An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Westmorland. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1936.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by English Heritage. All rights reserved.
GLOSSARY OF THE MEANING ATTACHED TO THE TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN THE INVENTORY
Abacus.—The uppermost member of a capital.
Acanthus.—In Classic or Renaissance architecture, a plant, the leaves of which are used in the ornament of the Corinthian and Composite Orders.
Alb.—Long linen robe, with close sleeves; worn by clerks of all grades.
Altar-tomb.—A modern term for a tomb of stone or marble resembling, but not used as, an altar.
Amess.—Fur cape with hood, and long tails in front; worn by clerks of the higher grades.
Amice.—A linen strip with embroidered apparel (q.v.) placed upon the head coifwise by a clerk before vesting himself in an alb, after which it is pushed back, and the apparel then appears like a collar.
Ankar-hold.—The dwelling-house of an ankorite or recluse.
Apparels.—Rectangular pieces of embroidery on alb, amice, etc.
Apse.—The semi-circular or polygonal end of a chancel or other part of a church.
Arabesque.—A peculiar kind of strap-ornament in low relief, common in Moorish architecture, and found in 16th and 17th-century work in England.
Arcade.—A range of arches carried on piers or columns.
Arch.—The following are some of the most usual forms:—
Segmental:—A single arc struck from a centre below the springing line.
Pointed or two-centred:—Two arcs struck from centres on the springing line, and meeting at the apex with a point.
Segmental-pointed:—A pointed arch, struck from two centres below the springing line.
Equilateral:—A pointed arch struck with radii equal to the span.
Lancet:—A pointed arch struck with radii greater than the span.
Three-centred, elliptical:—Formed with three arcs, the middle or uppermost struck from a centre below the springing line.
Four-centred, depressed, Tudor:—A pointed arch of four arcs, the two outer and lower arcs struck from centres on the springing line and the two inner and upper arcs from centres below the springing line. Sometimes the two upper arcs are replaced by straight lines.
Ogee:—A pointed arch of four or more arcs, the two uppermost or middle arcs being reversed, i.e., convex instead of concave to the base line.
Relieving:—An arch, generally of rough construction, placed in the wall above the true arch or head of an opening, to relieve it of the superincumbent weight.
Stilted:—An arch with its springing line raised above the level of the imposts.
Skew:—An arch not at right angles laterally with its jambs.
Archbishops' Vestments.—Buskins, sandals, amice, alb, girdle, stole, maniple, tunic, dalmatic, chasuble, pall; gloves, ring, mitre; an archbishop carries a crosier but, in later times, holds a cross-staff for distinction.
Architrave.—A moulded enrichment to the jambs and head of a doorway or window-opening; the lowest member of an entablature (q.v.).
Archivolt.—In Renaissance architecture, the moulding round an arch.
Argent.—In heraldry, white or silver, the latter being the word used in mediæval English blazonry.
Ashlar.—Masonry wrought to an even face and square edges.
Azure.—In heraldry, blue.
Ball-flower.—In architecture, a decoration, peculiar to the first quarter of the 14th century, consisting of a globular flower of three petals enclosing a small ball.
Barge-board.—A board, often carved, fixed to the edge of a gabled roof, a short distance from the face of the wall.
Barry.—In heraldry, an even number of horizontal divisions in a shield, normally six, but sometimes four or eight. When a greater and indefinite number of divisions appear the word Burely is used.
Bascinet.—Steel head-piece worn with camail, sometimes fitted with vizor.
Bastion.—(Earthworks)—A projection from the general outline of a fortress or work from which the garrison is able to see, and defend by a flanking fire, the ground before the ramparts right and left.
Bead.—A small round moulding.
Bell-capital.—A form of capital of which the chief characteristic is a reversed bell between the neck moulding and upper moulding; the bell is often enriched with carving.
Bend.—In heraldry, a band aslant and across the shield, commonly from the dexter chief. A narrow bend over other charges is called a Baston. The baston with the ends cut off, drawn in the other direction across the shield is a mark of bastardy in post-mediæval heraldry. A field or charge divided bendwise into an equal number of parts, normally six, is said to be bendy.
Bendwise.—In the direction of a bend.
Berm.—In earthworks—the level strip of ground between a bank and its accompanying ditch or scarp.
Bezant.—In heraldry, a gold roundel or disc.
Bield.—A stone or earthen protection for sheep against wind or snow on the open moor.
Billet.—In heraldry, a small oblong figure; also in architectural ornament chiefly used in the 11th and 12th centuries.
Billety.—In heraldry, a field or charge powdered with billets.
Bishops' Vestments.—Same as an archibishop's (q.v.) but without pall, and a bishop carries a crosier, and not a cross.
Bolection-moulding.—A moulding raised above the general plane of the framework of the door or panelling in which it is set.
