at some uncertain date. Late in the 15th and early in the 16th century the North and South Aisles were re-built and widened, the North Chapel re-built c. 1531 and the clearstorey re-built and heightened. The church was repaired in 1771 and 1789 and the chancel-arch was widened in 1779 when a painting of the Doom was removed. The church was again repaired in 1810 and 1819 and about this time the South Chapel and South Aisle were re-built and the South Porch added. The North Vestry and Porch are modern.
The church is of no great architectural interest but amongst the fittings the brasses and monuments are noteworthy. There is also a fine organ-case of 1752.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (35¾ ft. by 20½ ft.) has a modern E. window. In the N. wall is a 14th-century arcade of three bays, with two-centred arches of one moulded and one chamfered order, springing from a quatre-foiled pier and half-quatre-foiled responds all with moulded capitals and bases; the lower part of the E. bay is now filled by the Tiptoft monument and its responds have been destroyed. In the S. wall is a similar but much restored arcade of two bays, further E. is a late 13th-century window of one trefoiled light. The chancel-arch was widened in 1779 but the responds and the outer order of the arch are mostly 14th-century material re-set; adjoining the N. respond are some jamb-stones, possibly of the former doorway to the rood-loft.
The Nave (60 ft. by 20 ft.) has 14th-century N. and S. arcades of five bays, with arches, piers and responds similar to those of the N. arcade of the chancel; the E. half of the S.E. arch, with the respond, is modern. The early 16th-century clearstorey has, on each side, five completely restored windows, each of three lights, with three-centred heads on the N. and four-centred heads on the S., all under segmental main heads; between the windows are set a number of stones carved with roses and wings, said to be the badges of Sir Thomas Lovell, K.G., died 1524; patches of larger stones below these windows indicate the existence of an earlier clearstorey.
The North Chapel and Aisle (17¼ ft. wide) is of early 16th-century date and has an E. window, modern except for the splays and rear-arch. In the N. wall are six much restored three-light windows; the easternmost has a square head with a label, the others have cinque-foiled lights in segmental heads, with moulded reveals and labels; below the easternmost window is a modern doorway and between the first two windows is a doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred head; the rood-loft stair-turret has a lower doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head; the upper doorway is similar; the N. doorway, between the two western windows, has been removed and the opening blocked; between the third and fourth windows is a cross on a calvary formed in flint-work. In the W. wall is a partly restored window of four cinque-foiled lights in a segmental-pointed head with a moulded label; below it is a modern doorway.
The South Chapel (17 ft. wide) is modern except the rubble base of the E. and S. walls. In the N. wall is a square-headed squint, blocked on the N. face. Above the S. arcade of the nave are three roof-corbels carved with half-angels. Re-set in the W. wall of the modern S. aisle is a stone inscribed A. Domini 1531, formerly in the E. wall of the N. chapel.
The West Tower (13½ ft. by 12½ ft.) is of three stages (Plate 2) with an embattled parapet. The 14th-century tower-arch is two-centred and of two chamfered orders, dying on to the side walls. The N. wall of the ground stage has a late 14th-century window of two trefoiled lights with a defaced quatrefoil in a two-centred head; in the S. wall is a modern doorway; the W. window is modern. The second stage has in the E. wall a blocked opening. In the N. wall are traces of a blocked window and in the S. wall is a window all modern except the splays and rear-arch. The bell-chamber has in each wall a window, those on the E. and N. renewed in the 18th century and the other two modern. The wooden stairs leading to the upper stages of the tower are of solid triangular balks on rough bearers.
