A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 6 Part 2, Bramber Rape (North-Western Part) Including Horsham. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1986.
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MANORS AND OTHER ESTATES.
In the mid 10th century much of the parish, including land called Horsham, was detached pasture belonging to Washington manor. (fn. 1) The estate which four knights held at Washington in 1086 and which apparently did not lie in Washington parish perhaps included land in Horsham. (fn. 2) Much land in the parish was later held in demesne, like Washington, by the Braose family and its successors. (fn. 3)
The estate later called the manor and borough of HORSHAM (fn. 4) belonged before 1208 to William de Braose (d. 1211). (fn. 5) It afterwards descended with the rape through the Braose family and its successors the Mowbray and Howard (later Fitzalan-Howard) families, dukes of Norfolk and earls of Arundel. (fn. 6) In the earlier 17th century a distinction was claimed between the manor of Horsham, belonging to Lord Arundel, and the manor and borough, which the bailiffs and burgesses, alternatively called the corporation, were said to hold of him by the rent of 52s. a year. (fn. 7) The distinction seems merely to be a lawyers' gloss to explain the different jurisdictions of the lord and the corporation, the 52s. being in fact the total of the burgage rents, which the corporation collected on the earl's behalf; (fn. 8) nor is there any evidence, as has been suggested, that the manor and borough, so called, was smaller in area than the manor. (fn. 9)
No manor house of Horsham manor is known; the house called The Manor House in 1982 belonged to Hewells manor. (fn. 10)
Land called CROCKHURST, part of Washington manor in the mid 10th century, (fn. 11) was evidently the land of the same name lying south of the town, which later belonged, like Horsham, to the Braoses. (fn. 12) In 1254 William, Lord Braose (d. 1290), granted it to Sele priory in Upper Beeding. It was then described as 229 a. in area; (fn. 13) if the figure is correct it was evidently much reduced later, since in 1535 rents in Horsham belonging to the priory's successor, Magdalen College, Oxford, totalled only 28s., (fn. 14) and little more than 40 a. there was listed among the college's estates in 1578. (fn. 15) No more is heard of Crockhurst, though Magdalen College still owned property in Southwater in the late 18th century. (fn. 16)
The manor of CHESWORTH south-east of the town was perhaps also part of Washington manor in the 10th century, since it later too descended in the Braose family. (fn. 17) William, Lord Braose (d. 1290), held it in 1281; (fn. 18) after his death it was held in dower by his widow Mary, (fn. 19) at whose death in 1326 it passed under a settlement of 1281 to her grandson Thomas de Braose. (fn. 20) Edward II apparently stayed at Chesworth in 1324, as his father may also have done 25 years earlier. (fn. 21) Thomas de Braose was assessed to the subsidy in the rural part of Horsham parish in 1327 (fn. 22) and died in 1361 seised of Chesworth jointly with his wife Beatrice. (fn. 23) Thereafter it descended with Bidlington in Bramber until 1395, when at the successive deaths of Thomas de Braose and his two infant children (fn. 24) it passed to George Braose or Brewes, nephew of Thomas (d. 1361), (fn. 25) who had it in 1412. (fn. 26) By 1418 the manor was again descending with Bidlington, as it continued to do until at least 1506. (fn. 27) During the minority of Hugh Cokesey in 1419 and later it was held by William Philip and others. (fn. 28)
After the death of Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk, in 1524 the manor was held in dower by his widow Agnes until her attainder in 1542. Like him, she lived at Chesworth, (fn. 29) as also, after 1542, did her son Thomas, duke of Norfolk. (fn. 30) After his forfeiture in 1547 Chesworth, like Horsham borough, descended with the rape (fn. 31) until 1549 when the Crown granted a life interest to Thomas Wriothesley, earl of Southampton. The reversionary interest granted in 1550 to Edward Fiennes, Lord Clinton, was granted by him in the same year to Henry Peckham (fn. 32) and presumably became a freehold on Lord Southampton's death, also in that year. (fn. 33) Peckham was dealing with the manor in 1551, (fn. 34) but by 1560 it had come to Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk, (fn. 35) who exchanged it two years later with the Crown; (fn. 36) in 1570 he received a 21-year lease of the demesnes, (fn. 37) which was forfeited on his attainder in 1572. (fn. 38) Thereafter the manor remained with the Crown.
In 1573 John Blenerhassett and William Dix were granted a 21-year lease of the demesnes. (fn. 39) Bishop Curtis of Chichester was living at Chesworth as lessee between 1577 and his death in 1582. (fn. 40) In 1602 Sir John Caryll received a 60-year lease of the manor house, the demesne lands, the park, and a lodge called Chesworth Lodge, with the proviso that he should entertain the royal steward and surveyor on two days in each year. (fn. 41) Sir John's son, also Sir John, succeeded in 1613 (fn. 42) and made over his interest in 1646 to his son John, who retained it in 1650 but by then had sublet the entire property, comprising 313 a. (fn. 43) In 1660 or 1661 the manor was settled on Queen Henrietta Maria (fn. 44) (d. 1669), (fn. 45) and by 1674 (fn. 46) on Queen Catherine of Braganza (d. 1705), (fn. 47) who still held it in 1699. (fn. 48) During the later 17th century the manor house, the demesne lands, the park, and Chesworth Lodge were leased, sometimes separately and sometimes in combination, to various tenants, some of whom were royal servants. (fn. 49)
In 1725 Charles Eversfield of Denne (d. 1749) received a Crown lease of Chesworth Lodge and part of the former park, which was renewed in 1754 and later to his son Sir Charles. (fn. 50) Meanwhile the elder Charles had bought part of the demesne lands, apparently including the manor house, from a Mr. Stonor of Oxfordshire, perhaps Thomas Stonor, a mortgagee of 1696, (fn. 51) and his son had bought the rest by 1757. (fn. 52) Thereafter the estate descended with Denne manor (fn. 53) until the early 20th century. Quit rents were apparently still paid to the Crown in 1827. (fn. 54) In 1911 or afterwards (fn. 55) Chesworth was sold, passing through various hands to Mr. L. A. Evans, who owned the manor house and much land in 1982. (fn. 56)