Border.—In heraldry, an edging round a coat-of-arms, whether simple or quartered.
Boss.—A projecting square or round ornament, covering the intersections of the ribs in a vault, panelled ceiling or roof, etc.
Bouget or Water-bouget.—A pair of leather bottles, borne as a heraldic charge.
Brace.—In roof construction, a subsidiary timber inserted to strengthen the framing of a truss. Wind-brace, a subsidiary timber inserted between the purlins and principals of a roof to resist the pressure of the wind.
Brattishing.—Ornamental cresting on the top of a screen, cornice, etc.
Bressummer.—A beam forming the direct support of an upper wall or timber-framing.
Brick-work.—Header:—A brick laid so that the end only appears on the face of the wall.
Stretcher:—A brick laid so that one side only appears on the face of the wall.
English Bond.—A method of laying bricks so that alternate courses on the face of the wall are composed of headers or stretchers only.
Flemish Bond:—A method of laying bricks so that alternate headers and stretchers appear in each course on the face of the wall.
Broach-stop.—A half-pyramidal stop against a chamfer to bring out the edge of a stone or beam to a right angle.
Buttress.—A mass of masonry or brick-work projecting from or built against a wall to give additional strength.
Angle-buttresses:—Two meeting, or nearly meeting, at an angle of 90° at the corner of a building.
Diagonal-buttress:—One placed against the right angle formed by two walls, and more or less equi-angular with both.
Flying-buttress:—An arch or half-arch transmitting the thrust of a vault or roof from the upper part of a wall to an outer support or buttress.
Cable-moulding.—A moulding carved in the form of a cable.
Cairn.—A pile of stones, presumably covering a burial and often taking the place of an earthen mound or tumulus, in a stonedistrict.
Camail.—Hood of mail; first worn attached to hauberk, then separate from it with tippet of mail over shoulders, and, in the 14th century, attached to bascinet.
Cambered (applied to a beam).—Curved so that the middle is higher than the ends.
Canonical Quire Habit.—Surplice, amess, cope.
Canopy.—A projection or hood over a door, window, etc., and the covering over a tomb or niche; also the representation of the same on a brass.
Caryatid.—Pillar carved as a woman.
Casement.—1. A wide hollow moulding in window-jambs, etc.
2. The hinged part of a window.
3. The sinking for a brass in a slab.
Cassock.—Long, close-sleeved gown; worn by all clerks.
Chamfer.—The small plane formed when the sharp edge or arris of stone or wood is cut away, usually at an angle of 45°; when the plane is concave it is termed a hollow chamfer, and when the plane is sunk below its arrises, or edges, a sunk chamfer.
Chantry-chapel.—A chapel built for the purposes of a chantry (a foundation for the celebration of masses for the souls of the founder and such others as he may direct).
Chasuble.—A nearly circular cape with central hole for head, worn by priests and bishops at mass. It is put on over all the other vestments.
Checky.—In heraldry, a field or charge divided into squares or checkers.
Cheveron.—In heraldry, a charge resembling a pair of rafters of a roof; often used decoratively.
Chief.—In heraldry, the upper part of the shield. Cut off from the rest of the field by a horizontal line and having its own tincture, it becomes one of the charges of the shield, covering a space which occupies from a third to a half, or even more of it.
Cinquefoil.—1. See "Foil."
2. A heraldic flower of five petals.
Clearstorey.—An upper storey, pierced by windows, in the main walls of a church. The same term is applicable in the case of a domestic building.
Coif.—Small close hood, covering head only.
Collar-beam.—In a roof, a horizontal beam framed to and serving to tie a pair of rafters together some distance above the wall-plate level.
Console.—A bracket with a compound curved outline.
Cope.—A processional and quire vestment shaped like a cloak, and fastened across the chest by a band or brooch; worn by clerks of most grades.
Coped-slab.—A slab of which the upper face is ridged down the middle, sometimes hipped at each end.
Cops, Knee and Elbow.—Knee and elbow defences of leather or plate.
Corbel.—A projecting stone or piece of timber for the support of a superincumbent weight.
Cotises.—In heraldry, pairs of narrow bands, in the form of bends, pales, fesses, or cheverons, and borne accompanying one of those charges on each side of it.
Counter-coloured.—In heraldry, term applied in cases where the field and charges exchange tinctures on either side of a dividing line.
Courtyard Type of House.—See "Houses."
Cove.—A concave under-surface of the nature of a hollow moulding but on a larger scale.
Cover-paten.—A cover to a communion cup, sometimes used as a paten.
Crest, Cresting.—1. A device worn upon the helm. 2. An ornamental finish along the top of a screen, etc.
Crockets.—Carvings projecting at regular intervals from the vertical or sloping sides of parts of a building, such as spires, canopies, hood-moulds, etc.
