The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 2. Originally published by W Bristow, Canterbury, 1797.
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ADJOINING to Eynsford Southward lies Lullingstone, called in the Textus Roffensis, Lullingeston, and in Domesday, Lolingestone.
This parish is but small, it has no village, there being but two houses in it besides Lullingstone-house. Nearly the whole of it is the property of Sir John Dyke; this seat stands in the valley at the eastern boundary of the park, on the western bank of the river Darnent, a situation too low and damp to be either pleasant or healthy; almost adjoining to it on the north side is the church, hence the chalk hills immediately rise, both to the east and west, where, though more barren, it yet becomes more healthy. Through this park, close by the antient gateway to Lullingstone-house, is a public and acknowledged road leading from Eynsford to Shoreham.
THIS PLACE, at the time of taking the survey of Domesday, was part of the vast estate of Odo, bishop of Baieux, half-brother to William the Conqueror; and it is accordingly thus described in it, under the general title of that prelate's lands.
Godfrey de Ros holds of the bishop (of Baieux) Lolingestone. It was taxed at 1 suling. The arable land is In demesne there is 1 carucate, and 4 villeins, with 1 cottager, having 2 carucates. There are 7 servants and 6 acres of pasture; wood for the pannage of 20 hogs. When he received it, it was worth 60 shillings, now 100 shillings. The king has in his hand what is worth 10 shillings. Brixi Cilt held it of king Edwards the Confessor.
Malgerius holds of the bishop (of Baieux) Lolingestone. It was taxed at half a suling. The arable land is. In demesne there is 1 carucate, and 3 villeins, with 1 borderer, having 1 carucate. There are 5 acres of meadow.
And a little afterwards:
Osbern Peyforer holds Lolingestone of the bishop (of Baieux) for half a suling. The arable land is. In demesne there is 1 carucate, and 3 villeins, with 1 borderer, and 1 servant, having 1 carucate. There are 5 acres of meadow, wood for the pannage of 5 hogs, and 1 mill of 15 shillings, and 150 eels. The king has a wood of a late gift of the bishop, and it is worth 3 shillings. The whole manor was worth 60 shillings, now 77 shillings. Sewart Sot held it of king Edward the Confessor, and could turn himself over with his land whenever he would.
The former of these estates being thus held by the family of Ros, acquired from them the name of the manor of Lullingstone Ros, as the latter did from being owned by that of Peyforer, the name of Lullingstone Peyforer. In the beginning of the reign of king Edward I. they were both in the possession of the family of Rokesle. Gregory de Rokesle held them in the 7th year of king Edward 1. being then lord-mayor of London; and that year he obtained a grant to himself and his heirs of free-warren for his lands in Lullingstone. (fn. 1) In the 20th year of king Edward III. his grandson, John de Rokesle, rector of the church of Chelsfield, paid aid for it as one knight's fee, viz. the manors of Lullingstone Rosse, Fokysparsrere, and Cokerhurst, (fn. 2) which William de Rokesle before held in Lullingstone of Margery de Rivers. John de Rokesle died in 1361, and lies buried in this church. His arms, as on his grave-stone, were, A cross, in the dexter quarter a rook. His seoffees conveyed all his estates in this parish to Sir John Peche, descended from Gilbert de Peche, who was summoned to parliament in the 13th year of king Edward II. (fn. 3) He had two sons, Sir William Peche and Sir Robert Peche, who both accompanied king Edward I. in his victorious expedition into Scotland, in the 28th year of his reign, and assisted at the siege of Carlaverock in that kingdom, for which service they, with their company, received the honour of knighthood.
Sir John Peche, the same year that he bought Lullingstone, obtained a charter of free-warren to his lands here, which was the next year again confirmed to him. (fn. 4) He died in the 4th year of king Richard II. possessed of Lullingstone, when it was also found, by inquisition, that he was then possessed jointly with Mary his wife, of a messuage, with divers lands, woods, and rents of assize, in Lullingstone and Peyfrere, of the feoffment of John Constantyn, Edmund de Cleye, and Richard Peche, which premises were held of the king as of the honor of Ledes, as the fourth part of one knight's fee, by the service of one pair of gilt spurs, of the price of six-pence. (fn. 5) He was succeeded in his estates here by his son, Sir William Peche, whose widow, the lady Joan, died possessed of them in the 11th year of king Henry IV. and lies buried in St. Mary Woolnoth church, in London. (fn. 6) Their son was Sir John Peche, sheriff of Kent, anno 8 Henry VI. whose figure habited in his surcoat of arms, and kneeling on a cushion, with his hands joined in a praying posture, and his head uncovered, was formerly pictured in one of the windows of Ashford church. He left a son, Sir William Peche, sheriff of this county in the 2d and 3d years of king Edward IV. who at his death in 1487, was found to die possessed of the manor of Lullingstone Rosse, and Lullingstone, Payfrere, and Cokerhurst, with their appurtenances, which were held of the king as of his duchy of Lancaster. (fn. 7) He left a son, Sir John Peche, and a daughter Elizabeth, who married John Hart, esq.
