Pages 348-370

A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 1, the City of Kingston Upon Hull. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1969.

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The Town Grammar School

A grammar school apparently existed in Hull early in its development as a chartered borough, no doubt to maintain a supply of Latin-trained clerks. From references to School Street and School Lane in 1347, the school seems to have stood on the south side of Holy Trinity churchyard, a little to the west of the present Vicar Lane. (fn. 2) Entries in the chamberlains' accounts after 1431 show that the town appointed the master, provided him with a schoolroom, granted him a monopoly of grammarteaching, regulated the fees which supplied his livelihood, and at times allowed him a house, clothing, and a salary. (fn. 3)

In 1479 the school was endowed together with a chantry founded in Holy Trinity by the Bishop of Worcester, John Alcock, a native of Hull. The chaplain had not only to celebrate daily, but also to teach the town grammar school without taking fees; from the annual yield of the endowment he was to receive a stipend of £10, pay the parish clerk £2 to teach singing, and allow each of his ten best pupils 6s. 8d. After the bishop's death the patronage passed to the corporation, and the school evidently continued to use the building previously provided by the town. (fn. 4) At the dissolution of the chantry in 1548 the school was one of those continued by royal warrant, the Crown paying the master an annual stipend of £13 2s. 2½d., representing the net value of the chantry at its suppression. When this was stopped in Mary's reign a number of burgesses successfully sued in the Exchequer for its restoration, and the stipend continued to be the school's principal endowment. (fn. 5)

Gradually after 1548 the corporation came to accept full responsibility for the school. It negotiated with the vicar for the enlargement of the school garden in 1564, bought it reference books in 1575, imposed fees to pay for an usher in 1579, erected a gallery for the pupils in Holy Trinity in 1580, and finally, in 1583, built a new and bigger schoolroom to the west of the old one, (fn. 6) which then became the master's dwelling. It also came to appoint the master, and this right was formally reserved to it by the charter of 1611, subject only to the archbishop's approval. (fn. 7)

During the late 16th and much of the 17th centuries the school flourished. Ordinarily the master was assisted by one usher, but from 1601 to 1606 there were two and the school was perhaps larger then than at any time until the late 19th century. About 1630, when Andrew Marvell was one of them, there were about 100 pupils. (fn. 8) For much of the century a small but steady stream went to Cambridge, aided by two exhibitions which the corporation administered as trustee, one founded in 1631 by Alderman Thomas Ferries, the other in 1638 by Thomas Bury, a scrivener. A third exhibition tenable at Clare College, Cambridge, was established in 1680 by Alexander Metcalf, ejected nonconformist minister of Settrington and a former pupil; but this was not awarded until 1725. (fn. 9) Other 'poor scholars' of the town often received generous financial help from the corporation during their Cambridge careers. (fn. 10)

For four or five centuries the Grammar School stood pre-eminent. When any other teacher of grammar appeared, as in 1691 and 1731, the corporation was quick to defend the monopoly of its schoolmaster. (fn. 11) Other schools, more popular and elementary, or more specialized and vocational, were provided by private enterprise; but they are scantily documented and have left little trace. When the corporation in 1454 granted the master of the grammar scholars his monopoly it excepted the parvuli in alphabetis et graciis, (fn. 12) which suggests these had other teachers. Bishop Alcock's foundation in 1479 clearly points to a song school taught by the parish clerk of Holy Trinity. In later Tudor and Stuart times schoolmasters are mentioned in the registers of both parishes, and these would be mainly keepers of petty or 'A.B.C.' schools. Among the corporation's anti-plague measures in 1637 was an order closing 'the Grammar School and other petty schools'; and in 1638 a plea for its repeal was submitted by the Grammar School master 'and other schoolmasters and schoolmistresses in the town'. (fn. 13) Instruction in writing was provided by scriveners. The corporation in 1634 contracted to pay one of them £5 a year for teaching burgesses' children, under the age of sixteen, to write, at 6d. a week, half his ordinary rate. (fn. 14) After 1678 the Grammar School boys were taught penmanship by a visiting scrivener instead of attending writing schools in their spare time as previously. Other vocational instruction would be obtainable from the mathematicians who occasionally appear in the parish registers; they would teach accounts, gauging, surveying, and navigation.

Philanthropy and the Education of the Poor, 1700–1800

The Grammar School apart, Hull's only publiclyprovided school was in Charity Hall, the town's poorhouse. Here, intermittently at least, pauper children were taught a useful trade and sometimes reading and writing. Later in the 17th century they were fitted out with a blue-coat uniform, the boys having shoes, stockings, and caps like those at Christ's Hospital in London; and a master was appointed to teach them reading and writing. In 1690, when the hall was reopened as a poorhouse following its closure some time before, training in spinning and knitting was restored because the children had become 'desolate and employed their time in begging from door to door and take evil courses'. (fn. 15) One of the corporation's reasons for building the enlarged Charity Hall after 1699 was to teach more poor children a trade and so reduce begging and vagrancy. (fn. 16) At first, because of weekly out-relief, the new workhouse was little more than an industrial charity school, financed by voluntary subscriptions and conducted like the charity schools sponsored by the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. The leading spirit behind it was Robert Banks, Vicar of Holy Trinity, a zealous corresponding member of the Society. Some 40 or more boys and girls were boarded and clothed, catechized, taught reading, writing, and spinning, and then apprenticed. (fn. 17) When indoor was substituted for outdoor relief in 1728 the children had to share the workhouse with the adult paupers, and their unrestricted association with beggars, debauchees, and harlots was an acknowledged evil. At the end of the 18th century there were seldom fewer than 80 children in the house, and in 1799 their only teacher was a drunken pauper. The boys were usually sent to sea, but the girls were more difficult to place—in 1800 as many as 40 were apprenticed to linen-mills in Otley (W.R. Yorks.). (fn. 18)

The education of the poor, from whatever motives, was a cause dear to 18th-century philanthropy in Hull as elsewhere. William Mason, another Vicar of Holy Trinity and like Banks an earnest S.P.C.K. correspondent, promoted about 1729 a society of tradesmen 'eminent for its religious zeal, and especially its well-ordered charity in respect of poor people's children'. In 1730 this body established the Vicar's School, Hull's first public elementary school, (fn. 19) in Vicar Lane, next to the vicar's stables, to teach poor children reading, writing, and practical Christianity in the manner of the S.P.C.K. At first there were 20 children, but the number soon increased. In 1792 the Revd. Thomas Clarke, Wilberforce's brother-in-law, rebuilt the school on its original site and 60 boys were then admitted, each for three years, on the vicar's nomination. (fn. 20) Supported originally by subscriptions and the collection at an annual sermon in Holy Trinity, the school later received endowments which the corporation administered on the vicar's behalf; but to make good the deficit quarterly fees of 1s. were charged after 1813. (fn. 21)

Another charity school, for 20 poor girls, was founded in 1753 by Alderman William Cogan. For this purpose he gave a house in Salthouse Lane and £2,000 stock to three trustees. The girls, nominated by the trustees, were to be the daughters of orderly people 'who would not sell ale or spirituous liquors or receive weekly allowances or ask alms, or let their children beg'. They were to be admitted at 10 for three years, supplied with a uniform, and 'taught to knit, sew, wash and get up linen, to wash rooms, and other housework to fit them for useful servants'. Their mistress was to receive £14 a year and her lodging. The school opened in 1755, and in 1760 the charity was extended to provide marriage dowries for former pupils. As the income grew the number of girls was increased; in 1889 the school had to move to a larger building, but its essential purpose changed little up to its end in 1950. (fn. 22)

As Cogan's School supplied trained domestic servants, so Trinity House Navigation School, later in the 18th century, was intended to provide Hull shipowners with trained apprentices. In 1729 and perhaps at other times the House had paid a private teacher of navigation to instruct the sons of poor members, but with the growth of the port it became necessary to ensure a greater supply of qualified masters and mates. Influenced by the work of the London Marine Society, and particularly by its secretary Jonas Hanway's Proposal for County Naval Schools, the House resolved in 1785 to establish and maintain their own marine school. A building adjoining their chapel in Trinity House Lane was designed by Charles Mountain and erected a year later for this purpose. (fn. 23) The school opened in 1787 with T. O. Rogers, Curate of Sculcoates, as master. (fn. 24) It consisted of 36 boys nominated by the Elder Brethren and admitted for three years at 10 (11 after 1790); they received a uniform, and were taught navigation, arithmetic, writing, accounts, and practical religion in a loft in Holy Trinity specially erected for them. On the completion of their schooling they were apprenticed to a shipmaster— usually a member of the House. The school suffered at first from ill discipline and low standards, and the first two masters had to be removed, but conditions steadily improved after 1795. (fn. 25)

Education and Social Change, 1780–1830

The 1780s saw the beginning of a period of rapid expansion which in the next half century transformed the educational scene in Hull. The increase in population provided the incentive; the growth of trade in the port provided the means, in the form of middle-class subscriptions; and the leadership came from a group of public-spirited men moved by a new social conscience, awakened perhaps by the evangelical ministry of Joseph Milner and his disciples. Among those energetic in educational good works were Dr. John Alderson, Hull's foremost physician, the solicitors Charles Frost and John Broadley, Charles Lutwidge, collector of customs, and George Lee, a Unitarian pastor and later editor of the Rockingham.

The education of the poor by middle-class charity advanced considerably. In 1786 four Sunday schools for boys were opened and three spinning schools, at which girls were trained for domestic service: in 1798 there were 34 girls at each spinning school. (fn. 26) In 1787 a subscription day-school and a Sunday school for boys and girls were established in Sculcoates in Carr Street. (fn. 27) On the initiative of Mrs. Lutwidge, and after renewed subscriptions, it was resolved in 1806 to replace the Hull spinning schools by a day-school for boys and another for girls, both on the new Lancasterian plan, and to provide for older girls a servants' school where they would be boarded and clothed and taught housework and reading. (fn. 28) The Servants' School started in 1806 in High Street but moved later to Gibson Street in Sculcoates. The boys' school was transferred to a new building in Salthouse Lane in 1809 when it was visited by Joseph Lancaster during one of his lecture tours; and a girls' school next to it was opened in 1811. (fn. 29)

The National Society, represented locally by the East Riding District Society, founded at Beverley in 1812, at first made slow progress in Hull. But the Sculcoates Subscription School was reorganized on the National system in 1818; (fn. 30) in 1825 the Salthouse Lane Subscription School became affiliated to the society, eventually in close association with St. Mary's parish; (fn. 31) and in Drypool the Revd. Henry Venn promoted a National school near St. Peter's Church in 1828. (fn. 32) The corporation contributed towards the last two. (fn. 33) Infants' schools attracted the attention of educational philanthropists in the 1820s, and the movement reached Hull in 1826. A meeting called by Daniel Sykes, M.P., and attended by many of the Hull clergy, led to a subscription fund and the opening of two infants' schools, one in Eastcheap in 1826, the other in High Street in 1828. (fn. 34) Both later became church schools, the former belonging to St. Stephen's, the latter to St. Mary's, Lowgate. These efforts to educate working-class children were supplemented by the Sunday schools, stimulated by the formation of rival Anglican and nonconformist associations in 1819. In 1835 the nonconformist Sunday School Union claimed 2,620 pupils taught by some 500 voluntary teachers in sixteen schools. (fn. 35)

During this period middle-class education was characterized by the multiplication of private academies. Private schools for boys had appeared earlier in the 18th century when the idea of the Grammar School's local monopoly broke down. Later on newspapers and directories reveal many as already well established, mainly in the Old Town; but the number steadily increased in and after the 1790s, mostly in the new middle-class suburb to the north and west. They were taught by the proprietor, usually in his own house, with the aid of one or two visiting teachers, and their curricula covered commercial and technical as well as academic subjects. The longest-lived of these schools played a significant part in the educational system in Hull. Benjamin Snowden's Mercantile Academy in Blanket Row was thriving in 1790 and lasted for at least another 46 years. (fn. 36) The minister of Bowlalley Lane chapel, the Revd. George Lee, opened a classical academy in 1800 which functioned for a quarter of a century. (fn. 37) In Charles Street was the Revd. Joseph Thompson's academy from c. 1806 to c. 1842, and in Mason Street the Revd. John Blezard's from at least 1814 until after 1848. (fn. 38) These schools forced the Grammar School to meet their challenge by broadening its own curriculum until it became scarcely different from them. Under the Revd. G. J. Davies (1811–24) the school flourished moderately for a time—there were 60 boys in 1818; but under the Revd. William Wilson (1824–36) its numbers fell to 20 or 30. The Hull and East Riding Schoolmasters' Association, formed in 1823 under Davies's leadership, was the earliest local attempt at a teachers' professional organization. It lasted until c. 1838. (fn. 39)

Along with academies for boys there developed seminaries for girls, offering such subjects as English grammar, writing, geography, French, dancing, music, needlework, and drawing, usually with help from 'the most approved masters'. In the 1790s there were Miss Benison's seminary in Bond Street, transferred in 1797 to Story Street, Miss Thompson's in Blanket Row, Miss Massey's in Mytongate, Miss Frenche's in Bond Street; (fn. 40) and in 1810 a 'Catholic boarding- and day-school for young ladies' was opened by Miss Perkins in Prospect Street. (fn. 41) Some of the boys' academies also offered teaching for girls—for instance, Snowden's 'from three to six in the afternoon in a separate apartment'. (fn. 42)

Facilities for instruction in certain branches of commercial and technical education were also available from private teachers. Several of the academies classified themselves as 'mercantile' or 'commercial' and, like Snowden's, offered courses for boys 'intended for the accounting-house or counter' as well as 'practical mathematics, particularly navigation and surveying'. (fn. 43) Former clerks in merchant houses and retired sea captains kept schools preparing boys 'for the counting-house, trade or the sea, surveying &c.', and there were teachers offering instruction and translation services in French, German, Italian, and Portuguese. Two attempts to provide more systematic technical education achieved no permanent success. In 1795 regular winter classes for sailor boys were started by subscription, mainly of ship-owners, to teach apprentices while their ships were laid up. Some 170 were admitted in the winter of 1796–7 making three schools necessary; these continued until 1808, when there were 89 boys registered, and thereafter ceased. (fn. 44) A scheme for the foundation of a commercial college, propounded by Dr. Alderson in 1802, was abortive. (fn. 45)

The Hull Subscription Library, founded in 1775, was the first and the focus of several later attempts made during this time to advance adult education through literary and scientific activities. (fn. 46) These included the 'society for literary information', established in 1792, and the scientific and literary meetings which continued its work from 1803 to 1809. (fn. 47) In 1804, at Dr. Alderson's suggestion, the Subscription Library voted £50 annually for lecture courses on scientific and commercial subjects, and George Birkbeck gave two courses on natural and mechanical philosophy in 1805. (fn. 48) In 1822 the Literary and Philosophical Society was established with Dr. Alderson as its first president. (fn. 49)

The Lyceum Library and circulating libraries met the reading needs of the lower class of clerks and tradesmen, (fn. 50) but with elementary education so thinly spread the educational aspirations of working men went largely unsatisfied. During the depression that followed the Napoleonic War a Political Protestants' Union was formed in Hull in 1818, the first of several radical political reform societies in Yorkshire, and its members met weekly in classes of 20 to read the writings of men like Cobbett, Sherwin, and Wooler. (fn. 51) To meet the needs of these men, and perhaps to divert their attention from political agitation, the Mechanics' Institute was founded in 1825. Dr. Alderson, Daniel Sykes, the Revd. George Lee, and J. H. Bromby, Vicar of Holy Trinity, were among its chief promoters; 'the instruction of the members, at a cheap rate, in the principles of their respective arts, and in the various branches of science and useful knowledge' was its aim. (fn. 52) Soon after its objects included reading, writing, and grammar. Writing to Lord Brougham in 1826, George Lee noted that the 'upper and lower classes connected with the Institute are upon the best terms with each other', and found 'a great improvement in the domestic and moral conduct of some young men in consequence of the acquired taste for reading'. (fn. 53) Brougham himself addressed the Institute in 1830 and 'answered many objections to the communication of instruction to the lower classes of society'. (fn. 54)

Education as a Private and Denominational Enterprise, 1830–70

Between 1830 and 1870 the population of Hull more than doubled, producing new working- and middle-class residential districts to be provided with schools. Private speculation and denominational zeal tried to meet these needs. Dame- and common day-schools, often kept part-time, provided much of the popular education, mostly for 2d. or 3d. a week; but their share diminished as the parliamentary grant for school building, first voted in 1833, created more government-aided and inspected public elementary schools. In 1851 some 217 private schools taught 5,119 children (an average of 23 to a school) while 5,090 pupils attended publiclyprovided schools. (fn. 55) Most of these private-venture schools were short-lived and were held in backstreet parlours; in 1861 they were said to be 'wretchedly inefficient . . . miserable roomfuls of children, the best of which are little better than dame-schools and the worst mere nurseries'. (fn. 56) By contrast an early and unique contribution to elementary education was the Hull Savings Bank School— the only savings bank school anywhere recorded. (fn. 57) It existed from 1831 to 1851, and by 1848, when the bank sought government aid for it, 2,969 children had attended there. (fn. 58)

Most of the new elementary schools were promoted by parish clergy and free-church ministers. Funds raised locally by subscription and otherwise were supplemented by a government grant which carried with it after 1840 the right of government inspection. Apart from the Savings Bank School, the only nonsectarian schools were the two British schools, Dock Green (1833) and Holderness Ward (1838). (fn. 59) When the former closed in 1866 the trustees replaced it with another in Day Street, an unusually late example of the establishment of a British school. (fn. 60)