Fittings—Bells: eight and sanctus; sanctus by William Wightman, 1680. Brasses and Indent. Brasses: In N. chapel—on E. wall, (1) inscription recording benefaction of Jesper Nicoles, 1614; (2) inscription recording benefaction of Robert Rampston, 1585. In S. chapel—on S. wall, (3) four shields-of-arms found in 1881, (a) Lovell of Barton with a crescent for difference impaling three lions couchant, (b) Lovell impaling barry wavy (?) quartering a cheveron between three beasts, (c) the two last coats quartered and impaling Pert of Essex, (d) Lovell quartering the second and third coats of (b) impaled in the second quarter, the second coat of (a) and Pert; perhaps from the memorial of Thomas Lovell of Enfield, 1521 (P.C.C.). In S. chapel—on N. wall, (4) to William Smith, 1592 and Jone his wife, with figures of man in civil costume and wife. See also Monument (1). Indent: In chancel—of three figures, marginal inscription and shields. Bread-shelf: In N. chapel—on E. wall, shelf (Plate 24) supporting three Tuscan columns and rusticated responds with an entablature; at back two panels with brass-inscriptions (1 and 2), early 17th-century. Coffin-plates: In S. chapel—(1) to Sir Thomas Stringer, Judge of the King's Bench, 1689; (2) to James Wrothe, 1616; (3) to Col. Thomas Stringer, 1706; (4) to Reebeckah, widow of Sir Thomas Stringer, 1714–5. Glass: In N. chapel—in N.E. window, (a) roundel with the garter enclosing the initials and date T.R. (for Thomas Manners Lord Roos and Earl of Rutland) 1530, and a shield-of-arms of Manners quartering the quartered coats of Roos and Holland, partly restored; (b) roundel with a wreath enclosing a shield of the quartered coat of Manners impaling Paston (for his second wife Eleanor Paston). In S. aisle—in third window, kneeling figures of women, the badge of a wing, fragments of inscription, etc., mostly early 16th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N. side, (1) of Joyce (Charlton) wife of Sir John Tiptoft, [Lord Tiptoft and Powis], 1446, altar-tomb with brass, and later canopy (Plate 58); altar-tomb of painted stone with four diagonal cusped panels on each long side, enclosing blank or repainted shields-of-arms, on marble slab brass figure of lady in fur-trimmed gown, necklace, elaborate head-dress, coronet and heraldic mantle bearing the arms of Charlton and Holland Earl of Kent, triple crocketted canopy of brass with six shields-of-arms on the supports—(a) Charlton, (b) parted palewise Tiptoft, Holland and Charlton, (c) Tiptoft, (d) Tiptoft impaling Charlton, (e) Charlton quartering Holland and (f) Charlton, marginal inscription with evangelistic symbols (three missing) at the angles and ornamental stops; painted stone canopy probably erected by Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland c. 1530 and consisting of two moulded responds, partly covering the brass-inscription, arch and cornice, responds each with an attached shaft on each face carried up to the cornice, four-centred moulded arch with cusped and panelled soffit carried down the responds and foliated spandrels enclosing shields-of-arms—(a) Lovell quartering Muswell and impaling Roos of Hamlake quartering Holland, Tiptoft and Badlesmere, (b) Roos quartering the same three coats, (c) as (b) and (d) as (a); moulded cornice with paterae, cresting of Tudor flowers and a central achievement-of-arms on each face of Roos quartering Badlesmere; on N. wall, (2) to Martha (Garrard), wife of James Palmere, 1617, oval tablet (Plate 17) of black marble and alabaster by Nicholas Stone, with flanking figures of Faith and Charity with two children, cartouche-of-arms and swags surmounted by figure of Hope; on S. wall, (3) to John Watt, 1701, white marble cartouche (Plate 14) with fruit and flowers. In N. chapel—on N. side, (4) to Sir Nicholas Raynton, Sheriff and Lord Mayor of London, 1646, and Rebecca, his wife 1640, also to Nicholas Raynton 1641, and Rebecca, his wife 1642, large alabaster and marble wall-monument (Plate 57) in three stages with reclining effigy of man in armour with mayoral cloak and chain, in main stage, flanked by Corinthian columns supporting an entablature, curved and broken pediment, centre-piece with achievement and three other cartouches-of-arms, in middle stage reclining effigy of wife and in lowest stage kneeling figures of Nicholas Raynton and his wife at a prayer-desk with three sons and three daughters; (5) to Robert Deicrowe, 1586, Joane his mother and Robert Wheler his master, rectangular tablet (Plate 13) with side-pilasters and gadrooned arch enclosing figure in relief of man kneeling at prayer-desk, two shields-of-arms on arch. In S. chapel—on N. wall, (6) to Thomas Stringer, 1706, veined marble monument consisting of semi-circular projecting