Crosier, or Pastoral Staff.—A tall staff ending in an ornamental crook carried as a mark of authority by archbishops, bishops, and heads of monastic houses, including abbesses and prioresses.
Cross.—In its simplest form in heraldry, a pale combined with a fesse, as the St. George's Cross; there are many other varieties of which the following are the most common:— Crosslet,—with a smaller arm crossing each main arm; Crosslet fitchy,—having the lowest arm spiked or pointed; Crosslet flowered or flory,—having the arms headed with fleurs-de-lis; Crosslet formy,—arms widening from the centre, and square at the ends. The old forms of the crosslet have, as a rule, the arms ending as in trefoils with rounded petals; Plain crosses,—with four equal arms not extending to the edges of the shield; Moline (or mill-rind),—with the arms split or forked at the ends; Paty,—as a cross formy, but with the arms notched in two places at the ends, giving them a form which may approach that of a blunt head of a fleur-de-lis; Potent (or Jerusalem),—having a small transverse arm at the extreme end of each main arm; Tau (or Anthony),— in the form of a T.
Cross-staff.—Staff terminating in a cross; carried before archbishops, who are usually shown holding it on effigies, brasses, etc.
Crusily.—In heraldry, covered or powdered with crosslets.
Crutch-truss.—An early form of roof-truss, consisting of two curved beams (sometimes called blades), extending from the floor to the ridge.
Curtain.—The connecting wall between the towers or bastions of a castle.
Cushion-capital.—A capital cut from a cube by having its lower angles rounded off to a circular shaft.
Cusps (cusping, cusped heads, sub-cusps).—The projecting points forming the foils in Gothic windows, arches, panels, etc.; they were frequently ornamented at the ends, or cusp-points, with leaves, flowers, berries, etc.
Dalmatic.—The special vestment at mass of a deacon; a loose tunic of moderate length, slit up sides, with wide sleeves and fringed edges.
Dance.—In heraldry, a fesse or bar drawn zigzagwise, or dancetty.
Deacon's Vestments (Mass).—Amice, alb, stole (worn over left shoulder), dalmatic, and maniple.
Dexter.—In heraldry, the right-hand side of a shield as held.
Diamond-broached.—A form of tooling used in the Roman period; it commonly took the form of crossed diagonal lines on a quarry-tooled surface.
Diaper.—Decoration of surfaces with squares, diamonds, and other patterns.
Dimidiated.—In heraldry, applied to the halving of two shields and joining a half of each to make a new shield.
Dog-legged Staircase.—A staircase in which adjoining flights run in opposite directions but have a common newal.
Dog-tooth Ornament.—A typical 13th-century carved ornament consisting of a series of pyramidal flowers of four petals; used to cover hollow mouldings.
Dormer-window.—A vertical window on the slope of a roof and having a roof of its own.
Dovetail.—A carpenter's joint for two boards, one with a series of projecting pieces resembling doves' tails fitting into the other with similar hollows; in heraldry, an edge formed like a dovetail joint.
Drawbar.—A wooden bar or bolt, inside a door, fitted into a socket in one jamb and a long channel in the other jamb, into which it slides back when not in use.
Dressings.—The stones used about an angle, window, or other feature when worked to a finished face, whether smooth, tooled in various ways, moulded, or sculptured.
E Type of House.—See "Houses."
Eaves.—The under part of a sloping roof overhanging a wall.
Embrasures.—The openings, indents, or sinkings in an embattled parapet or the recesses for windows, doorways, etc.
Engrailed.—In heraldry, edged with a series of concave curves.
Entablature.—In Classic or Renaissance architecture, the moulded horizontal superstructure of a wall, colonnade or opening consisting of an architrave, frieze, and cornice.
Entasis.—The convexity or swell on a vertical line or surface to correct the optical illusion of concavity in the sides of a column or spire when the lines are straight.
Ermine or Ermines.—The fur most frequently used in heraldry; white powdered with black tails. Other varieties are sometimes found, as sable ermined with silver, and in more modern heraldry, gold ermined with sable, and sable ermined with gold.
Fascia.—A plain or moulded board covering the plate of a projecting upper storey of timber, and masking the ends of the cantilever joists which support it.
Fesse.—In heraldry, a horizontal band athwart the shield. When more than one fesse is borne they are known as Bars.
Finial.—A formal bunch of foliage or similar ornament at the top of a pinnacle, gable, canopy, etc.
Foil (trefoil, quatrefoil, cinquefoil, multifoil, etc.).—A leaf-shaped curve formed by the cusping of feathering in an opening or panel.
Foliated (of a capital, corbel, etc.).—Carved with leaf ornament.
Four-centred Arch.—See "Arch."
Frater.—The refectory or dining-hall of a monastery.