Sir John Peche was a man of great reputation at that time, being created a knight banneret, and made lord deputy of Calais. He was sheriff in the 10th year of king Henry VII. in which year, when the lord Audley and the Cornish men, who had risen in support of Perkin Warbeck, would have collected provisions and men in this county, he with other gentry of it, opposed them, and obliged them to turn towards London; soon after which they were vanquished on Blackheath. During his life-time he paid five hundred pounds into the hands of the wardens and masters of the Grocers company in London, of which he was free, for the performing of certain almsdeeds, and works of piety for his soul's health, as will be further mentioned hereafter. He died possessed of Lullingstone manor, leaving his wife, the lady Elizabeth surviving to whom king Henry VIII. of his special favour, in his 31st year, granted an annuity of ten marcs during her life.
On his death without issue, Elizabeth, his sister, was found to be his heir; upon which her husband, John Hart, esq. of the Middle Temple, counsellor at law in her right became entitled to this estate.
This family of Hart was originally of Westmill, in Hertfordshire, where Stephen Hart resided in the reign of king Edward III. His son, Hanekin Hart, left a son William, who removed from Westmill, to Abbotsbury, and thence to Papworth, in Cambridgeshire; his son and heir, William Hart, returned into Hertfordshire. His descendant, William Hart, died in the 9th year of king Henry VII. leaving by Alice his wife, widow of Robert Sutton, of London, one son, John Hart, who was of the Middle Temple, and married Elizabeth, sister and heir of Sir John Peche, knight banneret, as above mentioned. He left, by Elizabeth his wife, who survived him, and afterwards married George Cobham, brother of the lord Cobham, and dying in 1543, lies buried in St. Mary Cray church, a son, Sir Percival Hart, who was chief sewer and knight harbinger to king Henry VIII. king Edward VI. queen Mary, and queen Elizabeth, whose lands were disgavelled by the act of the 31st of the for mer of those reigns. On his mother's death in 1543, he became possessed of this manor of Lullingstone; for at this time the two manors before-mentioned seem to have been accounted but as one; when he quitted his seat, afterwards called Barkhart, in Orpington, and removed hither to Lullingstone-house, where he kept his shrievalty for this county in the 37th year of king Henry VIII. He died in 1580, and lies buried in this church, having had by Frediswide, his wife, one of the sisters and coheirs of John, lord Bray, twelve children. Of whom Henry, the eldest son, married Cicely, daughter of Sir Martin Bowes, and died without issue; and Sir George, the second son, and at length heir to his father, on his brother's death, was of Lullingstone, and was sheriff of this county, anno 25th Elizabeth; by Elizabeth his wife, daughter of John Bowes, esq. of Elford, in Staffordshire, he left several children, and died in 1587. His eldest son, Sir Percival Hart, resided at Lullingstone-house, and was twice married; first, to Anne, daughter of Sir Roger Manwood, chief baron of the exchequer, by whom he had one son, William; his second wife was Jane, daughter of Sir Edward Stanhope, of Grimston, by whom he had Sir Henry Hart, K.B. who died in his father's lifetime, having married Elizabeth, daughter of Burdet, and widow of Sir Simon Norwich, by whom he left Percival Hart, and several other children.
William Hart, esq. the only son of Sir Percyval, by his first wife, succeeded his father in the possession of this place, and died in 1671. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Anthony Weldon, of Swanscombe, who died in 1677, and lies buried there, by whom he had no issue. Upon which this estate descended to Percyval Hart, esq. eldest son of Sir Henry Hart, eldest son of Sir Percyval Hart, by his second wife, as before-mentioned. He was afterwards knighted, and left by Anne his wife, one son, Percival Hart, esq. who was of Lullingstone, and was sheriff in 1707, and served in parliament for this county in the 9th and 12th years of queen Anne's reign. He died in 1738, and was buried, as were his several ancestors before-mentioned, in this church. This family of Hart bore for their arms, Per chevron azure and gules, three barts tripping or. Over the monument of Percyval Hart, esq. last-mentioned, are forty-four different shields of arms, which he quartered in his own and his wife's right. He left by Sarah his wife, youngest daughter of Edward Dixon, esq. of Hilden, an only daughter and heir, Anne, then married to her second husband, Sir Thomas Dyke, bart. of Horeham, in Sussex.