The manor house which existed at Chesworth by 1324 (fn. 57) and possibly by 1299 (fn. 58) seems to have occupied the moated site south of the present Chesworth House; a drawbridge was mentioned in 1427. (fn. 59) The south arm of the moat was apparently formed by the river Arun itself; the northern and western arms also survived in 1982. (fn. 60) Other earthworks south-east of the moat apparently represent medieval fishponds. (fn. 61)
A large two-storeyed timber-framed range was later built north of the moat, aligned from north to south. Stylistically it is late 15th- or early 16thcentury, and it was perhaps the work of Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk (d. 1524), who lived at Chesworth in the 1520s. (fn. 62) The building was extended southwards in the mid 16th century by another range, erroneously described in 1836 and later as a chapel, (fn. 63) which had its principal room on the first floor; it is of brick, with elaborate details including niches on the inner walls (fn. 64) and octagonal buttresses at the corners of the south front. The 16th-century house was possibly approached from the north through two courtyards, of which the outer one, called the base court in 1650, had a gatehouse. (fn. 65) The western side of the base court was apparently (fn. 66) formed by the large surviving contemporary sixbayed barn, which has a queen-post roof and evidence of internal cross walls; what might have been the north and south sides of the court incorporate remains of brick and stone walling also apparently of the 16th century. The inner courtyard perhaps extended alongside the mid 16th-century brick range, which has a first floor doorway in its east wall, as if to give access to a gallery. In 1549 the house included a hall, a great chamber, a dining chamber, and a chapel, besides at least 20 other rooms and service buildings; it had evidently been neglected, however, since many of the furnishings were described as old and worn. (fn. 67) A later description refers to a tower called the earl of Surrey's tower. (fn. 68) In 1570 Chesworth House was said to be greatly decayed, (fn. 69) and despite repairs carried out c. 1590 (fn. 70) it remained so in 1608, when its site was described as low and unhealthy. (fn. 71) Between 1611 and c. 1636 most of the house was demolished, so that in 1650 there were said to be only ten rooms on ground floor and first floor together, besides garrets and offices; (fn. 72) a small timber building described as the former slaughterhouse had been re-erected on the estate as a farmhouse. (fn. 73) The present west range, of 17th-century character, was presumably built during or after the demolitions mentioned; it is of stone, and abuts on the junction of the two surviving earlier ranges. From presumably that date until the earlier 20th century Chesworth House was a farmhouse; (fn. 74) the mid 16th-century brick range was used as a wash house in 1836, (fn. 75) and as a wash house, storehouse, and dairy in 1868. (fn. 76) Meanwhile the 17th-century west range was extended to north and south during the 19th century. (fn. 77)
In 1928 the house was bought by Capt. C. R. Cook, (fn. 78) who enlarged it on the north side and restored it to his own designs, inserting old fittings from other houses. Capt. Cook also laid out extensive gardens along the Arun valley, and built a new entrance drive to the house from the west, away from the farm buildings on the north side. (fn. 79)
Chesworth park lay south of the house, on the eastern slopes of Denne Hill. It may have existed by 1271, when Maud of the park (de perco) was recorded as living in the parish. (fn. 80) William, Lord Braose (d. 1290), was granted free warren at Chesworth in 1281. (fn. 81) Pannage at Chesworth park was mentioned in 1427, when the park pale was apparently five furlongs in length. (fn. 82) There was a parker in 1529. (fn. 83) In 1549 there were both cattle and a herd of c. 100 deer in the park, the keeper then receiving a salary of £6 1s. 8d. (fn. 84) By 1570 the park had been disparked, (fn. 85) though the pale survived in 1617. (fn. 86) There was still a rabbit warren at Chesworth, apparently south-east of the house, (fn. 87) in the 17th and 18th centuries. (fn. 88) There were two lodges, Chesworth Lodge, apparently ruinous in 1608 (fn. 89) but still standing in 1770, (fn. 90) and the High Lodge, also recorded from 1608; (fn. 91) one lay east of Denne Park house, and the other further south, occupying the site of the 19th- and 20thcentury Bourne Hill House. (fn. 92) The closes created at the 16th-century disparking could be partially traced in 1982, when the former park still seemed remote, despite the proximity of Horsham.
The manor of DENNE, south of the town, lying between Horsham, Crockhurst, and Chesworth, evidently also formed part of Washington manor in the mid 10th century; (fn. 93) its name indicates its origin as a pasture place, (fn. 94) and an annual quit rent was still payable to the lord of Washington in the earlier 19th century. (fn. 95) Various persons surnamed 'of' or 'at' Denne are recorded in Horsham between the 13th (fn. 96) and 15th centuries. (fn. 97) A William at Denne was living in the parish in 1301; (fn. 98) he or a namesake was taxed in the rural part of it in 1327, (fn. 99) and served as a juror in Horsham in 1341, (fn. 100) and the same or another held land in Horsham and Washington in 1346 or 1347. (fn. 101) The manor was settled in 1499 on Walter Broadbridge, whose father Thomas had previously held it, (fn. 102) and may include the land with which Richard Broadbridge had been dealing in 1414 or 1415. (fn. 103)
Walter Broadbridge presumably still had the manor in 1524 when taxed in Horsham, (fn. 104) and Henry Broadbridge was dealing with it in 1587. (fn. 105) Henry evidently died soon afterwards, for c. 1588 his daughter Timothy was seised of it in fee tail with reversion to her half-brother James Booth. After Timothy's death c. 1592 the estate was settled in 1594 on Booth, (fn. 106) who conveyed it in 1599 to Stephen Barnham, apparently a relative. (fn. 107)