Before 1870 the Church of England, operating through the National Society, added nine church schools to the three already existing, mostly connected with the new ecclesiastical districts or parishes formed in the growing suburbs, and often housed at first in temporary premises. As a result of the efforts of the first incumbent, John King, Christ Church National School was opened in 1832 and later moved to a larger building. (fn. 61) St. Stephen's National School (1840) and the separate girls' school (1856) were both the work of the Revd. John Deck. (fn. 62) East of the river St. Mark's had a school from 1840, rehoused next to the new church in 1857. (fn. 63) St. James's had a day-school from c. 1842 and a new building was provided for it soon after. With 474 pupils enrolled in 1846, this was for long the largest school in Hull, and the boys' department under the mastership of G. H. Lovell had a high reputation. (fn. 64) In Sculcoates the old National school in Carr Street, and a later one for girls in Oxford Street (1834) passed into the new parish of St. Paul's in 1844; consequently another parish school near St. Mary's was opened in Bank Side in 1852, through the exertions of T. S. Bonnin, curate-incharge. Samuel Wilderspin, the pioneer of infant education, lectured in the Mechanics' Institute in aid of its building fund. (fn. 65) The first of the new churches, St. John's, had only an infants' school until it took over the Savings Bank School. (fn. 66) Meanwhile the old Vicar's School had applied for government grant, but its accommodation being found unacceptable by the inspector, J. Bromby, the vicar, appealed for a new Trinity National School in Humber Street in 1857. (fn. 67) The same year saw St. Paul's National School established. (fn. 68) This strenuous effort slackened temporarily after 1859 when an industrial school in Trippett, later St. Philip's, was founded by Bromby. (fn. 69) The Church's main contribution in the next decade was the rebuilding of Drypool National School. (fn. 70)

Other denominations contributed, if on a smaller scale, to the multiplication of school places during this period. The Jews had kept a small school in their synagogue in Robinson Row since 1826. (fn. 71) The first Roman Catholic school was started under the new St. Charles's Church in 1829. It was moved twice and by the 1860s its novel features included school dinners, a gymnasium, and a magic lantern. (fn. 72) A second Roman Catholic school, St. Mary's, was opened in 1856 to serve east Hull, and a third for girls and infants at the recently-established Convent of Mercy in Anlaby Road in 1859. (fn. 73) Most active among the protestant nonconformist bodies were the Wesleyans. Their first day-school grew out of an earlier Sunday school in Mason Street in 1837, which was replaced by the large South Myton school, becoming one of the biggest schools in Hull with accommodation for over 600 by 1870. (fn. 74) Smaller Wesleyan day-schools were attached to the Scott Street chapel and the George Yard chapel, but both had brief existences, (fn. 75) as did the school opened by the Congregationalists next to Albion Street chapel in 1867. (fn. 76)

Two schools were established in the 1860s in connexion with sailors' orphanages, which had previously sent their children to ordinary dayschools. The non-sectarian Port of Hull Society in 1863 set up a school in its orphanage, which moved to Park Street in 1866; and the Seamen's and General Orphanage Society, a Church of England body, built a school in 1870. (fn. 77)

The new schools completely eclipsed the pioneer charity schools of the 18th century, though these continued to play their part. Cogan's School increased its numbers to 60 girls, (fn. 78) and Trinity House School was moved, enlarged, and reorganized until in 1856 it had 98 boys. (fn. 79) The two workhouses, Sculcoates in Beverley Road after 1844 and Hull in Anlaby Road after 1852, continued to maintain schools giving a mainly industrial training to their pauper children, 98 at Sculcoates and 107 at Hull in 1856. (fn. 80)

For destitute children outside the workhouse public subscription in 1849 established the Ragged and Industrial School in Mill Street, one of the town's roughest neighbourhoods. (fn. 81) The committee extended its work in 1868 by providing the industrial school ship Southampton, which lay in the Hull Roads until 1912, training the more difficult boys (most of them drawn from outside Hull), mainly for the sea. (fn. 82)

Despite the conspicuous increase in school places during this period they remained insufficient for the school-age population. Fewer than half the children of school age ever attended, however, and the average length of attendance of those who did was calculated to be under 2½ years; the average leaving age, moreover, was only 10½ years. Parental poverty together with opportunities for child employment made any notable improvement unlikely until attendance became compulsory. (fn. 83) For early leavers the Sunday schools still offered a basic education. More effective in this context were nightschools, which appeared in the 1850s, (fn. 84) sponsored by the clergy in their National schoolrooms: the first and most active of several in Hull was connected with St. Stephen's under the vicar, John Deck. Excluding Sculcoates there were ten night-schools with 685 students in 1859. (fn. 85)

As elsewhere secondary or middle-class education made much less progress during these decades than it had done before. Until the middle 1830s the academies provided most of the 'superior' instruction and their numbers increased. After William Wilson's death in 1836 the Grammar School was without a master and for 20 months remained closed until it was decided whether, following the Municipal Corporations Act, the patronage belonged to the new town council or the Municipal Charity Trustees. The decision of the Solicitor General that the patronage passed to the former but the school property to the latter helped to paralyse the school for the next 60 years. (fn. 86)

To provide the middle class of Hull with a more systematic education than was then available, a group of merchants and businessmen in 1836 launched a scheme for a Hull and East Riding Proprietary School, following the recent example of other towns. But because this was intended to be conducted on non-sectarian principles, a rival body promoted a second school to be based on strictly Anglican teaching. Thus two companies were floated, each aiming at a capital of £5,000 in 200 equal shares, and two schools were established, each providing for 200 boys: Kingston College, Anglican and Tory, in Beverley Road, and Hull College, nonconformist and Whig, in Spring Bank. At first both prospered. They had highly qualified teachers; educated the sons of professional and merchant families and sent several to Cambridge; and were regarded as ornaments to the town. But in the economic depression of the 1840s they had financial difficulties and came to untimely ends—Hull College in 1845, Kingston College in 1847, though each was continued for several years by its last principal as a private venture, the latter at Hessle until c. 1860. (fn. 87)

The failure of these colleges left the Grammar School and several small private schools to cater for the middle classes, and it seems likely that not more than 250 boys were receiving a secondary education in Hull in the 1860s. Under the mastership of J. D. Sollitt (1838–68) the Grammar School became an English and commercial school of some 50 to 60 boys, scholastically and materially decrepit and without university connexions; and neither the town council nor the Charity Trustees showed any desire to reform it. (fn. 88) Consequently Robert Jameson and other prominent businessmen sought to establish another proprietary college as a limited liability company. They planned to amalgamate the Grammar School with it, but this scheme was defeated by the Charity Trustees' insistence on the ratepayers' right to have their sons entered at the new college as they had at the Grammar School. Despite this setback and the fact that the shares were not fully subscribed, the Hull and East Riding College was opened in 1867 with the Revd. William Lucas as principal, Jameson himself accepting much of the financial responsibility. For several years numbers were low —94 in 1868, only 70 in 1870—and the school ran at a loss until 1873. Thereafter conditions improved, though the directors were never free from financial anxiety. During its life this was accepted as Hull's leading school: it introduced the Cambridge 'Local' examinations into Hull, and established new academic standards; it restored local links with the universities; and it educated many of Hull's foremost professional and businessmen. (fn. 89)

The School Board Era, 1870–1902

The thirty years following the Education Act of 1870 saw an unprecedented expansion of public elementary education. Hull's population in 1870 was about 120,000 and the children of school age were about 20,000; disregarding private provision, publicly-provided school places totalled some 12,000, only 8,512 children were enrolled, and average attendance was 5,920. (fn. 90) But during the next three decades the population doubled, and the school population was further enlarged by the introduction of compulsory attendance in 1880 and free schooling in 1891. The overriding task was to keep pace with this increase.

To safeguard denominational instruction the voluntary bodies redoubled their efforts. By 1872 the Church of England had opened schools connected with the new churches of St. Luke, St. Silas, and All Saints; the Roman Catholics St. Patrick's; the Congregationalists a school in Fish Street; and the Wesleyans one in Beverley Road. (fn. 91) Earlier voluntary schools were enlarged, and by 1900 St. Stephen's provided 923 places, South Myton 913, St. Paul's 878, St. Mark's 836, and two new Roman Catholic schools, St. Gregory's and St. Wilfrid's, added another 900. (fn. 92) Trinity House School rose to 180 places, and Cogan's expanded its accommodation to 128. (fn. 93)

The main contribution, however, came from the rate-aided School Board, constituted under the Act in 1871. This consisted of fifteen members elected triennially by the ratepayers. During its existence the most energetic members were J. M. Lambert, Vicar of Newland, and two businessmen, T. B. Holmes and Thomas Stratten; its secretary throughout was D. J. O'Donoghue, and the architect responsible for its school buildings from 1874 to 1898, William Botterill, later in partnership with John Bilson.

At first, in order to meet the most urgent needs, the Board hired temporary accommodation, mostly in church and chapel rooms. (fn. 94) In 1874 its first three buildings were ready, providing altogether 2,580 places: Daltry Street, Courtney Street, and Lincoln Street. Between 1875 and 1878 six new schools were opened. (fn. 95) Some voluntary-school managers now closed their schools or sold out to the Board, (fn. 96) while three schools passed to the Board in 1883 when the borough boundaries were extended. (fn. 97) By 1886 the Board was providing 21,369 places in 21 schools. Even so, accommodation never caught up with the growing population; temporary premises and overcrowding were normal, and merely to keep pace with the increase one new school with 800 places was needed every year. (fn. 98) In 1897 the Board had 37 schools with over 31,000 places. (fn. 99)

Successive Boards aimed to provide an educational minimum at the lowest cost, and Hull standards notoriously fell below the national average. The educational rate was lower than in any comparable city, curricula were restricted to grantearning subjects, and salaries were low. Untrained teachers were also employed excessively; in each department of 250 children there was one certificated teacher, one ex-pupil-teacher, and three or four pupil-teachers. (fn. 100) Perhaps for these reasons dameschools, often held in ordinary houses, still continued to attract pupils. (fn. 101)

Nevertheless the Board gradually laid the foundations of an organized educational service. Before the first cookery centres were opened in 1878, a cart with stove and utensils went round the schools; a peripatetic drill-sergeant was engaged in 1879; the first school inspector was appointed in 1887, and an itinerant manual instructor in 1893; and in 1899, very belatedly, a pupil-teacher centre was opened in the Young People's Institute. (fn. 102) The Board's first special school was the Ragged School, taken over in 1884 as a truant school for boys, a new one for girls being built in Park Avenue in 1888. (fn. 103) Another special service, taken over in 1894 from the Deaf and Dumb Institution, was the day centre for deaf children, eventually established in Osborne Street School. (fn. 104) Voluntary effort supplemented these advances in two respects, both anticipating later developments. An 'artisan scholarship' system linking, however tenuously, the elementary schools with the Grammar School and Hull and East Riding College, was founded by subscription in 1874 to mark the educational good works of Robert Jameson; (fn. 105) and in 1885, at a time of much unemployment and poverty, the School Children's Help Society began to supply penny dinners—the first local school-meals service. (fn. 106) These years also saw the consolidation of the Hull Teachers' Association founded in 1871: the Board's autocratic attitude must have been a potent stimulus to professional organization. (fn. 107)

As the age of compulsory attendance was raised in the 1890s, the Board became increasingly concerned with the needs of older children. By what Malet Lambert later confessed to be 'a manipulation of the regulations' three higher-grade schools were built, each giving a quasi-secondary education mainly on practical and scientific lines: the Central Higher Grade School in Brunswick Avenue in 1891, Craven Street in 1893, and the Boulevard in 1895. All were large and equipped with laboratories and workshops according to the highest standards of the time, and in each one the upper classes formed an Organized Science School under the Science and Art Department. (fn. 108) These were the crown of the Board's system. Until 1894 the Board's standard school comprised three departments—boys', girls', infants'; but from that year separate junior mixed departments were added to fourteen earlier schools, which then consisted of senior boys, senior girls, mixed juniors, and infants. (fn. 109) The Board's last contribution was the opening in 1902 of four large, 'two-decker', schools in which both senior and junior departments were co-educational and the infants separate: Mersey Street, Estcourt Street, Thoresby Street, and Wheeler Street. These all had the same central-hall plan and exemplified the best school architecture of the time. (fn. 110) When the Board expired in 1903 it had 41 schools containing 39,180 places, as against 22 voluntary schools with 12,639 places. (fn. 111)

Compared with this massive expansion of voluntary and state-aided elementary education, secondary or middle-class education languished. The commercial and business class of Hull, perhaps through long educational starvation, remained indifferent, the only advocates of improvement being a few clergy, doctors, and lawyers. Prominent among these were Albert K. Rollit; James Thomas Woodhouse, like Rollit a solicitor and alderman; and Francis Bond, principal of the Hull and East Riding College after 1881; but they made little headway in the face of public apathy.

The Grammar School came near to extinction as its Tudor schoolroom decayed. A Scheme arranged by the Charity Commissioners, which would have restored its efficiency in a new building, was defeated in 1878 by public opposition to the diversion of funds from other charities on which the Scheme depended. Compelled to abandon its ruinous building in 1878, the school moved temporarily into the Albion Congregational Chapel school-room in Baker Street where numbers fell as low as 40 at one time in 1887. The town council, the Charity Trustees, and the general public seemed careless of its plight, and in 1885 there was talk of handing it over to the School Board. (fn. 112) Academically the Hull and East Riding College prospered under Francis Bond; numbers rose but never exceeded 190, and with an all-graduate staff advanced work developed, notably in science: the school had an impressive record in public examinations, and in nine years claimed 30 university scholarships and exhibitions. Corporate activities flourished, and after 1887 three, later six, entrance scholarships were awarded to boys from elementary schools. Debt and dependence on fees, however, made for constant insecurity. (fn. 113)

Much of the middle-class demand for secondary education continued to be met by private schools, though these were much fewer than earlier in the century. Collegiate House School in Pryme Street, taught by T. D. Ball, a former master of Holderness Ward British School, was successful in the 1870s and early 1880s, as was Eton House School, kept for many years by R. G. Heys. For girls, private enterprise provided the only secondary education available, and numerous girls' schools existed in the middle-class districts. Some of them offered mainly social accomplishments, a few taught for the Cambridge 'Locals': one of these, in Anlaby Road, was kept by two sisters, the Misses J. and C. S. Bremner, the latter a determined feminist who later wrote about the education of girls. (fn. 114)

The prospect in secondary education brightened in 1887 when Dr. John Hymers, Rector of Brandesburton, bequeathed to Hull Corporation a residue of nearly £170,000 'to found and endow' a grammar school. The will, however, was contested, and the fortune passed to an octogenarian brother who nevertheless agreed to give £50,000 to carry out the testator's wishes. At first it was assumed that the money would be used to rehabilitate the Grammar School; but, mainly through the efforts of J. T. Woodhouse, Hymers College was founded instead as a new endowed school. The people of Hull owed it, said Woodhouse, 'to a stranger's penetrating observation of our intellectual torpor'. When Hymers College opened in 1893 the Hull and East Riding College went into voluntary liquidation lest competition should harm both schools. (fn. 115)

After 1893 the Grammar School was gradually restored following several decades of academic impotence. In 1892 it moved into a new building in Leicester Street; the long and energetic reign of J. E. Forty began in 1893; and in 1896 a new scheme of government restored full control to the corporation and reorganized the curriculum and finances. Although numbers rose from 98 in 1893 to an average of 250 by 1900, poverty and frequent staff changes delayed its complete rehabilitation until the present century. (fn. 116) Meanwhile Hull had acquired its first public secondary school for girls. Miss C. S. Bremner had made strenuous but unsuccessful efforts to secure part of the Hymers bequest for girls' education, and the publicity she obtained for this led to the promotion of Hull High School for Girls by the Church Schools Company, the shipowner Arthur Wilson, of Tranby Croft, being the largest local shareholder. With Miss E. H. Cochrane as headmistress the school opened in 1890. (fn. 117)

Compared with 1870 notable progress had been made in secondary education by 1900, mainly in the 1890s. Excluding, however, the three higher-grade schools and the junior technical school opened in 1894 by the Technical Instruction Committee, none of which was properly a secondary school, it is unlikely that as many as 600 boys and girls out of a population of 240,000 were receiving a secondary education in 1900.

