A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 3. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1911.
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STOKE JUXTA GUILDFORD
Stochae (xi cent.); Stok (xiii cent.).
Stoke is a parish lying across the River Wey just below Guildford. It is bounded on the west and north by Worplesdon, on the east by Merrow, on the south by St. Martha's, Shalford, and the Guildford parishes. It measures 3 miles from north-west to south-east, and 1½ miles from south-west to north-east. The total area of the whole parish is 2,301 acres. It extends from the ridge of the chalk down east of Guildford across the Thanet and Woolwich beds, the London Clay, and the sand and alluvium of the Wey Valley. It is intersected by the river, and by the railways and roads which enter Guildford from the north and east. The Cobham and Guildford line, with a station in the London Road, Guildford, in Stoke parish, was opened in 1885. Stoke is now largely a town or suburban parish, or parishes, for by the Local Government Act of 1894 it was divided into two parishes. Stoke Within is part of the borough of Guildford, and contains 252 acres. It comprises the southern part of the old parish. Stoke next Guildford is the more outlying suburban and country part of the parishes, and contains 2,049 acres. No Inclosure Act is known, but Stoke Fields, now built over, suggest common fields by their name.
Neolithic implements have been found in the parish.
Wood Bridge is a brick bridge on an old line of road where a bridge has long existed. It was repaired by the neighbourhood and not by the lord of the manor. (fn. 1) It is now a county bridge and was rebuilt in brick in 1847–8. (fn. 2) When the property of Stoke Park and Stoke Mills was purchased by Mr. Aldersey in 1780 the road ran between his house and the east end of Stoke Church, and passed the river by a ford with a long narrow wooden bridge by the side of it for use in flood time. He diverted the road to the west end of the church, where it now is, and built Stoke Bridge of brick.
On the site of Stoughton Manor House are the remains of the old moat. Stoke Park is now the seat of Mrs. Budgett. It is not the site of the old manorhouse; this was at Warren Farm on the chalk down east of Guildford, where the courts used to be held. The name Stoke Park was not used in 1762, (fn. 3) when the place was called the Paddocks. Mr. Dyson, the owner, laid out the park about that time. Stoke Hill was the seat of the late Rev. F. Paynter; Woodbridge Park is the seat of Mrs. Blount. Mrs. Charlotte Smith, who died at Elstead in 1806, and was well known formerly as a poetess and writer, was a native of Stoke, and has a monument in the church.
Stoke Church Institute in the Foxenden Road was opened in 1895. There is a Roman Catholic chapel (St. Joseph's) in Chertsey Street, where also is a Primitive Methodist chapel. There is a Baptist chapel in Martyr Road, and one in Commercial Road.
Stoughton is an ecclesiastical parish formed from Stoke in 1893. There is a Wesleyan chapel founded in 1895. The cemetery in Stoughton was purchased and laid out in 1880–2. It comprises 8 acres.
Stoughton Barracks are the dépôt of Regimental District No. 2, the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Battalions of the Royal West Surrey. Guildford Union Workhouse is in Stoke Within.
Stoke (Church) School was built in 1856 and enlarged in 1895. Sandfield School (Provided) was opened in 1901. Stoke Hill School (Church) was built in 1870, Stoughton School (Provided) in 1885, and St. Joseph's (Roman Catholic) in 1885.
At the time of Domesday STOKE formed part of the royal demesne. (fn. 4) It continued to be a Crown possession until the time of King John, who granted it to the Bishop of London and his church of St. Paul. (fn. 5) By 1222, however, the rights of St. Paul's in Stoke had apparently ceased to exist, since there is no mention of the manor in the Domesday of St. Paul's drawn up about that date. (fn. 6) The Bishops of London continued to be the lords of the manor of Stoke (fn. 7) until the 16th century, when Bishop John Aylmer released it to Queen Elizabeth. (fn. 8) It seems to have been granted shortly afterwards to Thomas Vyncent of Stoke D'Abernon, who in 1587 conveyed it to Laurence Stoughton, (fn. 9) lord of the manor of Stoughton in Stoke, q.v.