About 1605 Barnham sold the estate to Sir Thomas Eversfield (fn. 108) (d. 1616), in whose family it descended until the 20th century. Sir Thomas's son and namesake, (fn. 109) knighted in 1621 and later a prominent parliamentarian, died in 1654, (fn. 110) and by 1663 the estate had passed to his cousin John (d. 1669), of the Hollington branch of the family. (fn. 111) In 1671 Edward Eversfield had Denne, being succeeded before 1682 by his brother Anthony, (fn. 112) from whom it had passed by 1702 to his great-nephew Charles (fn. 113) (d. 1749), (fn. 114) M.P. for Horsham 1705–41. (fn. 115) Thereafter the descent followed that of Charlton in Steyning, the family residing at Denne, until 1818; when Charles Eversfield died in that year (fn. 116) the manor passed to his brother James (d. 1826). (fn. 117) At that period the Eversfield estates in Horsham comprised c. 1,200 a. (fn. 118) James's son Charles Gilbert was succeeded in 1886 by his sister Ann (d. 1904), widow of Charles G. Bethune. Their son Edward Maximilian Bethune, who took the surname Eversfield in 1903, succeeded to the estate and was himself succeeded in 1912 by his son Charles (d. 1914). Charles's successive heirs were his two aunts Isabella (d. 1928) and Sophia Bethune (d. 1942), who each took the additional surname Eversfield in 1915. (fn. 119) After the latter's death the property passed to March St. Andrew-Vaughan, nephew by marriage of Edward M. Eversfield (d. 1912), at whose death in 1947 the estate, then comprising 593 a., was broken up. (fn. 120)
No trace has survived of the medieval manor house which presumably existed at Denne. A new house was built of local sandstone in 1605. (fn. 121) It apparently consisted of four ranges round a central courtyard, the entrance being on the west side. The three gabled bays of the east front, with their tall chimneys, survived in 1982, though the bay window which originally decorated the southernmost bay had been removed at some time after 1788. (fn. 122) The tall gabled north tower, of four storeys and with a contemporary staircase, is also early 17th-century. The original west front was similar to the east, and had an arched entrance doorway. (fn. 123) In the 1720s a visitor mentioned a spacious hall and a marble-floored lobby at the house, which then also had a collection of paintings. (fn. 124) About 1730 the west range was rebuilt or refronted with a five-bayed two-storeyed facade in classical style, finishing in a high parapet pierced by circular windows, and flanked by rusticated pilasters. (fn. 125) The pilasters were retained when the west front was returned to an early 17th-century style c. 1875; (fn. 126) at the same time the house was enlarged to the south, also in a pastiche of the 17th-century style, though using coursed rubble and not the large ashlar blocks which characterized the earlier work. In 1948 or soon afterwards the building was bought by Capt. C. R. Cook of Chesworth House and c. 1950 was converted into flats, (fn. 127) as it remained in 1982.
A parcel of pasture ground called Deanes park which existed in Horsham in 1588 (fn. 128) was perhaps Denne park. There was a rabbit warren north and north-east of Denne Park house in 1617, which Sir Thomas Eversfield (d. 1616) had laid out, allegedly encroaching on Chesworth park to the east. (fn. 129) The warren seems later also to have extended south-east of the house, where field names Great and Little Warren hills were recorded c. 1844. (fn. 130) Most of its area was later incorporated in the park. A park with fallow deer, on the east and perhaps also on the west side of Denne Park house, was mentioned in the 1720s. There were certainly avenues there by that time, (fn. 131) but it is not clear whether the double avenue of lime trees nearly ⅓ mile (0.5 km.) long, which forms a grand approach to the house from the west, was laid out in the 17th century, as tradition avers; (fn. 132) the first certain reference to it is of 1790. (fn. 133) Part of the avenue was derelict in 1982. Two rectangular pieces of water, aligned north–south across the west front of the house, also existed in the 1720s; (fn. 134) they survived in 1982. There was a north–south avenue west of the house as well in 1794, (fn. 135) part of which remained in 1982. (fn. 136) In the earlier 19th century the park comprised c. 230 a. and abounded in game; (fn. 137) at its northern end at about that time was a grass terrace, rolled and mown for the benefit of the townspeople, who came on summer evenings to enjoy the view over Horsham. (fn. 138) There were 150 fallow deer in the park in 1892. (fn. 139) Deer were still kept in 1935 (fn. 140) and in 1982, when the park remained open grazing land. (fn. 141)
The manor of COLTSTAPLE, adjoining Chesworth on the south, was a sub-manor of it. (fn. 142) In 1397 it belonged to Richard FitzAlan, earl of Arundel. (fn. 143) After his execution in that year it was granted, like Heene Falconer manor near Worthing, to John Holand, duke of Exeter (beheaded 1400), (fn. 144) and was presumably afterwards restored like Heene Falconer to Richard's son Thomas, earl of Arundel (d. 1415), who had it in 1406. (fn. 145) Margaret, wife of Roland Lenthall, held a life interest in it between 1412 (fn. 146) and her death in 1423, (fn. 147) as did Beatrice, widow of the last named Thomas, earl of Arundel, at her death in 1439. (fn. 148) John Mowbray, duke of Norfolk (d. 1461), settled the manor on Thomas Charles. (fn. 149) In 1504 it was settled on Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey, (fn. 150) as lord of Chesworth, and thereafter it descended with that manor through the Crown to the Eversfield family. (fn. 151) Between 1602 and c. 1844 Coltstaple farm was recorded as containing between 100 and 120 a. (fn. 152) Between the mid 16th and early 17th centuries members of the Michell family were often described as of Colstaple, (fn. 153) perhaps as tenants, though Peter Ravenscroft held the lease at his death c. 1574. (fn. 154)
A manor house at Coltstaple is recorded in 1397. (fn. 155) By 1650 there were two chief houses on the estate, (fn. 156) which were evidently identical with the houses called Coltstaple Farm and Little Coltstaple Farm in 1982. The former, which in 1650 had a hall and parlour and at least five upstairs rooms, is a T-shaped building of the 17th century or earlier, timber-framed with brick infilling, and with an early 19th-century range added at the south end. Little Coltstaple Farm is a 15th-century hall house with parlour cross wing. A moulded dais beam survives in the hall. A chimneystack and upper floor were inserted in the 16th or early 17th century, and in 1650 there were two rooms on each floor besides service rooms. (fn. 157) The service wing was demolished and additional rooms were constructed beyond the parlour at an unknown date.