Adult and Technical Education, 1830–1900

For two decades or more after its foundation the Mechanics' Institute was an important educational influence in Hull. It provided in the winter months 'courses of lectures in natural and experimental philosophy, practical mechanics, astronomy, chemistry, literature, and the arts', and for some time at any rate classes in more elementary subjects; it was a forum of discussion and debate, and a meetingplace of different social groups. At first its meetings were held in the Vicar's School and Salthouse Lane National School, but in 1830 the institute erected its own building in Charlotte Street, designed by Charles Mountain, the younger. It moved in 1842 to no. 2 George Street, formerly the house of John Staniforth, M.P., where the facilities eventually included a library, reading room and news-room, lecture hall, museum, and model room. (fn. 118) In 1857 there were 115 honorary members, 520 proprietary members, 185 apprentice members, and—a recent innovation—six women members. (fn. 119) By this time less serious educational motives had been introduced and, an attempt to convert the institute into a social and recreational club having failed, a splinter group had formed the Hull Athenaeum in 1848. (fn. 120) Complaints were also made that the working man was kept out; in 1857 therefore 'operative mechanics and labourers' were admitted to lectures, but not to the reading room. (fn. 121) One of its stalwarts during this period was J. D. Sollitt, a local pioneer of adult education and popular science. (fn. 122) Educationally the contribution of the Mechanics' Institute in and after the 1860s was comparatively small; it was converted into a limited liability company in 1895 but wound up in 1898, some of its funds being devoted to art and technical scholarships. (fn. 123)

Outside the Mechanics' Institute other voluntary bodies offered education to artisans, shop assistants, and clerks. Dedicated to the socialist and cooperative principles of Robert Owen, a 'Social Institution' or Hall of Science existed on North Church Side in 1839, but its duration is unknown. (fn. 124) The Hull branch of the Y.M.C.A. started in 1847, and in 1853 a mutual improvement society met in Bowlalley Lane. (fn. 125) The Church Institute, founded in 1845, aimed 'to promote the study of literature and science . . . in subordination to religion', and after various temporary abodes it was established in 1865 in the former house of Dr. James Alderson in Albion Street, when it had some 650 members. With similar aims but without denominational attachments, the Young People's Christian and Literary Institute was founded in 1860, moving to Charlotte Street in 1864. (fn. 126) As a focus of popular adult education through evening classes this replaced the Mechanics' Institute and after 1869 became a vigorous centre of science-teaching under the Science and Art Department, as also on a smaller scale did the Church Institute after 1872. Working men who had received little or no elementary schooling were taught in the 1850s and 1860s in night classes organized by some parish clergy in National schools. After 1870 the Friends' Adult School in Mason Street became important, with one of the largest attendances of any in Yorkshire. (fn. 127)

Middle-class adult education remained the province of the Literary and Philosophical Society and the Subscription Library, and these two bodies joined forces to build the Royal Institution in Albion Street as a common centre in 1853. (fn. 128) In the middle years of the century the 'Lit and Phil', like the Mechanics' Institute, became more recreational than educational in purpose. It was during the 1870s, under the presidency of Dr. Kelburne King, a surgeon interested in science and education, that the 'Lit and Phil' assumed a new role as a focus of higher education.

Meanwhile, considering the size of the town and its importance as a port, technical education scarcely existed. For many years vocational instruction for the sea was provided by private teachers and two religious bodies, each primarily concerned with seamen's welfare. Both the Mariners' Church Society in Prince's Dock Street and the Sailors' Institute in Waterhouse Lane organized winter night classes in which voluntary teachers instructed seamen and ships' apprentices in reading, writing, arithmetic, and the elements of navigation. From 1872, however, Trinity House School, which had received Science and Art Department grants for teaching navigation since 1854, provided instruction in a senior department for the certificate examinations of the Board of Trade. (fn. 129)

Two other institutions of vocational education started during this period. As in other provincial towns after the Apothecaries Act of 1815, a medical school, the Hull and East Riding School of Anatomy and Medicine, was established in 1831 and after 1833 was housed in Kingston Square. The promoters were Dr. James Alderson and three surgeons, R. Craven, R. Hardey, and E. Wallis. It was no more than a proprietary institution maintained by local practitioners for the instruction of their pupils for the examinations of the College of Surgeons and the Society of Apothecaries, supplementing the clinical training given in the Hull General Infirmary and in the Hull and Sculcoates Dispensary. (fn. 130) The school's effective life was short, local teaching resources no doubt proving unequal to the rising standards in medical education.

Encouraged by the Science and Art Department's grants, the School of Art was opened in 1861 to teach applied art and industrial design in aid of local manufactures. The motive force was G. H. Lovell, master of St. James's boys' school, backed by Alderman W. H. Moss, and a committee was formed with Bethel Jacobs, a jeweller and silversmith, as chairman. The school started in the Public Rooms with William Pozzi as its first master, but it was the second, Edwin Chandler, who saw it securely established on the grants earned by both day and evening students at the Science and Art Department's annual examinations. Soon after John Menzies became master in 1875 the school was affiliated to the Royal Institution, which transferred it to Albion Street. (fn. 131)

After 1873, under the leadership particularly of King and Rollit, the Royal Institution became a vigorous centre of adult education in Hull. Science classes were held there under the auspices of the Science and Art Department, popular Saturdayafternoon lectures were given in its museum, and the lectures of the 'Lit and Phil' took on a new and more serious character. Already in 1873 the institution was seen potentially 'doing for Hull what Owens College had done for Manchester', (fn. 132) and it was to develop the institution further that in 1876, when King was mayor and Rollit sheriff, the university extension movement was introduced from Cambridge. (fn. 133) Two lecture-courses were given in the winter of 1876–7. (fn. 134) In 1877, in addition to sessional lectures, the first systematic three-year course was launched with J. E. Symes as resident tutor; and, with the co-operation of the School Board, courses for pupil-teachers were started. (fn. 135) Rollit now had a vision of a permanent college in Hull, like those recently established in Leeds, Sheffield, and Nottingham; and in 1878 he persuaded the town council to join these and other northern towns in memorializing the Privy Council against the grant of a university charter to Owens College, requesting instead a federal university to which other provincial colleges might be admitted. (fn. 136) With the active encouragement of R. G. Moulton, then the resident Cambridge tutor, a committee was formed in 1880 to raise a capital fund to establish such a college; (fn. 137) but a year later only £424 had been subscribed and the project was shelved. (fn. 138) Hereafter, the movement for higher education lost something of its impetus, though the Extension Society with a small but devoted following had a continuous record of activity for over 40 years more, during which time it never ceased to regard itself as the harbinger of a University of Hull. (fn. 139)

This stimulation of intellectual interest had other consequences than an unsuccessful attempt to found a college. In 1881 a campaign for a free public library began, resulting in the foundation of the James Reckitt Library in 1892 and the opening of the Central Library in 1894. Further evidence of varied interests aroused by the university extension movement was the proliferation of cultural organizations. (fn. 140)

Technical education in the 1880s still consisted mainly of Science and Art Department classes conducted in the Church Institute, the Young People's Institute, and, on a higher level, in the School of Art and the Royal Institution. After 1883 the latter had a chemistry laboratory in Bond Street, with a permanent salaried lecturer. (fn. 141) The university college project having failed, an endeavour was next made to found a technical school, its principal advocate being T. B. Holmes, and a prominent supporter Francis Bond. The need was sharpened by the report of the Royal Commission on Technical Instruction in 1884, which emphasized Hull's backwardness by showing the progress made elsewhere. In 1887, however, an appeal for the proposed technical school attracted only £266. (fn. 142) Following the Technical Instruction Act of 1889 and the allotment in 1890 of 'whisky money' to enable the new county and county borough councils to promote technical education, the corporation appointed a Technical Instruction Committee, its first members including J. T. Woodhouse, Malet Lambert, Francis Bond, and T. R. Ferens. (fn. 143) At first it used the money to subsidize science-teaching in the Church Institute, the Extension Society, and the Grammar School; but in 1893 it resolved to establish a school of its own instead, and in that year teaching started in rented rooms. The following year Dr. J. T. Riley was appointed to co-ordinate the committee's activities, and the Municipal Technical School officially began with Riley as principal. (fn. 144) Its several departments, which included the School of Art after 1895, were scattered until a permanent building could be provided, a junior department for boys being housed with the general office in Albion Street. (fn. 145) Plans to erect a combined central library, public hall, and technical school failed, and in 1898 the school settled in the adapted premises of the Sailors' Orphans Homes in Park Street, where it remained with mounting inconvenience for the next 60 years. (fn. 146)

The Growth of a Local Educational System after 1902

Under the Education Act of 1902 the City and County Borough of Hull became a local education authority to provide elementary and higher education in consultation with the new Board of Education. From 30 September 1903 the Education Committee of the city council took over from the defunct School Board all the schools it had controlled; from the Technical Instruction Committee it acquired the Technical School with its junior department and the School of Art; and in addition it became responsible for the teaching but not the buildings of all the voluntary schools. Its secretary was J. T. Riley and for many years its leading members included W. R. Locking and Malet Lambert, previously of the School Board, now respectively chairmen of the Elementary Education and Higher Education Sub-Committees. (fn. 147)

The Authority's principal task was to develop from the piecemeal institutions it had inherited a co-ordinated system of elementary, secondary, and technical education for a population which rose from some 240,000 in 1901 to a peak of 321,500 in 1936. To some extent the early committee inherited the outlook as well as the institutions of the School Board: in higher education especially it was slow to rise to its new responsibilities and opportunities, and sometimes did so only after remonstrance from the Board of Education.

After the School Board's desperate building programme the chief need in elementary education was less to provide new council schools than replace the oldest and most defective of the voluntary schools. Many of these were in obsolete and insanitary premises. St. Stephen's boys' school, with an average attendance of 270, had no cloak-room, no water-supply and only pail sanitation; the main room had no heating but a central stove, and the classrooms measured only 17 feet by 15 feet. (fn. 148) Unable to meet the cost of improving such buildings many of the Anglican managers were obliged to merge or close departments. (fn. 149) The Roman Catholics on the other hand not only retained all their schools but added St. Vincent's in 1904. By 1913 the nonprovided school accommodation had fallen by some 6,000 places; by 1924 a total of 12 voluntary school departments had closed and 11 others had been transferred to the Authority. (fn. 150) To compensate for this loss, and also to provide for the growing urban fringe, four new council schools were built—Villa Place, Selby Street, Sidmouth Street, and Southcoates Lane, all with boys', girls', junior, and infants' departments; and to permit development of the former higher-grade schools in Craven Street and Boulevard, new primary schools were opened in Craven Street and Saner Street in 1913. (fn. 151) A major reorganization was planned after the Education Act of 1918, including the eventual formation of 17 central or senior schools for boys and 19 for girls; but for some years the only ones actually constituted were Thoresby Street and Estcourt Street for girls and Brunswick Avenue for boys. (fn. 152) Expansion on any scale did not begin until the later 1920s.

In providing special education the Authority lagged during its early period. To the day centre for deaf children established by the School Board the committee added in 1908 a centre for mentallyhandicapped children in Blenkin Street School, renamed Malton Street School in 1913. (fn. 153) The Truant School for boys in Marlborough Terrace was closed in 1909, but that for girls continued in Park Avenue until 1920, when the building was converted into a special school for physically-handicapped children. (fn. 154) An important innovation in 1908 was the school medical service. This was organized by Dr. J. W. Fraser, and in 1914 a clinic was provided. As elsewhere, the school-meals service developed less rapidly; in 1923 some 2,200 children out of about 49,000 were receiving dinners at ten canteens, mostly in church halls. (fn. 155)

Secondary education also progressed slowly, partly because of its earlier backwardness, partly because of the committee's inexperience and narrowness. From 1905 the three higher-grade schools were conducted as co-educational secondary schools, but the Board complained that they more resembled senior elementary schools, with their over-large classes, early leaving age, and inadequately qualified staffs. (fn. 156) The junior technical school remained a trade school and a department of the Municipal Technical School. Although not provided by the Authority, Hymers College was rate-aided after 1906, and so was the Grammar School after 1909, though this continued to be managed by its own council committee until 1945. (fn. 157) Hull High School remained independent, and was recognized by the Board in 1918. To these the Convent of Mercy in Anlaby Road added in 1905 St. Mary's Secondary School, partly as a Roman Catholic pupil-teacher centre, partly as an extension of a small private middleclass school earlier kept by the Sisters. (fn. 158) Academically the leading school in Hull during the next twenty years was Hymers College under C. H. Gore. The Grammar School gradually recovered from its long decline, and the three municipal secondary schools more slowly built up approved standards. (fn. 159) After some pressure from the Board Brunswick Avenue was converted into the Central Secondary School for Girls in 1907, its first head mistress being Miss G. H. Rowland. A new building for it in Cottingham Road was completed in 1914 but, because of the war, not occupied until 1920, when the school became Newland High School. (fn. 160) In 1924 these seven secondary schools together had some 3,500 pupils, or 7.2 per cent. of the total school population of just under 49,000. The Authority then awarded 175 scholarships each year to the secondary schools, and only 4 university scholarships, though these last were increased, after some criticism from the Board of Education, to 12 in 1925 and 17 in 1928. (fn. 161)

Because of the war and the consequent economic depression no school building was possible between 1914 and 1924, but in the late 1920s a period of expansion and reorganization began. A development plan, prepared in 1925, was put into effect by R. C. Moore, the new Director of Education, in 1926. It aimed to reduce the size of classes, to improve and increase secondary school accommodation, to provide for new housing estates rising on the city perimeter as a result of increasing population and central slum clearance, and to begin the reorganization of all-age schools along lines recently advocated by the Hadow Report. These tasks were undertaken with energy, and before war came again in 1939 the Authority had built in the main new residential districts fourteen primary schools or schools having separate infant, junior, and senior departments, the latter type based on a standard triple-quadrangle plan. To these the Roman Catholics added two junior and infants' schools—Endsleigh Holy Child and the Sacred Heart. Progress was also made in the reorganization of existing schools, but only those provided by the Authority, and by 1938 as many as 129 departments out of a total of 181 had been reorganized. (fn. 162) The Roman Catholics planned to reconstitute St. Mary's, St. Charles's, and St. Wilfrid's in order to provide senior departments; they also proposed a new 'special agreement' school under the Education Act of 1936, as did the Church of England. The Anglicans, however, were now dropping behind: St. Paul's and St. Mark's had already been transferred to the Authority, and, much diminished, Trinity and Salthouse Lane closed in 1939, leaving the Old Town without a single school. Only four Church of England schools then survived —St. James's, Newland, Drypool, and Sutton— compared with nine Roman Catholic schools. (fn. 163)

Meanwhile, special educational provision steadily improved. Classes for partially-sighted children were started in Osborne Street and Lambert Street schools in 1928 and 1929, the open-air school in Cottingham Road was built in 1931, the deaf school was transferred in 1937 to a more rural setting at Sutton, nursery classes increased from five in 1931 to thirteen in 1938, and in 1939 the McMillan Nursery School was built. (fn. 164)

Secondary education also saw progress after the mid-1920s. To the existing schools the Roman Catholics added another when the Marist Brothers opened their college for boys in Cottingham Road in 1925, though it was not put on the Board's grant list until 1936. (fn. 165) Under pressure from the Board the junior technical school was placed under its own head master in 1926 and thereafter named Riley High School, but plans to develop it as a recognized secondary school on a separate site in Cottingham Road were unsuccessful. (fn. 166) Because of congestion Craven Street Municipal Secondary and Boulevard were rehoused and became Malet Lambert High School and Kingston High School respectively. (fn. 167) Meanwhile the Grammar School, much overcrowded despite the addition of another block in 1928, was deprived of a new building in Bricknell Avenue by the outbreak of war in 1939. (fn. 168)

As the basis of a local system of higher education the council inherited from the Technical Instruction Committee in 1903 the Art School and the Technical School. The Art School with 128 day and 94 evening students, urgently needed improvement, and a new building for it was opened in Anlaby Road in 1905. The building is a striking one, the design being by Lanchester, Stewart, and Rickards, mainly from Italian sources. (fn. 169) In 1911 there were 189 full-time and 251 part-time students, but the varied work of the school was covered by a staff of only six. (fn. 170) The Technical School had barely established itself at Park Street when the L.E.A. took it over. Apart from the junior department, eventually to become Riley High School, the school's full-time courses were organized in three departments of engineering, chemical industries, and commerce; and there was a detached School for Fishermen, teaching seamanship, in Hessle Road. Much of the work in all departments was done by occasional teachers in evening classes, mainly at Park Street but also at a branch school held in the Young People's Institute and at others in council schools. In both day and evening classes the courses were mainly short and narrowly vocational; work of degree standard was rare, and it was only in 1909 that the institution was dignified by the change of name from school to college. During the session 1911–12 there were, including the junior department, 278 day and 1,564 evening students, taught by a full-time staff of 20, of whom 8 had graduate qualifications, and 42 occasional teachers. (fn. 171)

Two other institutions of higher education came into being during this period. In 1905 Endsleigh Training College was established by the Sisters of Mercy of Anlaby Road Convent in a house acquired by them in Beverley Road in 1900. The first principal was Mother Mary Stanislaus Dawson, who had started a pupil-teacher centre in the Convent in 1900 to increase the supply of Roman Catholic women teachers in the diocese at the Bishop of Middlesbrough's request, and the college was opened with 16 students and 2 student Sisters. When the building was finished in 1907 numbers rose to 90, where they remained until 1928 when a new extension permitted an increase to 180. (fn. 172) Spurred by this example, and by renewed proposals for a university college, the city council resolved in 1907 to establish a municipal training college for men and women. A semi-rural site was chosen in Cottingham Road and plans made for a college of 150 students—100 men lodged in Wilberforce Hall, 50 women in Marvell Hall. Because of the dearth of candidates for the teaching profession at that time, the college opened in September 1913 with only 126 students and a staff of 9, the principal being Ivor B. John and the vice-principal Miss C. T. Cumberbirch. (fn. 173) In 1916 Miss Cumberbirch was made acting and then permanent principal of what during the war became practically a women's college. In 1919–20 there were 153 women students and 14 men day students. For a time during the difficult post-war period the Authority contemplated closing the college for a term of five years, but resolved to keep it in being as a college for women. (fn. 174)