base, flanked by trophies and supporting bust of a man in armour under a heavy draped canopy in the form of a tent, set against a back-piece with entablature, broken pediment and achievement-of-arms; (7) to William Bolton and Elizabeth (Byde) his wife, also two daughters Dorothy and Mary died 1665, monument (Plate 14) erected by daughter Elizabeth Bullock, 1674, marble tablet with moulded frame; (8) to Bridget, wife of John Harrington, 1601, and Anne their daughter wife of William Fowkes, 1608, stone tablet (Plate 14) in scrolled frame; on S. wall, (9) to Dorothy (Fulstone) wife of Robert Middlemore, 1610, alabaster and black marble wall-monument (Plate 15) with kneeling figures of man in armour and wife at prayer-desk, with side pilasters, entablature and achievement-of-arms in cartouche; (10) to Francis Evington, alderman of London 1614, marble wall-monument (Plate 60) with kneeling figure of man at prayer-desk, under an arch and flanked by Corinthian columns supporting an entablature, achievement and two shields-of-arms. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (11) to Elizabeth (Myddleton) wife of John Grene, 1673, black and white marble framed tablet, with shield-of-arms. In S. aisle—on W. wall, (12) to Henry Dixon, 1696, and Barbara his wife, white marble cartouche with cherub-heads. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to John Watt, 1701; (2) probably to [Katherine] (Berkeley), wife of [Francis Mole], 1674; (3) to William Sheffard, 1646; (4) to Sir Charles Rich, 1677, with shield-of-arms; (5) to Edward Shaller, 1708, and Susanna his wife, 1709, with shield-of-arms.
c(2) On Enfield Golf Course, about 1 m. W.S.W. of the church.
a(3) Camlet Moat, about 2½ m. W.N.W. of the church.
d(4) At Durants, 1¾ m. E. of the church, has been almost entirely filled in.
b(5) At Plantation Farm, 2¾ m. N.E. of the church; the S. arm has been filled in.
d(6) House, on the E. side of Gentleman's Row, 300 yards W. of the church, has been practically re-built, but portions of an early 16th-century door-head or fire-place were discovered in 1916 and are now at the Victoria and Albert Museum. Re-set in one room of the house is the panelling, etc., from the house called Enfield Palace demolished in 1927. It is evident that these fittings date from after c. 1552 when the manor was granted to Princess Elizabeth and that the arms are either those of Edward VI or more probably of Queen Elizabeth. The main room is lined with elaborate enriched panelling divided into bays by slender pilasters and pedestals with strap-ornament; each bay has two main panels sub-divided by mitred mouldings into numerous small panels; the doors are similarly treated; over the N. door are set two carved stone panels with the Tudor royal arms on cartouches; the lower bears the motto "Ut ros super herbam est benevolentia regis" and the upper the inscription "Altered by T. Callaway in 1791." The stone fireplace (Plate 59) is flanked by carved Ionic columns supporting an entablature with a carved frieze; the stone overmantel is in three bays divided and flanked by carved Corinthian columns supporting a second carved entablature; the middle bay has an achievement of the royal arms with lion and dragon supporters; the side bays have a crowned rose and portcullis respectively; the lower part of each bay has a cartouche with the initials E.R. and the motto "Sola salus servire Deo: sunt caetera fraudes." The ceiling (Plate 40) belonged to another room in the original house; it is divided into geometrical panels by moulded ribs with the various royal badges in the panels. The lobby S. of this room has a 16th-century panelled door and the lobby to the N. is lined with late 16th or early 17th-century panelling. There is similar panelling in the Dining Room, divided into bays by Ionic pilasters. In the hall is a late 16th-century stone fireplace with carved Ionic side-pilasters supporting an entablature with a carved frieze.
d(7) Grammar School, 10 yards N.W. of the church, is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick with modern stone dressings and the roofs are tiled. It was built about the middle of the 16th century, but was refitted in the 18th century and most of the windows are modern. The E. front has three gabled dormers each with a partly restored original window of three four-centred lights with a moulded label all of brick. On the W. front is a semi-octagonal stair-turret retaining some original windows each of one four-centred light. The N. end has an attic window of three lights similar to those on the E. front. The ground floor has one large school-room 50 ft. by 21 ft. with plastered ceiling-beams. The stair-turret has a continuous newel with heavy turned balusters at the top.