Fret or Fretty.—In heraldry, a charge formed of a number of bastons drawn from each side of the shield, and interlaced like lattice-work. In modern heraldry, the charge of a fret takes the form of a narrow saltire interlacing a voided lozenge, while the word Fretty is kept for the older form.
Frieze.—The middle division in an entablature, between the architrave and the cornice; generally any band of ornament or colour immediately below a cornice.
Funeral-helm.—A trophy, in the form of a crested head-piece, carried at the funerals and placed over the tombs of important personages.
Fusil.—In heraldry, a word applied to the pieces into which a fesse is divided by engrailing or indenting.
Gable.—The wall at the end of a ridged root, generally triangular, sometimes semi-circular, and often with an outline of various curves, then called curvilinear.
Gadrooned.—Enriched with a series of convex ridges, the converse of fluting, and forming an ornamental edge or band.
Gargoyle.—A carved projecting figure pierced to carry off the rain-water from the roof of a building.
Gimel-bar or Gemel-bar.—In heraldry, a pair of narrow bars lying close to one another.
Gipon.—Close-fitting vest of cloth, worn over armour c. 1350 to c. 1410.
Griffon or Griffin.—A winged monster with the fore parts of an eagle, and the hinder parts of a lion.
Groining, Groined Vault.—See "Vaulting."
Guilloche-pattern.—In Classic or Renaissance architecture, a geometrical ornament consisting of two or more intertwining wavy bands.
Gules.—In heraldry, red.
Half-H Type of House.—See "Houses."
Hall and Cellar Type of House.—See "Houses."
Hallan.—A local name for the entrance passage of a house.
Hammer-beams.—Horizontal brackets of a roof projecting at the wall-plate level, and resembling the two ends of a tie-beam with its middle part cut away; they are supported by braces (or struts), and help to diminish lateral pressure by reducing the span. Sometimes there is a second and even a third upper series of these brackets.
Hauberk.—Shirt of chain or other mail.
Heck.—A local name for a partition of timber or other material forming one side of a fireplace-recess.
Helm.—Complete barrel or dome-shaped head-defence of plate.
Helmet.—A light headpiece; various forms are: Armet, Burgonet, close Helmet, all similar in principle.
Hipped Roof.—A roof with sloped instead of vertical ends. Half-hipped, a roof whose ends are partly vertical and partly sloped.
Hog-back.—A form of tomb-stone with a gabled and cambered upper part; the ridge of the gable often terminates in the mouths of a pair of bears or other beasts carved on the ends of the stone.
Hood-mould (label, drip-stone).—A projecting moulding on the face of a wall above an arch, doorway, or window; in some cases it follows the form of the arch, and in others is square in outline.
Houses.—These are classified as far as possible under the following definitions:—
1. Hall and Cellar Type.—Hall on first floor; rooms beneath generally vaulted; examples as early as the 12th century.
2. H Type.—Hall between projecting wings one containing living-rooms, the other the offices. The usual form of a mediæval house, employed, with variations, down to the 17th century.
3. L Type.—Hall and one wing, generally for small houses.
4. E Type.—Hall with two wings and a middle porch; generally of the 16th and 17th centuries.
5. Half-H Type.—A variation of the E type without the middle porch.
6. Courtyard Type.—Houses built round a court, sometimes only three ranges of buildings with or without an enclosing wall and gateway on the fourth side.
7. Central-chimney Type.—(Rectangular plan), small houses only.
Indent.—The sinking or casement in a slab for a monumental brass.
Indented.—In heraldry, notched like the teeth of a saw.
Invected.—In modern heraldry, edged with a series of convex curves.
Jambs.—1. The sides of an archway, doorway, window, or other opening.
2. In heraldry, legs of lions, etc.
3. In armour, plate-defences for lower leg.
Joggling.—The method of cutting the adjoining faces of the voussoirs of an arch with rebated, zigzagged or wavy surfaces to provide a better key.
Keystone.—The middle stone in an arch.
King-post.—The middle vertical post in a roof-truss.
Kneeler.—Stone at the foot of a gable.
L Type of House.—See "Houses."
Label.—See "Hood-mould." In heraldry, a narrow horizontal band (lying across the chief of a shield), from which small strips, generally three or five, called pieces, depend at right angles.
Lancet.—A long, narrow window with a pointed head, typical of the 13th century.
Lenten Veil.—A hanging suspended before the altar during Lent and taken down on the Wednesday or Thursday before Easter.
Leopard.—In heraldry, a lion showing its full face: always passant (unless otherwise emblazoned), as in the three leopards of England.
Linen-fold Panelling.—Panelling ornamented with a conventional representation of folded linen.
Lintel.—The horizontal beam or stone bridging an opening.
Lion.—In heraldry, face in profile and (unless otherwise emblazoned) always rampant.