Hull's gravest educational deficiency lay in technical and commercial training, and this deficiency was a frequent complaint of the Board of Education. Compared with cities of similar size Hull remained conspicuously backward. The Technical College premises in Park Street were ill-equipped and overcrowded: more staff was needed, more advanced courses, more co-operation with local industry; furthermore, the Board considered that the junior technical school and the central school of commerce should be completely detached from the college. (fn. 175) A report in 1918 recommended a technical college providing full-time and part-time courses to degree standard in pure and applied science, and in engineering, commercial, and professional studies, biased towards local industry. (fn. 176) The idea of a university college had been kept alive by the Extension Society, which the Education Committee assisted by grant, and it was hoped that the higher departments of the reorganized Technical College might eventually develop into an institution of university rank. Already in 1906 a scheme for a university college had been submitted to the city council by a local barrister, W. H. Owen; its components were to be the Technical College, transferred to another site, together with a teachers' training college, and this last was established in 1913. (fn. 177) In 1921 plans were made for a technical college building to cost £150,000; a site was chosen in Cottingham Road, near the Training College and Newland High School; but because of the prevailing depression the Board refused to sanction its purchase. Thereupon, in March 1922, the Rt. Hon. T. R. Ferens, chairman of Reckitt & Sons, bought the 18½-acre site and presented it to the city so that the council's intentions for the Technical College could be realized. (fn. 178) Nothing, however, had been done to further those intentions by 1925, when the college produced only eight successful B.Sc. candidates out of a total of 663 day and evening students; and that year Ferens presented the city with £250,000 in Reckitts' shares in order to found a university college. (fn. 179)

Preparations for the establishment of the university college were immediately begun by a planning committee called by Ferens, the leading members being Malet Lambert, J. T. Riley, and Alderman Askew, chairman of the Education Committee. Soon afterwards detailed arrangements were committed to an organizing board representing the city council and local industry. The city offered to transfer to the board the site in Cottingham Road given by Ferens, to erect and equip a building there to the cost of £150,000, and to make an annual maintenance grant of £2,500; and this was to be on the assumption that the more advanced teaching of science and engineering in the projected technical college would devolve upon the new university college, which the council clearly expected to be an extension of its own institution. (fn. 180) This, however, was not the view of A. E. Morgan, appointed principal in 1926. He intended a university college of two faculties, arts and pure science, the only concessions to local needs being the inclusion of commerce and marine biology. The Board of Education was less interested in the college than it was concerned about the future of technical education in Hull. Though prepared to sanction the building grant of £150,000 the Board made it clear that any further corporation expenditure on the college, either in capital or current grants, might not be sanctioned until there had been improvement in technical provisions; and this, it suggested, might not be best combined with the university college. (fn. 181) When the Board later refused to approve for grant purposes the L.E.A.'s annual contribution of £2,500, the Authority paid it entirely out of the rates. (fn. 182)

The University College was incorporated on 7 October 1927, and a court and council subsequently constituted; the first chairman of the council was Malet Lambert, who thus crowned over forty years voluntary service to education in Hull. Shortly before the College was officially opened a course in law for articled clerks was started and in December of that year a professor of adult education was appointed. The original site having been enlarged by other purchases of land and the first building being sufficiently advanced, the college was opened to students on 11 October 1928. It was organized in 15 departments, grouped in two faculties, and staffed by 16 teachers. There were 35 full-time students of whom 12 were resident: 7 women in Thwaite Hall and 5 men in Needler Hall. The absorption of the Training College, which was an early possibility, did not find acceptance because that college was confined to women students taking a two-year course. (fn. 183)

Poverty gravely handicapped the University College from the beginning. An appeal for £250,000 launched in 1927 had produced only £78,000 before it was suspended because of the national economic situation. (fn. 184) Under the will of G. F. Grant, a friend of Ferens, the college received £100,000 in 1930, and this was used to endow chairs in English, history, mathematics, and chemistry. (fn. 185) Other bequests under Ferens's will in 1930 were insufficient to prevent the college from mortgaging its property and accumulating a mounting overdraft. (fn. 186) Without a Treasury grant, and with little prospect of receiving one, growth was slow. In 1930 a department of education was established, oceanography was introduced, and a diploma course in aeronautics started in collaboration with the Technical College. The applied science or engineering work of the Technical College was not taken over as the corporation had originally expected, however, and this caused ill feeling. The largest number of full-time students was 205 in 1935–6 and the average throughout the 1930s 177. (fn. 187) In one sphere the college did pioneering work: its adult education department with a professorial head represented a new form of organization, and its short courses, designed to make the college known in its region, broke new ground— not without causing some acrimony among the various interested bodies. When Morgan resigned in 1935 to be succeeded by Dr. J. H. Nicholson, the college was still small and obscure, but its future advance had already been determined.

Meanwhile, the Technical College remained in Park Street, although plans for a new building went ahead. To ease pressure some of its departments were detached and made autonomous; already in 1920 the School for Fishermen had become the Boulevard Nautical School, in 1926 Riley High School was separated, and so in 1930 was the College of Commerce, and the latter developed full-time day courses after 1936 when it took over the Boys' Central School building in Brunswick Avenue. (fn. 188) Responsibility for evening classes was also taken over by the Authority, which played an energetic part in adult education during the 1930s. Not only did it assist the Workers' Educational Association, the Young People's Institute, and the extension work of the University College; it also eventually provided 19 evening institutes for technical and commercial subjects or for practical and recreational study, a literary institute for men and women, three junior instruction centres for unemployed young persons, and a community centre on the North Hull Estate. (fn. 189)

The work of the Art School was also expanded. Under a new principal it became the College of Art and Crafts in 1930, when a junior department was opened offering a two-year course for pupils from 13 to 15. After 1935 the main work of the college was organized in three schools of architecture (including a full-time five-year course), industrial design, and crafts, drawing, and painting. By 1937 it had outgrown its accommodation and overflowed into the first of several annexes. (fn. 190)

Educational Development since 1945

Nearly 11,000 places were lost during the war through bombing; many school buildings were damaged and some wholly or partially destroyed. (fn. 191) The war over, some 2,000 children returned from evacuation, and when the leaving age was raised in 1947 another 4,000 were added to the school population. That population leapt from 36,102 in 1945 to 41,544 in 1947 and 50,553 in 1953—an increase further aggravated by the redistribution of population in new housing estates. The number of children receiving school dinners also rose from 4,500 in 1939 to 15,500 in 1951. As emergency measures huts were used, primary schools occupied vacant places in senior departments, and accommodation was hired in church halls. (fn. 192)

A development plan, as required of the Authority by the Education Act, was approved by the Ministry of Education in 1948. None of the existing senior schools was then considered adaptable as a secondary modern school and all were eventually to become primary schools. Ten primary schools, those most extensively war-damaged, were to be closed and fourteen new ones erected on growing housing estates, including two voluntary schools, one Roman Catholic, one Anglican. A striking feature of the plan was the scheme for 111 nursery schools providing for at least half the two-to-five age group. In secondary education the tripartite system was accepted. Twenty-seven modern schools, only two of them co-educational, were to be built on the city perimeter; two technical schools for girls were planned; Riley High School was to have a new building; and the junior technical schools were to be rehoused as technical high schools—of engineering, building, commerce, art and crafts, and nautical training. Little expansion of grammar- school provision was proposed, but there was to be a new building for Hull Grammar School, which had passed under the Authority's control in 1945. One innovation was the proposal for two giant comprehensive schools, each of 2,430 pupils, to serve north and east Hull. The total estimated cost of the plan was £10,000,000 spread over fifteen years. (fn. 193)

Initially the execution of the plan was hindered amongst other things by local deep-drainage problems which prevented the use of many sites. Nevertheless every year from 1950 to 1963 saw an average of four new schools completed. During this period 35 primary schools were opened, three of them voluntary: Archbishop William Temple (1954) and Newland St. John (1962), both Anglican, and St. Bede's Roman Catholic (1962). (fn. 194) To the secondary schools created by the reorganization or the conversion of former senior departments ten new ones were added. Two of them were coeducational 'special agreement' schools: Alderman Cogan's (1957), which replaced Cogan's Charity School, and was the first Church of England secondary modern school in Hull; and St. Richard's (1962), which was Hull's first Roman Catholic modern school. (fn. 195)

At the secondary stage technical education at last received proper attention. Riley High School was rehoused and two other technical schools, Newton Hall and Kelvin Hall, were established in combination with modern schools, each group sharing a common campus. The four high schools attached to the Technical College, the College of Commerce, the Regional College of Art, and the Nautical College were further developed, but still awaited separation and buildings of their own in 1963. Continuing independent and in its original surroundings, Trinity House Navigation School was another secondary technical school.

By comparison grammar-school accommodation was much less expanded. Hull Grammar School and St. Mary's Grammar School moved to new sites. To cope with increased numbers all the other grammar schools added to their buildings, extensively so in the case of Hymers College and Marist College. The L.E.A.'s secondary school policy thus followed the tripartite pattern; the two campus schools achieved nothing new in the way of organization and were not repeated. In 1963, however, the first of several comprehensive schools, the David Lister, was under construction, foreshadowing new developments. (fn. 196)

Special educational provision improved slowly during this period. In 1953 a school for the partiallysighted was opened in huts in Wold Road, and in 1954 a residential school for educationally subnormal boys at Aldwark Manor, near York. The school for physically-handicapped children, renamed the Frederick Holmes School, moved to a new site adjacent to the open-air school in 1963, later to be joined by the school for educationally sub-normal pupils, housed since 1945 in the old Northumberland Avenue Board School building. Notwithstanding the development plan nursery education stood still during these years; apart from 12 nursery classes there were only two nursery schools: the McMillan, established in a speciallydesigned building in 1945, and Northumberland Avenue, opened in 1948 in the same building as the educationally sub-normal school.

Further education developed considerably after the war. The Authority's Scheme of Further Education issued in 1948 proposed an improved Nautical College in Boulevard, and the development of an educational centre around Queen's Gardens containing central colleges of technology, commerce, and art and crafts, together with a new adult college of liberal studies, the whole to form 'a responsible single academic institution . . . that . . . shall develop so that it will be in a position to achieve university status or a status comparable with that of a university'. (fn. 197) Between 1945 and 1953 attendance at all four vocational colleges nearly doubled and they were in desperate need of new accommodation, using altogether, in addition to their central premises, seventeen different annexes scattered about the city. In 1956, when there were 530 full-time and 3,800 part-time students, the College of Technology moved into the new workshop block in Queen's Gardens, and the opening in 1962 of the impressive nine-story main building, (fn. 198) designed by the consultant city architect Frederick Gibberd, marked the first stage towards the realization of the Authority's grand project.

In 1962 the Authority maintained 138 primary schools with 35,320 pupils, and 44 secondary schools with 20,003 pupils. Of 13-year-olds, 10 per cent. were still in all-age schools, 64.2 per cent. were in modern schools, 10.1 per cent. in grammar schools, 11.2 per cent. in technical schools, and 3.8 per cent. in 'other secondary schools'. Notwithstanding the active building programme the percentage of oversize classes remained much above the national average, partly because of a chronic shortage of teachers, and many obsolete premises continued in use. (fn. 199) To eliminate these, a three-year building plan was proposed in 1963, providing for 8 new schools, a college of art and crafts, the replacement of 9 old schools, and the modernization of 19 others. (fn. 200)

Both training colleges quitted Hull temporarily during the war, and the municipal college closed for a year. The war over, both recovered their former numbers but they saw little important change, apart from their association with the University College Institute of Education after 1948, until the national expansion of teacher training which started in 1959. Thereafter, with government encouragement, they rapidly increased their students and buildings, adopting a three-year course in 1962. By 1963 Kingston upon Hull Training College, admitting men again, had grown to 480 mixed students, Endsleigh to 440 women students, both colleges adding considerably to their buildings. (fn. 201)

The war brought the University College very near to closure. Although it escaped material damage and only one department, that of education, was evacuated (to Cambridge), full-time students fell to 91, the number of staff was reduced, and the financial situation became critical. For this reason nothing came of the city council's offer to transfer to the University College the council's own training college in 1940 and the architectural teaching of its College of Art and Crafts in 1942. In 1945, however, the college was visited and approved by the University Grants Committee and consequently placed on the Treasury grant list. In the next five years the college shared in the general post-war expansion, growing from 174 to 917 full-time students. (fn. 202) Fortunately at this stage the 62-acre estate accumulated before the war provided ample space for growth; temporary huts were used for both teaching and laboratory work, and a former army camp at Cottingham was used as a men's hall. The Institute of Education was formed in 1948 to coordinate teacher training and provide professional services for teachers in the area; additional departments of geology, music, and psychology were created; new subjects, including Swedish and Finnish, were added to existing departments; and courses were introduced for Sister Tutors and Health Visitors. In the early 1950s the first permanent buildings to cater for the expansion were erected—a students' union and a chemistry block, and Ferens Hall for men and Cleminson Hall for women, both in Cottingham. Encouraged by these developments and by a 'special relationship' with the University of London in the conduct of degree examinations, the college petitioned for a university charter, and this was granted in 1954, only nine years after the college had received Treasury assistance. (fn. 203) It was as first vice-chancellor that Dr. J. H. Nicholson resigned in 1956.

Between 1956 and 1961, with Dr. Brynmor Jones as vice-chancellor, the university mainly consolidated its existing departments, the only major new building being the library. Nevertheless fulltime students increased from 1,066 in 1956 to 1,942 in 1962, with a steadily rising proportion of research students and 'distant' as opposed to local students, an increase which brought acute problems of residential accommodation. (fn. 204) In 1962 a period of rapid expansion began, inaugurated by a development appeal for £250,000. Applied physics, American, South-East Asian, and Commonwealth studies, biochemistry, drama, and sociology were among the first of several new departments created to enlarge and diversify teaching and research. (fn. 205) A master plan for the whole site, designed by Sir Leslie Martin, was put into operation with the intention of providing academic and residential buildings for a university likely to grow rapidly in numbers. (fn. 206) Of the many notable post-war educational developments in Hull the growth of the university in size and standing must be accounted among the most remarkable.

Schools in Existence before 1945

This list includes charity, voluntary, proprietary, board, and council schools, and also secondary modern schools formed in or after 1945 out of senior departments of pre-1945 elementary schools, and still in their original premises in 1963. It does not include private schools or institutions of adult or higher education. The high schools for art and crafts, building, commerce, and nautical training, which in 1963 were still integral parts of the parent colleges, are also excluded.

The principal sources used are: Reports of the Committee of Council; Reports of the Science and Art Department; Minutes of the Hull School Board; Minutes of Hull Education Committee; Board of Education List 21, 1906, 1919, 1927, 1936, and 1938; Hull directories and newspapers; The Education Authorities Directory, 1932, 1938, and 1963.

Abbreviations used: accn., accommodation; av. att., average attendance; bd., board; Brit., British; C.E., Church of England; dept., department; infs., infants; L.E.A., local education authority; Nat., National; R.C., Roman Catholic; sch., school.

Ainthorpe Grove: a combined junior and infs.' sch. opened with accn. for 400 in 1932, a separate junior block for 400 being added in 1935. In 1936 a senior mixed sch. was opened and after 1945 this became Ainthorpe High Sch.

Ainthorpe High: formed after 1945 as a secondary modern sch. from the senior sch. at Ainthorpe Grove. It had 660 pupils in 1963.

Albion Congregational: opened in Baker St. in 1867 but conducted by the trustees only until 1873 when it was leased to the Sch. Bd. Condemned by Her Majesty's Inspector for this purpose, the building housed the Grammar Sch. from 1878 to 1892.

Alderman Cogan's: founded in 1753 (see p. 349) to train 20 poor girls for domestic service and housed in Salthouse Lane until 1889 when it moved to the former Lister's Hospital in Park St. After 1836 it was controlled by the Hull Charity Trustees and from 1890 to 1903 received government grant. Numbers rose slowly to 130 by 1897, and then declined. Having outlived its original usefulness the sch. closed in 1950. The endowments went to form Ald. Cogan High Sch., opened in 1957.

Beverley Rd.: established by the Sch. Bd. in 1887 for 320 boys, 320 girls, and 255 infs. and enlarged to 1,211 places by a new junior block in 1908. Av. att. was 1,043 in 1911 and 681 in 1938. The boys were withdrawn in 1953 to form Wilberforce High Sch., leaving senior girls', mixed junior, and infs.' depts.

Beverley Rd. Wesleyan: grew out of a Sunday sch. in Grosvenor St. in 1871 and had places for 242 boys and 111 infs. It was closed in 1892.

Blenkin St.: opened by the Sch. Bd. in 1889 with places for 286 boys, 297 girls, and 273 infs. The infs.' dept. closed in 1907, the girls' in 1908, leaving a boys' sch. of 550, later reduced to 210, which closed in 1937. Northumberland Ave. Special Sch. shared the building from 1908 to 1939.

Blundell St.: a bd. sch. opened in 1878 for 750 pupils, later 797 (278 boys, 273 girls, and 246 infs.). Av. att. was 701 in 1904 and 522 in 1938. In 1944, after war damage, it became a junior mixed sch.

Boulevard Higher Grade (later Secondary): see Kingston High.

Bricknell Avenue: opened in 1933 as a combined junior and infs.' sch. with 400 places and reorganized in 1949 when a new junior block for 480 was added.

Brunswick Avenue Senior: opened in 1920 in the building vacated by Newland High Sch. with places for 720 boys. Av. att. in 1927 was 563. It was closed in 1936 to allow the development of the College of Commerce, which shared the building.

Buckingham St.: established by the Sch. Bd. in 1883 with 790 places in 3 depts. A junior block added in 1894 increased accn. to 996 (260 boys, 260 girls, 237 juniors, and 239 infs.). Av. att. was 1,057 in 1911 and 773 in 1938. From 1922 to 1935 there were two separate junior depts. and no senior girls. The junior dept. closed in 1946 leaving allage boys' and girls' depts. and infs.

