A History of the County of York: Volume 3. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1974.
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196. COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF HEMINGBROUGH
The church of St. Mary of Hemingbrough was given by the Conqueror to the Prior and convent of Durham. It was a richly endowed rectory, (fn. 1) and in 1426, on 26 October, a licence was obtained from Henry VI for the conversion of the church into a college, (fn. 2) and in the following month Archbishop Kemp made an ordination to that effect. The college staff was to consist of a provost or custos, three prebendaries, six vicars, and six clerks. (fn. 3) The Dean and Chapter of York gave their consent to this ordination on 19 May 1427, but on condition that the provost and collegiate body observed the terms of Archbishop Thoresby's charter of 1356, which, among other things, provided that out of the revenue of the church the annual sum of £1 13s. 4d. was to be paid to the York Chapter, and also a sum of £3 6s. 8d. to the Archbishop of York and his successors. (fn. 4)
The provost, according to the ordination, was to be in priest's orders and already a canon of Hemingbrough before his election to the headship. He was to exercise the cure of souls in the parish, and he was primarily responsible for the college finance. The church's income was to be paid to him, and he was to pay the stipends of the canons, vicars, clerks, and others connected with the church, his own personal stipend being £26 13s. 4d. a year. For the greater part of the year he was to be in residence, (fn. 5) but by an ordination made 20 March 1479 by Archbishop Lawrence Booth he was compelled to reside only thirteen weeks in the year. The rectory-house with its land and the vicars' house were confirmed to him under this ordination, and also the sole administration of the spiritual and temporal matters of the college. (fn. 6)
The canons were to be residentiaries, either 'continually or by turns,' their period of residence being thirteen weeks each. As his stipend each was to have 10 marks a year, payable quarterly nomine prebendae, and 10 marks payable at the end of the year nomine residentiae; (fn. 7) but by the later archiepiscopal enactment of 1479 the payment to each canon was to be £2 13s. 4d. a year for the corpus of his prebend. (fn. 8)
Of the six vicars two were to be the chantry priests of Cliff (fn. 9) and Wasse, (fn. 10) two foundations then existing in the church. These chaplains were to be present at masses and other hours, and robe like the other vicars, their stipends arising from their chantries to be augmented by a sum of 2 marks per quarter payable by the provost. The remaining four vicars were to have, under the provost, the charge of the parish, and each to receive 10 marks quarterly. They were to be 'hebdomadaries according to the order of their turn.' (fn. 11) The vicars were to have, by the 1479 ordination, a moiety of the faggots cut yearly in the parish. (fn. 12)
Of the clerks, also six in number, four 'clerks of the second form' were to be chosen by the provost, by whom also they were to be removable at pleasure; and each was to have £2 a year as stipend. Two other clerks, aquae bajuli, were to be nominated by the parishioners, by whom presumably they were to be paid, but, if so, their stipends were to be increased by a yearly payment from the provost of 1 mark each 'to make them more diligent in their divine ministrations.' (fn. 13)
At the suppression William Whitehead, the provost, received a pension of £13 14s. 6d. (fn. 14) and smaller sums were assigned to the other members of the college.
The provost, two of the prebendaries (Westwray and Todd), and the three pensioned vicars were living in 1553 and still enjoying their pensions.
Provosts of Hemingbrough (fn. 15)
John Rudbur (or Radburn), inst. 1427
John Harpour, inst. 1428
John Wythers, inst. 1429
Thomas Caudell, inst. 1440
Thomas Portington, inst. 1457
Lionel Wydvile, inst. 1471
James Preston, S.T.P., inst. 1475
Thomas Babthorpe, A.M., inst. 1480
Robert Marshal, inst. 1517 (fn. 16)
William Whitehead, inst. 1531
The 14th-century seal (fn. 17) is a vesica, 13/8 in. by 7/8 in., with a design of a canon seated in a chair holding a rod over a kneeling figure. The legend is:
✠ S' CAPITVLI D' HEMIBVRC
The matrix is said to have been given in 1826 by Mr. Joseph Hunter, F.S.A., to the Yorks. Philosophical Society, but they have now only a wax impression of it. (fn. 18)
197. COLLEGE OF ACASTER
The college at Acaster was founded during the reign of Edward IV. (fn. 19) Tanner in the Notitia gives a reference to an Act of Parliament of the reign of Richard III (1483-5) which tells of the size of the college estate: '40 acres of land in Nether Acaster in Yorkshire,' on a part of which 'their college was built,' the 40 acres 'to be enjoyed by the provost and fellows.' (fn. 20) This land, it appears, belonged to John Stillington, (fn. 21) whose son Robert, either with the consent of his father or after he had inherited the property, erected and endowed the college.