Locker (Aumbry).—A small cupboard formed in a wall.
Loop.—A small narrow light in a turret, etc.; often unglazed.
Louvre or Luffer.—A lantern-like structure surmounting the roof of a hall or other building, with openings for ventilation or the escape of smoke, usually crossed by slanting boards (called "louvre-boards"), to exclude rain.
Lozenge.—In heraldry, a charge like the diamond in a pack of cards.
Luce.—In heraldry, a fish (pike).
Lynchet.—A cultivation-terrace on a hillside.
Maniple.—A strip of embroidery, probably at one time a handkerchief, held in the left hand, or worn hanging from the left wrist by bishops, priests and deacons.
Mantle or Mantling.—In heraldry, a cloth hung over the hinder part of helm; the edges were fantastically dagged and slit.
Martlet.—A martin (bird), shown sometimes in heraldry without feet.
Mask-stop.—A stop at the end of a hood-mould, bearing a distant resemblance to a human face; generally of the 12th and 13th centuries.
Mass Vestments.—These included the amice, alb, and girdle (which were worn by all clerks), to which a sub-deacon added the tunicle and maniple, a deacon the dalmatic, maniple, and stole (over one shoulder only), and the priest the maniple, stole (over both shoulders) and chasuble. Bishops and certain privileged abbots wore the tunicle and dalmatic under the chasuble, with the mitre, gloves, and ring, and buskins and sandals. Archbishops used the pall in addition to all the foregoinging. Bishops, abbots, and archbishops alike carried crosiers, and in the same way, but an archbishop had likewise a cross carried before him for dignity, and he is generally represented holding one for distinction. The mass-vestments were sometimes worn over the quire-habit, and the hood of the grey amess can often be seen on effigies hanging beyond the amice apparel at the back of the neck.
Merlon.—The solid part of an embattled parapet between the embrasures.
Mill-rind (Fer-de-moline).—The iron affixed to the centre of a millstone; a common heraldic charge. In early heraldry the name given to the mill-rind cross, or cross moline.
Misericorde.—1. A bracket on the underside of the hinged seat of a quire-stall, to be used (when turned up) as a support for the occupant, while standing during a long service.
2. In monastic planning, a small hall, generally attached to the Infirmary, in which better food than the ordinary was supplied for special reasons.
Mitred Abbots' Vestments.—Same as a bishop's.
Modillions.—Brackets under the cornice in Classic architecture.
Molet.—In heraldry, a star of five or six points, drawn with straight lines. When the lines are wavy it is called a Star. A molet with a round hole in the middle is called a Rowel.
Morse.—Large clasp or brooch fastening cope across the breast.
Motte (Earthworks).—A steep mound forming the main feature of an 11th or 12th-century castle.
Mullion.—A vertical post, standard, or upright dividing an opening into lights.
Muntin.—The intermediate upright in the framing of a door, screen, or panel, butting into or stopped by the rails.
Nebuly.—Heraldic term for a line or edge, following the fashion of the mediæval artist's conventional cloud.
Neck-moulding.—The narrow moulding round the bottom of a capital.
Newel.—The central post in a circular or winding staircase; also the principal posts at the angles of a dog-legged or well-staircase.
Ogee.—A compound curve of two parts, one convex, the other concave; a double-ogee moulding is formed by two ogees meeting at their convex ends.
Or.—In heraldry, gold; a word which, like argent, was established in English blazon in the second half of the 16th century.
Orders of Arches.—Receding or concentric rings of voussoirs.
Orders of Architecture.—In Classic or Renaissance architecture, the five types of columnar architecture, known as Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite.
Oriel Window.—A projecting bay-window carried upon corbels or brackets.
Orle.—In heraldry, a term used to describe a voided scutcheon, or a number of small charges, so arranged, as martlets or the like.
Orphreys.—Strips of embroidery on vestments.
Orthostats.—Upright stones; generally applied to the stones set upright on the inner and outer faces of a primitive drystone wall.
Oversailing Courses.—A number of brick or stone courses, each course projecting beyond the one below it.
Ovolo Moulding.—A Classic moulding forming a quarter round or semi-ellipse in section.
Pale.—In heraldry, a vertical band down the middle of a shield.
Palimpsest.—1. Of a brass; re-used by engraving the back of an older engraved plate.
2. Of a wall-painting; superimposed on an earlier painting.
Pall.—1. In ecclesiastical vestments, a narrow strip of lambswool, having an open loop in the middle, and weighted ends; it is ornamented with a number of crosses and forms the distinctive mark of an archbishop; it is worn round the neck, above the other vestments.
2. A cloth covering a hearse.
Paly.—In heraldry, a shield divided by lines palewise, normally into six divisions, unless otherwise emblazoned.
