State Papers, 1654: November (1 of 3)

Pages 704-717

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 2, 1654. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

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In this section

November (1 of 3)

A letter of intelligence.

Paris, 11. Nov. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xx. p. 3.

In my last but this, I gave you the best account I could of the affairs here: since we have nothing of the duke of Guise, that I can hear of.

Our embassador Bordeaux writes positively in his last to cardinal Mazarin himself, that his treaty will be soon ended, and his peace made with the protector; yet some will not believe it. But this I can assure you, that the court shews more of favour and countenance now to the Huguenots, than ever I saw in France; not for any affection to them, I must confess, but to pleasure the protector, lest he and they should act something which we always fear; as you may see by my news in the letter of occurrents of the design of one of your fleets against Bourdeaux, M. d'Estrade, &c. But I believe all to be false, yet here very common; as also that the protector is very ill, and so far past recovery, that the parliament have already chosen three, of which one is to succeed his highness. However, great alterations are expected here in England, and they hold still and firm in that opinion, but upon what grounds, I know not.

No more I have to add since my former, but that I am,
Sir, Yours.

Richelieu to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.

Paris, 11. Novemb. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xx. p. 7.

My Lord,
The siege of Clermont began the twenty-fifth of the last month. Since, 'tis said that the trench is opened, and that the place will be shortly taken, there being but thirty officers and two hundred soldiers in garison.

It is said here, that M. d'Estrades hath discovered an enterprize, which the Spaniards had against the city of Bourdeaux, through the assistance of some discontented citizens, who are all discovered through the taking of a Spanish bark, together with the design, to the number of two hundred citizens, who are like to be made examples to the rest; and this will be a means to secure that city to the king for ever after.

Prince Condé to Barriere.

From the camp at St. Gery, 12. Nov. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xx. p. 11.

I am very sorry to hear of your indisposition. Be assured, there is none more troubled for it than myself. I refer you to the lord president Viole concerning your business; therefore order your affairs, according to what you shall receive from him; and believe me to be wholly yours.

President Viole to Barriere.

Vol. xx. p. 11.

I can say no more to you concerning your business, than that I mentioned in my last; therefore you must endeavour to persuade the merchants to take that assignation, which is really good.

The affairs are here still in the same posture. They have given to his highness la Capelle; and they are endeavouring to find out quarters for his army. In the mean time Clermont is besieged, and doth run great hazard of being taken, if not relieved.

Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xx. p. 45.

Honorable Sir,
In yours of the twenty-eighth September you inclyn to imploy Mr. Harris in Spayn at Madrid, St. Sebastian's, and Cales, as your occasions shal requyer; and you ar ples'd to honor me so much, as to tak my judgment of his quallifications, fitting that servis, and what sallary he may deserv. For the first, he has serv'd the duke of Lorain som tym as a gentleman in his troope; then he was secretary to the earl of Norwich; after that imploy'd as a privat agent for the parlament at Ratisbon, whence he was forc't to fly for his lyf, being hyhly thretened by Wilmot, that was ambassador there for the pretended Scots king. The gentleman is very discreet, sober, and temperat. I hav not met an Inglishman abroad so rarly quallefyed: he is a great master of languages, to say, Latin, French, Itallian, Spanish, and Low Dutch; all which he does not only speake, but wryt. Besyds al thes abillityes, this gentleman declares a reall affection to the state's servis; so that I am confident he wil giv you a very good account of what you imploy him in. I hav acquainted him with the desyne, which he wil redily embrace; and within this twenty dayes tak his passage hence upon an Inglish ship for Cales, wher he wil attend your commands, which you may pleas to direct to Mr. Bartholmew Harris, (for that is his nam, except you pleas to order him another) under the cover of Mr. James Wilson's letters in Cales, wher he will cal for them. He demands ten pounds a month, which indeed is no wayes extravagant, considering the dearnes of that country; but if you order him to travel much betwixt Madrid and thos other places, this mony wil not hould out. I hav lykwys acquainted him, that your favour shall be more worth to him then the sallary, if he comports himself well in your servis. He answer'd me, that's the thing he depends upon; for he has no hopes to lay up any thing of this sallary. I shal disburse to him five in six months pay, to proceed in this servis. In conclusion, I am confident you hav in al respects a fit man for your servis.

I infinitly rejois, that the protector and parlement agreed, which must certainly conduce to the happines of this nation. Here is no newes yet of the French fleet's landing in any part of Ittally. 'Tis suppos'd they ar in som distress (or was at lest) by long contrary winds. About twenty-five dayes since, they landed a few soldiers upon the South-est end of Sardinia, and possest themselves of some watch-towers ther to secure theyr watering; but since no farther newes. What was reported last week of theyr landing at Regium, we hear noe further of. A bark from Sicilia reports, they wer past the channel of Malta, which indeed is theyr direct way to Puglia; but hereof theyr is no certainty; nether 'tis here beleeved, that general Blak's fleete wil come hether; about which I hav bin often demanded, but answer them with silence. I am,
Honorable Sir, Your most humble and faithful servant,
Cha. Longland.

Leghorn, 13. Nov. 1654. [N. S.]

Chanut, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.

Hague, 13. Nov. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xx. p. 17.

My Lord,
I have received your letter of the seventh of this month, at my return from Amsterdam. In that city many would make me to believe, that the English fleet was gone for the Streights, with an intention to fight our naval army. I cannot believe it for several reasons; but above all, in regard that squadron was not sufficient to engage, being assured, that of those thirty English ships, whereof that squadron was composed, there were but fourteen good ships of war. In the mean time every body here doth publish your treaty to be concluded. I alone remain in an uncertainty: I would I were better informed by your letters, that my mind may be at rest.