Sir Thomas Dyke was descended of a good family, who had been sometime seated in Suffex; of whom Thomas Dyke, second son of Sir Thomas Dyke, by Catharine his wife, one of the daughters of Sir John Bramstone, of Skreenes, in Essex, was created a baronet March 3, 1676, anno 29 king Charles II. He resided at Horeham, in Suffex, and served in parliament for that county in 1685, and for East Grinsted several times. He married Philadelphia, the eldest daughter and coheir of Thomas Nutt, of Selmiston, in Suffex, and died in 1706, having had by her Philadelphia, who married Lewis Stephens, D.D. Elizabeth married to John Cockman, M. D. and Thomas, who was his only surviving son, who married Anne, daughter and sole heir of Percyval Hart, as before-mentioned. The family of Dyke bear for their arms, Or, three cinquefoils sable.
He quitted his family seat at Horeham, and entirely resided at Lullingstone-house, which he first dignified with the name of Lullingstone-castle, by which name it has been called ever since. For as to Lullingstonecastle, the reader will find an account of it under the parish of Shoreham; it being evident, from all records and antient writings, that it was the same as is now known by the name of Shoreham-castle, the ruins of which appear near the river, at a small distance from the south gate of Lullingstone-park. Sir Thomas Dyke died in 1756, and lies buried here, having had by Anne his wife, one daughter, Philadelphia, married to William Lee, esq. of Totteridge, son of the lord chief justice Lee, and three sons; Thomas Hart, who died unmarried; John Dixon, the present baronet; and Percyval, who died in 1740, unmarried. He left his wife, lady Anne Dyke, surviving, who possessed this manor and seat during her life, and dying in 1763, lies buried in this church; on which Sir John Dixon Dyke, bart. her only surviving son, became entitled to them, by virtue of his father's will in tail male. He married, in 1756, Philadelphia Payne Horne, only daughter and heir of George Horne, esq. late of London, by whom he has three sons, Thomas, Percival, and George Hart; and two daughters, the eldest of whom was married in 1790, to Beaumont Hotham, esq. and the youngest, Harriot, in 1791, to Charles Milman, esq. now of Farningham.
Sir John Dixon Dyke now resides here, and has been for several years improving this seat, and the park and grounds about it.
Lambarde mentions a park at Lullingstone, in the reign of queen Elizabeth; (fn. 8) after which there seems to have been none used as such for many years. In the time of the late Mr. Percyval Hart, it was used as a warren for conies, and Sir Thomas Dyke restored it to its present state as a park again.
LULLINGSTANE was formerly a parish of itself, though it is now united to Lullingstone. It is situated at the north-east corner of Lullingstone-park, between that and Eynsford. This place was held in the reign of king Edward I. by Simon de Echingham, of Richard de Rokesle, as half a knight's fee; soon after which, it came into the possession of the family of Cobham, a younger branch of which owned it in the reign of king Edward III.
Sir Reginald de Cobham paid his respective aid for this manor of Lullingstane, as half a knight's fee, in the 20th year of that reign, which Simon de Echingham before held here of Richard de Rokesle, and he of the king, as of his honor of Ledes. He died in the 35th year of the above reign, possessed of it at his death. (fn. 9) His son Reginald was lord of Sterboroughcastle, in Surry. (fn. 10)
His grandson, Sir Thomas Cobham, left a sole daughter and heir, Anne, who carried this estate in marriage to Sir Edward Borough. Their son and heir, Thomas, was summoned to parliament as lord Borough, anno 21 king Henry VIII. and left Thomas, his son and heir, who bequeathed it to his youngest son, Sir William Borough, and he in the beginning of queen Elizabeth's reign, conveyed it by sale to Percyval Hart, since which it has descended in the same way that Lullingstone manor has, to Sir John Dixon Dyke, bart. who is the present owner of it.
This parish was united to that of Lullingstone, by Richard, bishop of Rochester, in the year 1412, as will be more fully mentioned hereafter in the ecclesiastical account of it.