Robert, the founder, in 1466 was elevated to the bishopric of Bath and Wells, and the year after his consecration he was made Lord Chancellor. He took part in the rebellion of Lambert Simnel, and when that imposture came to nothing was committed as a prisoner to Windsor Castle, where he died in May 1491. (fn. 22)
The college of Acaster which Stillington had founded was dedicated to the honour of St. Andrew. (fn. 23) It was founded for a provost and three priests or fellows, (fn. 24) one of whom was to be a schoolmaster. (fn. 25) So says the Chantry Certificate, but as a fact all three fellows were schoolmasters. (fn. 26)
The provost and the three fellows in priests' orders were to pray 'for the souls of King Edward IV, his wife the Queen, his son the Prince, the Founder, and all Christian souls.' (fn. 27)
The endowments of the college were valued in 1535 at £33 10s. 4d. gross and £27 13s. 4d. net per annum. (fn. 28) In 1546 the valuation was put down as £35 12s. 11½d., the various items makingup the sum being minutely particularized. (fn. 29) In the survey of 1548 the college 'goods' were assessed at 17s. 4d. and the 'plate' as being 19 oz. 'parcell gylte.' The previous survey of 1546 had given the 'goods' as being of the value of £1 17s. 5d. and the 'plate' £4 7s. 7d.
The commissioners recommended that the school should be continued, and that the schoolmaster, William Gegoltson, should remain in the dual capacity of master and curate, his salary being fixed at £8 per annum. (fn. 30) The reason for Gegoltson's retention as an assistant parish priest was that the college was distant from the parish church (Stillingfleet) one mile, that in Acaster there were 200 houseling people, and that 'the ryver of Owse, which is a great stream,' ran 'betwixt the said College and the Parish Church and in that place without a bridge.'
In the former survey an imperfect and, in parts, illegible memorandum is appended, showing that a chantry had been founded and endowed at the college by Sir William Maleverer, apparently in March, 1520-1.
At the suppression William Alcocke was provost, a man of the age of sixty-seven. He was 'indifferently learned,' and enjoyed a stipend of £10 a year with 'no other living.' The three fellows were William Barton, John Rawdon, and William Gegoltson the schoolmaster. Barton was sixty-three years of age, and Rawdon forty-nine, their stipends being at the rate of £6 a year each, and neither of them possessed any other preferment. Gegoltson was thirty-eight; his income was £5 a year, and he also was no pluralist. He was 'indifferently learned,' but was still carrying on his work in 1571. (fn. 31)
198. COLLEGE OF HOWDEN
The church of St. Peter (fn. 32) at Howden was given at the Conquest to the Prior and convent of Durham. (fn. 33) In the year 1265 the living was valued at 275 marks, (fn. 34) and the Prior of Durham (fn. 35) made an attempt to convert the rectory into a religious community of sixteen monks. This was not effected, however, but on 11 March 1267, because the parish was wide and large, and the revenues sufficient to maintain 'many spiritual men,' (fn. 36) Archbishop Giffard, with the consent of the Prior and convent of Durham, and at the petition of the Dean and Chapter of York, made the church collegiate. (fn. 37) He ordained that there should be five prebendaries, each of whom was to provide at his own cost a priestvicar. These prebendaries were to have the cure of souls, which they were to administer by their respective priests, who were to dress in canonical habit like the York priests, and observe the same method of singing which obtained at York, except matins, which they were to say in the morning for the parish. (fn. 38) One of these prebendal priests was to be rector chori. The three chantry priests of St. Thomas, St. Mary, and St. Katharine, were also to be present at the hours, processions, and high mass; and other altars were, in no case to be assigned to the prebendal vicars, lest the number of priests present at the college services should be diminished; they were rather to be augmented. (fn. 39) Each chantry priest was to have one mark yearly in addition to the stipend he received as cantarist.