The manor of STOUGHTON in Stoke seems to have originated in land called 'Stocton' which was part of the manor of Stoke, and was afforested under Richard I. (fn. 10) King John granted it with Stoke to the Bishop of London, (fn. 11) and it was continuously held as of that manor. (fn. 12)
The first record of immediate lords occurs in 1345, when Henry de Stoughton settled the manor on himself and his wife Joan and their heirs. (fn. 13) In 1415 Walter Stoughton, probably son of Henry, died seised of the manor, leaving a son Thomas, then twenty years of age, to succeed him. (fn. 14)
The manor apparently passed through Gilbert son of Thomas (fn. 15) to Laurence Stoughton, (fn. 16) who held it in the 16th century. (fn. 17) He died in 1571, leaving a son Thomas, (fn. 18) who survived him only five years. (fn. 19) The manor had in 1575 been settled in tail male on Laurence son of Thomas on his marriage with Rose Ive, (fn. 20) and it accordingly passed to him. (fn. 21) At his death in 1615 (fn. 22) he was succeeded by his third son George, (fn. 23) who died in 1624 without issue. (fn. 24) His brother Nicholas barred the entail in order to secure the manor to his daughter Rose, wife of Arthur Onslow, but on the failure of her issue it passed to Nicholas son of Anthony eighth son of Laurence Stoughton. (fn. 25) He was created a baronet in 1661, and died in 1685, leaving one son Laurence and four daughters. (fn. 26) Laurence died childless in 1692, (fn. 27) and by a Parliamentary decree his estates were vested in trustees to be sold for the double purpose of paying his debts and providing portions for his sisters. (fn. 28)
The now combined manors of Stoke and Stoughton were bought by Edward Hubbald in 1698. (fn. 29) He died in 1707. His son William died in 1709, and shortly after his death in 1711 an Act was passed for the sale of his estates. (fn. 30) Nicholas Turner purchased the manors in 1718, and his son sold them about 1760 to Jeremiah Dyson. (fn. 31) Mr. Dyson died in 1776. His son sold in 1780 to Mr. George Vansittart, who sold immediately to Mr. William Aldersey (vide supra). The latter also purchased parts of Stoughton which had been alienated since 1700 and had passed to Lord Onslow, including the site of Stoughton Place, which had been pulled down after the sale in 1692. Mr. Aldersey died in 1800. His widow sold next year to Mr. Nathaniel Hillier. Colonel the Hon. C. T. Onslow married in 1812 Susannah second daughter and co-heiress of Mr. Hillier. His son, Mr. G. A. C. Onslow, who died in 1855, succeeded, and his son, the present Earl of Onslow is now lord of the manor. No separate courts have been held for Stoughton since 1615.
In 1324 there is mention of a messuage and 5 acres of land in Stoke called WOODBRIDGE. This tenement was held of the family of La Poyle, (fn. 32) who had lands in Guildford and Tongham. The earliest tenant seems to have been Thomas de Woodbridge, who was holding about 1264; Juliana his daughter and heir married Roger de Rypon. (fn. 33)
About the end of the 16th century Henry Stoughton was in possession of this property, (fn. 34) which passed from him to his son Thomas, who died seised of it in 1612. Woodbridge, with certain lands appurtenant, was settled on his wife Alice, with remainders to various members of the Stoughton family. (fn. 35)
Manning (fn. 36) speaks of Woodbridge House as having been the property of Jeremiah Dyson in the 18th century. It was afterwards in the possession of Mr. Allen and Mrs. Smith, and in Manning's time belonged to John Creuse. (fn. 37) It was subsequently the residence of Colonel the Hon. E. M. Onslow, of Colonel Annand, and now of Mr. H. Porter.