The manor of ROFFEY, another sub-manor of Chesworth, (fn. 158) lay north-east of the town but included property within it and also in Rusper parish. (fn. 159) It is not recorded before the 15th century. Thomas Hoo, half-brother of Thomas, Lord Hoo, and M.P. for Horsham in 1472, (fn. 160) was dealing with it in 1457–8 (fn. 161) and perhaps had it earlier too, since his father-in-law Walter Urry is said to have owned it. (fn. 162) At Thomas's death in 1486 it passed to his niece Anne, wife of Sir Roger Copley. (fn. 163) His son, another Sir Roger (d. 1549), was succeeded by his son Sir Thomas, (fn. 164) M.P. for Gatton (Surr.) and a noted recusant, who died in 1584, having left the country before 1572. (fn. 165) Sir Thomas's widow Catherine was apparently living at Roffey in the 1590s. (fn. 166) After her death in 1608 her son William Copley, of Gatton, had the manor. (fn. 167) In 1615 he settled it on his son and namesake, (fn. 168) who died seised of it in 1623 in the lifetime of his father, (fn. 169) Roffey passing then or after the elder William's death in 1643 to the younger William's daughter Mary, wife of John Weston of Sutton (Surr.). (fn. 170) Weston was dealing with the manor by 1649 (fn. 171) and died between 1684 and 1690. (fn. 172) Richard Weston was said to be lord in 1700, (fn. 173) and was evidently succeeded at his death in 1700 or 1701 by his son John, (fn. 174) who was dealing with Roffey in 1702 (fn. 175) and died seised of it in 1730. John's unmarried daughter and heir Melior Mary (fn. 176) was recorded as lady in 1759; (fn. 177) at her death in 1782 (fn. 178) Roffey passed to John Webb who took the additional surname Weston, (fn. 179) and who had the manor between 1783 and 1797. (fn. 180) Before 1803 he conveyed it to Charles Howard, duke of Norfolk, (fn. 181) who in 1812 had over 1,000 a. at Roffey. (fn. 182) The lordship of the manor remained with later dukes of Norfolk until the 20th century. (fn. 183) Between 1868 and 1889, however, the demesne lands were sold to James Innes, whose son Capt. J. A. Innes had them in 1910. (fn. 184) The Innes family were great benefactors to the new suburb of Roffey at that period. (fn. 185)
A manor house at Roffey was mentioned in 1537, (fn. 186) but no trace of it survived in 1982. At the west end of the existing building, called Roffey Place, is a timberframed, gabled range perhaps of the early 17th century. A new red brick double-pile house on a stone base was built c. 1700; it is of five bays and two storeys, and originally had mullioned and transomed windows on both floors, dormer windows in the roof, and end chimneys. (fn. 187) Two staircases and some panelling survive from the early 18th century, and there is also reset late 17th- or early 18th-century oak carving. Additions were made in the 19th century and especially in the mid 20th, when the house incorporated successively a school for the mentally handicapped and a training centre for the R.S.P.C.A. (fn. 188) Woodwork apparently from the pre-18th-century house is said to have been transferred in the later 19th century to the new house called Roffey Park which James Innes built in Lower Beeding parish. (fn. 189)
There seems to have been a park at Roffey, described as within St. Leonard's Forest, in 1439. (fn. 190) In 1480 a distinction was made between an old park and a home park there, (fn. 191) and in 1499 there was a forester for Roffey, Shelley, and Thrustlehole bailiwicks in St. Leonard's Forest taken jointly. Deer were mentioned at that date, (fn. 192) and apparently in 1641. (fn. 193) The park lay south-west of Roffey Place and Roffey hamlet, between the Horsham–Crawley and Horsham– Colgate roads. (fn. 194) The building misidentified in 1830 as the manor house, which had apparently comprised a moated quadrangle 120 ft. (36.6 metres) square, (fn. 195) seems likely to have been a lodge in the park; it may have occupied the same site as the modern Roffeyhurst, formerly Roffey Park, on the Horsham–Colgate road, a house of c. 1900 which incorporates an earlier timber-framed structure. In the early 19th century the park comprised 139 a. and was perhaps being used as a rabbit warren; 14 a., however, had already been converted to arable, and the rest was apparently converted soon afterwards. (fn. 196) A new park, partly in Horsham and partly in Lower Beeding, was created before 1896 for the new house called Roffey Park. (fn. 197)
Two manors, Hawksbourne in the north and Nutham in the south of the parish, were originally outliers of Applesham manor in Coombes near Shoreham. The manor of HAWKSBOURNE appears to be the 'Ablesborna' from which tithes were granted to Bramber college by William de Braose in 1073. (fn. 198) It descended with Applesham until at least 1242, (fn. 199) and the mesne lordship continued to descend with that later. (fn. 200) By 1262, however, the date of his death, Sir John de Gatesden, lord of Broadwater, had become undertenant, (fn. 201) and thereafter the undertenancy descended with Broadwater until the mid 15th century. (fn. 202) The mention of a park at Hawksbourne in 1335 indicates that the then lord, Ralph de Camoys, had free warren there. (fn. 203) Robert Radmyld died seised of a moiety of the manor in 1457, (fn. 204) but his moiety is not afterwards heard of. The other moiety belonged to Sir Thomas Lewknor (attainted 1484), being afterwards leased by the Crown in 1485 to Thomas Hoo of Roffey and others. (fn. 205) Sir Roger Lewknor presumably had it in 1509 and 1515, since he then held the advowson of Rusper rectory which descended with the moiety at that period. (fn. 206) He or a namesake had the moiety in 1538 (fn. 207) and died seised of it in 1543. (fn. 208) The estate in Hawksbourne which passed in 1572 from John Worsfold to his son Thomas was probably a lease of the demesne. (fn. 209) Richard Lewknor was dealing with the second moiety in 1588 and Thomas Lewknor in 1606. (fn. 210) Thereafter the estate was called the manor rather than a moiety of the manor. John Mill (created Bt. 1619), apparently a relative of the Lewknors, (fn. 211) was dealing with it in 1617, (fn. 212) and after his death in 1648 it evidently passed in the direct line through his grandson Sir John (d. 1670) to the latter's son, also Sir John, (fn. 213) who conveyed it c. 1672 in payment of debts to Nathaniel Tredcroft, vicar of Horsham (fn. 214) (d. 1696). Nathaniel's son and namesake was succeeded in 1720 by his son Edward (d. 1768), whose son and heir Nathaniel had Hawksbourne at his death in 1825. (fn. 215) After the death of Nathaniel's son Henry in or before 1844 (fn. 216) it was sold c. 1856 by Edward Tredcroft to R. H. Hurst of Horsham Park, (fn. 217) afterwards descending in the Hurst family.