This establishment of a college would naturally mean loss to the Durham monastery; and compensation was given to the prior and convent from lands belonging to Howden.
The remainder of the Howden possessions were to form a common fund which was to be equally divided among the canons. The canons were to be residentiary, the period of residence being three months yearly, either continuously or at several times. The patronage of the prebends was to belong to the priory of Durham, the canons to be instituted and inducted by the archbishops, or to be presented to the dean and chapter during a vacancy of the archiepiscopal see. The area of the churchyard was to be divided among the canons in equal portions for their residence, and the houses then existing were to be converted for the use of the quire.
The five prebends had territorial names assigned to them—Howden, Barnby, Thorpe, Skelton (or Laxton), and Saltmarshe; and, in order that ho disputes as to precedence might arise, Archbishop Giffard also ordained that in the quire and processions the following order should be observed: on the south side (1) the prebendary of Howden, called the first prebend, was to have the first place; (2) Thorpe, the third prebend, was to come next; (3) Saltmarshe, the fifth prebend, followed; and (4) the cantarist of St. Thomas's altar. On the north side (1) the prebendary of Barnby, the second, was to have the first place; (2) Skelton alias Laxton, the fourth prebend, came next; (3) the priest of the altar of St. Mary followed; and (4) the priest of the altar of St. Katharine came last. (fn. 40) A sixth prebend was created later, on 29 January 1279— that of Skipwith. Its holder with his priest would occupy the fifth place on either side in quire and processions.
No provost or warden was appointed, but the prebendary of Howden was named the first, and was 'freed from the cure of souls and made a simple and pure prebend only.' This would seem to imply that he was intended to be regarded as the 'head.' For his maintenance there was assigned the tithe of hay, wool, and lambs of the towns of Howden, Knedlington, and Barnhill. The other prebends were all endowed with assignments of tithes from the districts from which they took their titles. These arrangements were precise and elaborate, but they evidently did not work perfectly as far as the parish was concerned, and on 2 February 1319 Archbishop Melton ordained a perpetual vicarage of Howden, the incumbent to have the cure of souls which were 'impendent' on the prebend of Howden. His stipend was to be 10 marks a year. (fn. 41)
In addition to the three chantries already mentioned, a fourth was founded at the altar of St. Cuthbert in the year 1405 to be in the patronage, unlike the others, 'of the Chapter of the Church of Howden.' There was also a fifth chantry at the altar of St. Andrew. (fn. 42)
About the middle of the 14th century there appears to have been disturbance with the priory authorities at Durham with reference to the appointments to prebends. The king had made several presentations to various stalls, and the priory disputed the legality of the appointments, prosecuting appeals at Rome. (fn. 43) The quarrel in the end was settled by the archbishop, whose judgement was confirmed afterwards by the king. (fn. 44)
In 1535 the value of the college is given as £96 8s. 10½d. gross, and net £61 2s. 10½d. (fn. 45)
The collegiate church was not touched at the dissolution of the monasteries, but it fell at the suppression of the chantries, and a certificate of the house by John Bellow, the king's surveyor in the East Riding, temp. Edward VI, gives the names and ages of the various prebendaries, vicars, and chantry priests, the value of the prebends and the pensions assigned to their holders, as well as any cures to which they were then appointed. (fn. 46)
The 13th-century seal (fn. 47) is a vesica, with a design of St. Peter seated, blessing and holding a book. The legend is:—
S' COMMVNE CANONIC . . . ECCL'E D' HOVEDENE
199. KIRKBY OVERBLOW
The church of All Saints, Kirkby Overblow, in 1362 was made collegiate. Henry, Lord Percy, had just died, and his executors, Sir Richard Tempest and William de Newport, rector of Spofforth, on 5 November asked that the church should be converted into a college. Two days later the rector of Kirkby joined in the petition, and, licence having been already obtained from the king, Archbishop Thoresby made an ordination to that effect. (fn. 48)
The existing rector, Robert de Ede, and his successors were ever afterwards to be called provosts. They were still to exercise the cure of souls in the parish, to have the full government of the church, to administer its finance, and bear all burdens incumbent upon the church. In addition to the provost there were to be four chaplains; but, whilst the ordination provided that they were to 'celebrate masses and other divine offices for ever' therein, their sphere of work was principally to be elsewhere. One of them was to be a 'parson' in the cathedral church of York, where he was to celebrate for the souls of the archbishop and of Henry de Percy, Mary his wife, their progenitors and successors. The three other chaplains were also to have their altars away from Kirkby. The founders of the college were buried in the monastery of Alnwick, near the castle. In the castle chapel the three chaplains were to celebrate their masses, &c., perpetually. The patronage was to be in the hands of the two executors, and afterwards was to be exercised by the heirs of one of them, (fn. 49) William de Newport, the cantarists to be canonically instituted by the Archbishops of York.