The church of ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST, STOKE JUXTA GUILDFORD, consists of a chancel 15 ft. 5 in. by 33 ft. 2 in., with a north chapel 24 ft. 10 in. by 13 ft. 10 in.; south vestry and chapel formed by a prolongation of the aisle; a nave 40 ft. 6 in. by 19 ft. 6 in.; a north aisle 18 ft. 7 in. wide; a south aisle 17 ft. 6 in. wide; a west tower 12 ft. 8 in. by 10 ft. 3 in., and a south porch. Like so many churches in the neighbourhood it has suffered severely at the hands of the restorer, and externally is almost completely modern. The earliest details now to be seen are in the arcades of the nave and south chapel, which are of early 14th-century date. Late in the 15th century the tower was added, and the north chapel is probably work of a century later. In comparatively recent years the north aisle has been completely rebuilt and widened, and the whole church greatly modernized. The south porch and south-east vestry are completely modern, but the latter is evidently on the site of an earlier and similar structure.
The east window of the chancel is of five lights, of 15th-century style, with sub-mullions and smaller lights in the two-centred head. The north wall is in three bays, the first being blank and the other two filled with an arcade with a circular column and halfround responds, plainly moulded capitals, and arches of two chamfered orders. The bases are now buried under the floor. On the south is a similar arrangement, but the arcade is of earlier date, and has arches of two wave and ogee moulded orders. The capitals are of good profile, and the bases have a roll-moulding, all being circular on plan. There is no chancel arch, a cambered beam of late 16th-century date supporting the eastern gable of the nave.
The nave is of three bays, with arcading of similar date but plainer detail than the south chancel arcade. The arches are of two plain chamfered orders, and the columns circular with moulded capitals and bases. The tower arch is of late 15th-century date, and of two continuously moulded orders, separated by a three-quarter hollow.
The north chapel has a two-light window to the east and a four-light to the north, both transomed, and with square heads of late 16th-century date. Between the chapel and the aisle is a plastered arch, either of brick or lath-and-plaster. At the north-east is an external door with a segmental head.
The north aisle has, to the north, two modern windows of two lights with tracery of 14th-century detail. The west window is of four lights, also of 14th-century design.
The south aisle and chapel, in one range, have an east window of which the opening is apparently original and at such a height above the floor as to clear the vestry. The tracery and external jambs are quite modern, and of 14th-century detail. In the south wall are four two-light windows, all of the same 14th-century design. There are perhaps some old stones in the internal splays, but otherwise they are completely modern. The west window is of the same design and date as that of the north aisle. The south door, between the western pair of windows, and the porch are modern, and of 15th-century design. At the north-east of the aisle is a small door, possibly of late 14th-century date, restored with a pointed chamfered head, leading into the vestry. The latter is quite modern, and has a three-light modern window to the east, and a small external door to the south.
The tower is of three stages, with an embattled parapet, and buttresses, and a south-east turret staircase. The walling is worked in a checker of flints and blocks of Heath stone. The belfry windows, which are very much restored, are of two four-centred uncusped lights, in a square-headed chamfered reveal. In the second stage is a small single light of similar detail, and below it is the west window, which is quite modern, and of four lights with tracery. The west door, also modern, is of 15th-century design, with a two-centred head within a square outer order, and spandrel sinkings, &c.
The font is a late 18th-century one, and has a small black marble octagonal bowl on a baluster stem of white marble. The base is also of black marble. The other fittings and the seating are all modern, except the communion rails, which are of early 18th-century date. A table of the same period also remains. The roofs of the nave and chancel are both of late date, probably early 17th or late 16th century, while those of the aisles, &c., are modern.