My lord Jongestall is gone for Friesland, and did not see me. He charged a French officer, that lay at the same house where he lay, to make his excuse. I do hear, that the states general are not satisfied with him for going away, before he had delivered in his report in writing, as they did order him. Prince William is still in the province of Overyssel, where he is labouring to pacify the minds of the people here.

Madame la princesse is arrived here, and hath left the king her brother at Cologne; where he is resolved to spend his winter. He was resolved before to live at Aix, but the country round about Cologne was more agreeable to him, and where he may recreate himself in riding and hunting.

I am told, that the elector of Cologne did not make any compliment to him. All those parts are all armed, for fear of receiving new guests this winter. The necessity, which the house of Austria hath of the lords the electors, for the making of a king of the Romans, will hinder Cologne and Treves from being devoured: but it is said, that the duke of Newburgh is not altogether unwilling to suffer the Lorrainers to quarter in his territories; and for the country of Outre-Meuses, it is thought will not be altogether free from quartering of foldiers.

There is nothing done in the business of Bremen. The cessation of arms is expired, and the treaty not begun.

De Witt to Beverning.

Amsterdam, 13. Nov. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xx. p. 25.

My Lord,
The post is not yet arrived, which I very much long for, to know whether the treaty be concluded with Neusville, and what you have done further about the treaty of navigation.

The lords states of Zeland were summoned to meet against the fourth of this month, to consider about the deduction of Holland, and to nominate a sit person to send embassador from that province. I have not yet heard, whether they have debated those points, or what they have resolved upon them: but upon the advice I receive from thence concerning the inclination of the members, I still fear they will proceed to a designation of the prince of Orange. I have not heard any thing further from Overyssel since my last; so that I believe count William will endeavour to draw on his side some of the gentry of Twent, and some of the magistrates of Deventer.

The states of Holland are summoned together against the 17th of this month; so that I intend to go from hence for the Hague on monday next.

P. S. The post is newly arrived, and I have received your letters, with the inclosed to 303, which I find very civilly penned, and much to the purpose, and which I hope will prove effectual.

[The lord de Witt is a servant to a lady at Amsterdam, and my lord Beverning is a servant to a lady at Utrecht, whom he courts by letters and a proxy; but neither of these lords can gain their mistresses affections, and there are but small hopes for them.]

The Dutch commissioners at Staden to the states general.

H. and M. Lords,

Vol. xx. p. 38.

My Lords,
After the four first days of the negotiations, here begun, were passed with disputes touching the independency of the city of Bremen, as their high mightinesses will have observed, out of our last of the . . . November; and that the lord Rosenhaen did finally declare, that the king his master would not grant the same; and the deputies of Bremen, that the lords their masters could not desist from the same, the said lord Rosenhaen did at last declare, that he would consent, that this point of independency should be laid by, and that each party remaining unprejudiced in his pretensions, the treaty might go on, to find out a peaceable composition of the depending differences; which being a long time discoursed upon, and conferences held, as well with the said lord Rosenhaen, as with the present lords the deputies of Bremen, touching sundry cautions to be observed therein; we, together with the lords of Lubeck and Hamburg, in consideration of the arguments alleged to us by the one and the other party, made a proposition in writing for an accommodation, and delivered the same on monday last to the said lord Rosenhaen; and his excellency promised to give his answer thereupon: since which he informed us, that we should have this day all the conditions whereupon his majesty was inclined to treat, drawn up in manner of a formal treaty, with many civil excuses, that it could not be done before, since he had thought it necessary to get several informations from general Koningsmark, who is at present at one of his country seats, seven German miles from this town. Mean while the lord Rosenhaen has proposed to us and the deputies of Lubeck and Hamburg, by the director of chancery; that, whereas we for your high mightinesses, and the other lords for the said two cities, did mediate in this negotiation, his excellency was of opinion, that it would be for the respect due to your high mightinesses, and for the better security of his majesty, that their high mightinesses by an article, to be inserted in the treaty, by way of guaranty, would be security for the observance thereof, and that we on that account should sign the treaty for your high mightinesses. Whereunto we answered, that your high mightinesses would not only be glad to see, that herein a good treaty was concluded, but also, that the same were well kept and observed; but that, as to the said subject, we were not instructed: however, that we would willingly write to your high mightinesses; however we hoped, that the principal affairs for that reason would not be delay'd. As well the said director as the lord Rosenhaen, who afterwards at a visit at our house made the same motion, did first mention, that their high mightinesses solely should be guarantees for the city of Bremen; but acquiesced nevertheless with our answer, that such a security and guaranty in a treaty could no otherwise be done but jointly. Hereupon we expect your high mightinesses orders.

After the writing of the foregoing, the director of chancery came to our house, whom the lord Rosenhaen . . . . . . and delivered and read to us the annexed project of the treaty, after a preface by word of mouth, that his excellence in the drawing of the same had acted very moderately, and that he therefore might perhaps admit in formalibus one or other alteration, but in materialibus none or but little altering. We must own, after the many protestations made to us of his majesty's affection, and that he would ask no hard conditions, the same seem'd very surprising to us, since it contains not only extensively (to the prejudice of the city) whatever the last archbishops have had, which is the utmost of his majesty's pretensions (and which nevertheless the emperors and the whole empire have deemed to be ill grounded, and which the lords of Bremen refute with very strong reasons); but also besides this several other grievances: moreover, that his majesty opposes so openly their independency, and makes such excessive demands of several domains of the city, and among the rest also of Vegesack . . . . . their fort, for a subsistence of . . . . . . as if the lords of Bremen had attack'd his majesty offensively, and forced him to a necessary defence. We have complained hereupon in plain terms, that we saw ourselves thus deceived in our good confidence; and further we spoke seriously against the harshness and iniquity of the said conditions, which we shall see to-morrow in a nearer conference with the lord Rosenhaen, whether we can reduce the same to reasonable terms; whereto the said director gives us but little hopes. Whereas in the said project no mention is made of the guaranty, nor any thing said by word of mouth at the delivery thereof, perhaps we shall not be any more spoken to about it. The lords of Bremen, however, should very probably be glad of it, if the negotiation should come to a conclusion; which however, as long as the Swedes insist upon the former or the like conditions, is not to be hoped. To-morrow we shall see likewise, whether the lord Rosenhaen is inclined to a further prolongation of a cessation of arms, which expires on the twenty-sixth instant. The lord protector of England has written to the king of Sweden, and to the regency here, in favour of Bremen, and is said to be well affected to their affairs. The emperor likewise doth urge very much by his resident at the diet of the circle of Lower Saxony, the princes and states, to dispose them to the support of the city: but every thing is taken ad deliberandum; as likewise the pretensions of the deputies of Bremen, as coming from a free and imperial city, to take their place in the said particular diet.

