An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Westmorland. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1936.
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110 WINDERMERE (C.e.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)XXVI, S.E., (b)XXXII, N.E., (c)XXXII, S.E.)
Windermere is a large parish on the E. side of the lake and adjoining Ambleside on the S. The principal monument is Calgarth Hall, the old parish church being in the parish of Bowness.
b(1). Calgarth Hall, on the E. bank of the lake nearly 1 m. N.W. of the modern church of St. Mary, is of two storeys; the walls are of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered. A 14th or 15th-century doorway in the side wall of the porch indicates the existence of a mediæval house and if this is in situ further indicates that the original building lay at right-angles to the existing one. The existing main block is of two dates, the S. part perhaps representing the earlier building; the N. cross-wing was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century and the S. part seems to have been reconstructed at a later date. The Scullery is a 17th-century alteration or rebuilding and the Dairy is modern. The house belonged to the family of Philipson down to the early part of the 18th century.
The house is remarkable for its plaster decorations.
The E. Front has a porch, in the S. wall of which is a mediæval doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred arch; the door is of nail-studded battens. The chimney-stack on the cross-wing has a tapering cylindrical shaft. The back elevation has at the end of the N. cross-wing two late 16th or early 17th-century stone windows of four transomed lights with moulded labels and carved stops. The chimney-stack at the N. end of the building has a cylindrical shaft.
Interior—The room in the N. cross-wing has moulded plaster beams in the ceiling with scrolled ornaments on the soffit; three walls have modelled plaster friezes (Plate 50), that on the W. wall having pomegranates and a series of letters, that on the S. wall a series of harp-shaped ornaments and that on the N. wall a series of scroll and leaf ornament; above the fireplace, which has a segmental arch, is a plaster panel (Plate 51) with leaf ornament and two large shields-of-arms—(a) Philipson and (b) Carus impaling Wyville; above the first is the motto "Fide non fraude." The heraldry would appear to refer to Rowland Philipson and Katherine (Carus) his wife and to be of c. 1635, but the plaster friezes and beams are probably of late 16th-century date. The entrance-door of this room is of early 17th-century panelling. The S. part of the house has an exposed ceiling-beam. The room on the first floor of the cross-wing has an elaborate early 17th-century plaster ceiling (Plate 48), originally of three bays divided by plastered beams with running ornament; the two surviving bays are divided by moulded ribs into a series of geometrical panels filled with conventional foliage, grotesque lions and eagles. The roof of the N. part is probably of the 17th century and one bedroom has a panelled door of the same age.
b(2). Causeway Farm, house and outbuilding nearly 1 m. N.N.E. of St. Mary's church. The House is of two storeys, the walls are of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered. It was built about the middle of the 17th century and consists of a main block with a N. wing and S. porch and a cross-wing at the N. end. There are some original windows on the N. side, with solid frames and the front door is of planks with moulded battens. Inside the building some of the ceiling-beams are exposed. The E. room has a plaster panel (Plate 52) over the fireplace with the initials and date I. and M.P. 1658 B.P.; a small cupboard has an original panelled door. The main room (Plate 35) has a two-stage cupboard of the local type with carved rails and upper panels and a projecting top with pendants; it bears the initials and date I. and M.P. 1661. The house contains a number of original doors and at the top of the spiral staircase the newel has a ball-finial and there is a balustrade with turned balusters. A second staircase has early 18th-century balusters.
The Outbuilding, S.E. of the house is partly of the 17th century and retains one original window.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys; the walls are of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered. Some of the buildings have exposed ceiling-beams and cylindrical chimney-shafts of the local type.
Condition—Good or fairly good.
b(3). Near Orrest, house ¼ m. E.N.E. of (2), was built early in the 18th century. On the N. side are three original windows with solid frames. The door, in the porch, is panelled and has two long hinges. On the S. front is a panel with the inscription "James Dixon, Margaret Dixon, R.D. 1707." Inside the building there are a number of doors, some panelling and partitions of the local type, all original. There is also a two-stage cupboard with the initials and date I.D., M.D. 1701 and a smaller cupboard with plain panelling. The staircase has original turned balusters and moulded newels.
b(4). Far Orrest, house and outbuilding 1¼ m. N. of St. Mary's church, The House is of late 17th or early 18th-century date and has probably been heightened. The Outbuilding, formerly a dwelling-house, E. of the house, is of much earlier date and incorporates a crutch-truss, near the W. end. On the N. side is a 17th-century window of four lights and at the W. end is a fireplace 11 ft. wide.
a(5). Fusethwaite Yeat, house 620 yards N. of (4), has an original window of four lights. Inside the building is a three-stage cupboard (Plate 40) of the local type, with carved upper panels and projecting top with pendants; the fascia bears the initials and date R. and E.E. 1683.
a(6). Low Longmire, house and outbuilding 300 yards N.E. of (5). The House has probably been extended towards the W. The Outbuilding, N. of the house, is probably of earlier date and is said to have a roof of crutch-construction.
a(7). Longmire, house (Plate 24) 2 m. N. of St. Mary's church, has a spinning-gallery with turned balusters, over the doorway on the N. side. The W. door has an iron scutcheon with the initials and date I.L. 1690. Inside the building are muntin and plank partitions of the local type, some original panelling and an enriched cupboard with the initials and date I.L. 1689. There are also some glass quarries said to have come from Hugill Hall; they include a Tudor rose, Tudor royal arms, the date 1565 and a shield with three Js.