Cavendish Rd.: a combined junior and infs.' sch. with 400 places opened in 1938 and reorganized as two schs. in 1951, when a separate junior block for 480 was built. In 1963 there were 478 infs. and 360 juniors on roll.

Central Higher Grade (later Secondary): the Sch. Bd.'s first higher-grade sch., opened in Brunswick Avenue in 1891 with accn. for 600 boys and 520 girls, developed in 1905 into the Central Municipal Secondary Sch. This was restricted to girls in 1907, and moved in 1920 to new premises as Newland High Sch. From 1920 to 1936 the building housed Brunswick Avenue Senior Sch. for boys, and after 1936 the College and High Sch. of Commerce.

Chapman St.: opened in 1885 by the Sch. Bd. to accommodate 866 pupils. A junior block added in 1902 increased accn. to 1,163 (310 boys, 310 girls, 300 juniors, and 243 infs.). Av. att. fell from 951 in 1904 to 552 in 1938. The junior dept. closed after war damage in 1941 leaving all-age boys' and girls' depts. and infs.

Charterhouse High: see Charterhouse Lane.

Charterhouse Lane: opened in 1882 by the Sch. Bd. for 251 boys, 251 girls, and 243 infs. This accn. remained unchanged but av. att. fell from 676 in 1904 to 392 in 1938. In 1950 it became a secondary modern sch. named Charterhouse High Sch. and had 150 boys in 1963.

Chiltern St.: a bd. sch. opened in 1889 for 283 boys, 283 girls, and 293 infs. but enlarged to 1,159 places when a junior sch. was added in 1901. It was reorganized by the L.E.A. to take 300 boys, 300 girls, 300 mixed juniors, and 259 infs., and av. att. was 1,108 in 1904 and 784 in 1938. The boys were transferred in 1957 to Boulevard High Sch., leaving senior girls', junior, and infs.' depts.

Christ Church Nat.: established in King St. in 1832 with places for 240 boys and an av. att. of 170 in 1848. A larger two-story building providing for 520 boys and girls was erected in John St. next to the church in 1849. Av. att. was 388 in 1852 and 235 in 1866. An infs.' dept. was opened in King St. c. 1875 and total accn. rose to 684. This was reduced after 1903 to 519—181 boys, 174 girls, and 164 infs. The infs.' dept. closed in 1912, the remaining two in 1916.

Clifton St.: a bd. sch. opened in 1889 accommodating 250 boys, 252 girls, and 276 (later 245) infs. Av. att. was 761 in 1904, 601 in 1938. In 1950 the senior boys went to form Charterhouse High Sch., leaving all-age girls' and infs.' depts.

Constable St.: built by the Sch. Bd. in 1879 for 788 pupils but enlarged by a new junior block in 1895 and later alterations to 1,213 places. Av. att. was 1,077 in 1904 and 1,062 in 1936. The senior boys were withdrawn to Boulevard High Sch. in 1957, leaving senior girls, juniors, and infs.

Convent: an independent R.C. day and boarding sch. established in Park Grove in 1907 by the Canonesses of St. Augustine, who had come to Hull from Versailles after the French anti-clerical laws of 1904. After 1939 the boarders were detached, first at Boynton, later at Rise. The day sch. in Hull had 31 junior boys and 221 girls in 1962.

Courtney St.: the Sch. Bd.'s second sch., opened in 1874 at a cost of £6,546 for 816 pupils. A junior dept. added in 1895 and other alterations enlarged accn. to 1,071 (296 boys, 296 girls, 206 juniors, and 273 infs.). Av. att. was 962 in 1904 and 758 in 1938. The junior dept. closed after war damage in 1941 and all-age boys' and girls' depts. and infs. remained.

Craven High: formed in 1945 from the senior dept. of Craven St. Sch., absorbing the senior pupils of Crowle St. It had 630 attending in 1963.

Craven St.: was originally the junior and infs.' depts. of Craven St. Higher Grade Sch.; when this became a secondary sch. these depts. were detached and in 1913 occupied a new building with places for 360 mixed juniors and 300 infs. Av. att. was 602 in 1919, 513 in 1936. In 1932 a senior mixed dept. with 600 places was established in the premises vacated by Malet Lambert High Sch., and this became Craven High Sch. in 1945.

Craven St. Higher Grade (later Secondary): see Malet Lambert High.

Crowle St.: erected by the Sch. Bd. in 1884 for 796 pupils; a new junior block in 1897 increased accn. to 1,072, later reduced to 1,036 (266 boys, 266 girls, 261 mixed juniors, and 243 infs.). Av. att. was 1,001 in 1911 and 768 in 1938. Senior boys and girls were transferred to Craven High Sch. in 1945 leaving a combined junior and inf. sch.

Daltry St.: the Sch. Bd.'s first sch., opened in 1874 and costing £6,634. It accommodated 250 boys, 250 girls, and 250 infs., and this became the Bd.'s standard plan. A junior dept. was added in 1896 and after reconstruction in 1901 accn. was 1,019. Av. att. was 1,023 in 1904 and 986 in 1927. The boys' dept. closed in 1927, the girls' in 1936, leaving infs.' and separate junior depts. which were amalgamated after war damage in 1942.

Day St. Brit.: provided by the trustees of the closed Dock Green Sch. in 1868 and conducted on non-sectarian principles but with government grant, voluntaryism having failed at the earlier sch. Accn. rose to 765 in 1882, av. att. then being 588 and 633 in 1904. In 1906 it was transferred to the L.E.A. which closed the infs.' dept. in 1907, the boys' in 1916, and the girls' in 1922.

Dock Green Brit.: the first Hull sch. to be assisted by a government building grant. Opened in Edward's Place in 1833. In 1841 pupils numbered 437 and av. att. was 330. Its later trustees were voluntaryists, who refused all government aid; it nearly closed in 1848 and closed finally in 1865.

Drypool C.E.: opened in Church St. in a twostory building erected in 1828–9, boys on the ground floor, girls above. Some 420 children were enrolled in 1833, av. att. in 1849 being 180. This building was replaced by a larger one in Prospect Place in 1864, planned for 250 boys, 150 girls, and 180 infs.; but total accn. reached 750 by 1895. In 1914 boys and girls combined as one dept. of 333, inf. accn. being 140. Av. att. in 1936 was 351. The building was wrecked by bombs in 1941 and the sch. discontinued. Archbp. William Temple, opened in 1954, was a substitute sch. (see p. 370).

Eastfield High: formed in 1945 from the senior dept. of Eastfield Rd. Sch. It had 510 pupils in 1963.

Eastfield Rd.: a combined junior and infs.' sch. with 400 places, opened in 1930 and reorganized as two schs. when a separate junior block was added in 1936. Also in 1936 a senior mixed dept. of 400 places was built and this became Eastfield High Sch. in 1945.

Endike High: formed after 1945 from the senior dept. of Endike Lane Sch. It had 320 pupils in 1963.

Endike Lane: a combined junior and infs.' sch. for 400 was opened in 1932 and formed two separate depts. in 1938 when a junior block was erected. A senior dept. for 520 boys was added in 1937 and this became Endike High Sch. after 1945.

Endsleigh R.C. (formerly Holy Child): opened in Inglemire Lane in 1927 for 200 junior mixed and infs. and intended as a demonstration sch. for Endsleigh Training College. Its accn. was later increased and in 1963 there were 440 pupils, all juniors.

Estcourt High: see Estcourt St.

Estcourt St.: one of the Sch. Bd.'s last buildings, opened in 1902 for 520 mixed seniors and 520 juniors, and with a separate infs.' dept. for 290, later increased to 390. With 1,430 places it was then Hull's largest sch. After 1923 the senior dept. was developed as a central sch. for girls. The building was destroyed by bombing in 1941; juniors and infs. were transferred and the central sch. occupied temporary premises until a new building was ready in Hopewell Rd. in 1945. Renamed Estcourt High Sch. it has since become a secondary sch. with a technical bias, having 610 pupils in 1963.

Fifth Avenue: known as Endike Lane West until 1937, this began in 1932 as a permanent infs.' sch. for 400 and a temporary junior mixed sch. for 600. In 1936 permanent depts. for 400 junior girls and 520 senior girls were opened, and in 1937 the junior boys, still occupying the temporary huts, became Twenty-first Avenue Sch. In 1938 there were 407 infs., 362 junior girls, and 351 senior girls. This last dept. became Fifth Avenue High Sch. in 1945.

Fifth Avenue High: formed in 1945 from the Fifth Avenue Sch. senior girls' dept. In 1963 it had 490 pupils.

Fish St. Congregational: opened in 1872 with 594 places, the church having kept a Sunday sch. since 1813 and a week-day night class since the 1850s. The managers transferred it in 1877 to the Sch. Bd. which closed it in 1901.

Flinton Grove: started in 1928 with hutted accn. for mixed seniors, juniors, and infs. Permanent buildings were opened in 1931 for 400 infs., 400 juniors, and 520 senior girls, but the temporary premises continued in use for juniors and infs. Thus in 1936 1,920 places altogether were provided, a figure reduced to 1,840 by 1938. The huts were destroyed during the war. After 1945 there were three schs.: Flinton High and separate juniors and infs.

Flinton High: formed after 1945 from the senior dept. of Flinton Grove Sch. It had 480 girls in 1963.

Fountain Rd.: a bd. sch. opened in 1877 with 795 (later 788) places in boys', girls', and infs.' depts. Av. att. was 907 in 1889, 709 in 1919, and 651 in 1938. The sch. had never been reorganized and the three departments remained in 1963.

Francis Askew: began in 1925 as a temporary sch. for 400 juniors and infs., named after the chairman of the Educ. Cttee. To this was added a separate infs.' sch. in 1927, and depts. for 400 senior girls and 400 senior boys in 1930. After 1945 these last two became Francis Askew High Sch. The infs.' and junior depts. were rehoused in 1953 after war damage.

Francis Askew High: formed after 1945 from the senior depts. of Francis Askew Sch. It had 340 boys and 310 girls, in separate depts., in 1963.

Frederick Holmes Sch. for Physically Handicapped: established in 1920 in the building of the former Industrial Sch. for Girls in Park Avenue. It was transferred in 1963 to a site adjacent to the Open-Air Sch. in Inglemire Lane and named after Ald. Frederick Holmes.

George Yard Wesleyan: opened in 1868 by the George Yard chapel, accommodating 204 boys and 105 infs. in 1872. It lasted only until 1875.

Hall Rd.: a combined junior and infs.' sch. of 400 was opened in 1930, a senior mixed sch. of 520 in 1934, and a separate junior sch. in 1937. Total accn. was 1,320 and av. att. 1,099 in 1938. After 1945 the seniors formed Welton High Sch.

Hebrew: started in the Robinson Row synagogue in 1826. The appointment of a Jew to teach Jewish boys in Osborne St. Bd. Sch. was approved by the Sch. Bd. in 1886; the Hebrew sch. then became one for 160 girls and 36 infs., established after 1887 in the former St. John's Infs.' Sch. in Osborne St. Av. att. was 164 in 1904, 63 in 1938. It was formally closed in 1945.

Holderness Ward Brit.: established in Dansom Lane in 1838 by public subscription, mainly of nonconformists, and early regarded as one of Hull's best schs. Av. att. rose from 140 in 1844 to 302 in 1856. It was transferred to the Sch. Bd. in 1872 and closed, but the building housed a temporary bd. sch. from 1881 to 1885 before being sold in 1894.

Hull and East Riding College: the third proprietary sch. promoted in Hull to improve 'middle-class' education, this started in Osborne St. in 1866 but moved to a new building in Park St. in 1867. Its infancy was sickly, but it grew strong scholastically if not financially under Francis Bond (1881–93), numbers reaching 190. It closed in 1893 when Hymers College opened. From beginning to end its chief supporter was Robert Jameson.

Hull College: opened in 1837 as a middle-class proprietary sch. on undenominational principles and in a neo-Corinthian building in Spring Bank designed by J. W. Johns of London. The method of education followed that of University College Sch., London, and the preparatory dept. copied David Stow's 'training system'. There were some 200 pupils in 1840. After the dissolution of the company in 1845 the sch. continued as a private venture until 1850, when it closed.

Hull Grammar: provided by the town from c. 1340 and endowed in connexion with Bp. Alcock's chantry in 1479, the corporation gradually resuming responsibility after the chantry's dissolution in 1548. Until 1878 it was housed in South Church Side, from 1878 to 1892 in Baker St., from 1892 to 1953 in Leicester St., and thereafter in Bricknell Avenue. The L.E.A. took over control from the corporation in 1945. There were 98 boys in 1892, and 836 in 1963.

Hull High: a girls' independent sch. established by the Church Schools Company in 1890 at no. 7 Albion St. and transferred to the former Hull and East Riding College building in Park St. in 1894 where it remained until 1939. It was recognized by the Board of Education in 1918 and had 238 girls in 1919, but only 163 in 1936. After war-time evacuation it settled at Tranby Croft, Anlaby, and had 350 pupils, including the preparatory dept., in 1963.

Hymers College: founded in 1889 by gift of Robert Hymers, of Stokesley, in pursuance of the will of his brother, John Hymers, Rector of Brandesburton, and opened in 1893 in a building designed by John Bilson in the former Botanic Gardens. Later additions included a science wing (1908), memorial hall (1924), junior sch. wing (1932), and workshop and art room block (1958). An appeal for £90,000 was made in 1962 for a new junior sch. and dining block. Including the junior dept. there were 269 boys in 1913, 450 in 1923, and 600 in 1963. The sch. was first represented on the Headmasters' Conference in 1901 and has received a direct grant since 1945.

Industrial Sch. for Girls: opened in 1884 in Elmfield House, Beverley Rd., by the Sch. Bd. when it took over the Ragged Sch. for Boys. It was transferred in 1888 to Park Ave. and remained there until discontinued in 1919, providing residential accn. for 70 girls. From 1920 to 1963 the building housed the Frederick Holmes Sch. for PhysicallyHandicapped Children, and also from 1932 the Junior High Sch. for Art and Crafts.

Kingston College: a proprietary sch. with Anglican connexions, opened in 1837, in a Tudor Gothic building on Beverley Rd. designed by H. F. Lockwood, in competition with Hull College. Debt and the committee's interference handicapped development and the company was dissolved in 1847; the principal then continued the sch. as a private concern, transferring it to Hessle in 1851.

Kingston High: originally the Sch. Bd.'s third higher-grade sch., opened in Boulevard in 1895 for 290 boys and 290 girls, with infs.' and junior depts. After 1905 it was developed as a mixed secondary sch., infs. and juniors being withdrawn in 1907. There were 453 pupils in 1911 and 676 in 1939. It occupied a new building in Pickering Park as Kingston High Sch. in 1940 and had 730 pupils in 1963.

Lambert St.: opened in 1879 by Cottingham Sch. Bd. for 376 girls and infs. It was annexed in 1883 by Hull Sch. Bd. which enlarged accn. in 1885 to 570 (186 boys, 183 girls, and 201 infs.). Av. att. was 539 in 1904. In 1913 accn. was reduced to 444 juniors and infs., av. att. falling to 189 in 1936. The infs. were withdrawn in 1937 leaving a junior sch. which had 100 pupils in 1963.

Lime St.: opened by the Sch. Bd. in 1879 for 240 boys, 240 girls, and 270 (later 242) infs. Av. att. was 630 in 1904 but only 397 in 1938, when it was reorganized as a combined junior girls' and infs.' sch. The building was bomb-damaged in 1941 and the school ceased.

Lincoln St.: the Sch. Bd.'s 3rd sch., opened in 1874 for 816 pupils in 3 depts. After reconstruction in 1901, accn. consisted of 274 boys, 274 girls, and 254 infs. Av. att. was 784 in 1904, 501 in 1936. It was reorganized as all-age girls' and combined junior and infs.' depts. in 1950, the senior boys being drafted to Charterhouse High Sch.

Malet Lambert High: began in Craven St. in 1893 as the Sch. Bd.'s second higher-grade sch., having places for 336 boys and 336 girls, with infs.' and junior depts. After 1905 it became a mixed secondary sch., expanding after 1912 when juniors and infs. were accommodated separately. 'Packed to capacity' with 564 pupils in 1926, it moved to East Park in 1932 as Malet Lambert High Sch. It had 661 pupils in 1939, 760 in 1963.

Malton St. Special: see Northumberland Avenue Special.

Marfleet: opened by the Sch. Bd. in 1892 for 134 juniors and infs., enlarged to 292 in 1913, and reduced to 234 in 1931. Av. att. was 147 in 1919, 96 in 1938, and 90 in 1963.

Marist College: a R.C. grammar sch. established in 1925 in Cottingham Rd. by the Marist Brothers and recognized by the Board of Education in 1936, when there were 161 boys. It became voluntary aided after 1945 and building extensions in 1961 raised accn. to 380.

Mason St. Wesleyan: started in 1837, developing from a Sunday school established in 1817. Organized on the Glasgow System, it had 100 pupils enrolled when it closed in 1849 on the opening of South Myton Wesleyan.

Maybury High: formed in 1945 as a secondary modern sch. from the senior dept. of Maybury Rd. Sch. It had 520 boys in 1963.

Maybury Rd.: started for juniors and infs. in 1934, a senior mixed dept. being added in 1935, and a separate junior dept. in 1937. The senior dept. became one for boys only in 1937, and a secondary modern sch. named Maybury High Sch. in 1945.

McMillan Nursery: built in 1939 and partly occupied by Fifth Ave. Infs. until 1945, when it became entirely a nursery sch. Av. att. was 80 in 1963.