Wherewith, &c. My Lords, &c. Was signed,
C. v. Beuningen.
E. V. Bootsma.
R. v. Kniphuysen.

Staden, 13. Nov. 1654. [N. S.]

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.

13. Novemb. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xix. p. 504.

Prince Willyam is still at Zwoll, beseidging the town of Deventer in an extraordinary manner, not with armes of steel, (that would doe harme) nor with armes of silver, for he doth not abound in that neither; but with such armes, as are called expedients, and satisfactions, and promises. It is true, that the said prince will hold to be stadtholder, although the nobles of Deventer doe continue in their opposition and contradiction; but the sayd prince doth endeavour, as well to accomodate the differrence for the charge of drossart of Twente, to the end to gain credit to himselfe, and to give an example and tryal how salutary and necessary a stadtholder is; to the end that Guelderland (which is thereby verry much of that disposition) should followe, and afterwards Utrecht, and in the end Holland itselfe: for men doe discover every day more the weaknesse of Holland. There be those already (I speake of good Hollanders) that say, that men ought to send an ambassade into England, to desire and induce them to the restitution of the act of seclusion. And although the protector should continue to deny the restoring of it, yet that would serve to content the people: item, that designation is no election; that they may verry well designe the prince for stadtholder, without giving him the charge or commission, till he shall be of the age of twelve years: that that would not make against the seclusion: that in the mean tyme much alteration might happen, either the death of the protector, or that of the prince, or that of prince Willyam. It is verry well known, that amongst states of Holland there are many of Orange party. That such do speake so, is not strange; but men do wonder, that some of good Hollanders should speak: after that men say, that the people are such, and that mos gerendus est Thaidi; but wee doe also know, that the people are blinde, and doth followe blind for their superiors. Now how shall they follow their superiors, who themselves (I speake of good Hollanders) do not know what they would have themselves, nor what path they will go in ? And what constancie can the citties of Deventer, Arnheim, Nimmeguen, Tiel, Brommel, Middleburg, Zierixée, Tolon, have, seeing that Holland, which is to them as dux & auctor, doth soe much varie and totter ?

The nobles of Holland, who would fain have the charge of bailiff of the Brill for one of Duvenvoord, are angry, seeing that the citty will give it to the son of the deceased.

The raedt pensionary De Witt having been for these three weeks at Amsterdam, where he doth make love, doth cause men to discourse of him here. His mistriss and future wife is neice of the burgomaster de Graef, a man, of whome Aristotle himselfe might learne the politiques, being as much Orange party as good Hollanders in making a Misce, flat potio, whereof men doe beleive, that he will give to drinke to the said raedt pensionary: but I am too dull and heavy for soe much subtilty; and it were much better to plunge one's self again into the stadholdership up to the verry ears, than to swime soe betweene two waters, and leave the people in soe great an uncertainty, that men doe not knowe how nor where to have it.

They are somewhat discontented, that the Swedes at Staden doe so much question the quality of the commissioners to accomodate the difference in Overyssel. They do propose, that the lord Haresolte shall hold the title of drossart of Twente, and the comparition at the general assemblie; but the rest of the administration of the charge shall belong to another: but I doe understand, that as well the city of Deventer as the nobles will not hearken to it.

Morus is gone into France. It is believed, that he has a calling, & quidem à castris, and that he will not returne that at Amsterdam. They love well his renoune and learning, but not his conversation; for they doe not desire, that he should come to visit the daughters of condition, as he was used to doe. He promised Vlack to finish his apologie, but he went away without taking his leave of him; so that you see, that Vlack hath finished abrupte. The truth is, Morus durst not add the sentence against Pontia, for the charges are recompensed, and where there is payment of charges; that is to say, that the action of Pontia is good, but that the proofs fail him; yea I beleive, that Morus was faine to purge himself upon oath; and the attestations of his life at Amsterdam and at the Hague, he could not gett them to his phansie.

The Dutch embassadors in England to the states general.

Vol. xx. p. 37.

H. and M. Lords,

My Lords,
The members of parliament are every day busy by their committees, to settle the affairs of the government and of religion; but yet we are not informed of any further positive resolution. In the last assembly of divines was set down a confession of faith for the church of England, but was interrupted, at least not intirely finish'd. There was one made in the great assembly of divines of this nation, at Westminster, in the year 1642; the same is now a-new under examination or revision before a committee of the parliament. It is said, that fourteen of the first articles of the same are already approved of; which consequently is expected will be good, and for the advantage of the church. The members of the house have also made some positive regulation and directions con cerning the free exportation of wheat, rye, barley, malt, pease, beans, and butter; each species however regulated to a certain price: if above the same, exportation remains prohibited, and under a certain permit from the customs, and under an express reservation, that the said exportation shall not be permitted, but only in English ships, and by inhabitants of England. Only foreigners shall have liberty to export butter, but with the charge of paying double custom. It is whispered here, that some disturbance has happened among the sailors of Penn, in the fleet at Portsmouth, and that some of them intended to draw up a petition, and deliver the same to his highness, consisting chiefly in these three complaints or grievances; that all their provisions are spoiled; that they were sent upon an expedition, which was known to all the world, and the enemy ready prepared against it; and that they would not any longer be thus pressed, but be listed by beat of drum, as it was done in the Netherlands. However, we know nothing certain of it, only so much, that general Desborough and Penn have been there; and as we are likewise informed, they have intirely quieted them, and caused their provisions to be changed: as to the expedition, assured them, that the state would take care for their reputation and conservation; and as to their last complaint, they would favourably represent the same to his highness. Here is also made public in print a certain petition signed by three certain colonels, Thomas Saimden, John Osbry, and Matthew Alured, containing sundry considerable points against the high power of the lord protector; but the said petition is suppressed, and the said Alured, in whose house the same was found, is secured here in the Meuse, and the great council of war has been twice assembled hereupon, with hope and probability of an intire satisfaction.