Parted or Party.—In heraldry, a term used when a shield is divided down the middle. When two coats of arms are marshalled, each in one of these divisions, the one is said to be party or parted with the other, or in the words of the later heraldry, to be impaling it. The word party or parted is also used for other specified divisions, as party bendwise.
Passant (of beasts, etc.).—In heraldry, walking and looking forward—head in profile.
Pastoral Staff.—See "Crosier."
Paten.—A plate for holding the Bread at the celebration of the Holy Communion.
Patera-æ.—A flat ornament applied to a frieze, moulding, or cornice; in Gothic work it commonly takes the form of a four-lobed leaf or flower.
Paty (cross).—See "Cross."
Pediment.—A low-pitched gable used in Classical and Renaissance architecture above a portico, at the end of a building, and above doors, windows, niches, etc.; sometimes the middle part is omitted, forming a "broken" pediment.
Pele or Pele-tower.—A dwelling in the form of a defensive tower, common on the Scottish border.
Pilaster.—A shallow pier attached to the wall.
Piscina.—A basin for washing the sacred vessels and provided with a drain, generally set in or against the wall to the S. of the altar, but sometimes sunk in the pavement.
Plinth.—The projecting base of a wall or column, generally chamfered or moulded at the top.
Podium.—In Classical architecture—a basis, usually solid, supporting a temple or other superstructure.
Popey-head.—The ornament at the heads of bench-standards or desks in churches; generally carved with foliage and flowers, somewhat resembling a fleur-de-lis.
Portcullis.—The running gate, rising and falling in vertical grooves in the jambs of a doorway.
Powdered.—In heraldry, a shield or charge with small charges scattered indiscriminately thereon is said to be powdered with them.
Presbytery.—The part of a church in which is placed the high altar, E. of the quire.
Priests' Vestments (Mass).—Amice, alb, girdle, stole crossed in front, maniple, chasuble.
Principals.—The chief trusses of a roof, or the main rafters, posts, or braces, in the wooden framework of a building.
Processional Vestments.—Same as canonical (q.v.).
Pulvinated Frieze.—In Classical and Renaissance architecture, a frieze having a convex or bulging section.
Purlin.—A horizontal timber resting on the principal rafters of a roof-truss, and forming an intermediate support for the common rafters.
Purple or Purpure.—One of the colours in heraldry.
Quarry.—In glazing, small panes of glass, generally diamond-shaped or square, set diagonally.
Quarter.—In heraldry, the dexter corner of the shield; a charge made by enclosing that corner with a right-angled line taking in a quarter or somewhat less of the shield and giving it a tincture of its own.
Quartered or Quarterly.—A term which, in its original sense, belongs to a shield or charge divided cross-wise into four quarters. After the practice of marshalling several coats in the quarters of a shield had been established, the quarters themselves might be quartered for the admission of more coats, or the four original divisions increased to six or more, each being still termed a quarter.
Quatrefoil.—In heraldry, a four-petalled flower. See also "Foil."
Queen-posts.—A pair of vertical posts in a roof-truss equidistant from the middle line.
Quire-habit.—In secular churches: for boys, a surplice only over the cassock; for clerks or vicars, the surplice and a black cope-like mantle, partly closed in front and put over the head, which was exchanged for a silk cope on festivals: canons put on over the surplice a grey amess. In monastic churches, all classes, whether canons regular, monks, friars, nuns, or novices, wore the ordinary habit with a cope on festivals.
Quoin.—The dressed stones at the angle of a building.
Ragged, Raguly.—In heraldry, applied to a charge whose edges are ragged like a tree trunk with the limbs lopped away.
Rampant (of beasts, etc.).—In heraldry, standing erect on one foot, as if attacking or defending.
Razed.—Of a head, etc., in heraldry, having a ragged edge as though torn off.
Rear-arch.—The arch on the inside of a wall spanning a doorway or window-opening.
Rear-vault.—The space between a rear-arch and the outer stonework of a window.
Rebate (rabbet, rabbit).—A continuous rectangular notch cut on an edge.
Reliquary.—A small box or other receptacle for relics.
Reredos.—A hanging, wall, or screen of stone or wood at the back of an altar or dais.
Respond.—The half-pillar or pier at the end of an arcade or abutting a single arch.
Roll-moulding or Bowtell.—A continuous convex moulding cut upon the edges of stone and woodwork, etc.