The ordination of Archbishop Thoresby was exceptionally detailed with reference to the services to be performed, each day of the week having its allotted masses and prayers. On Sundays one of the chaplains was to celebrate the office of the dead, the second the mass of the Holy Trinity, the third for the souls of the two founders. On Mondays one was to say mass for the dead, the second the mass of the Holy Angels, the third the founders' mass. On Tuesdays all three were to celebrate for the souls of the founders. On Wednesdays one was to say mass for the dead, the second the mass of St. John the Evangelist, the third the founders' mass. On Thursdays one was to celebrate the office of the dead, the second the mass of Corpus Christi, the third for the founders' souls. On Fridays one was to say mass for the dead, the second the mass of the Holy Cross, the third for the founders. On Saturdays one was to celebrate for the departed, the second to say the mass of St. Mary the Virgin, the third the founders' mass. So the services were to go on from day to day, regularly and uninterruptedly, unless the chaplains were hindered by any lawful cause or by the feasts of the nine lections. On all festivals they were to say for the souls of the founders Placebo, Dirige, and other offices of the dead. (fn. 50)
For their stipends these chaplains were to have £40 a year, that is to say each of them was to be paid £2 10s. quarterly, out of the revenues of the church of Kirkby Overblow, by the provost. (fn. 51)
As was usual in the case of a parish church becoming collegiate, recompense was made to the cathedral church for any damage it might have suffered through the appropriation. In this instance an annual pension of £1 was to be paid by the provost to the archbishop, and another of 10s. to the dean and chapter.
The rector, now dignified by the title 'provost,' went on working afterwards practically as before as parochial rector, assisted by a priest who had to minister in the chapel-of-ease at Stainburn, 3 miles distant from the parish church. (fn. 52) After he had paid the various stipends, £20 to the chaplains, £1 10s. to the cathedral, £3 6s. 8d. to the priest-in-charge at Stainburn, and other charges amounting to 11s. 6d., £20 was left for his own stipend. (fn. 53)
At what period the rector became responsible for the chapel at Stainburn is not known, but in the Chantry Survey of 1548 the chapel is said to have been 'used tyme out of mynde as paryshe church for th' ease of th' inhabitants of Stayneburne.' (fn. 54) The 1546 survey gives an account of the chantry of our Lady in York Minster, 'of the fundacion of Henry Percye, Erle of Northumberland, and Mary his wyffe,' but in the Surtees Society's volume (fn. 55) there is an unfortunate note as to the identity of this earl which is very misleading. (fn. 56) In 1546 John Aske was incumbent of the chantry, of which the goods were valued at 15s. 10d. and the plate at £1 19s. The chantry itself was valued at £5 yearly, coming out of the parsonage of Kirkby Overblow, and 7s. from a tenement in Imbergate.