A manor house at Hawksbourne was mentioned in 1485 (fn. 218) and 1572. (fn. 219) In 1639 it was leased to two Southampton merchants. (fn. 220) The present house is L-shaped and 16th- or 17th-century in date; it is faced with brick below and tilehung above. (fn. 221)
The manor of NUTHAM, which extended into Nuthurst and Rusper parishes, (fn. 222) remained a member of Applesham manor until the early 16th century. About 1349 its demesne lands comprised c. 150 a. (fn. 223) Maud, widow of Sir Henry Roos (d. c. 1504), sold it in or before 1512, (fn. 224) apparently to John Caryll of Warnham, who is said to have died seised of it in 1523. (fn. 225) Thereafter it evidently descended with Warnham Place to John Caryll (d. 1681). (fn. 226) Philip Caryll, apparently John's grandson, (fn. 227) was dealing with it in 1693 and later. (fn. 228) In 1727 he sold it to John Wicker of Horsham Park (d. 1741), (fn. 229) who was succeeded by his son John (d. 1767), whose daughter Mary married Sir Thomas Broughton, Bt. (fn. 230) In 1776 Broughton sold Nutham to the Revd. Joseph Jackson, (fn. 231) who sold it c. 1780 to John Manley. (fn. 232) He sold it apparently c. 1811 (fn. 233) in trust for Robert Aldridge of St. Leonard's house in Lower Beeding, who still had it in 1826. (fn. 234) Thomas Sanctuary of Rusper had it in 1829 and 1835, (fn. 235) but by 1868 it had again joined the Horsham Park estate, descending afterwards in the Hurst family. (fn. 236) The demesne lands meanwhile, later known as Easteds farm, were sold by Philip Caryll in 1714 to Charles Sergison, (fn. 237) whose great-nephew and heir Thomas Sergison (fn. 238) sold them in 1757 to Philippa Clitherow and Samuel Blunt. (fn. 239) The Blunts later acquired the Clitherow moiety, and the lands afterwards descended with Newbuildings in Shipley (fn. 240) until 1838 when F. S. Blunt sold them to the Revd. Sir John Godfrey Thomas, Bt. (fn. 241) By c. 1844 Easteds farm belonged to C. G. Eversfield of Denne, (fn. 242) but by 1868 it had been re-united with the lordship of Nutham manor. (fn. 243)
There was a manor house at Nutham c. 1349, (fn. 244) which presumably occupied the same site as its successor, the modern Easteds Farm. The latter is a medieval hall house on a high stone base. The hall preserves a moulded bressummer at the dais end and two arched doors to the screens passage; the entrance door to the hall is reached by an external staircase, and the south front is weatherboarded. (fn. 245)
Two other manors, Marlpost and Shortsfield, also originally formed parts of manors in the south of the county. MARLPOST in the south-west of the parish was a member of Tarring manor, long the property of the archbishops of Canterbury, which was often called Tarring with Marlpost or Tarring Marlpost. (fn. 246) The manor also had tenements on the west side of Horsham town, including Needles farm, the estate called Tanbridge, and lands in Bishopric. (fn. 247) The archbishop evidently had free warren at Marlpost in 1333. (fn. 248) About 1650 the demesne comprised 109 a. (fn. 249) In 1806 Marlpost was sold by the lord of Tarring manor, Edward Barker, to Charles Howard, duke of Norfolk (d. 1815); his executors sold it shortly after his death to Robert Hurst of Horsham Park, (fn. 250) after which date it descended with the Hurst family estates. (fn. 251) Marlpost Farm, presumably the manor house, is 17th-century or earlier, and is an L-shaped timber-framed building faced with bricks, weatherboarding, and hung tiles, and with a massive stepped chimney breast at the south end.
The manor of SHORTSFIELD, originally an outlying part of Fécamp abbey's Steyning estate, (fn. 252) was first apparently recorded in 1203 when the abbey was confirmed in tithes from lands of John de 'Strotefeld' within Chichester diocese. (fn. 253) The manor house lay west of the town in later times, being indentical with the demolished Coote's Farm, (fn. 254) but lands belonging to the manor also lay in the north and east of the parish, and in Nuthurst and Rusper. (fn. 255) The estate was augmented in 1313 by a grant of 90 a. from Robert at Hurst, (fn. 256) an ancestor of the Hurst family later of Horsham Park, and in 1535, when it had passed with Steyning to Syon abbey, it comprised fixed rents and farms worth £20 6s. 6d. (fn. 257)
In 1540 the manor, first so called, was granted by the Crown to Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk. (fn. 258) After his forfeiture in 1547 the Crown first in 1550 leased it and then in 1553 granted it in fee to John Caryll of Warnham (fn. 259) (d. 1566). Thereafter it descended with Nutham. In 1568 Thomas's grandson and namesake, also duke of Norfolk, quitclaimed his rights in the manor to the Carylls. (fn. 260) Free warren was claimed by the Carylls in 1578. (fn. 261) The demesne lands of the manor belonged between 1737 and 1844 to the Shelleys of Field Place in Warnham, (fn. 262) but by 1868 had rejoined the descent of the manor itself. (fn. 263)
Two reputed manors were held of Shortsfield. STAMMERHAM (fn. 264) in the south-west part of the parish, which was called a manor in 1262 (fn. 265) and apparently in 1627 (fn. 266) but not, it seems, at other dates, probably derives from the land there with which Nicholas of Stammerham was dealing in the earlier 13th century, described as ½ hide in 1224 (fn. 267) and as 80 a. in 1255. (fn. 268) The estate was settled on Walter de la Hyde in 1262, together with Cokeham in Sompting. (fn. 269) Other persons surnamed of Stammerham are recorded as holding land in Horsham in the 14th century, (fn. 270) but the descent of the estate is lost until the mid 15th. John Michell, who held land in Horsham of Tarring Marlpost in 1448, (fn. 271) was described as of Stammerham in 1463. (fn. 272) At his death in 1474 he was succeeded by his son John (d. 1520 × 1522), whose son Richard died in 1524 or 1525. Richard was succeeded by his grandson John, who died seised of Stammerham in 1555, (fn. 273) and the estate later passed to John's cousin John (d. 1610). (fn. 274) The last-named John was also succeeded by a cousin, Edward, (fn. 275) who died seised of Stammerham in 1639. Edward's son Theobald (fn. 276) (d. 1641) was succeeded by his brother Edward (fn. 277) (d. 1666), and Edward's son Walsingham (d. 1704×1713) by his son the Revd. Theobald (d. 1737), whose daughter and heir Mary Catherine (d. 1760) married Bysshe Shelley. (fn. 278) After 1790 Stammerham descended with Field Place in Warnham (fn. 279) until c. 1870, when it was sold by the Shelleys to Henry Padwick, lord of Hewells manor, who sold it in 1885 to the Aylesbury Dairy Co.; (fn. 280) in 1892, when the company's estate at Stammerham comprised over 1,300 a., most of it was sold to Christ's Hospital, providing the site for the new school. (fn. 281) Christ's Hospital still had the Stammerham estate in 1982.