a(8). The Howe, house 550 yards N.N.W. of (7), has a later extension on the N. and a modern addition on the W. Inside the building is a muntin and plank partition and a cupboard of the local type, not in situ; it has the initials and date I.G.A. 1705. The early 18th-century back staircase has turned balusters and square newels.
a(9). Long Green Head, house 3½ m. N.N.E. of St. Mary's church, has later extensions at both ends. On the N. is an original window of three lights. Inside the building is a small cupboard, with the initials and date I.S. 1691.
b(10). The Borrans, house and barn nearly 1½ m. N. of St. Mary's church, are both probably of late 17th or early 18th-century date but the house has been much altered and enlarged.
b(11). Knotts, house on the W. side of the road nearly 1 m. N. of St. Mary's church, has an early 18th-century addition on the W. Inside the building there are two cupboards with panelled doors and a small cupboard with the initials and date M. and B. H. 1688.
b(12). House, three tenements at Troutbeck Bridge 270 yards W. of (11), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and W. Inside the building are some panelled doors of the local type and a small cupboard with the initials and date I. and A.D. 1690 on the door.
b(13). House, three tenements and outbuilding, immediately N.W. of (12). The House has an original four-light window with a solid frame. Inside the building is some original panelling and doors. The staircase has turned balusters and square newels with turned finials. The Outbuilding, N. of the house, is probably of early 18th-century date.
b(14). Cottage, two tenements, 30 yards S. of (13), has some original panelled doors.
b(15). Low Common, outbuilding nearly 1 m. N.E. of St. Mary's church, forms an L-shaped block of which the N. wing is a later addition.
b(16). The Common, house 110 yards S.S.E. of (15), forms a long range, with an added porch and staircase wing on the N. and a second porch on the S. Inside the building is a three stage cupboard (Plate 34) of the local type, with carved upper panels and rails; the cornice bears the date 1628; a second cupboard (Plate 34) of the same type is dated 1715 and there is a small cupboard of 1721.
b(17). High Borrans, house 2 m. N.E. of St. Mary's church, has been much altered. On the S.W. front are two lozenge-shaped panels of plaster bearing the initials and date I. and I.W. 1668. Above the beam over the fireplace recess in the main room is a plaster cornice with modelled fleurs-de-lis and another device; there is a small cupboard with the initials and date I. and I.W. 1694.
b(18). Mislet, cottage 1,400 yards S. of (17), was perhaps once used as a Friends Meeting House. The E. part of the house has a high ceiling and was perhaps the part used for meetings. There is a partition of the local type with moulded muntins.
b(19). Heaning, house and barn about 1¼ m. E.N.E. of St. Mary's church. The House retains some original window-frames. Inside the building is a small cupboard with the initials and date I. and O.D. 1681 (for Isaac Dixon) and a second cupboard without inscription; there are also some original doors. The Barn, N. of the house, is of four bays with tie-beam and collar trusses.
b(20). Cottage, 60 yards N. of (19), contains a small cupboard with the initials and date G. and D.E. 1699. On the E. wall, inside, is some plaster ornament (Plate 50) consisting of three arched panels, two panels of conventional ornament, two fleurs-de-lis and the initials and date G.E.D. 1693; below it is a small cupboard with a panelled door.
b(21). Grove, house 1,430 yards E. of St. Mary's Church, was re-built late in the 18th century but contains a carved cupboard of the local type.
b(22). Grove Cottage, 60 yards N.W. of (21), was built probably early in the 18th century.
b(23). Bannerrigg, house 240 yards S.E. of (21), contains a three-stage cupboard of the local type, with carved upper panels and top rail with the initials and date G. and A.W. 1675 (for George and Agnes Williamson).
b(24). Alice Howe, house on the S. side of the road ½ m. E. of St. Mary's church, contains a three-stage cupboard with lozenge enrichments to the upper panels.
b(25). Orrest Head Farm, house 200 yards W. of (24), is of cross-shaped plan, the S.E. wing being of later date. It incorporates remains of crutch-construction, presumably of much earlier date.
b(26). Orrest Head, house 110 yards N. of (25), is of irregular plan with later additions on the S. and W. On the S.E. side are two original windows with solid frames. Inside the building are some muntin and plank partitions of the local type and a frieze of modelled plaster with leaves and fruit. Some re-set and enriched woodwork bears the initials and date I.D. 1671. The staircase incorporates some original symmetrically turned balusters.
b(27). Droomer Stile, house 1,200 yards S.E. of St. Mary's church, has an early 18th-century farm-building on the N.E. Inside the building is a panelled cupboard with the initials and date C.R. 1700; other furniture is dated 1691 and 1714. There is a muntin and plank partition on the first floor.
c(28). Droomer Cottage, 700 yards S.E. of (27), contains two old cupboards with moulded framing.
b(29). Rayrigg Hall, 1,050 yards S.W. of St. Mary's church and formerly belonging to the Flemings of Rayrigg, is probably of early 18th-century date and the lintel of the front door bears the date 1702.
b(30). Hill Fort, on the top of Allen Knott 1½ m. N. of St. Mary's church, appears to have been of roughly rectangular form. Only the rampart on the N.W. side now survives and rises some 7 ft. above the ground within the enclosure. Prof. R. G. Collingwood's plan shows the N.E. rampart as then existing with a rounded angle on the N. Much of this rampart has now been quarried away (C. and W. Trans. N.S. XIII, 143; XXIV, 83).