Mersey High: formed in 1945 from the senior dept. of Mersey St. Sch. It had 440 pupils in 1963.

Mersey St.: built by the last Sch. Bd. on a common plan with Estcourt St., Thoresby St., and Wheeler St. Accn. was for 508 mixed seniors, 508 mixed juniors, and 300 infs., and total av. att. was 1,288 in 1919, 1,308 in 1936. The senior dept. became Mersey High Sch. in 1945. Separate junior and infs.' depts. remain.

Middleton St.: a bd. sch. opened in 1890 and enlarged in 1894, when it provided altogether 1,035 places, for boys, girls, juniors, and infs. Av. att. was 841 in 1904, 781 in 1919. The juniors were removed in 1920 and the two senior depts. enlarged to 390 each. The sch. closed in 1941.

Newington High: formed in 1945 from the senior dept. of Wheeler St. Sch. It had 240 pupils in 1963.

Newland Avenue: a bd. sch. opened in 1896 with junior and infs.' depts. but reconstructed, after extensions in 1900, for 320 boys, 320 girls, 210 juniors, and 241 infs. Av. att. was 1,101 in 1911, 668 in 1927. It was reorganized in 1937 in two depts., senior boys' and infs.', and in 1945 the former became Pearson High Sch.

Newland High: the Central Secondary Sch. in Brunswick Avenue became a girls' sch. in 1907, and in 1920 was transferred to a new building in Cottingham Rd. and renamed Newland High Sch. There were 480 girls in 1911, 598 in 1936, and 680 in 1963.

Newland Nat.: opened in Clough Rd. in 1865 as the parish sch. of St. John's, Newland, a rural suburb of Hull but part of Cottingham, replacing an earlier sch. first mentioned in 1779. Av. att. rose from 45 in 1865 to 151 in 1878, when the sch. was transferred to Cottingham Sch. Bd. In 1897, when Newland was taken into Hull, the sch. became a Nat. sch. again. After 1912 there was a mixed all-age dept. of 223 and an infs.' dept. of 156. Av. att. was 320 in 1938. The sch. was replaced in 1962 by Newland St. John's C.E. Primary.

Newland Orphan: The Port of Hull Society's Orphan Home, founded in 1863 and established in Park St. in 1867, maintained its own sch. run on 'British' lines. Av. att. was 182 in 1876. In 1897 orphanage and sch. moved to Newland, where the sch. had 272 places and an av. att. of 218 in 1904, 134 in 1937. It was reorganized as a primary sch. in 1946 and subsequently named St. Nicholas's.

Newland St. John's C.E. Primary: see Newland Nat.

North Myton (or Scott St.) Wesleyan: established behind Scott St. chapel in 1862. It had 183 places and 75 pupils in attendance when it closed in 1876.

Northumberland Avenue: a bd. sch. opened in 1897 for 270 boys, 270 girls, and 273 infs. An additional junior block in 1904 increased accn. to 1,100 and av. att. in 1911 was 894, in 1927 736. Reorganization in 1935 and 1936 left a combined junior and infs.' dept., which closed in 1942. After 1945 the educationally sub-normal sch. and a nursery sch. shared the building.

Northumberland Avenue Special (educationally sub-normal): started with 80 places in 1908 in part of Blenkin St. Sch., being renamed Malton St. Special Sch. in 1913. In 1937, when Blenkin St. closed, it expanded to 150 places. After war-time evacuation it occupied part of Northumberland Avenue Sch. pending transfer to a special-school campus in Cottingham Rd. in 1964.

Open-Air: established in Cottingham Rd. in 1931 with accn. for 270 delicate children. The site was planned as a special-school campus in 1963, to include the schs. for educationally sub-normal and physically-handicapped children previously in Northumberland Ave. and Park Ave.

Osborne St.: founded by the Sch. Bd. in 1878 for 750 pupils in 3 depts., increased by a new junior block in 1904 to 1,072 (248 boys, 256 girls, 300 juniors, and 268 infs.). Av. att. was 705 in 1904, 555 in 1919. In 1925 the girls were transferred to Villa Place, and in 1939 juniors and infs. amalgamated. The sch. closed in 1940. From 1903 to 1936 the deaf centre shared the building.

Paisley St.: opened by the Sch. Bd. in 1893. A separate junior block was added in 1903, bringing accn. to 1,126 (308 boys, 308 girls, 300 juniors, and 210 infs.). Av. att. was 1,026 in 1911, 762 in 1938. Boys', girls', and combined junior and infs.' depts. remained in 1963.

Park Rd.: originally the parish sch. of All Saints', Sculcoates, built without government grant in 1872 for 280 pupils. The managers conveyed it in 1876 to the Sch. Bd. which enlarged it to 3 depts. each of 250. Av. att. was 645 in 1878, 696 in 1904, and 508 in 1927, when it was reorganized as a combined junior and infs.' sch. which still remains.

Pearson High: formed in 1945 from the senior dept. of Newland Ave. Sch. It had 160 boys in 1963.

Pickering Rd.: opened as a combined junior and infs.' sch. for 400 in 1934.

Priory Rd.: opened as a combined junior and infs.' sch. in 1939 and reorganized as 2 schs. when a junior block for 480 was built in 1950.

Ragged and Industrial (later Truant): provided by voluntary workers to feed, clothe, and train neglected and vagrant children, and opened in 1849 in Mill St., the cholera-ravaged Irish quarter. Moved to Marlborough Terrace in 1857. The boys learnt cobbling, joinery, and tailoring; the girls sewing, knitting, and housework. After 1868 the committee also maintained the training ship Southampton for boys, and several branch ragged schs. The Marlborough Terrace building was transferred to the Sch. Bd. in 1884 as a boys' truant sch., a separate Industrial Sch. for Girls being opened in Beverley Rd. The L.E.A. closed the boys' sch. in 1909.

Riley Technical High: started in Albion St. in 1894 as the junior dept. of the municipal technical sch., with which it moved to Park St. in 1898. In 1926 it was given a separate headmaster and renamed Riley High Sch. but the Bd. of Education refused it recognition as a secondary sch. until it had separate premises. After war-time evacuation it occupied the former Boulevard Secondary Sch. building in 1945 and developed as a secondary technical sch. It moved to a new building in Parkfield Drive in 1957 and had 640 boys in 1963.

Sacred Heart R.C.: opened in Southcoates Lane in 1932 for 300 mixed juniors and infs. It was voluntary aided, with 411 on roll in 1963.

St. Andrew's High: formed in 1945 from the senior dept. of West Dock Ave. Sch. It had 220 boys in 1963.

St. Charles's R.C.: started in 1829 in a basement of St. Charles's Church, where pupils numbered 80 in 1833. In 1839 it moved to Canning St. and had 270 enrolled and 250 attending in 1849. It moved again to Pryme St. in 1860 and became a boys' sch., the girls being transferred to St. Joseph's. Accn. rose to 625 by 1901 but was reduced to 494 after 1908. Av. att. was 396 in 1927, 280 in 1963. It was then still 'all-age'.

St. George's Rd.: built in 1881 by Newington Sch. Bd. and taken over by Hull Sch. Bd. in 1883, its accn. being then enlarged to 677 (228 boys, 226 girls, and 223 infs.). Av. att. was 604 in 1904, 560 in 1938. The boys' dept. closed in 1946, leaving a combined girls' and junior sch. with separate infs.

St. Gregory's R.C.: established as school and chapel in Scott St. in 1893, the sch. having places for 253 girls and 256 infs. This accn. remained unchanged, though av. att. fell from 506 in 1904 to 310 in 1938. In 1963 there were 333 all-age girls and infs.

St. James's Nat.: built in Porter St. in 1844 to replace an earlier temporary sch. in the Pottery. It comprised boys', girls', and infs.' depts. and 'from the excellence of the arrangements, the energy of the managers and the high qualifications of the teachers, they were . . . long considered the model church school of the town'. Financial loss following the Revised Code caused the boys' dept. to close in 1864, the master leasing it as a private middle-class sch., but it reopened in 1875 after the Sch. Bd.'s protests. Accn. was 746 and av. att. 713 in 1894. The boys' dept. closed in 1905 leaving accn. for 440 girls and infs., and av. att. fell from 400 in 1919 to 252 in 1938. The sch. closed in 1940.

St. John's Nat.: started with an infs.' sch. developed out of a Sunday sch. in Osborne St. in the 1840s. In 1853 the vicar bought the Waltham St. premises of the Savings Bank Sch. and reorganized it as a Nat. sch. with places for 598 boys and girls. Accn. rose to 634 in 1877 but av. att. in 1890 was only 296. The infs.' sch. closed in 1887 (the Hebrew Girls' Sch. taking over the building), the boys' and girls' depts. in 1906.

St. Joseph's R.C.: provided in 1859 by the Convent of Mercy in Anlaby Rd. to replace the girls' dept. of St. Charles's Sch. Taught by the Sisters of the convent, it had 666 places for girls and infs. by 1897, but these were later reduced to 531 (335 girls and 196 infs.). Av. att. was 272 in 1938. The building was destroyed by bombs in 1941 and the sch. formally closed in 1945.

St. Luke's C.E.: started as a Sunday sch. and received grant as a day sch. from 1872, offering 262 (later 306) places for boys and girls. Av. att. was 256 in 1904. The sch. closed in 1911.

St. Mark's Nat.: began in the Groves in 1840 with places for 350 boys and girls, some of them 'half-timers' working at Hull Flax and Cotton Mill. A new building was opened next to St. Mark's Church in 1857, and accn. rose from 600 to 836 by 1902. This was gradually reduced and reorganized in 1911 for 338 mixed boys and girls and 228 infs. Av. att. was 543 in 1919, 364 in 1938. The sch. was transferred to the L.E.A. in 1923 and closed in 1940.

St. Mary's Grammar: established in 1905 by the Sisters of Mercy next to their convent in Anlaby Rd., partly as a pupil-teacher centre, but conducted as a 'recognized' secondary sch. after 1906. There were 127 girls in 1913, 382 in 1936. Following air-raid destruction of its premises in 1941 the sch. occupied huts at Endsleigh Training College until 1960, when a new building was erected in Inglemire Lane. There were 390 pupils in 1963.

St. Mary's R.C.: established in Wilton St. in 1856, the building serving as a mission church until 1891. An infs.' dept. was added in 1864 and in 1867 boys' and girls' depts. formed one dept., taught by the Sisters of Mercy until 1954. There were 385 places in 1872, 798 in 1902, and 768 in 1936. Av. att. was 610 in 1938. In 1963 there were 169 infs. and 368 all-age boys and girls.

St. Nicholas's: see Newland Orphan.

St. Patrick's R.C.: opened in Mill St., the Irish quarter, in 1871, serving also as a mission chapel. It had 255 places for girls and infs. in 2 depts., taught by the Sisters of Mercy. In 1939 it was reorganized as a single all-age dept. and this had 120 pupils in 1963.

St. Philip's: see Trippett Industrial.

St. Silas's C.E.: built in 1870 for 272 boys but closed in 1875.

St. Stephen's Nat.: developed out of a Sunday sch. in Collier St. in 1840 and was altered and enlarged in 1842. In 1844 some 420 were enrolled and 300 attending. A separate girls' sch. was opened in Spring St. in 1856, and about this time an infs.' sch., established in Eastcheap in 1826, was conveyed to the trustees. Total accn. after 1872 reached 925, making this Hull's largest voluntary sch. Av. att. was 729 in 1904. The premises having become substandard, the boys' dept. closed in 1907, the girls' and infs.' in 1908.

St. Vincent's R.C.: opened in Queen's Rd. in 1904 with a mixed dept. of 216 and an infs.' of 60. It was a mixed all-age sch. of 309 in 1963.

St. Wilfrid's R.C.: opened in Boulevard in 1894 with mixed and infs.' depts. having 292 places altogether. These were enlarged to 400 by 1904 and 520 by 1936. The buildings were destroyed by bombs in 1941 and the sch. thereafter occupied the former Saner St. Sch. premises. There were 143 infs. and 287 all-age boys and girls in 2 depts. in 1963.

Salthouse Lane Nat.: a boys' sch. on Lancasterian lines was opened in 1809, a girls' in 1811, by trustees who had provided Sunday schs. since 1786. In 1825 the schs. joined the Nat. Soc., gradually becoming associated with St. Mary's, Lowgate, and av. att. was 250 boys and 125 girls in 1838. The trustees also acquired the infs.' sch. opened in High St. in 1828. Accn. in 1877 was 548 boys and girls and 138 infs. The girls' sch. closed in 1903 and after 1912 boys and infs. formed one dept. of 439 places. Av. att. was 262 in 1912, only 94 in 1938. The sch. closed in 1939.

Saner St.: opened in 1913 for 280 juniors and 280 infs. to allow expansion of the Boulevard Secondary Sch. by releasing temporary accn. occupied by its former junior and infs.' depts. Av. att. fell from 463 in 1919 to 164 in 1938. The sch. closed in 1941, its building since then accommodating St. Wilfrid's R.C. Sch.

Savings Bank: to encourage thrift and to use up accumulated surplus the bank opened a sch. for depositors' children in 1831, moving it to a new building in Waltham St. in 1833. It was conducted on Brit. lines and no longer confined to depositors' children after 1841. In 1848, when 252 pupils attended, it received government grant. It was closed in 1851, the bank being prevented from further expenditure on it, and the building became St. John's Nat. Sch. in 1853.

Scarborough St.: opened by the Sch. Bd. in 1893. A junior dept. was added in 1898 giving a total accn. of 1,173. Av. att. was 1,123 in 1904, 1,009 in 1927. It was reorganized in 1933 with junior mixed and infs.' depts. which still remained in 1963.

Sculcoates Girls': opened in 1834 in Oxford St., one of Hull's first schs. to be built with government aid. It served also as a mission church until St. Paul's was built in 1844. Thereafter it housed St. Paul's Girls' Sch. until 1872, when a new building for girls and infs. was added to Sculcoates St. Paul's Nat.

Sculcoates St. Mary's Nat.: erected in 1852 in Ayr St., replacing Sculcoates Nat. Sch. and Sculcoates Girls' Sch. which had both passed into the new St. Paul's parish in 1844. Accn. was 296 in 1872 and 257 in 1894, and 244 attended in 1904. The sch. was conveyed to the L.E.A. and closed in 1908.

Sculcoates St. Paul's Nat.: opened in 1858 as a boys' sch. supplementing the Sculcoates Girls' taken over by the parish in 1844. A girls' and infs.' sch. added in 1872 increased places to 722. These grew to 878 by 1897, making this Hull's second largest voluntary sch., but were later reduced to 790 (336 boys, 212 girls, and 242 infs.). In 1922 it was transferred to the L.E.A. and in 1925 reorganized for 336 girls and 389 combined juniors and infs. Av. att. in 1938 was 419. The sch. closed in 1940.

Sculcoates Subscription (later Nat.): opened by public subscription in 1804 next to the parish workhouse in Carr St., replacing an earlier one of 1787. It was reorganized as a Nat. sch. in 1818 and in 1838 had 170 boys and 60 girls enrolled. It closed in 1849.

Seamen's and General Orphan: a sch. was built by the Society to the west of its new orphanage on Spring Bank in 1870; previously the children had attended neighbouring elementary schs. Its original accn. of 253 was later enlarged to 374. Av. att. was 173 in 1904, 135 in 1919. The sch. ceased in 1920 when the orphanage moved to Hesslewood.

Selby (after 1934 Springburn) St.: opened in 1908 with boys', girls', junior, and infs.' depts., each of 300 places. Juniors and infs. formed a combined dept. of 500 in 1925. Av. att. in 1938 was 235 boys, 226 girls, and 364 juniors. The sch. was discontinued after destruction of its buildings by bombs in 1942.

Sidmouth High: formed in 1945 from the senior dept. of Sidmouth St. Sch. It had 240 pupils in 1963.

Sidmouth St.: opened in 1911 for 350 boys, 350 girls, 320 juniors, and 320 infs., and for some years after 1913 used as the Training College practising sch. In 1937 the 2 senior depts. became one for girls only and this became Sidmouth High Sch. in 1945. The junior dept. was closed after bomb damage in 1941 but reopened in 1955.

Sir Henry Cooper: a bd. sch. opened in Bean St. in 1876 and named after the bd.'s first chairman. There were 900 places (910 after 1903) for boys, girls, and infs. Av. att. was 813 in 1904, 543 in 1938. The boys were transferred to Boulevard High Sch. in 1957, leaving senior girls', junior, and infs.' depts.

Somerset St.: built by Newington Sch. Bd. after 1879 and transferred to Hull Sch. Bd. in 1883. A separate junior dept. added in 1903 increased accn. to 1,011 places (239 boys, 239 girls, 298 juniors, and 238 infs.). Av. att. was 984 in 1904, 704 in 1938. The sch. was reorganized in 1957 for senior girls, juniors, and infs., the senior boys being drafted to Boulevard High Sch.

Southcoates, Eleanor Scott's Charity: established in Southcoates Lane in 1856 by Eleanor Scott's trustees under a Chancery Order of 1855 to provide education for Southcoates children. (fn. 207) There were 30 pupils in 1866. A small one-teacher charity sch., it was soon obsolete, and a scheme of 1909 pensioned off the mistress and applied part of the charity to scholarships and Drypool C.E. Sch.

Southcoates High: formed in 1945 from the senior dept. of Southcoates Lane Sch. It had 240 pupils in 1963.

Southcoates Lane: opened in 1912, a duplicate of Sidmouth St. with depts. for 350 boys, 350 girls, 320 juniors, and 320 infs., each later enlarged by 50 more places. Total av. att. was 1,348 in 1927. In 1931 the two senior depts. were reorganized as one for 440 senior boys and this became Southcoates High Sch. in 1945. Junior and infs.' depts. remain.