The church of Lullingstane, after its being united to Lullingstone, became neglected and fell to ruin. It stood in a field by the road side, on the west side leading from Eynsford to Lullingstone, a few rods from the gate, and about a quarter of a mile from the parkgate. The remains are obscured with briars and nettles; from the smallness of the building it should seem to be of Saxon architecture, and built with slints and Roman bricks, the west end being chiefly of the latter, several of which have been dug up near these ruins, and in digging a hole for the third post of the paling, from the park gate, part of a tesselated pavement was discovered, and Roman coins and instruments have at times been found near these ruins. (fn. 11)
SIR JOHN PECHE, knight banneret, in king Henry the VIIth's time, gave by deed 500l. to the Grocers Company, to be paid from land in this parish, for the keeping of the solemn o BIT on the 1st of January yearly in this church, and for the payment of 53s. 4d. yearly to the parson of the parish, and his successors, in consequence of which the above-mentioned Company pay 9l. 4s. to this parish yearly.
THE PARISH OF LULLINGSTONE is within the Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction of the diocese of Rochester, and deanry of Dartford. The church is dedicated to St. Botolph. It consists of one isle and two chancels, having a low pointed steeple at the west end.
This church, to the credit of the patrons of it, who for a long succession of time have resided in the family seat almost adjoining to it, is remarkable for the neat and decent state in which it is kept. It is paved with white and black marble, the pews are regularly wainscoted, the windows adorned with coloured glass, and the cieling ornamented with stucco. The antient screen which separates the nave from the chancel, yet remains entire. It is of oak, and a most beautiful piece of gothic work, with a balustrade at top. The several monuments, which are fine, are in excellent order and preservation, insomuch, that it resembles a nobleman's costly chapel, more than a parochial country church, and affords an example worthy of the imitation of the patrons of other churches.
In the chancel, among others, is a grave-stone for Galfridus, once rector of this parish; another, with a brass plate, for John de Rokesle, once lord of Lullingstone, obt. 1361; arms, a cross, a rook in the dexter quarter; another, with the figure of a man armed, and a lion at his feet in brass, inscription in black letter, for Sir William Peche, obt. 1487, at the corner of the stone are four shields of brass, containing those of Peche, being azure, a lion rampant ermine, crowned, or double queved furchee, with its quarterings and impalements. On the south side of the altar is a most sumptuous and losty monument, and under the roof of it, which is richly adorned with gilt roses, &c. a sarcophagus, on which lies the figure of a man in armour, with his crest at his head and feet, being a lion ermine crowned, or, beside him is his lady, and above an inscription for Sir Percyval Hart, heir to the Peche, who lived in the service of four princes, under the first of whom he was knighted, and chief sewer and knight haringer under all; he matched into the family of the lord Bray, and had by his lady twelve children, he died æt. 84; above the inscription are the arms of Hart and Peche quarterly; on each side, Hart and other quarterings. On the north side is a most magnificent monument of stone, which separates the two chancels, it is enriched with great variety of gothic work; at the bottom, under an altar table of stone, supported by small pillars, lies the figure of a knight in armour, with his head resting on his crest, being a demi lion rampant remine crowned, with a gorget of flowers round the neck, and his feet against a lion couchant crowned, on his tabard, the arms of Peche as above, and the motto, Prest a faire; in different places about the monument, are shields of Peche, with its impalements and quarterings, and the arms and supporters of the Grocers Company. This pile of excellent sculpture for that age, is in memory of Sir John Peche, knight-banneret, who in king Henry the VIIIth's reign, was constable of Dover-castle, lord deputy of Calasis, &c. He founded the alms-houses at Lullingstone, and gave 500l. to other pious uses, to be performed by the Grocers Company, of which he was free.