Wherewith, H. and M. Lords, &c.


Westminster, 13. Nov. 1654. [N. S.]

From the Dutch embassadors in England.

Vol. xx. p. 41.

My Lord,
After we had dispatch'd by the post our last to their high mightinesses, was delivered to us an extract out of the resolutions of the council, concerning the eleven known salt-ships, a copy whereof is here inclosed, whereby we observe, that this affair was not sent for advice to the judges of the admiralty, as the lord president inform'd us; but that the same was returned for a final decree and decision; and expecting therein nothing else but an unavoidable condemnation, we have thought proper to try still all possible means, according to their high mightinesses resolution, to procure also the relaxation of the salt; and thereupon we have not only spoken with Mr. Thurloe, who lies sick a-bed, but also with the lord president and other lords of the council, with allegation of the damages, which our ships on the coast of Portugal and in other parts might do to their vessels; of variances and troubles, which on both sides might result therefrom; and of the conjuncture of time and things; that winter being now at hand, such disputes might possibly not happen so soon again; and that being on the point of a conclusion with France, and upon a negotiation of marine, all affairs could hereafter not so conveniently be regulated with us. Hereby we have brought it about, that the council should further assemble and resolve about the same; which was done last night: the result thereof however has been so as their high mightinesses will be pleased to observe out of the inclosed copy. The negotiations of the lord de Neusville are now so far, that the only disputes are about the rank and titles, since he will admit of no alternative; viz. that the lord protector in one instrument should be named before the king of France, as it has been done with Sweden, Denmark, and Portugal: however, there is proposed an expedient, viz. to mention only France and the republic of England, whereof the success is expected. Mons. Oldenburg, who formerly transacted here the affairs for the city of Bremen, has assured us, that at his request his highness had written letters to the king of Sweden and to the said city, offering his mediation; and that among other things he was answered, that in case this government was in due time and along with others desired, they would have made no difficulty to take the mediation upon them along with their high mightinesses. We have heretofore written to their high mightinesses for some credential letters to the present parliament, as also some in favour of the creditors of the queen of Bohemia, in order to present the same along with their petition, when opportunity serves. Whereupon we received with their high mightinesses answer of the eighth of October a copy of the said letters, in favour of the creditors, dated on the 30th of September; and find, with submission, that therein these two affairs are thus drawn, that the whole tenor speaks only of creditors, without mixture of any other matters; and behind a clause of authorization to us being added only in relation to that business. Whereupon we have thought fit to represent again to their high mightinesses, if they would not be pleased to send us some credentials in general terms, in case perhaps we had something to propose or communicate in the affairs of commerce, touching the edict of October 1. 1654. or the like matters, to the end that those letters may procure us the necessary access: and as to the affair of creditors, that the letters might be written anew, omitting the last clause, since, with submission, we see no likelihood how we can propose such an affair only by itself, without addition and mixture of others. Concerning the superscription, Mr. Thurloe has told us, that it would be sufficient to direct, To the parliament of the republic of England, Scotland, and Ireland, with some titles, as, Illustrissimi, &c. however, that it depended from one's own discretion. Hereupon we expect some further directions.

Wherewith, &c.

My Lord, &c.

Signed, Beverning. Nieuport.

Westm. 13. Nov. 1654.

We have not been able to get the said resolution concerning the eleven salt-ships, which was taken yesterday, before the closing of these presents; but we hear, the same is not favourable.

A letter of intelligence from Holland.

Vol. xx. p. 29.

I have yours the 27th October; the contents whereof shall be diligently observed. There is nothinge yet donne in that affaire, the which I formerly gave the intelligence of, though it then was designed with such speed. The gentleman hath not bin with me according to his promise: he is newly returned to the Hague; and 'tis apparent, that the ill success of forces in Scotland may obstruct the other work. I will be as vigilant as possible in all things, that concerne our bussines. Collonel Blagge went from Amsterdam the last monday with the lord Belkarris. They gave mee no notice of their departure, which they promist to doe, only left worde at their lodging, that they went to the Hague, and would returne againe. I heare no more of them; so I beleive they are gone both for Scotland, although the lord Belkarris sayde, he went for Parys to his lady. Blage returnes to his master with all speed, to bring him certaine intelligence concerning the condition of Middleton and his friends there. As to that, I knowe no more. These people are now very quiet, and for ought I see, they will suffer Swoll and Campen peaceably to enjoye their new stadtholder. What passes at C. St.'s court, my correspondent's letter will inform you at large: I have made him so sure, that you may be confident nothinge materiall shall pass there, but we shall have notice of it. Sir, I will not trouble you nor myselfe with compliments; for I esteeme them needles, where there is reallitye of favours, as you have pleased to inferr on mee in your most kinde motion to the company, concerninge my desir; for which I cannot omit to returne you my hartie thankes. Especially I must acknowledge an infinite obligation for your noble prosser of your indeavours to get mee the deputie's place, the which I humbly shall accept of, and take it for a great honour to supplye it, hoping I maye be serviceable to you and the commonwealth in the same. By how much the place is more worthy then the secretary, by so much it is more chargeable and liable to be removed accordinge to the phansies of disaffected persons, whereof there is many amongst them; so that as the court is at present constituted, 'tis no prevaylinge argument, that a man is faithfull to the state, but the rather shall be excepted against, and suffer injuries; all which I shall be able to bear by your supportment, not doubting but there will be an alteration for the better, ere long, amongst that company, wherein I wish to be an instrument, having had a perticuler respect for them, ever since I was a member of it. The management of this affaire I leave to your courteous selfe, humbly beseeching you to use your utmost indeavour to obtayne it for mee, whoe am
13. Novemb. 54. [N. S.]