The chantry of our Lady was in existence, it seems, before 1362, and was simply refounded at that time by the executors of the originators of the collegiate church of Kirkby. (fn. 57)
Provosts (fn. 58)
Robert Ede, instituted rector 1 Mar. 1361, became first provost 1362 (fn. 59)
Peter de Wellom, instituted 15 Dec. 1362
William de Woderove, instituted 10 Feb. 1364
Robert de Spytell, instituted 10 Mar. 1364
Thomas de Walton, instituted 7 Oct. 1373 (fn. 60)
Roger de Waldeby, instituted 16 Dec. 1374 (fn. 61)
Thomas Sparrowe of Watton, instituted 21 Dec. 1382
William Sparrowe of Watton, instituted 17 Jan. 1383
Thomas de Anlaby, instituted 8 June 1387
John Whitwell, instituted 24 July 1394
William Farman, instituted 17 Apr. 1397
John Nesse, instituted 9 Oct. 1428
Robert Staynley, instituted 24 Nov. 1428
John Dene, instituted 19 May 1442
William Bowre, instituted 3 Jan. 1451
Nicholas Rawdon, instituted Mar. 1462 (fn. 62)
Richard Nunde, instituted 4 Mar. 1466 (fn. 63)
George Oughtred, instituted 17 May 1475 (fn. 64)
Thomas Poole, instituted 24 Sept, 1496 (fn. 65)
Thomas Lakyn, S.T.P., instituted vicar 20 Dec. 1573 (fn. 66)
200. THE HOSPITAL OR COLLEGIATE CHAPEL OF LAZENBY (fn. 67)
On 19 February 1290 a collegiate establishment was founded at Lazenby, in the parish of Northallerton, for a master and six chaplains, by John de Lythegranes and Alice his wife. Lawton identifies this place with the Lazenby in the parish of Wilton, (fn. 68) but its chapel is called in the 1546 survey 'the Chapell of Lasynbye in the saide paroche of Northalverton.'
It was founded for the celebration of masses and other divine services for the souls of the founders and all Christian people, dedicated in honour of the Blessed Virgin, and endowed with the whole manor of Lazenby.
Whether the original intention was ever fully carried out is not known. It probably was attempted, but in the course of years the endowment was found to be inadequate. At all events, on 7 November 1443 it was declared that, whereas John de Lythegranes and Alice his wife built a chapel, and purposed to found a chantry of six chaplains in the manor of Lazenby, and endow the same with the manor and the property, they were unable, through death, to carry out the scheme. (fn. 69) The implication of this statement must be that their intentions were not fully realized, and, as the issues of the manor were insufficient for the purpose, the king granted licence to Robert Nevill, Bishop of Durham, and Nicholas Hulme, to assign the manor to the abbey of Jervaulx, the said monastery to supply two chaplains to perform service in the said chapel. Nicholas Hulme had been appointed to the mastership on 9 April 1425, (fn. 70) and was probably still master in 1443, and the effect of this new licence would seem to have been that the chapel lost its collegiate character, and became a simple chantry chapel for two priests supplied from the abbey of Jervaulx. No master, at all events, is heard of after Nicholas Hulme.
The patronage of the college evidently belonged to the see of Durham, for we find that Richard de Clyfford was appointed by the king in 1382, receiving the mastership at his nomination because the temporalities of the see of Durham were in his hands 'through voidance.' (fn. 71)
Pope Urban VI reserved to himself all benefices of papal chaplains, (fn. 72) but when he was succeeded, 2 November 1389, by Boniface IX, (fn. 73) it was found that the 'Chapel of S. Mary, Lasynby, in the diocese of York,' which had become vacant through the death of John Moubray, papal chaplain, had not been filled. Pope Boniface therefore claimed the right of presentation, and on 14 February 1390 Roger Whyte was provided with the said wardenship, value 20 marks, notwithstanding the fact that he already had the vicarage of Middleton of the same value, and that Pope Boniface had already made provision for him of canonries, with the expectation of prebends of St. John's, Beverley, and St. Mary's, Southwell. (fn. 74) Whyte's tenure of Lazenby was not, however, a long one, for Thomas Haxey was appointed to the mastership 25 October 1391. (fn. 75) In 1425 Thomas Haxey, the master, died, and in his will he left to the chapel of Lazenby a sum of £10 'for repairs.' (fn. 76) Nicholas Hulme, already referred to, was Haxey's successor. He was collated to the mastership immediately after Haxey's death, and a brass in Greatham Hospital, co. Durham, commemorates his life and work. (fn. 77)
After 1443 there were simply two chantry priests at Lazenby. In 1535 they had as their stipends £9 6s. 8d., (fn. 78) the same amount mentioned in the 1546 survey, where the heading appears as 'The Chaunterie of the two Prestes in the chapel of Lasynbye.' (fn. 79) The two priests at that time were John Wylde and Richard Woodehall. The chapel is described as being 2 miles from the parish church, the goods valued at 14s., and the plate at £1 8s. (fn. 80) In the 1548 certificate Wilde is said to have been sixty years of age and Woodehall fifty, (fn. 81) of 'good qualities and condicions' but of 'meane lerenyng,' their joint stipends 'goinge furth of the possessions of the late monastery of Jarvaux' being £9 6s. 8d., the outgoings being 18s. 8d., and the clear income, therefore, eight guineas.