A house at Stammerham existed in 1520; it apparently had a chapel, since provision was made for saying mass there at that date. (fn. 282) It is presumably represented by Stammerham Farm, which comprises a 16th- or 17th-century L-shaped south range, of timber-framing faced with brick and weatherboarding, and a north range of the later 19th century in revived vernacular style, also using brick and weatherboarding. The paths around the house include huge slabs of Horsham stone.
The reputed manor of HILLS, so called by 1548, (fn. 283) was held freehold of Shortsfield, (fn. 284) and perhaps derives from land in the parish held by the Hill family recorded in 1340–1 and later. (fn. 285) Richard Wakehurst and others are said to have endowed Butler's chantry in Horsham church with part of the demesne lands in 1444, (fn. 286) and what may have been Hills was settled in 1499 by Thomas Mauncell on members of the Michell family. (fn. 287) In the early 16th century a John Hill held lands in Horsham of Shortsfield. (fn. 288) At some date between 1504 and 1515, however, John Caryll owned Hills, (fn. 289) and it seems to have descended between that time and 1620 or later with Nutham. (fn. 290)
John Middleton, M.P. for Horsham from 1624, (fn. 291) had the estate between 1610 (fn. 292) and his death in 1636. His son and heir Thomas, (fn. 293) also M.P. for the town, was a prominent figure in county politics in the 1640s, first as a lukewarm parliamentarian, and then as a supporter of the abortive royalist rising at Horsham in 1648. (fn. 294) Between 1648 and 1651 or later the estate was forfeit. (fn. 295) In 1659 it comprised 180 a. (fn. 296) At his death in 1661 or 1662 Thomas was succeeded by his grandson and namesake, who in 1668 sold Hills to John Machell, (fn. 297) also M.P. for Horsham, (fn. 298) and perhaps already tenant, since in 1664 his house, in Shortsfield tithing, was taxed at 22 hearths. (fn. 299) At Machell's death in 1704 (fn. 300) Hills passed to his grandson the Hon. Richard Ingram, (fn. 301) later Viscount Irwin (d. 1721), and thereafter descended with the Irwin title through Richard's younger brothers Arthur (d. 1736), Henry (d. 1761), and George (d. 1763). Arthur and Henry both sat for the borough before succeeding to the title, the Ingram interest being the dominant one in Horsham elections after c. 1738. (fn. 302) Members of the family often lived at Hills house during that time. (fn. 303) After the death of George's nephew and heir Charles Ingram, Viscount Irwin, in 1778, the estate was held in dower by the latter's widow Frances (d. 1807), (fn. 304) who also lived at Hills (fn. 305) and who continued to wield political influence. (fn. 306) Her daughter and heir Isabella married Francis Seymour Conway, marquess of Hertford, (fn. 307) who sold Hills in 1811 to Charles Howard, duke of Norfolk. (fn. 308) After his death in 1815 the estate was divided among various proprietors including Robert Hurst of Horsham Park. (fn. 309) In 1844 William Sharp both owned and occupied Hills farm, of 95 a., (fn. 310) and in 1876 Charles Sharp was said to own much of the former Hills estate. (fn. 311) In 1912 the house and adjacent land belonged to R. F. Bacchus. (fn. 312) The later history of the estate has not been traced.
There was a timber-framed house at Hills by the 16th century. It became offices (fn. 313) when in 1610 John Middleton built a new range on its south side, whose impressive east front, of five bays and three storeys, had polygonal bay windows, tall chimneys, and Dutch gables. (fn. 314) After the acquisition of the estate by the duke of Norfolk in 1811 the 17th-century building was demolished, together with part of the earlier one. (fn. 315) Various additions were made west of the surviving part of the timber-framed range in the 19th century. That timber-framed part, which contained some fine panelling, was demolished c. 1925, (fn. 316) and in 1982 only 19th-century work survived.