To the S.W. of the old building is an early 18th-century building of two storeys. The ground floor contains a large room with a dado and cornice.
b(8) Forty Hall (Plate 61), 1¼ m. N.N.E. of the church, is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are slate-covered. It was built by Sir Nicholas Raynton between the years 1629 and 1632 and the design has been attributed to Inigo Jones. It passed subsequently to the family of Wolstenholme; under them in 1700 it was repaired and modernised. The house was again extensively repaired by Edmond Armstrong after 1787. The elevations are of brick, with bands between the storeys, rusticated angles and architraves to the windows; the hipped roof is finished with a restored eaves-cornice. The fronts are symmetrically designed with a central porch and sash-windows, the form of the latter no doubt adopted in the alterations of 1700. The porch on the E. front is of timber with Ionic columns and pilasters supporting an entablature with a curved pediment and a cartouche; the soffit of the porch is domed; the windows above are modern. The porch on the S. front is of timber with Doric columns supporting an entablature and a domed soffit; the window above is flanked by Corinthian columns supporting an entablature and pediment. The porch on the N. front has Doric columns and pilasters supporting an entablature and curved pediment, with a cartouche; there are half-pediments on the return sides. The chimney-stacks have octagonal, square or concave-sided shafts, mostly either restored or renewed. The two-storeyed wings on the W. are generally similar to the main building and have hipped roofs. The S.W. angle of the N.W. wing is corbelled out and nearby is a brick with the cut date 1636. Inside the building, the Dining Room was the original Hall and has the original screen (Plate 62) on the W. side; it is of three bays divided and flanked by terminal pilasters supporting an enriched entablature over the side bays, the middle bay has a segmental arch with cherub-heads in the spandrels and a late 18th-century door and filling; the side bays have each an arcaded panel below, a panel with a strapped oval in the middle and a panel with a large shell-ornament above; the fireplace (Plate 64) is flanked by wide stone pilasters with strapwork enrichment and supporting the shelf; above this is a central feature with a cartouche and strapwork supports, the whole flanked by pierced obelisks; the walls are lined to some height with plain panelling. The Drawing Room has an original fireplace (Plate 64) flanked by coupled Doric columns supporting the shelf; the overmantel, is of two bays divided and flanked by coupled Doric columns supporting a heavy entablature with brackets and jewel-ornament on the frieze, continued along the walls; the bays of the overmantel have each an enriched oval in a larger square panel; the walls are lined with original panelling; the geometrical plaster ceiling (Plate 62) has moulded ribs or bands with rosettes, conventional foliage and a cartouche with a blank shield. The room in the S.W. wing is lined with early 18th-century panelling. On the first floor, the room over the Dining Room has an original plaster ceiling (Plate 63) of geometrical design with moulded ribs, scroll-ornament and arabesques; the walls are lined with early 18th-century panelling and there is similar panelling in the small room to the W. The room over the Drawing Room again has similar panelling; the original plaster ceiling (Plate 63) is more elaborate than that last described but is of similar character; one panel bears the date 1629. The middle room facing W. is lined with original panelling with a cornice; the fireplace is flanked by coupled Doric columns in wood standing on pedestals and supporting the shelf; the overmantel has similar columns dividing and flanking the two panelled bays and supporting an entablature. Two other rooms on this floor have early 18th-century panelling. The S.E. room on the second floor has grotesque masks at the angles of the plaster cornice. The main staircase is modern but has an original plaster ceiling, with a central oval panel surrounded by strapwork and an entablature with a strapwork frieze. The secondary staircase is of c. 1700 and has twisted balusters and close strings.