Under the window at the east end is a noble tomb of alabaster, on which lie the figures of a man in armour and his lady, in the dress of the time, with their hands conjoined, at their heads is a lion couchant ermine, crowned, or; at their feet a garb of arrows argent, being for Sir George Hart, second son of Sir Percyval Hart, and two daughters, obt. 1587, æt. 55, on it the arms of Hart and of Bowes; a grave-stone for William Hart, esq. eldest son of Sir Percival Hart, obt. 1671, æt. 77; arms, Hart and Peche quarterly. On the west side of the chancel, which it entirely covers, is a beautiful monument executed in the gothic taste in stucco, in the form of a screen, and ornamented with a great number of shields of arms. In the centre, on which marble, arched in the form of an entrance or door-way, which reaches to the pavement, is an inscription for Percyval Hart, esq. the munificent repairer and beautifier of this church, representative in parliament for this country in the two last parliaments of queen Anne, obt. 1738, æt. 70; the shields of arms on the monument are numerous, being forty-four different ones of Peche and Hart, with their impalements and quarterings. On the north side is a very elegant mural monument, with a profile head of a lady encircled with figures and ornamental sculpture; on each side are two fine urns of brown marble, in memory of dame Anne Dyke, who died in 1763, æt. 71, only child of Percival Hart. esq. of this place; she was twice married, first, to John Bluet, esq. of Holcomb-court, in Devonshire, and afterwards to Sir Thomas Dyke, bart. of Horeham; Mr. Bluet died in 1728, æt. 29, and was buried here. Sir Thomas Dyke died in 1756, æt. 58, and lies buried in this chancel; above, in a lozenge, are the arms of Hart, impaling on the right Bluet; on the left, Dyke. The several windows are filled with painted glass, in compleat preservation, much of them of scripture history, intermixed with shields of arms, belonging to the above families of Peche, Hart and Dyke, erected at different times, one by Sir Thomas Dyke so late as 1754. (fn. 12)
In the 15th year of king Edward I. the church of Lullingstone was valued at twelve marcs. (fn. 13) Richard, bishop of Rochester, in the year 1412, united the parish and church of Lullingstane to this of Lullingstone, with the consent of Sir Reginald de Cobham, lord and patron of the former; and of John Peche, lord and patron of the latter, and all others interested in them; by reason that the parishioners of Lullingstane had decreased to two families only; and that the income and revenue of the church was become so small, as not to afford a decent support to the rectors of it; and the bishop, by his decree, added the parishioners of the parish church of Lullingstane to that of Lullingstone, together with the cure of souls, and families, with oblations, and all and singular the tythes, excepting those of sheaves, hay, wood, and underwood, (fn. 14) whatsoever, which he decreed should remain as before to the church of Lullingstane, and that they should continue to be parishioners of the church of Lullingstone, until new parishioners should return, and again increase in the parish of Lullingstane; and further, that notwithstanding the above decree, the rector of the church of Lullingstane should sustain entirely, as he had before been wont to do, all the burthens belonging to it, as well relating to divine service as otherwise, excepting what has been before-mentioned, and which belonged to the parishioners to sustain. (fn. 15)
By virtue of the commission of enquiry into the value of church livings, in 1650, issuing out of chancery, it was returned, that Lullingstone was a parsonage, with a house, without glebe land, and worth thirty-eight pounds per annum, if Lullingstane was laid to it, which was eight pounds per annum.
And again, that Lullingstane was a parsonage, the church fallen down; one master Cockerell enjoying it, but performed no duty. (fn. 16)
In the year 1712, Percyval Hart, esq. patron of the parish church of Lullingstone, and also of the vicarage of Lullingstane, and Edward Tilson, clerk, rector of Lullingstone, presented their petition to Thomas Spart, then bishop of Rochester, setting forth, that the true value of that rectory, as certified into the queen's court of exchequer, amounted to the value of 39l. 1s. 3d. yearly, and no more; and that the true value of that vicarage, then vacant, amounted to ten pounds yearly, and no more; which vicarage was without cure of souls, having neither church nor chapel belonging to it, nor inhabitant dwelling within it, and that it was not valued in the queen's books of the first fruits and tenths; and that the rectory abovementioned was not distant from it a quarter of a mile, and humbly prayings, that the rectory and vicarage might be united and consolidated for ever. In consequence of which, the bishop united and consolidated them for ever. And he further granted license to the rector of the before-mentioned church and his successors, to take actual possession of the vicarage then vacant, and to take and receive the rents, profits, oblations, tythes, and other revenues whatsoever of it, and to convert and apply the same to the use and commodity of the rector of the church of Lullingstone, for the time being, who should be subject to and discharge all burthens whatsoever of the vicarage, ordinary and extraordinary, which the vicars of it were bound and accustomed to be subject to and discharge, before the union of this rectory and vicarage. (fn. 17)
The rectory of Lullingstone is a discharged living in the king's books, of the clear yearly certified value of 39l. 1s. 3d. the yearly tenths being fifteen shillings and eight-pence. (fn. 18) It was in 1734 augmented by the governors of queen Anne's bounty, at which time the reverend doctor Henchman contributed one hundred pounds for the like purpose. (fn. 19)
The churches of Lullingstone and Lullingstane were always appendages to those manors, and as such they are now of the patronage of Sir John Dixon Dyke, bart.
Church of Lullingstone.
|Or by whom presented.|
|Family of Peche.||Galfridus. (fn. 20)|
|Richard White,, in 1412. (fn. 21)|
|Family of Hart.||Edward Tilson, obt. 1726. (fn. 22)|
|Edward Tilson, instit. Jan. 27, 1726, obt. 1748. (fn. 23)|
|Sir Thomas Dyke, bart.||David Lambe, 1748, ob-. 1771. (fn. 24)|
|Sir John D. Dyke, bart.||Marmaduke Lewis, 1772. Present rector.|