Geoffrey, occurs 1294 (fn. 82)
John de Eboraco, occurs 1316 (fn. 83)
Richard de Wellinton, occurs 1361 (fn. 86)
Richard de Clyfford, appointed 1382 (fn. 87)
Henry Godebarn, occurs 1384 (fn. 88)
John Moubray, died 1389 (fn. 89)
Roger Whyte, appointed 1390 (fn. 90)
201. LOWTHORPE COLLEGIATE CHURCH
In the early years of Edward III there appear to have been, at Lowthorpe, a number of people 'attached to the worship of the Trinity and S. Mary' who were desirous to have daily service in their, church, (fn. 95) so Sir John de Heselarton, the patron, obtained royal licence on 26 January 1333 to alienate the advowson to seven chaplains who were to celebrate mass daily, as the patron should appoint.
On 25 and 27 March 1333 the patron and the rector, Robert de Alesby, placed the church at the absolute disposal of the Archbishop of York, to make whatever ordinances he should wish for the future governance of the church; and on 3 May the king confirmed the statutes which had been drawn up with the advice of the dean and chapter. These ordinances secured a regular succession of rectors who were to celebrate mass at least thrice a week and be responsible for the charges and management of the church. There were also to be six perpetual chantries bearing the names of the Holy Trinity, St. Mary, the archbishop, the chapter, the founder, the patron; and on 14 October 1364 a seventh chantry was founded. (fn. 96)
At the third chantry masses were to be said for the archbishops, past, present, and future, and also for Edward II. At chantry no. 4 there were to be celebrations for the deans and canons 'quick and dead' and their successors, and also for Sir William de R'os the second, 'sometime lord of Hamlak.' (fn. 97) Chantries nos. 5 and 6 were founded for masses for the founder, Sir John, his wife Margery, their children, heirs, parents, and also for John de Hotham, (fn. 98) Bishop of Ely.
In addition to the rector there were to be six perpetual priests and three clerks, two of them deacons, or at least one a deacon and the other a sub-deacon. They were to wear surplices, to say the canonical services, or at least on ferial days to say matins, high mass, and vespers, and, on the feasts of the nine lections, the hour of prime. On double feasts and Sundays they were to chant high mass and all the hours. Further ordinances were made for special masses for the dead, for the places in the quire of the priests, and for their dress.
Their clothes were to be of cloth, 'either black or the nearest shade to that colour,' or of 'cainet' not 'approximating to red or green'; they were to wear 'black surcoats' fastened and 'without birri,' and 'other garments fastened from the top.' They were to live in common in a house in the rectory; to bear themselves lowly and reverently; to swear obedience to the rector, and never be absent without his permission. For their sustenance the priests had in the rectory a 'hall,' chambers, kitchen, bakehouse, brewhouse, and a loft. Turbary for sufficient peat was provided, and an annual stipend of 6½ marks each. The two deacons were to have 40s. each per year, and the third clerk had to live 'of the holy water'—aqua benedicta—perquisites, and parishioners' alms.