South Myton (or Adelaide St.) Wesleyan: established in 1850 by the Great Thornton St. chapel, replacing Mason St. Wesleyan. This was the largest nonconformist sch. in Hull, having 913 places by 1902. It was conveyed to the L.E.A. in 1908 and the girls' dept. was discontinued, leaving accn. for 284 boys and 302 infs. After 1926 a junior boys' dept. of 473 remained, and this closed in 1937.

Springburn St.: see Selby St.

Stoneferry Rd.: built in 1877 by Sutton and Stoneferry Sch. Bd. for 130 infs. After passing to Hull Sch. Bd. in 1883, accn. was increased to 163 and, when a junior dept. was added in 1903, to 449. Juniors and infs. amalgamated in 1928 and av. att. was 153 in 1936, 161 in 1963.

Sutton, Ann Watson's: founded in Stoneferry by will of Ann Watson (d. 1721), in conjunction with her almshouse (see p. 346), one of the inmates of which was to be sch. dame and teach 10 poor girls of Sutton or Stoneferry to knit, spin, and read. When the almshouse was transferred to Sutton in 1816 the sch. remained at Stoneferry and was in abeyance for some years. It is uncertain how regularly it functioned and when it finally ended. By a Scheme of 1889 the educational part of the charity was converted into a fund for sch. prizes and maintenance grants.

Sutton Brit.: see Sutton Council.

Sutton C.E.: the parish sch. of St. James's, built in 1859 with a government grant on a site given by Mrs. Broadley. The master received the income from £150 bequeathed by John Marshall by will dated 1803. Av. att. was 82 in 1868, 105 in 1903, and 116 in 1927. It passed into Hull when the boundary was extended in 1929 and, though scheduled for closure in 1946, still continued as a voluntary sch. with 120 pupils of all ages in 1963.

Sutton Council: a Brit. sch. started in Sutton in 1850 but ceased in 1866. Its place was taken by a Wesleyan sch. which had 61 pupils in 1867, 95 in 1904. The East Riding County Council replaced this in 1911 by the Sutton Council Sch. with accn. for 162 all-age pupils, 71 attending in 1927. This passed to Hull in 1929 and was closed in 1936, the building being occupied after 1937 by the Sutton Sch. for the Deaf.

Sutton Sch. for the Deaf: started as a deaf centre in the Central Higher Grade Sch. in 1894 and was moved to part of Osborne St. Sch. in 1903. Accn. here was 48, av. att. in 1911 being 24. The sch. was transferred in 1937 to the building of the former Sutton Council Sch. There were 40 pupils in 1963.

Sutton Wesleyan: see Sutton Council.

Thomas Barton Holmes: opened in South Parade in 1877 by the Sch. Bd. and named after its chairman. There were depts. for 272 boys, 272 girls, and 287 infs., and av. att. was 833 in 1893, 573 in 1938. After air-raid damage in 1941 only the infs.' dept. remained and this closed in 1962.

Thomas Stratten: established in Londesborough St. in 1881 by the Sch. Bd. and named after its chairman. Accn. was for 797 (later 777) in boys', girls', and infs.' depts., and av. att. was 664 in 1889, 607 in 1938. It was reorganized in 1953 for junior boys, junior girls, and infs., the senior boys being drafted to Wilberforce High Sch. and the senior girls to Wawne High Sch.

Thoresby High: formed as a secondary technical sch. after 1945 from Thoresby St. Girls' Sch. It had 560 girls in 1963.

Thoresby St.: the Sch. Bd.'s last school, opened in 1903, costing £20,770, and accommodating 460 mixed seniors, 460 juniors, and 402 infs. As the district developed, av. att. rose from 524 in 1904 to 956 in 1911. The senior dept. was reorganized as a girls' central sch. in 1920 and after 1945 developed into a secondary technical sch. as Thoresby High Sch. Juniors and infs. remain as one dept.

Trinity House Navigation: opened in 1787 by Trinity House to train poor boys for the sea. A new building behind Prince's Dock St. in 1842 permitted expansion and in 1849 the sch. was reorganized in lower and upper divisions. The Board of Trade recognized it as a grant-earning navigation sch. in 1854 and in 1872 an adult dept. was added to prepare seamen for masters' certificates. Zebedee Scaping was headmaster from 1854 to 1909. Since 1909 it has been entirely maintained by Trinity House and in 1949 it became a 'recognized' independent technical sch., its accommodation being extensively modernized thereafter. Still in its 1842 premises, it had 180 pupils in 1963.

Trinity Nat.: built in 1857 on the old South End battery site in Humber St. to replace the Vicar's Sch. Originally accn. was for 316 boys, 190 girls, and 190 infs. In 1883 the boys' dept. closed and girls' and infs.' amalgamated in 1924. Av. att. was 161 in 1938 and the sch. closed in 1939, a voluntary sch. to the end.

Trippett Industrial (later St. Philip's): developed from a sch. in Mason St. kept by the daughters of Bromby, Vicar of Holy Trinity. It was reorganized in 1859 as a Nat. sch. with an industrial bias, teaching boys carpentry and brush-making, and girls sewing, knitting, and housewifery. An infs.' dept. was added in 1866. The boys' dept. closed in 1881 and girls and infs. formed one dept. of 299 places associated with St. Philip's. This closed in 1909.

Twenty-first Avenue: a junior boys' sch. formed in 1937 from the Endike Lane West temporary mixed junior sch.

Vicar's Sch.: established in 1730 by Mason, Vicar of Holy Trinity, and the 'Religious Society' as a charity sch. and rebuilt on its original site in Vicar Lane in 1792. Fees were introduced in 1813 and endowments of £100 each received in 1816, from a Mrs. Porter, and 1819, from Sir Henry Etherington, Bt. By 1850 there were 120 pupils, but the building was condemned and Trinity Nat. Sch. replaced it in 1857.

Villa High: formed in 1945 from the senior dept. of Villa Place Sch. but was closed in 1953.

Villa Place: established in 1907 with boys', girls', junior, and infs.' depts., each for 300. Av. att. was 947 in 1919. In 1925 the senior depts. were reorganized as one for girls, and from 1926 to 1937 the juniors also were confined to girls. The senior girls in 1945 became Villa High Sch., leaving only juniors and infs.

Waterhouse Lane Brit.: held in the Sailors' Institute from 1871 to 1880. There was accn. for 256 boys and girls and the highest av. att. was 187 in 1876.

Wawne High Sch. for Girls: formed in 1953 from the girls' dept. of Wawne St. Sch. It had 220 pupils in 1963.

Wawne St.: a bd. sch. of 3 depts., each of 250 places, opened in 1875 and eventually enlarged to 1,078 (390 boys, 404 girls, and 284 infs.). Total av. att. was 740 in 1911, 598 in 1938. In 1953 the boys' dept. closed leaving an infs.' sch. and a separate Wawne High Sch. for Girls.

Welton High: formed after 1945 from the senior dept. of Hall Rd. Sch. It had 580 pupils in 1963.

Westbourne St.: a bd. sch. opened in 1885 with accn. in 3 depts for 845 pupils. In 1898 a junior block was added, providing altogether for 1,109 later reduced to 1,078 (287 boys, 287 girls, 264 juniors, and 240 infs.). Av. att. fell from 1,046 in 1904 to 683 in 1938. These 4 depts. remained in 1963.

West Dock Avenue: opened by the Sch. Bd. in 1888 for 876 pupils in 3 depts. A separate junior dept. added in 1898 increased accn. to 1,140 and later to 1,221. Av. att. in 1927 was 1,093. After reorganization in 1927 and 1934 there remained depts. for 310 senior boys, 264 junior boys, and 319 infs. The senior boys' in 1945 became St. Andrew's High Sch.

Wheeler St.: established by the Sch. Bd. in 1902 for 1,334 pupils (500 mixed seniors, 500 mixed juniors, and 334 infs.). Av. att. was 1,149 in 1911, 841 in 1938. The senior dept. was renamed Newington High Sch. in 1945. Juniors and infs. remain as separate depts.

Williamson St.: opened by the Sch. Bd. in 1875 to replace Holderness Ward Sch., providing 750 places in boys', girls', and infs.' depts. A separate junior dept. added in 1894 enlarged accn. to 1,010 and av. att. was 934 in 1904. The boys' dept. closed in 1908, the girls' in 1932, leaving junior mixed and infs.' depts. which were amalgamated in 1940.

Wold Rd.: opened in 1939 as a combined junior and infs.' sch. and divided into two when a separate junior block was built in 1953.

Wold Rd. Partially-Sighted: established in 2 huts vacated by Wold Rd. Primary in 1953, so replacing 2 'sight-saving' classes held in Lambert St. and Osborne St. Schs. from 1928 to 1939 and in Eastfield Rd. and Twenty-first Ave. Schs. from 1945 to 1953. There were 38 pupils in 1963.

New Schools Established 1945–63

All these schools were established in new buildings except (i) Boulevard High School, which occupied the 1895 building previously used by Kingston High School and, later, by Riley High School; and (ii) Wilberforce High School, which was housed in the Leicester Street building which served Hull Grammar School from 1892 to 1953.

The columns indicate: (1) name of school, (2) date of opening, (3) type of school, (4) original accommodation, and (5) status of school.

Abbreviations used: C, County School; C.E., Church of England; R.C., Roman Catholic; S.A., Special Agreement; Sec. Mod., Secondary Modern; Sec. Tech., Secondary Technical; V.A., Voluntary Aided.

1 2 3 4 5
Adelaide 1962 Infants and Juniors 320 C
Alderman Cogan High 1957 Mixed Sec. Mod. 300 S.A. (C.E.)
Appleton 1954 Infants and Juniors 280 C
Archbishop William Temple 1954 Infants and Juniors 280 V.A. (C.E.)
Ashwell 1957 Infants 240 C
Ashwell 1957 Juniors 320 C
Barham High 1953 Girls Sec. Mod. 450 C
Bellfield 1954 Infants and Juniors 280 C
Bethune 1963 Infants 240 C
Bethune 1962 Juniors 320 C
Boothferry High 1961 Mixed Sec. Mod. 450 C
Boulevard High 1957 Boys Sec. Mod. 650 C
Bricknell High:
Kelvin Hall 1959 Mixed Sec. Tech. 600 C
Wyke Hall 1957 Mixed Sec. Mod. 450 C
East Mount High 1957 Mixed Sec. Mod. 450 C
Estcourt St. 1954 Infants 240 C
Grange 1952 Infants 240 C
Grange 1952 Juniors 320 C
Greatfield High:
Elizabethan Hall 1959 Mixed Sec. Mod. 450 C
Newton Hall 1957 Mixed Sec. Tech. 600 C
Shakespeare Hall 1961 Mixed Sec. Mod. 450 C
Hopewell Rd. 1956 Juniors 480 C
Jervis High 1956 Boys Sec. Mod. 450 C
Longhill 1954 Infants 360 C
Longhill 1955 Juniors 480 C
Myton 1958 Infants 240 C
Newland St. John's 1962 Infants and Juniors 280 V.A. (C.E.)
Oldfleet 1960 Infants 240 C
Oldfleet 1960 Juniors 320 C
Rokeby Park 1961 Infants and Juniors 280 C
St. Bede's 1962 Infants and Juniors 280 V.A. (R.C.)
St. Richard's High 1963 Mixed Sec. Mod. 450 S.A. (R.C.)
Salthouse High 1961 Mixed Sec. Mod. 450 C
Stockwell 1958 Infants 240 C
Stockwell 1958 Juniors 320 C
Sutton Rd. 1952 Infants and Juniors 240 C
Thanet 1955 Infants 240 C
Thanet 1957 Juniors 320 C
Wansbeck 1957 Infants 240 C
Wansbeck 1958 Juniors 320 C
Wilberforce High 1953 Boys Sec. Mod. 700 C
Wivern 1954 Infants 240 C
Wivern 1954 Juniors 320 C