Your faithfull and most humble servant,
John Adams.

A letter of intelligence to Mr. White.

Brussels, 14. Novemb. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xxix. p. 53.

The army is to be in their quarters the latter end of this month. The queen of Sweden is then expected here at this town, where she is to pass the winter. There is order from Spain to receive her as if she were the king's person.

There is an embassador come to her from the king of Spain by Don Antonio de Pimantel, who is to reside as ordinary embassador by her majesty. My lord of Castlehaven left the prince's service, by reason that they gave him but little power or command; for he pretended to command all the Irish, and have them in a body; which he could not obtain, and now is given to M. d'Omaree, who commands in his place.

Clermont we do not intend to succour. All the court will be here shortly. It is intended to reform the Lorrain army: they are to be quartered about Lilers, in the country by Artois.

News from Paris, sent to Mr. Stouppe, the 14th of Nov. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xx. p. 159.

The twelfth of this instant the princess of Conti went away from this city to go and meet her husband in Languedoc, where that prince is to cause the states to stand at Montpelier, having been already assembled there.

The embassador of the great duke of Muscovy, having left to his majesty the letter of credence, in which are the demands of his master, did make known unto the king, that he did most submissively pray him, that his answer might presently be given unto him. The great duke his master hath also sent embassadors to the kings of Sweden, of Denmark, to the emperor, and many other princes, to pray them, as also he doth the king of France, that they would not meddle themselves in the warre he makes with the king of Poland, because he hath not undertaken it without a cause; whereof he hath made knowne the reasons.

Men are sent to assist the prince of Conti in the assembly of the states of Languedoc, as also in Provence likewise, to convocate the states there; the king desiring to have some money of both these provinces.

The letters from Rouen note also, that the duke of Longueville was to cause the states of Normandy to hold at Rouen, for to have there some money for the king.

The rumour, which was spread, that the prince of Condé had a mind to besiege Quesnoy, was not true, there being no likelihood, that he would undertake this siege in a season so far spent. It is not believed, that Clermont is besieged, notwithstanding what hath been said to the contrary.

The last advice from Brussels doth assure, that the president Viole, chief of the prince of Condé's council, did powerfully labour to find out some money for his master; and that he had also received a sum, which the king of Spain had caused to be given him; and that all the towns of Flanders and Brabant did also tax themselves for to give him some.

A letter of intelligence from Paris.

14. Novemb. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xx. p. 49.

I received both yours since my former, by which I see your new government prevails always between his highness and the new parliament; but indeed I see in many other letters the contrary, and that the parliament will not condescend to his highness's demands; of which I should be very sorry: likewise, that division is expected soon, not only between the protector and parliament, but between the officers of the army; which is worse. Whatever it be, in the Palais Royal they think within few days they may cry once, Le roy! within London, and with free power and liberty; but yet I doubt it much, though many are working for it, both here and there.

It is written from London of the fifth instant, that the parliament resolved hereafter the protectorship to be by election, and not by succession, as desired by his highness the lord protector; also, that the continuation of wars by the English against ours at sea caused last week our embassadors to speak highly for an absolute and last answer, which he hath not yet received; likewise, that the English fleet was to pass to attempt some considerable place belonging to the duke of Florence: but we fear more than him, though yet he keeps himself upon his guard.

From Perpignan, the twenty-ninth last month prince Conti parted for Montpellier, to be there against the opening of the general states of Languedoc; and after his departure the duke of Candale was to leave his baggage and equipage behind him, and post himself to Paris, after having gained great reputation for himself and his majesty's forces in those parts, the last campaign.

The last place he took, called Puicerduegne, they say, is a place of consequence.

Don Joseph de Margerit having received orders to come to a place called Drigol, and a considerable one, before he arrived, Don Ferdinand Gaille, being there with 800 men, got away, and did not so much as stay with his baggage; which signisies he was guilty.

From Toulon they write of the third instant, that they can have no news from their army naval of Guise, but by way of Rome, Malta, or some vessels, that sail from Levant; yet they are sure, seeing they took their rout towards Sicily, that they ought to land at Otrant; and that the commission the court sent to cardinal Antonio to command in Calabria, signifies they were first to attack that province: however, 'tis certain, they landed some in Sicily.

From St. Menehauld they write of the ninth instant, that their trenches were opened the fifth instant, and the next day gave the first attack; by which, after being about it that day and night, they gained the half-moon near the church, being gallantly defended. The second attack was the next day, and very hot in the wood side of the town, where they made two breaches, and placed after much dispute two batteries upon a height; and sunday last in the morning another half-moon was taken that side by ours; so that we hope soon to be masters of Clermont, whatever the enemies may say to the contrary.

Those of Bourdeaux write of the seventh of this month, that they are very much thankful to God Almighty, for the discovery of that treacherous plot of the Spaniards and English together. Their parliament do give such testimony of love and affection at present for the king's service, that they were never so well united before; and by reason of that the court promises to establish them, before it be long, in Bourdeaux; and to that purpose a commission is to be sent to M. de Verdier.