In the north chapel are a number of incised wall slabs to members of the Stoughton family. One is to Sir Nicholas Stoughton of Stoughton, 1647, married, first, to Brigid Compton; secondly, to Anna Evans. Six shields, arranged round the frame of the inscription, give the arms of Stoughton, Compton of Godalming, and other families. Another slab is to Brigid (Compton), wife of the above, 1631, who had four children, John, George, Rose, and Brigid. There are two shields, the first, Stoughton impaling Compton, and Compton. Also three slabs close together, one to Sir Laurence Stoughton, 1615, and Rose Ive his wife, 1632, with Stoughton impaling Party cheveronwise sable and argent three elephants' heads razed and countercoloured with crowns or; a second to Thomas Stoughton, second son of Sir Laurence Stoughton and his wife Catherine Evelyn, who had five children and both died in 1610, with the arms of Stoughton and Evelyn on separate shields; and the third to Sir George, third son and heir of Sir Laurence Stoughton, 1623–4. There is also, in the chancel, a monument to George Barnes, 1683, eldest son of George Barnes of Wassage, and grandson of Sir George Barnes of London. The arms are Azure three leopards' heads argent impaling Ermine a cheveron azure. In the south aisle is an achievement of the royal arms, with the initials A.R., and the date 1702.
The tower contains four bells, the treble, second, and third cast by Bryan Eldridge in 1620, and the tenor dated 1790.
The plate consists of a chalice of 17th-century type with illegible date-letter, a modern copy, a paten made in 1701, a very large flagon made apparently in 1631 and presented in 1702, and a plated paten.
The first book of registers contains mixed entries, 1662 to 1726; second, 1727 to 1812, marriages stopping 1748; the third, marriages 1754 to 1776; the fourth, banns and marriages 1776 to 1800; the fifth, marriages 1801 to 1812. There are also two small books, the first, 1727 to 1748, containing baptisms; the second, similar, but with burials also, 1764 to 1803.
The church of ST. SAVIOUR, WOODBRIDGE ROAD, is of stone, in 14th-century style, with a tower and spire. It was consecrated in 1899. A church room was built in 1892.
The church of EMMANUEL, STOUGHTON, is built in stone by Mr. W. Gilbert Scott in 14th-century style. It was consecrated in 1904. A brick church on the other side of the road was formerly used.
CHRIST CHURCH is a chapel of ease to Stoke, built in the Waterden Road, Guildford, in 1868. It is in 13th-century style, of stone, with a tower.
The church of Stoke is mentioned in the Domesday Survey. (fn. 38) It was afterwards in the gift of the priory of St. Pancras at Lewes, (fn. 39) who at the Dissolution released it to the king. (fn. 40) It was afterwards granted to Robert Lord. (fn. 41) The mayor of Guildford presented in 1633, (fn. 42) Sir Nicholas Stoughton in 1662, William Hubbald, son of William who died in 1709, in 1712. (fn. 43) In 1719 Henry Sherrat conveyed it to Nicholas Turner. (fn. 44) John Russell presented in 1749, and George West in 1795. (fn. 45) In 1826 George West conveyed it to Francis Paynter. (fn. 46) Samuel Paynter presented in 1831. (fn. 47) The advowson is now in the hands of Simeon's trustees.
St. Saviour's was formed into an ecclesiastical parish in 1893 from Stoke and the formerly extra-parochial liberty of the Friary. The living is in the gift of Simeon's trustees.
Stoughton parish was formed from Stoke in 1893. The patron was then the late Rev. Francis Paynter of Stoke Hill.
Parsons' Almshouse for poor widows was established by William and Henry Parsons in 1796. They were brothers engaged in business in Guildford. Henry died in 1791, leaving money by will for the purpose, which was carried out by William. The building, in Stoke Road, is of brick, with a turret and clock in the centre, and is not unpleasing.
Smith's Charity is distributed as in other Surrey parishes.
In 1767 Mr. James Price left £400 3 per cent. stock for the benefit of poor housekeepers not receiving parish relief.
Dr. James Price, his nephew, in 1783 added £800 to this charity. Dr. Price was really named Higginbotham, but took his maternal uncle's name. He pretended to discoveries in the transmutation of metals. He was a F.R.S., and when a committee of the society was appointed to test his experiments, committed suicide.