Rood (Rood-beam, Rood-screen, Rood-loft).—A cross or crucifix. The Great Rood was set up at the E. and of the nave with accompanying figures of St. Mary and St. John; it was generally carved in wood, and fixed on the loft or head of the rood-screen, or on a special beam (the Rood-beam), reaching from wall to wall. Sometimes the rood was merely painted on the wall above the chancel-arch or on a closed wood partition or tympanum in the upper half of the arch. The Rood-screen is the open screen spanning the E. end of the nave, shutting off the chancel; in the 15th century a narrow gallery was often constructed above the cornice to carry the rood and other images and candles, and it was also used as a music-gallery. The loft was approached by a staircase (and occasionally by more than one), either of wood or in a turret built in the wall, wherever most convenient, and, when the loft was carried right across the building, the intervening walls of the nave were often pierced with narrow archways. Many of the roods were destroyed at the Reformation, and their final removal, with the loft, was ordered in 1561.
Roundel.—In heraldry, a round plate or disc of any tincture other than gold.
Rubble.—Walling of rough unsquared stones or flints.
Rustic Work.—Primarily, masonry in which only the margins of the stones are worked, also used for any masonry where the joints are emphasised by mouldings, grooves, etc.; rusticated columns are those in which the shafts are interrupted by two or more square blocks of stone or broad projecting bands.
Sable.—In heraldry, black.
Sacellum.—The chamber in the headquarters building of a Roman fort devoted to the cult of the Emperor and also often used as a strong-room.
Sacristy.—A room generally in immediate connection with a church, in which the holy vessels and other valuables were kept.
Sallet.—A light steel headpiece, frequently with vizor.
Saltire.—In heraldry, an X-shaped cross; also called St. Andrew's cross.
Scallop.—A shellfish, a common charge in heraldry.
Scalloped Capital.—A development of the cushion-capital in which the single cushion is elaborated into a series of truncated cones.
Scarp (Earthworks).—An artificial cutting away of the ground to form a steeper slope.
Scutcheon or Scocheon.—1. A shield, a charge in heraldry, Voided Scutcheon, a scutcheon whose border alone is seen; termed in modern heraldry an Orle.
2. A metal plate pierced for the spindle of a handle or for a keyhole.
Sedilia (sing. sedile, a seat), sometimes called presbyteries.— The seats on the S. side of the chancel, quire, or chapel near the altar, used by the ministers during the Mass.
Sexpartite Vault.—See "Vaulting."
Shaft.—A small column.
Shafted Jambs.—A jamb containing one or more shafts either engaged or detached.
Signal-station pottery.—Pottery of a type found in the Roman signal-stations of the Yorkshire coast and belonging to the final phase of the Roman occupation in the north.
Sinister.—In heraldry, the left-hand side of a shield as held.
Slip-tiles.—Tiles moulded with a design in intaglio which was then filled in, before burning, with a clay of a different colour.
Soffit.—The under-side of a staircase, lintel, cornice, arch, canopy, etc.
Soffit-cusps.—Cusps springing from the flat soffit of an arched head, and not from its chamfered sides or edges.
Spandrel.—The triangular-shaped space above the haunch of an arch; the two outer edges generally form a rectangle, as in an arched and square-headed doorway; the name is also applied to a space within a curved brace below a tie-beam, etc., and to any similar spaces.
Spire, Broach-spire, Needle-spire.—The tall pointed termination covered with lead or shingles, forming the roof of a tower or turret. A Broach-spire rises from the sides of the tower without a parapet, the angles of a square tower being surmounted, in this case, by half-pyramids against the alternate faces of the spire, when the spire is octagonal. A Needle-spire is small and narrow, and rises from the middle of the tower-roof well within the parapet.
Splay.—A sloping face making an angle more than a right-angle with the main surface, as in internal window-jambs, etc.
Springing-Line.—The level at which an arch springs from its supports.
Spurs.—Prick: in form of plain goad; early form. Rowel: with spiked wheel; later form.
Squinch.—An arch thrown across the angle between two walls to support a superstructure, such as the base of a stone spire.
Squint.—A piercing through a wall to allow a view of an altar from places whence it could otherwise not be seen.
Stages of Tower.—The divisions marked by horizontal stringcourses externally.
Stanchion, Stancheon.—The upright iron bars in a screen, window, etc.
Stole.—A long, narrow strip of embroidery with fringed ends worn above the alb by a deacon over the left shoulder, and by priests and bishops over both shoulders.
Stops.—Projecting stones at the ends of labels, string-courses, etc., against which the mouldings finish; they are often carved in various forms, such as shields, bunches of foliage, human or grotesque heads, etc.; a finish at the end of any moulding or chamfer bringing the corner out to a square edge, or sometimes, in the case of a moulding, to a chamfered edge. A splayed stop has a plain sloping face, but in many other cases the face is moulded.
Stoup.—A vessel, placed near an entrance doorway, to contain holy water; those remaining are usually in the form of a deeply-dished stone set in a niche, or on a pillar. Also called Holy-water Stones, or Holy-water Stocks.
String-course.—A projecting horizontal band in a wall; usually moulded.
Strut.—A timber forming a sloping support to a beam, etc.