Wednesday his majesty and the cardinal went a-hunting to Bois de Vincennes, and next day the queen, duke d'Anjou, Mad. la princesse de Conti, la duchesse de Mercœur, and many others, followed them; and except the queen, they were all both men and women a-horseback, running, as also the cardinal, with hundreds more, after a deer, that was killed in the end; but Mad. la princesse de Conti got a fall, and was like to be hurt, but yet it came to nothing. They returned on thursday in the evening, and are now here quietly.

I am informed, that the envoy of the duke of Muscovy does offer to this king the 400,000 men his master has on foot, and to keep them in service upon his own cost and charges, where this king pleases, either by sea or land. What he may expect for it from this king, I know not yet; but it is a great offer; which is all from hence known at present to,
Your most humble servant.

A letter of intelligence.

Paris, 14. Novemb. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xx. p. 52.

Since my former, I have nothing certain from the duke of Guise; but it is apparent his design is against Naples, building upon some princes there bandits. By many his case is reputed desperate. Of our treaty with you in England I can say nothing new, but we shall not here accelerate it, till we know further, what shall happen among you; for divisions are still expected with you. We have assurance here, and so far give belief to the design you had against Bourdeaux in my former letters, that now and always we said you never intend war against Spain, but to amuse us here.

You may be assured, some of your parliament, and it may be of your council, keep fair with card. Mazarin, and that by M. Bordeaux's English acquaintances in London means; which they are, you may best inquire there.

Notwithstanding the gracious letters written by the king of France to the states of Genoa, to assist them against the Spaniards; yet the French army enter'd into Lombardy, and have burned that which belonged to the enemy. After the spoil, marshal de Grancey sent to excuse the fault, promising severe punishment upon the actors. This will hasten the Genoese to a peace with Spain; and so believed.

Many reports are here of the Muscovite embassador's business, for marriage of his daughter to this king, with a million of crowns, 60,000 men, &c. But his business is to divert France from giving assistance to Poland, and to prevent the issue of the war. Here is nothing more than what you have in the occurrents from,

Vol. xx. p. 55.

At the committee appointed to consider of the forces of the commonwealth, & c. upon the report of the sub-committee, appointed to meet with the officers named by his highness, to consider with them, how an abatement may be made of the forces and charges of this commonwealth, consisting with the safety of the commonwealth.

Novemb. 4. 1654.

Resolved, That these following garisons be dismantled and demolished. Resolved, that the fort of Bristol be dismantled and demolished.

Resolved, that the castle of Hereford be dismantled and demolished, and that the wall of the city of Hereford, from St. Owen's gate unto the castle, be likewise demolished.

Resolved, that Warwick castle be dismantled, and the fortisications thereof thrown down.

Resolved, that the castle of Chester be made untenable; and that the wall of the city of Chester between the New gate and the East gate be likewise demolished.

Resolved, that the fortifications about Red-Castle be thrown down, and the castle made untenable.

Resolved, that Denbigh castle be demolished.

Resolved, that Taunton castle be made untenable.

Resolved, that Mersey fort be demolished.

Resolved, that the castle of Carnarvon be demolished; and so much of their town-wall demolished, as shall make it untenable.

Resolved, that the castle of Shrewsbury be no longer continued a garison, unless upon further consideration it appear to be necessary.

Resolved, that the consideration of Chepstow castle be left to his highness the lord protector.

Novemb. the 4th, 1654.

Resolved by the said committee, that these following garisons be continued, and very well manned.

Resolved, that the castle of Tynbigh be continued a garison.
That the castle of Carmarthen be continued.
That the garison of Liverpool be continued.
That the castle of Cardiff be continued a garison.
That the castle of Beaumaris and garison be continued.
That the fort of Yarmouth by the spier be continued a garison.
That the garisons in the isle of Guernsey be continued.
That the garisons in the isle of Jersey be continued.
That the garison in the isle of Silley be continued.
That the garisons in the isle of Man be continued.
That the Mount in Cornwall be continued a garison.
That the castles of Pendennis and Mauds be continued garisons.
That Portland castle be continued a garison.
That Calshot castle be continued a garison.
That Hurst castle be continued a garison.
That the fort and island at Plymouth be continued garisons.
That Portsmouth and South-sea castle be continued garisons.
That the castle of Dover be continued a garison.
That Sandgate castle be continued a garison.
That Walmoor castle be continued a garison.
That Deal castle be continued a garison.
That Sandown castle be continued a garison.
That Upnor castle be continued a garison.
That the fort of Tilbury be continued a garison.
That Langer fort be continued a garison.
That the garisons of Hull and Scarborough be continued.
That Tinmouth castle be continued a garison.
Resolved, that the garisons of Berwick and Holly island be continued.
That the garison of Carlisle be continued.
That the tower of London be continued a garison.
That the castle of Windsor be continued a garison.
That Conway castle be continued a garison.
That Yarmouth fort in Norfolk and Leostoss in Suffolk be kept as now by part of the lord Lambert's regiment.

Order of the states of Friesland.

Vol. xxi. p. 186.

Trusty and Well-beloved,
We are assured from good hands, that in several places of the United Provinces, at all opportunities, public prayers are made by the ministers of the word of God, for the welfare of his highness the young prince William of Orange, being the third of that name; and that the same is not practifed in this our province. And whereas we are of opinion, that the state of the United Provinces is highly concerned in the welfare of his said highness, we therefore desire of you, and by virtue of our office we do also command you, seriously to exhort the ministers of the word of God in your district, and to oblige them to it; that they at all opportunities in the public prayers do pray with an earnest zeal to the Lord, (by whom alone kings do reign) that it may please the divine majesty to let this young branch grow up in his fear, and further to bless the same with all spiritual and bodily gifts, to the magnifying of his holy name, and advancement of the true reformed religion. Where depending upon, we commend you to the protection of God. Leuwarden, this fifteenth day of November, 1654. [N. S.]