The 17th-century house at Hills had a small formal garden to the south, including a 'mount', (fn. 317) but deer mentioned 'in Mr. Middleton's ground' in 1641 seem more likely to have been at Bewbush park in Lower Beeding. (fn. 318) By 1766 a long lake had been constructed east of the house, extending south-westwards from the Horsham–Guildford road. (fn. 319) A scheme for the reconstruction of the park made in 1768 by Capability Brown (fn. 320) was carried out in part c. 1769–73, (fn. 321) the existing lake being given a serpentine outline, and a large evergreen shrubbery being planted. (fn. 322) A bridge perhaps across the lake was mentioned in 1774. (fn. 323) In the early 19th century the grounds were open to the public, but they were destroyed evidently not long after the house was demolished. (fn. 324)
Horsham RECTORY belonged between 1230 and the Dissolution to Rusper priory, (fn. 325) which leased it in 1534 for 60 years to Thomas Shirley and Thomas Michell. In 1537 the reversion was granted by the Crown to Robert Southwell and his wife Margaret, (fn. 326) who exchanged it back in or before 1539; (fn. 327) in 1551 it was apparently granted to the bishop of Winchester. (fn. 328) Peter Ravenscroft at his death c. 1574 devised to his son John the remaining term of the 1534 lease, (fn. 329) and John in 1594 was granted a new lease by the Crown; (fn. 330) in 1607 his interest was converted to a fee simple. (fn. 331) At the time of John's death in 1615 (fn. 332) the estate was estimated at 100 a. (fn. 333) John's son and heir Hall Ravenscroft (fn. 334) conveyed the rectory in 1649 to Sir Henry Delves, Bt., (fn. 335) father-in-law of his daughter Elizabeth. He was succeeded in 1663 by his son Sir Thomas (d. 1713); the Thomas Delves who was dealing with the estate in 1705 seems to have been the latter's son, another Thomas. (fn. 336) John Wicker (d. 1720) (fn. 337) had the rectory in 1707, (fn. 338) and in 1724 it belonged to his son and namesake. (fn. 339) From 1727 it descended with Nutham (fn. 340) until 1776, when it was retained by Sir Thomas Broughton, (fn. 341) who sold it c. 1790 to Robert Hurst, (fn. 342) after which it descended in the Hurst family. (fn. 343) About 1844 it comprised 207 a., including Parsonage farm north of the town. (fn. 344)
The manor of HEWELLS, which had tenements in Cowfold and other parishes besides Horsham, (fn. 345) seems originally to have been part of the rectory estate: it is not mentioned before the 16th century, in 1532 it belonged to Rusper priory, the impropriate rector, (fn. 346) and the town mill which was later part of it seems likely to be a successor to the rectory mill mentioned in 1231. (fn. 347) In 1537 the reversion of Hewells, together with that of the rectory, was granted by the Crown to Robert and Margaret Southwell, (fn. 348) who conveyed it back in 1546. (fn. 349) In 1608 John Ravenscroft claimed to hold the manor under a lease from Southwell of 1545, (fn. 350) but at his death in 1615 his estate, like his estate in the rectory, had become a fee simple. (fn. 351) Thereafter Hewells descended with the rectory until 1704 or 1705 when Elizabeth Delves conveyed it to Nathaniel Tredcroft, (fn. 352) lord of Hawksbourne (d. 1720). Afterwards Hewells descended with Hawksbourne (fn. 353) until c. 1857, (fn. 354) when Edward Tredcroft sold it to Henry Padwick, a local solicitor who had acted as election agent for R. H. Hurst of Horsham Park. (fn. 355) Padwick was living at Hewells manor house in 1871. (fn. 356) His son and namesake had succeeded by 1910 (fn. 357) and died in or before 1916. (fn. 358)
A manor house existed at Hewells in 1608; (fn. 359) part of it seems to have survived as offices in 1789, (fn. 360) and some re-used panelling from it remained in its successor in 1982. A new house was built in 1704; (fn. 361) called The Manor House in 1982, it is a seven-bayed three-storeyed pedimented double-pile house of brick with corner quoins, the general design apparently being based on that of Winslow Hall (Bucks.). (fn. 362) A large additional range was built on the north c. 1888, having two gables on the garden front, (fn. 363) and further additions were made in the 20th century. Two sets of 18th-century stable buildings survived in 1982, one north and one south of the house. The house was sold in or after 1916 (fn. 364) and from c. 1920 to 1970 was a private school, part of the southern stable block then being converted into a chapel. (fn. 365) Since 1973 The Manor House has been the national headquarters of the R.S.P.C.A. (fn. 366) There may have been a park west of the house in 1734, when an avenue of trees led from the modern Worthing Road, across land which in 1982 was school playing fields. (fn. 367)
From the 18th century onwards four small or medium-sized estates, each based on a large house, were formed on the outskirts of Horsham town. The nucleus of the estate later called HORSHAM PARK, north of the town, was a burgage called Cockmans in 1611. (fn. 368) By the early 1720s it belonged to John Wicker, (fn. 369) later lord of Nutham, and son of another John Wicker who had been M.P. for Horsham. (fn. 370) After 1727 it descended with Nutham, and in the 1770s John Baker the diarist was tenant of the house. (fn. 371) In 1776 Sir Thomas Broughton sold the estate with Nutham to the Revd. Joseph Jackson, from whom it passed to William Smith (d. 1798), whose son Edmund sold it c. 1800 to Robert Hurst, M.P. successively for Steyning and Horsham. (fn. 372) The Hurst family had held land in the parish possibly since the mid 13th century; (fn. 373) Robert Hurst (d. 1483) lived at Moated House Farm north of the town. (fn. 374) The Robert Hurst who bought Horsham Park died in 1843. (fn. 375) By that date the Hurst estates in the parish totalled over 2,100 a., (fn. 376) being later further enlarged by the acquisition of the Tredcroft estates. (fn. 377) Robert's son Robert Henry, also M.P. for Horsham (d. 1857), left the country to escape his creditors in 1845, (fn. 378) and was succeeded by his son, another Robert Henry, who was also M.P. for Horsham, and who wielded a great influence in the town until his death in 1905. (fn. 379) His younger son Col. A. R. Hurst (fn. 380) sold Horsham Park house and grounds in 1928 to the urban district council. (fn. 381)
Horsham Park house, known since c. 1930 as Park House, (fn. 382) incorporates in an inner wall part of a timber-framed range which seems to have occupied an area of the front half of the house. The present house, which has a double-pile plan and a main east front of 9 bays, dates from a rebuilding of the early 18th century; (fn. 383) the west front, however, seems to be mid 18th-century. (fn. 384) Both east and west fronts are pedimented and of brick with stone dressings, the east front having pilaster strips with channelled rustication; the architectural inspiration for both was evidently Hewells manor house, built shortly before. The staircase is apparently 18th-century, as is the entrance hall with a screen of Ionic columns. Many other rooms also have mid 18th-century doorcases, fireplaces, or ceilings. An 18th-century Chinese wallpaper from one room was sold by the urban district council in 1937. (fn. 385) Some additions to the house were made after its purchase by the council, and in the early 1980s it was fully restored after a fire.