Style.—The vertical members of a frame into which are tenoned the ends of the rails or horizontal pieces.
Sub-deacons' Vestments (Mass).—Amice, alb, tunicle, maniple.
Surcoat.—Coat, usually sleeveless, worn over armour.
Surplice.—A white linen vestment with wide hanging sleeves.
Tabard.—Short loose surcoat, open at sides, with short tab-like sleeves, sometimes worn with armour, and emblazoned with arms; distinctive garment of heralds.
Table, Alabaster.—A panel or series of panels of alabaster carved with religious subjects and placed at the back of an altar to form a reredos. The manufacture was a distinctively English industry of the 14th, 15th and early 16th centuries, centred at Nottingham.
Terminal Figure.—The upper part of a carved human figure growing out of a column, post, or pilaster, diminishing to the base.
Tie-beam.—The horizontal transverse beam in a roof, tying together the feet of the rafters to counteract the thrust.
Timber-framed Building.—A building of which the walls are built of open timbers and covered with plaster or boarding, or with interstices filled in with brick-work.
Titulus (or Tutulus).—A word applied to an isolated length of defensive bank in front of the entrance of a temporary Roman camp and producing a right-angled instead of a direct approach to the entrance.
Touch.—A soft black marble quarried near Tournai and commonly used in monumental art.
Tracery.—The ornamental work in the head of a window, screen, panel, etc., formed by the curving and interlacing of bars of stone or wood, and grouped together, generally over two or more lights or bays.
Transom.—A horizontal bar of stone or wood across the upper half of a window-opening, doorway, or panel.
Trefoil.—In heraldry a three-lobed leaf with a pendent stalk.
Truss.—A number of timbers framed together to bridge a space or form a bracket, to be self-supporting, and to carry other timbers. The trusses of a roof are generally named after a peculiar feature in their construction, such as King-post, Queen-post, Hammer-beam, etc. (q.v.).
Tufa (Calcareous).—spongy deposit formed by the action of water on limestone and resembling volcanic tufa or lava.
Tympanum.—An enclosed space within an arch, doorway, etc., or in the triangle of a pediment.
Vair.—In heraldry, a fur imitating grey squirrels' skins, usually shown as an alternating series, often in rows, of blue and white bell-shaped patches. If of other tinctures it is called vairy.
Vaulting.—An arched ceiling or roof of stone or brick, sometimes imitated in wood and plaster. Barrel-vaulting (sometimes called waggon-head-vaulting) is a continuous vault unbroken in its length by cross-vaults. A groined vault (or cross-vaulting) results from the inter-section of simple vaulting surfaces. A ribbed vault is a framework of arched ribs carrying the cells which cover in the spaces between them. One bay of vaulting, divided into four quarters or compartments, is termed quadripartite; but often the bay is divided longitudinally into two subsidiary bays, each equalling a bay of the wall-supports; the vaulting bay is thus divided into six compartments, and is termed sexpartite. A more complicated form is lierne vaulting; this contains secondary ribs, which do not spring from the wall-supports, but cross from main rib to main rib. In fan-vaulting numerous ribs rise from the springing in equal curves, diverging equally in all directions, giving fan-like effects when seen from below.
Vert.—In heraldry, green.
Vesica Piscis.—A pointed oval frame generally used in mediæval art to enclose a figure of Christ enthroned.
Vestments (Ecclesiastical).—See alb, amess, amice, apparels, archbishops' vestments, bishops' vestments, canonical quire-habit, cassock, chasuble, cope, crosier, cross-staff, dalmatic, deacons' vestments, maniple, mitred abbots' vestments, morse, orphreys, priests' vestments, processional vestments, quire-habit, sub-deacons' vestments, stole, surplice.
Vicus.—A civil settlement outside the walls of a Roman fort.
Vizor.—Hinged face-guard of bascinet, salade, close helmet, etc.
Voided.—In heraldry, with the middle part cut away, leaving a margin.
Volute.—A spiral form of ornament.
Voussoirs.—The stones forming an arch.
Wall-plate.—A timber laid lengthwise on the wall to receive the ends of the rafters and other joists.
Wave-mould.—A compound mould formed by a convex curve between two concave curves.
Weather-boarding.—Horizontal boards nailed to the uprights of timber-framed buildings and made to overlap; the boards are wedge-shaped in section, the upper edge being the thinner.
Weathering (to sills, tops of buttresses, etc.).—A sloping surface for casting off water, etc.
Weepers.—Small upright figures, generally of relatives of the deceased, placed in niches or panels round the sides of mediæval tombs; occasionally also represented on brasses.
Well-staircase.—A staircase of several flights and generally square, surrounding a space or "well."
Wimple.—Scarf covering chin and throat.
Woodman or Woodhouse.—A wild man of the woods, generally represented naked and hairy.