Underneath stood, Your good friends, The deputies of the states of Friesland.

Was signed,
A. Lycklema.
By order of the same, A. Viersen, 1654.

An intercepted letter.

Vol. xx. p. 61.

Since my letter to you went to the post, I have reseved on from Jacson, and am desired to send an answer to it by you. I wish whatever any of . . intend me, may bee addrest the same way, that his brother-in-law sends his, who has a servant in towne to looke after his affaires, that will bee carefuller then any I can imploye to reseave and diliver them. This is all, besides desiring to heare from you what Janning says to Lombard, and how hee is reseaved by Jonson, that I have now to say: farewell.

The 15th of Novemb. [1654. N. S.]

The superscription, A Mons. Mons. Petit, à l'hostel de Grave, ruë St. Sepulchre, sauxbourg St. Germain, à Paris.

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.

[16. Novemb. 1654. N. S.]

Vol. xx. p. 71.

Those that come from the king of Scotland at Cologne, say, that he is full of good hope, especially concerning the treaty between England and France: that he is very much followed by English and Scots, and more than he often desireth: that good store of money is sent him out of England: that he payeth more in English coin than in French; yet however he is very much withered, and looketh ten years older than he is: that Sir Edward Hyde is his chancellor; but all the English royalists, that used to be here, are now there. He doth also promise himself much from the election of the prince to be stadtholder of Overyssel. But in the mean time I cannot say any more of that, than what I have writ formerly. The lord Jongestall hath insisted, not to give his report in writing; but he is gone to inform the states of Friesland of the true position of the case; so that in the end we must expect from thence a counter-deduction.

There is come forth a book called Considerations upon the deduction of Holland. I have read it; but the states of Holland took such a good course and order to suppress it, that there is not one to be had of them; otherwise it is well enough made. But those of Friesland will come aperto ore by way of manifesto avowed, and in the name of the states of the province.

He faith, that three hundred members had signed the act of recognisance: that at least 150 more did refuse to sign it: that amongst those, that refus'd to sign, were three colonels, and Mr. Bradshaw, formerly president; but that the son of my lord Stamford had signed: that at the beginning, when there were so many, that did refuse to sign, the protector said, that he was not angry, that so few men went into the parliament; for I had rather they would stay without; one, that is within, may do more harm, than ten that are without.

Prince William departed with four commissioners of Overyssel, who had been treated at Leuwarden, yea with great applause, the guns going off at the same time; and was received on the monday following at Campen, with great magnificence. The joy was so great, that the tears were seen to fall from the eyes of several of the magistrates. On the wednesday he came to Zwoll with great exclamation of Vive la maison d' Orange & de Nassau ! On thursday was a thanksgiving sermon in the church of Zwoll. On friday the prince went early in the morning to Deventer, only with four persons more, whereof a lieutenant is son to one of the burgomasters in that city. I do not yet hear, that the said prince hath been yet introduced or sworn there; but that he will endeavour to induce those of Deventer to conform themselves, and to desist from their protestation.

Having writ thus far, I am newly informed, that prince William hath done nothing at Deventer: that those of the said city have not only refused for their city to consent to the election, but have also excused and declined the mediation, which he hath offered to accommodate the difference concerning the lord Haersolte. Neither do I yet perceive, that they have been to see the gentlemen their opposers.

In the mean time it doth seem, that the Orange party do not greatly value that opposition, saying, that prince William hath not therefore refused to accept the charge, and that he is already sworn: but I do not comprehend how that can be, before the prince of Orange be brought in confirmed; for prince William as lieutenant and substitute cannot be confirmed before his principal.

The lord of Gent goeth in his own particular for Guelderland; but I am made to believe, that he will endeavour to do good offices there for a stadtholder; for it doth seem necessary, that there should be a king in Israel; yet in Holland I do not yet see any likelihood.

The commissioners of this state have been very coldly received at Staden. The Orange party have an opinion, that the protector doth cooperate in that; and that Sweden durst not without secret instigation and assistance of the protector but I think nothing doth animate Sweden but the pusillanimity of the states gen. If states general had kept alliance (as honest men ought to do) against Oldenburgh formerly, Sweden would have borne to a the states general a great deal of respect more: but God is just, and doth punish persidiousness.

Chanut, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.

Hague, 16. Novemb. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xx. p. 19.

My Lord,
Ne revellons point les desirs, que nous avons l'un & l'autre de retourner en France, contestant sur les causes & sur les esperances, que chacun de nous en a. Elles font fort differentes, mais elles peuvent agir de mesme force. Your age and your fortune do call you to action; my condition and my weakness on all sides draw me to my rest. God will dispose of us both; and in the mean time let us do our duties. Ce feroit une rude sacade en vostre negotiation, si ce bruit que vous m'escrivez du 30°, se trouvoit bien fondé. I cannot comprehend, how that can be digested or dissembled. Ce n'est pas que la chose en soy vaille beaucoup. Je la connois à fond; mais certes elle ne se peut honnestement abandonner, & jusqu'à ce que vos prochaines despesches ayant levé au scrupule, tout m'est incertain.

We have had here my lord Jongestall, who hath not been to see me, in regard he departed presently for Friesland, as soon as he had his audience of the lords states general, whete he did complain in general of the lords his collegues, as having acted alone by themselves, and without his advice, in the greatest affairs. He doth not accuse them of any ill conversation; but I am told, that he did not do it, because they were absent; but at their return he would declare himself. These are ordinary things in all commonwealths, where the condition of men, who do feed themselves with a vain imagination of liberty, is more subject to the outrages, than in a monarchy.

Count William is gone to Deventer to endeavour to pacify the difference of the province of Overyssel. At first he found the minds of men there very little disposed to peace; yet many believe all will end in a calm way; which will be the best course they can take. The princess of Orange is now expected, and it is not known whether she will approve, that prince William should administer during the minority of the prince her son.