  • 1. This article was written in 1963.
  • 2. It is possible that the school stood first in the street and later in the lane; but the one school site may have given the name to both thoroughfares.
  • 3. J. Lawson, A Town Grammar School through Six Cents. 12–21.
  • 4. Ibid. 25–26, 27–28; V.C.H. Yorks. i. 449–52.
  • 5. Lawson, Town Grammar Sch. 45–46.
  • 6. See plate facing p. 132.
  • 7. Lawson, Town Grammar Sch. 48, 49, 51, 53–55, 66.
  • 8. Ibid. 83.
  • 9. Ibid. 128–31, 142, 147–8.
  • 10. Ibid. 133–6.
  • 11. Ibid. 102–3, 151.
  • 12. Hull Corp. Rec., B.B. 3A, f. 71.
  • 13. Ibid. 5, pp. 436, 438, 479, 481.
  • 14. Lawson, Town Grammar Sch. 119–20.
  • 15. Hull Corp. Rec., B.B. 7, pp. 579, 659; 8, pp. 41, 50, 174, 182, 237, 263, 264, 347, 375.
  • 16. Acct. of Several Workhouses . . . as also of several Charity Schs. for promoting Work and Labour (2nd edn. 1732), 171, 176.
  • 17. S.P.C.K. Abstracts of Correspondence, letter from Banks, 19 Nov. 1709, quoted K. J. R. Robson, 'The S.P.C.K. in Action: Some Episodes from E.R. of Yorks.' Ch. Quarterly Rev. clvi. 268.
  • 18. T. Thompson, Considerations on . . . Poor Rates and . . . Workhouse in . . . Hull (1799), 21, 23, 28; Further Observations on Maintenance of Poor in . . . Hull (1800), 15, 17.
  • 19. S.P.C.K. Ann. Rep. (1730); Abstracts of Correspondence, letters from Mason, 15 Mar. 1729, 26 Aug. 1733, quoted Robson, art. cit. 272–4; Gent, Hist. Hull, 196.
  • 20. Tickell, Hist. Hull, 832. The corp. voted the exschoolmaster a weekly pension of 4s. in 1792: Hull Corp. Rec., B.B. 10, p. 150.
  • 21. Hull Corp. Rec., B.B. 11, p. 28; 9th Rep. Com. Char. H.C. 258, pp. 812–13 (1823), ix.
  • 22. G. M. Attwood, 'Alderman Wm. Cogan and the Establishment of his Charity Sch. for Girls, Hull', Studies in Education, iii, no. 4, 314–30. A full study of this sch. by the same writer is the subject of a thesis in Hull Univ. Libr.
  • 23. Hull Trin. Ho. Records, Mins. Sch. Cttee., 26 Nov. 1785.
  • 24. Ibid. 10 and 22 Jan. 1787.
  • 25. Tickell, Hist. Hull, 833.
  • 26. Hadley, Hist. Hull, 378; J. Craggs, Guide Hull (1817), 50–51; Tickell, Hist. Hull, 836n.
  • 27. Rules and Orders for . . . Sculcoates Subscription Charity Sch. (copy in Wilberforce Ho.).
  • 28. Proposals for . . . Affording a Suitable Education to Children of . . . Poor in . . . Hull (1806) (copy in Wilberforce Ho.).
  • 29. Hull Advertiser, 13 Dec. 1806, 23 Mar. 1811; Hull Packet, 10 and 17 Jan. 1809.
  • 30. At a Meeting of Trustees and Subscribers to Sculcoates Subscription Sch. (1818) (copy in Wilberforce Ho.).
  • 31. Hull Advertiser, 11 Feb. 1825; later sch. mins. in St. Mary's Church, Lowgate.
  • 32. Some docs. relating to this sch. are in Drypool Vicarage.
  • 33. Hull Corp. Rec., B.B. 11, pp. 402, 496.
  • 34. Hull Advertiser, 30 Dec. 1825, 6 and 20 Jan. 1826; W. White, Dir. Hull (1831), pp. lv–lvi.
  • 35. J. Greenwood, Picture of Hull (1835), 112.
  • 36. Univ. Brit. Dir. (1790), iii. 355; Rockingham, 16 Apr. 1836.
  • 37. Hull Advertiser, 5 July 1800.
  • 38. These and other academies regularly appear in directories and newspaper advertisements.
  • 39. Lawson, Town Grammar Sch. 191–8.
  • 40. Hull Packet, 9 Dec. 1794, 6 Jan., 30 June 1795; Hull Advertiser, 7 Jan. 1797.
  • 41. Hull Packet, 9 June 1810.
  • 42. Ibid. 30 Dec. 1794.
  • 43. Ibid.
  • 44. Ibid. 13 Jan., 27 Oct. 1795; Hull Advertiser, 17 Mar. 1798, 12 Mar. 1808.
  • 45. C. Frost, Address to Lit. and Phil. Soc. of Hull (1831), 59.
  • 46. See p. 425.
  • 47. See p. 423.
  • 48. Frost, op. cit. 6–7, 60–61.
  • 49. Greenwood, Picture of Hull (1835), 118–24.
  • 50. Ibid. 129; W. White, Dir. Hull (1831), pp. lx, 182.
  • 51. R. F. Wearmouth, Some Working-Class Movements of the 19th Cent. 35.
  • 52. Rules for Management of Lit. and Scient. Mechanics' Institute . . . in Hull (1825). Members were of two classes: proprietary ('mechanics') and honorary (patrons).
  • 53. Univ. Coll. London Libr., Brougham MSS., quoted M. Tylecote, Mechanics' Institutes of Lancs. and Yorks. 47n., 118n.
  • 54. Rockingham, 25 Sept. 1830.
  • 55. Census, 1851, Educ. Rep. and Tables [1692], p. clxi, H.C. (1852–3), xc.
  • 56. Rep. Comrs. on Popular Educ. in Eng. [2794–III], p. 280, H.C. (1861), xxi (3).
  • 57. Mins. and ann. reps. of sch. cttee. in Hull Savings Bank.
  • 58. H. O. Horne, Hist. of Savings Banks, 84.
  • 59. These and later schs. established before 1866 are described in Sheahan, Hist. Hull, 572 sqq.
  • 60. E. Counties Herald, 18 June, 2 July 1868.
  • 61. W. White, Dir. W.R., York, and Hull (1838), ii. 596; Hull Advertiser, 29 Dec. 1848.
  • 62. Trust deeds and other docs. in St. Stephen's parish hall.
  • 63. Rep. Educ. Cttee. Council, 1864–5 [3533], p. 532, H.C. (1865), xlii; Hull Advertiser, 10 Oct. 1857.
  • 64. Mins. Educ. Cttee. Council, 1843–4 [622], pp. 358, 360, H.C. (1845), xxxv; 1846 [866], p. 177, H.C. (1847), xlv.
  • 65. Mins. Educ. Cttee. Council, 1845 [741], p. 280, H.C. (1846), xxxii; Hull Advertiser, 17 Dec. 1852.
  • 66. Hull Advertiser, 19 Mar. 1853.
  • 67. Ibid. 2 Aug. 1856, 16 June 1857.
  • 68. Ibid. 23 Aug. 1856, 12 Sept. 1857.
  • 69. Ibid. 2 Feb. 1859.
  • 70. Ibid. 16 Apr. 1864.
  • 71. White, Dir. W.R., York, & Hull (1838), ii. 599; Rep. Comrs. on Popular Educ. in Eng. [2794–III], p. 243n., H.C. (1861), xxi (3).
  • 72. White, Dir. W.R., York, & Hull (1838), ii. 596; Hull Advertiser, 19 Apr. 1839; sch. log bk. after 1863.
  • 73. Hull Advertiser, 6 Oct. 1855, 11 Oct. 1856, 15 Jan. 1859.
  • 74. Ibid. 26 Apr. 1850; Hull Sch. Bd. Mins. 20 Mar. 1872.
  • 75. Sheahan, Hist. Hull, 586; E. Counties Herald, 2 July 1868; Rep. Educ. Cttee. Council, 1876–7 [C.1780–I], p. 902, H.C. (1877), xxix.
  • 76. E. Counties Herald, 26 Mar. 1868; Rep. Educ. Cttee. Council, 1868–9 [4139], p. 627, H.C. (1868–9), xx.
  • 77. Sheahan, Hist. Hull, 612, 615; Rep. Educ. Cttee. Council, 1865–6 [3666], p. 604, H.C. (1866), xxvii; 1871–2 [C.601], p. 361, H.C. (1872), xxii.
  • 78. Hull Munic. Char., Rep. to 1935, passim; Rep. Comrs. on Popular Educ. in Eng. [2794–III], p. 279, H.C. (1861), xxi (3).
  • 79. 3rd Rep. Science and Art Dept. [2123], pp. 256, 259, H.C. (1856), xxiv. In 1850 40 ex-pupils were said to be masters of vessels.
  • 80. Hull Advertiser, 5 Oct. 1849, 25 Jan. 1850; Rep. Comrs. on Popular Educ. in Eng. [2794–III], p. 278, H.C. (1861), xxi (3).
  • 81. Hull Ragged Sch. 1st Ann. Rep. (1850).
  • 82. Hull Advertiser, 26 Jan. 1867, 2 July 1868; Hull News, 24 Feb. 1912.
  • 83. Rep. Comrs. on Popular Educ. in Eng. [2794–III], pp. 233–8, H.C. (1861), xxi (3).
  • 84. Ibid. 224. In 1851 there were 39 Sunday schs. with 8,112 pupils: Census, 1851, Educ. Rep. and Tables [1692], p. clxxxix, H.C. (1852–3), xc.
  • 85. St. Stephen's, started in 1851, was still active in 1876.
  • 86. Lawson, Town Grammar Sch. 199–206.
  • 87. J. Lawson, 'Two Forgotten Hull Schs.: the Foundation of Hull Coll. and Kingston Coll. in 1836', Studies in Educ. i, no. 6, 7–26.
  • 88. Lawson, Town Grammar Sch. 223–8.
  • 89. J. Lawson, 'Middle-Class Educ. in Later Victorian Hull', Studies in Educ. iii, no. 1, 27–49.
  • 90. Statistics for all types of sch. in Hull Sch. Bd., Rep. Sch. Accommodation, 1871, 12–23.
  • 91. Hull Sch. Bd. Mins. 20 Mar. 1872; Rep. Educ. Cttee. Council, 1873–4 [C.1019–I], p. 438, H.C. (1874), xviii.
  • 92. Hull Sch. Bd. 10th Trien. Rep. 11.
  • 93. Hull Sch. Bd. Mins. 20 Mar. 1872; Rep. Educ. Cttee. Council, 1891–2 [C.6746–I], p. 734, H.C. (1892), xxviii.
  • 94. Hull Sch. Bd. 1st Trien. Rep. 10.
  • 95. Hull Sch. Bd. 2nd Trien. Rep. 6, 22; 3rd Trien. Rep. 21. The first three schools had soil-tub sanitation: water closets were installed in 1879 after a scarlet fever epidemic.
  • 96. Hull Sch. Bd. Mins. 20 Nov. 1872; 2nd Trien. Rep. 6, 22; 3rd Trien. Rep. 7.
  • 97. Hull Sch. Bd. 5th Trien. Rep. 7.
  • 98. Ibid. 10.
  • 99. Ibid. 9th Trien. Rep. 43; Hull and E.R. Red Bk. 144–5.
  • 100. 2nd Rep. Comm. to inquire into working of Elem. Educ. Acts [C.5056], pp. 772–3, H.C. (1887), xxix. In 1902 the proportion of certificated teachers in Hull was 44.2 per cent.—much lower than in Leeds, Sheffield, or Bradford.
  • 101. The Times, 27 Aug. 1888 (letter from J. M. Lambert); Kelly's Dir. Hull (1885), 243, lists 97 private schs.
  • 102. Hull Sch. Bd. Mins. 3 Apr., 1 May 1878, 14 Dec. 1887; 9th Trien. Rep. 31; 10th Trien. Rep. 25. The pupil-teacher centre had received 359 students by 1903.
  • 103. Hull Sch. Bd. 5th Trien. Rep. 17; 6th Trien. Rep. 42.
  • 104. Ibid. 9th Trien. Rep. 29; 11th Trien. Rep. 4.
  • 105. E. Counties Herald, 12 Nov. 1874.
  • 106. Hull News, 5 Dec. 1885.
  • 107. Its forerunner in the 1860s was the Hull Church Schoolmasters' and Schoolmistresses' Benevolent Association.
  • 108. Hull Sch. Bd. 7th Trien. Rep. 29, 46–47; 9th Trien. Rep. 43.
  • 109. Ibid. 8th Trien. Rep. 6.
  • 110. Ibid. 10th Trien. Rep. 45; 11th Trien. Rep. 4.
  • 111. Ibid. 11th Trien. Rep. 6–7.
  • 112. Lawson, Town Grammar Sch. 231 sqq.
  • 113. Hull and E.R. College Year Bk. (1885), 22; Lawson, 'Middle-Class Educ. in Later Victorian Hull', 36–39.
  • 114. Lawson, 'Middle-Class Educ.' 27–28, 43.
  • 115. Ibid. 39–45. For descriptions of the building see The Builder, 28 June 1890; 16 Jan. 1892.
  • 116. Lawson, Town Grammar Sch. 254, 257 sqq.
  • 117. Hull News, 16 Nov. 1889, 3 May 1890, 29 Sept. 1894.
  • 118. Sheahan, Hist. Hull, 643–7; Hull Advertiser, 22 May 1829; 23 Apr. 1830.
  • 119. Hull Advertiser, 20 June 1857.
  • 120. Ibid. 16 June 1848. List of first winter night classes: ibid. 20 Oct. 1848.
  • 121. Ibid. 18 Jan. 1850, 20 June 1857.
  • 122. Lawson, Town Grammar Sch. 207–8, 214–16.
  • 123. Hull News, 19 Mar. 1898.
  • 124. The secretary, Richard Johnson, wrote asking Owen to lecture there in 1839: H. Silver, 'Robert Owen and the concept of Popular Education', App. D (vi) (Hull Univ. M.Ed. thesis, 1964).
  • 125. W. Stephenson, Dir. Hull (1848), 393; Hull News, 1 Jan. 1853.
  • 126. Sheahan, Hist. Hull, 648.
  • 127. J. W. Rowntree and H. B. Binns, Hist. of Adult Sch. Movement, 47, 51.
  • 128. Sheahan, Hist. Hull, 638.
  • 129. Sheahan, Hist. Hull, 528, 598, 612; Hull Advertiser, 11 Jan. 1850; 3rd Rep. Science and Art Dept. [2123], p. 259, H.C. (1856), xxiv.
  • 130. Greenwood, Picture of Hull (1835), 116–17. See p. 452.
  • 131. Sheahan, Hist. Hull, 649; 10th Rep. Science and Art Dept. [3143], p. 78, H.C. (1863), xvi; W. White, Dir. Hull (1882), 99.
  • 132. E. Counties Herald, 27 Feb., 17 Apr. 1873.
  • 133. Ibid. 30 Mar 1876.
  • 134. Ibid. 28 Sept. 1876.
  • 135. Ibid. 10 May 1877, 7 Mar. 1878.
  • 136. Ibid. 4 Apr., 9 and 16 May 1878.
  • 137. Ibid. 28 Apr. 1880.
  • 138. Ibid. 26 Jan. 1882.
  • 139. Hull and E. Yorks. Times, 27 Oct. 1923.
  • 140. See pp. 424, 426–7.
  • 141. T. Bulmer, Hist., Topog. and Dir. E. Yorks. (1892), 809–10.
  • 142. Hull News, 16 and 23 Apr. 1887.
  • 143. Hull Corp. Mins. Tech. Inst. Cttee. 1890–1, 1.
  • 144. Ibid. 1894–5, 240; Hull Corp., Mins. Tech. Inst. (Finance and Gen. Purposes) Sub-Cttee. 1894–5, 405–6.
  • 145. Hull and E.R. Red Bk. 90.
  • 146. Hull News, 27 June 1896; Mins. Tech. Inst. (Finance and Gen. Purposes) Sub-Cttee. 1897–8, 8.
  • 147. This account of the work of the L.E.A. is based on mins. of corporation Educ. Cttee's. higher and elementary educ. sub-cttees.; J. T. Riley, 'Educ. in Hull', Handbk. to Hull and the E.R. 147–61; and articles in Educ. Week Handbk. (1924).
  • 148. Mins. Elem. Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1904–5, 174.
  • 149. Ibid. 'Statistical Tables'.
  • 150. Ibid. 1912–13, 5–6; Riley, op. cit. 148.
  • 151. Mins. Elem. Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1906–7, 281; 1907–8, 235; 1911–12, 51; Riley, op. cit. 148.
  • 152. Mins. Elem. Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1920–1, 37; 1921–2, 35; Riley, op. cit. 153.
  • 153. Educ. Cttee. Year Bk. (1911–12), 105, 157; Mins. Elem. Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1913–14, 140.
  • 154. Mins. Elem. Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1909–10, 24; 1920–1, 37; Riley, op. cit. 152.
  • 155. Educ. Cttee. Rep. of Principal Sch. Medical Officer . . . 1957, App. I; Riley, op. cit. 151–2.
  • 156. Mins. Higher Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1904–5, 66–68, App.; 1905–6, 19, 76–77. The pupil-teacher centre closed in 1905.
  • 157. Mins. Higher Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1905–6, 74, 178; 1908–9, 114.
  • 158. Ibid. 1905–6, 73, 182; Sisters of Mercy, Hull, 1857– 1957 (unpaginated pamphlet).
  • 159. Lawson, Town Grammar Sch. 264 sqq.; Mins. Higher Educ. Sub-Cttee. contain printed ann. reps. of munic. sec. schs. In 1906 Central Sec. Sch. had 4 graduates in a staff of 26; Craven St., 1 in 18; and Boulevard 6 in 22.
  • 160. Mins. Higher Educ. Sub. Cttee. 1905–6, 77, 78; 1906–7, 96; Newland High Sch. . . . Hull, 1907–57, 8, 10.
  • 161. Mins. Higher Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1924–5, 4–5; 1928–9, 54; Educ. Cttee. Scholarships and Bursaries (1921, 1925, 1933).
  • 162. Bd. of Educ. List 49, 1937–8.
  • 163. Mins. Elem. Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1938–9, 31, 65; Bd. of Educ. List 21, 1927, 1932, 1936, 1938.
  • 164. Educ. Cttee. Rep. of Principal Sch. Medical Officer . . . 1957, App. I.
  • 165. Mins. Higher Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1928–9, 30; 1935–6, 27.
  • 166. Ibid. 1925–6, 47; 1926–7, 33; 1930–1, 55, 81; 1931–2, 24.
  • 167. In addition, the L.E.A. required their old premises for reorganization following the Hadow Report.
  • 168. Lawson, Town Grammar Sch. 280–1.
  • 169. For descriptions of the building see The Builder, 25 Apr. 1903; 14 Oct. 1905; Building News, 13 Oct. 1905; Architectural Review, Dec. 1905.
  • 170. Mins. Higher Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1903–4, 22–24; 1904–5, 98; Educ. Cttee. Year Bk. (1911–12), 112.
  • 171. Mins. Higher Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1903–4, 47; 1909–10, 131; Educ. Cttee. Year Bk. (1911–12), 111–12.
  • 172. Sisters of Mercy, Hull, 1857–1957.
  • 173. Mins. Higher Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1907–8, 2; 1912–13, 26; 1914–15, 93 sqq.; see also The First Fifty Years: . . . Hist. of . . . Hull Training College (1964).
  • 174. Mins. Higher Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1920–1, App. 'Principal's Rep.' 1; 1922–3, 10, 16, 24.
  • 175. Ibid. 1912–13, 13.
  • 176. Ibid. 1917–18, App. 'Rep. . . . on provision for technical instruction'; 1926–7, 35–36.
  • 177. Mins. Educ. Cttee. 1905–6, 35–37. A University (Special) Sub-Cttee., appointed to consider these proposals, in fact sponsored the training college.
  • 178. Mins. Higher Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1921–2, 58, 90.
  • 179. Univ. College, Hull, 1st Rep. of Council (1927), 3–4.
  • 180. Ibid. 5–10; Mins. Higher Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1926–7, 36.
  • 181. Mins. Higher Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1926–7, 65–66, 77–78.
  • 182. Ibid. 1927–8, 82; 1928–9, 19.
  • 183. Univ. College, Hull, 2nd Rep. of Council (1928), 5–6; ex inf. Dr. C. Meggitt, registrar, 1927–54.
  • 184. Univ. College, Hull, 4th Rep. of Council (1930), 22.
  • 185. Ibid. 5th Rep. (1931), 27.
  • 186. The Times, 10 May 1930. Ferens's total benefactions to his foundation exceeded £300,000.
  • 187. 'Univ. of Hull Student Statistics, 1927–62' (T/S in Univ. Libr.).
  • 188. Mins. Higher Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1931–2, 41, 49; Municipal Training Coll. Prospectus (1936–7).
  • 189. Hull Corp., Educ. Cttee. Evening Institutes (1931, 1934, 1937).
  • 190. Mins. Higher Educ. Sub-Cttee. 1929–30, 39; Municipal Training Coll. Prospectus (1935–6).
  • 191. Educ. Cttee. Circular 2205 for schs. in Apr. 1945 and their reclassification under the Educ. Act, 1944.
  • 192. M. Science, 'Educ. Devt. in . . . Hull since the War', Studies in Educ. ii, no. 2, 109–24.
  • 193. 'Kingston upon Hull County Boro. Devt. Plan' (1946); P. Barber, 'Kingston upon Hull Devt. Plan for Prim. and Sec. Educ.' Studies in Educ. i, no. 3, 12–23.
  • 194. A new St. Charles's R.C. Prim. Sch. for 400 was planned in 1963.
  • 195. The account of schs. established or reorganized since 1945 is based on corporation Educ. Cttee. Mins. and on information supplied by the Chief Educ. Officer.
  • 196. See plate facing p. 283.
  • 197. Educ. Cttee. 'Scheme of Further Education and Plan for County Colleges' (1948), 27.
  • 198. See plate facing p. 282.
  • 199. Educ. Cttees.' Year Bk. 1962–3, 312–13; Min. of Educ. List 69, 1962; List 71, 1962. Because of difficulties in recruitment 7 per cent. of teachers in Hull were unqualified in 1962.
  • 200. Among buildings to be remodelled were the old board schs. in Courtney St., Constable St., St. George's Rd., Paisley St., and Craven St.
  • 201. Univ. of Hull, Ann. Rep. (1961–2), 65.
  • 202. 'Student Statistics, 1927–62.'
  • 203. B. Jones, 'Univ. of Hull', Nature, no. 174, 1121.
  • 204. Univ. of Hull, Ann. Rep. (1961–2), 23–24.
  • 205. Ibid. 8, 25; (1962–3), 25. See plate facing p. 283.
  • 206. Univ. of Hull, Mins. Ann. Gen. Meeting of Court, 10 Dec. 1963.
  • 207. Min. Bk. in trustees' possession.