The park belonging to the house was presumably laid out after the early 18th-century remodelling of the building, through the engrossment of adjacent closes, including several burgage properties. (fn. 386) By 1787 it extended some way west of the house, (fn. 387) and by 1812 as far as North Parade. Two lakes had been created by that time. (fn. 388) The park was further enlarged before 1982, when the two lakes survived as a single piece of water.
Samuel Blunt, a member of a family recorded in Horsham since the 17th century, (fn. 389) built a new house, Springfield, north-west of the town, shortly before 1758. (fn. 390) At his death in 1799 it passed to his grandson Francis Scawen Blunt (d. 1842), (fn. 391) who leased it between 1819 and 1836 to the Thornton family. In 1819 the estate comprised 206 a. (fn. 392) Blunt's son and namesake owned it in 1870, when it was again tenanted, but died two years later. (fn. 393) By 1888 the house had become a school called Horsham College, (fn. 394) a successor to which was opened in 1904 by Gerald Blunt. (fn. 395) Springfield was still a school in 1982. The house is of brick, and has seven bays and three storeys, its east faôade, like that of Horsham Park house, deriving stylistically from the east front of Hewells manor house. (fn. 396) One room has a fine rococo plaster ceiling, but other rooms have 18th-century decoration of a character which was old-fashioned for the 1750s. The stables and offices to the west are contemporary with the house, and are connected to it by curved passages. In 1758 there was a park of c. 35 a. with a lake, lying south of the house; (fn. 397) most of its area was built on in the 1960s. (fn. 398)
The estate called Coolhurst, south-east of the town, which c. 1844 comprised 55 a., (fn. 399) was in origin a copyhold of Shortsfield manor, recorded from 1402. (fn. 400) In 1642 Sir William Ford and John Caryll owned it. (fn. 401) Later it passed to the Linfield family: (fn. 402) John Linfield was dealing with land in Horsham in 1715 and 1722, (fn. 403) and Charles Linfield in 1793 leased Coolhurst to Edward Carter, who was apparently already tenant. (fn. 404) In 1807 he or another member of the Linfield family sold it to George Stewart, earl of Galloway, (fn. 405) who was living there in 1813. (fn. 406) He sold it to Arthur Chichester (created in 1831 Lord Templemore), (fn. 407) who had sold it by 1830 to Mary Compton, dowager marchioness of Northampton. At her death in 1843 (fn. 408) it passed to her daughter Frances Elizabeth, wife of Charles Scrase-Dickins. (fn. 409) He held it in 1870, (fn. 410) but was succeeded before 1887 (fn. 411) by Charles Robert Scrase-Dickins (d. 1947). (fn. 412) The later history of the estate has not been traced.
A house existed by 1642, (fn. 413) part of which, of stone and red brick, survived in 1959 at the rear of the former service range. (fn. 414) The rest was rebuilt shortly before 1835 in Elizabethan style to the designs of P. F. Robinson; it is asymmetrical and cemented, with large bay windows, and the parapets of the south and west fronts are decorated in 16th-century style by Latin psalm sentences in large openwork characters. (fn. 415) About 1950 the house was a country club, (fn. 416) but by c. 1957 (fn. 417) it had become a school, St. John's College, as it remained in 1981. The attached park was created apparently at the same time as the present house, and by 1868 included Birchen Bridge pond in Nuthurst. (fn. 418) In 1835 it had fine trees and rhododendrons. (fn. 419) In the early 20th century it was enlarged greatly on the south in Nuthurst, (fn. 420) but by 1981 it had returned to roughly its late 19th-century size. In 1936 it included a woodland garden. (fn. 421)
Holbrook, north of the town, which comprised 172 a. c. 1844, (fn. 422) was mentioned as a tenement of Tarring Marlpost manor perhaps from c. 1285, (fn. 423) and the Holbrook family was recorded in Horsham in the 15th century. (fn. 424) In 1799 the estate belonged to John Manley, who sold it c. 1811 to Admiral Sir James Hawkins Whitshed. He sold it in 1843 to R. H. Hurst of Horsham Park, whose mortgagee Henry Padwick sold it c. 1844 (fn. 425) to (Sir) W. R. Seymour Fitzgerald, M.P. for Horsham from 1852. (fn. 426) In 1877 it was sold to H. D. Harrison, who sold it in 1888 to A. R. Creyke (fn. 427) (d. before 1895). (fn. 428) His widow lived there until her death in 1905, and was succeeded by her niece, whose husband H. Alan Scott, a businessman with New Zealand connexions, had Holbrook in 1910. (fn. 429) W. A. Wigram was living there in 1927. (fn. 430) About 1950, when the estate comprised 175 a., it was sold by the executors of E. T. Neathercoat. (fn. 431)
There was a house of red brick at Holbrook, described as of recent construction, c. 1800. (fn. 432) After c. 1844 it was greatly enlarged by Sir Seymour Fitzgerald (fn. 433) as an asymmetrical, rendered building in Italianate style, with a north-east tower. A park had been laid out by c. 1844, including a sheet of water south of the house, (fn. 434) and comprised 82 a. in 1950. (fn. 435) The house had been converted by c. 1975 into luxury flats. (fn. 436)
Archbishop George Abbot in 1629 gave to Holy Trinity hospital, Guildford, which he had founded ten years earlier, Highland farm (100 a.) in the east part of Horsham parish. (fn. 437) About 1844 the estate was described as 131 a. (fn. 438) The hospital sold it c. 1878. (fn. 439)
The printer Bernard Lintott (d. 1736) bought estates in and near Southwater. He was succeeded by his son Henry (d. 1758), whose daughter and heir Catherine married Sir Henry Fletcher of Walton-onThames (Surr.) (created Bt. 1782; d. 1807). Thereafter the estates descended in the direct line through Sir Henry (d. 1821) and Sir Henry (d. 1851) to Sir Henry (d. 1910), who took the surname AubreyFletcher. (fn. 440) About 1844 the Fletcher estates in Horsham totalled nearly 750 a. (fn. 441) The last-named Sir Henry's brother and heir Sir Lancelot (d. 1937) was succeeded by his son Sir Henry (d. 1969), whose son Sir John was still alive in 1983, when the estates still totalled over 450 a. (fn. 442)