I do understand out of Poland, that the division, which is between the king and the nobility, doth put the affairs of that kingdom into a confusion.

The Muscovites do keep the field, and take cities. The great Turk hath commanded the Tartar, Valachian, Moldavian, and Transylvanian, to assist Poland. That kingdom doth now feel the incommodity of having a king with so little power.

I do admire, that men in England consider so little the merits of the protector, that during his life they will dispute his succession: that cannot be without weakening his authority; that of the army cannot be continual, in my mind; for in the end a powerful people will grow weary of being subject to a handful of men. I believe there are examples to be found in England of this.

They write from Brussels, that the Spaniards do put incredible honour upon the queen of Sweden: that nation is prodigal of perfumes.

Mr. Rich. Laurance to the protector.

Vol. xix. p. 467.

May it please your Highness,
The inclosed was coppie of my last, and as yet have not receaved any of your highnes commands. Somme fewe dayes past arrived here the captain basha, with those shipps and galleyes, which were of his fleete, about sixty fail. Upon the thirtieth of the last month it pleased God to take out of this world the Dutch agente. Now in your capitulations with the grand signior, there is an article, which sayth, that in case the Dutch have nether ambassadors nor agente upon the place, that in such case they shall remaine under the protection of the Inglish, until such tyme as other provision can be made from Holland. Sir Tho. Bendish hath bine with the keymakan, unto whom hee carried a present, and desired, that the Dutch might bee compelled unto his protection, according to the article of the capitulations: but I cannot understand, that his request was granted, because that since Sir Thomas hath bine with the captain basha, and visited him, as before is sayd he had donn the keymakan; and hee hath this day called the Dutch, comanding them to remaine under the protection of the Inglish, until further order from Holland; but they have utterlie refused it. Some trouble it is like there may bee aboute it, when the new vizere comes, which may be in fifteen days; but I doe not find, that ether the French or any other desire to receave them: yet their pride makes them oppose the Inglish protection. Thus comitting you and your waighty affayres to the protection of the almighty, rest,
Pera of Constantinople, 7. Nov. 1654.

Your obediente subject,
Richard Laurance.

Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xx. p. 79.

Honorable Sir,
I am right glad his highnes is perfectly recovered, and that you were in soe hopefull a way to it, as yours of the 27th October, this day received, makes mention. I cannot but thinke strange at that gentleman's free imparting to his acquaintance soe much to his owne disadvantage. The best is, he can hurt none but himselfe: you may take and leave as you see good. It was allwayes his purpose to goe over, as at first his owne letters, which I sent you, signified. I suppose he would as willingly have continued where he was, had you ordered it, when I first gave notice of his going thither, and his intention to waite on his highnes, after he had effected what there he could.

Haveinge understood of Mons. Peterson's good reception in England, and faire deportment there, at first of his returne heither I visited him, and have since kept a friendly correspondence with him; which now, upon what you write, shall be more inwardly observed, for the advantage of the affaires in my charge; beinge glad the state hath soe good a friend in this senate. With the first opportunity he shall know of your respects to him in that recommendation, and be alwayes answered with suitable civilities from me.

The companie's busines I have troubled you so often with it, that I am resolved to say noe more of it, untill I heare from you and the company at London; which from what you and they write, expect per next post. The little, which hath come to my knowledge since last, I present you with in the inclosed. Wishinge you a perfect recoverie, and the parliament a happie close, I am,

Hamb. 7. Nov. 1654.

Your very humble servant, Rich. Bradshaw.

Sir, pray let me knowe, if there be any money due to Mr. Benson from the state, for his service at Dantzick; and if there be, please to stopp 120 l. in your hands for me and my freind, disbursed for his necessary subsistence there. Of this pray let me heare from you per next, that in case you have not soe much in your hands, to say, that there be not soe much due to him, I may seeke it of him.

Mr. Coupar to the protector.

Vol. xx. p. 81.

May it please your Highnes,
That in obedience to your commandes, I have presumed by this bearer, a gentleman, (who hath given evident testimony of his dewtifull and faithfull service to the commonwealth, as he hath beine imployed by the commissioners at Leith) to returne the report of the committy for mitigation of fynes in relation to myselfe, who as they have beine zeallous in the discharge of their trust, in not neglecting to returne what certaine informatione they have found towardes the inlargement of my estate and guilt, soe have they not omitted to returne the least (though groundles) information, that hath come to their ears therof. But your highnes goodnes and unparaleled wisdome doth give me much confidence, that the reall and well grounded information upon the acts of parliament, committy of estats and shyrs will overballance that groundles and unwarrantable informatione of my estate to be above the valuatione, which, soe much to evidence the contrary, I of my owne consent doth humbly offer the forfeitur of what is more. And as to my sitting at or acting in the parliament 1650. and 1651. and my being at the coronatione (as I did declare the same to your highnes myself) soe doe I trust your highness goodnes will not interpret that as a guilt, my persone and estate being then under the fee of the king, wherby I was coacted to give that personall obedience to his comands, though not att all occasiones omiting to evidence my dissent towards any ingagement betwixt the nationes, as the certificate under the hand of the president of parliament, and other members thereof, will evidence; but that my former deservings, my late and continewed sufferings, (through the dayly incursion of the Highlands upon my estate) will overballance that shadowe of guilt, and produce a more favourable constructione, and move your highness out of your grace and favoure to looke upon my distresse, and put me in a capacitie to doe your highnes service. And as it hath please your highnes to evidence soe much of your bounty and favour to me, as to command only the return of the inclosed; and that my absence in not attending upon your highnes should be graciously accepted, soe an favourable and gracious answere is in all humility attended upon and expected by
Edinburg, 7. Nov. 1654.

Your Highnes faithful and obedient servant,
J. Coupar.