To the N.W. of the house is a courtyard with early 17th-century outbuildings on the S. and W. They are two-storeyed brick buildings and the S. range retains an original moulded ceiling-beam and a chimney-stack of cruciform diagonal plan. The W. range has three original windows of two and three lights with moulded frames and intermediate bars; there is also an original door with a moulded frame. On the N. side of the courtyard is an embattled wall with a gate-way and two small lodges; the gateway (Plate 46) has rusticated piers with cornices and ball-terminals and a round central arch surmounted by a curvilinear gable and a small pediment; flanking the main arch are small round-headed archways.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tile or slate-covered.
Condition—Good or fairly good.
b(9) Dower House, 130 yards S. of (8), is of two storeys with cellars and attics. It has been largely altered in the 18th century and enlarged. Inside the building is a late 17th or early 18th-century fireplace with a moulded surround and some panelling and doors of the same period.
b(10) Worcester Lodge (Plate 32), 220 yards S.E. of (8), is of two storeys with attics and was built early in the 18th century. The N.W. front is symmetrically designed and has a modillioned eaves-cornice; the doorway has an eared architrave, entablature and pediment; the door has fielded panels. Inside the building the original staircase has turned balusters and close strings.
b(11) The Hermitage (Plate 32), house 350 yards S.S.W. of (8), is of two storeys with cellars and attics. It was built early in the 18th century. The S.E. front is nearly symmetrically designed and has a modillioned eaves-cornice; the doorway has rusticated Doric pilasters supporting an entablature. On the N.E. end is a brick with the cut initials and date "E.B. 1704. Iy 14." Inside the building the rooms have original panelling with dado-rails and cornices. The main staircase has thin turned balusters and close strings; the secondary staircase is similar but with thicker balusters.
b(12) Rose and Crown Inn, on the N. side of the road at Clayhill 1¼ m. N. of the church, was built probably early in the 18th century but has been extensively altered.
b(13) King James and the Tinker Inn (Plate 26), on the S. side of the road at Whitewebbs ¾ m. N.N.E. of (12), has been refitted and altered in the 18th century.
a(14) Glasgow Stud Farm, house 2¼ m. N.N.W. of the church, is of two storeys with cellars and attics. The front doorway has an early 17th-century panelled door, with a four-centred head. Inside the building are a staircase and fireplace of the same period. The staircase (Plate 37) has pierced balusters in the form of pilasters, heavy moulded rails of grip-type and square newels with moulded pendants and terminals. The stone fireplace (Plate 36) in the S.W. room on the first floor is flanked by terminal pilasters with Ionic capitals, supporting an enriched frieze with amorini and a central key-block.
d(15) Vicarage, 70 yards E.N.E. of the church, is largely modern but incorporates two wings on the E. and W. which date perhaps from the 16th century and seem to have been timber-framed; some of this close-set framing is exposed inside both portions. The E. wing retains some early 17th-century windows with solid frames and the roof is partly original, with tie-beams and curved wind-braces. Some wind-braces also remain in the roof of the W. wing. In one of the front windows are two quarries of 16th-century painted glass with a rose and portcullis.
d(16) Clarendon Cottage, in Gentleman's Row 100 yards N. of (6), has been altered and remodelled in the 18th century. It retains an original chimney-stack with two diagonal shafts.
c(17) Old Park Farm, house ¾ m. W.S.W. of the church, has been extensively altered and enlarged. The windows on the N. side are mostly original and have moulded frames and mullions; one window is transomed.
d(18) Earthwork (called Camp on O.S.), at Old Park, on the edge of the parish 1,250 yards S.S.W. of the church, is of roughly circular form with a strong rampart and external ditch. It is about 380 ft. in internal diameter and has been largely obliterated on the E. side. On the N. and W. sides the defences remain, the rampart rising about 8 ft. above the bottom of the ditch. On the S. side the ditch and much of the rampart have been levelled, but a pond on the S.E. probably represents an enlargement of the ditch.
Condition—Fairly good, in parts.