The church continued with such a constitution for more than two centuries, passing undisturbed through the times of the dissolution of the monasteries. Confidence in its continued existence appears to have prevailed at a time when other ecclesiastical institutions seemed insecure, for on 10 June 1543 Hezakiah Clifton of Burton Agnes left 'to the Colledge of Lowthorpe, 20s.' (fn. 99) But the end came at the suppression of chantries, &c., for, in August 1552, we find in an inventory of the goods belonging to 'the College of Lowthorpe in the countye of Yorke' that it is referred to as the 'said late colledge,' the corn being valued at £65 12s. 4d., 'certen cattell' at £12 5s. 8d., and 'certen utensyles of husbandrye ' at £83 6s. 6d. (fn. 100)
Rectors of Lowthorpe (fn. 101)
Robert de Alesby, last parochial rector, instituted 26 Apr. 1331
Thomas de Riplingham, Nov. 1333
Robert de Alesby, 23 May 1335
John de Killum, 9 Sept. 1349
John de Knapton, 21 Dec. 1354
Roger de Barton, 4 Aug. 1357
Thomas de Lowthorp, 13 Oct. 1363
John de Ingleby
Robert de Bynton, 16 Dec. 1372
Richard de Malton
John de Westhead, 17 Mar. 1392
John de Dyghton, 20 June 1394
Thomas Brasse, 1 Mar. 1407
William Blaunche, 25 Sept. 1409
Thomas Taylor, 6 Oct. 1430
Thomas Percebrig, 13 Dec. 1437
John Sutton, 15 July 1439
John Regill, 23 July 1444
Henry Feron, 11 Nov. 1450
William Rowghshawe, (fn. 102) 30 Oct. 1473
William Warde, 23 Mar. 1486
William Rawkeshawe, S.T.B., 2 Apr. 1490
William Thompson, 1 Mar. 1504
John Braynsby, (fn. 103) 3 July 1536
202. THE COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF MIDDLEHAM
The collegiate foundation at Middleham was one of the abortive schemes of Richard III while Duke of Gloucester. Letters Patent were granted by Edward IV in 1478, (fn. 104) empowering the duke to found at Middleham a collegiate body to consist of a dean, six chaplains, four clerks, six choristers, and another 'clerk sacristane' for parochial ministrations. The scheme was approved by Archbishop Lawrence Booth, (fn. 105) and the parish church made collegiate, and exempted from the jurisdiction of the Archdeacon of Richmond. Statutes were compiled for the governance of the collegiate church, and the dean and six chaplains were appointed by the founder, but the college was not endowed, and collapsed with the fall of its founder, before it had been fairly set on foot.
The appointment of the first dean and chaplains was made by the founder, and it may be of interest in passing to call attention to the arrangement in the statutes (fn. 106) that in mass and quire offices, the uses of the cathedral church of Salisbury were to be followed and not those of York. The duke's appointment to the decanal and other stalls was as follows (fn. 107) :—
I the said Duc statute, make, and ordeyne by th auctoritie forsaid, [the licence of Edward IV] that hereafter no maner persons by me or myne heirez, have or shal have graunt to be deane of my said Collage y'unto admitted affore he be prest, . . . and the deane to be admitted by the said sex prests, the eldest of yeme to geve hyme his othe at high altare to be true deane and master yr, and observe and kep all ordinannces and statutez and laudable custumes, and ye right and libertees y'of defend at his power, and y'after to say De profundis affore ye high altare, wt this collect Deus cui proprium—following the antetem Fundatoris mei, etc., and y'opon bring hyme to his stall and put hyme in possession of the same; and the said prests by ye deane to be admitted after the forme and othe among oy's hereafter folowing.
Also, yat the saide Sir William Beverley, dean, and his successours, have ye principall place and stall of the right side of the high quere of my said Collage, which stall I wil be called oure Lady stall; and Sir Laurence Squier forsaide, the first prest yt shalbe admitted thereto occupie the principall place and stall on the left side of the said quere, and yat stall to be called Saint George stall; and the said Sir William Symson, secund prest, in the next stall to the deane on ye said right side, and yt stall to be named Seynt Kateryn stall; and the forsaide Sir Richard Cutler, therd prest, the secund stall on the saide left side, that stall to be called Saint Ninian stall; and Sir William Buntyng to for rehersid, the fourt prest, the thirde stall on the ye (sic) said right side, the same to be called Seint Cuthbert stall; and Sir Hugh Leverhede above writen, ye fift prest, the third stall on the said left side, the saide stall to be called Seint Antony stall; and Sir John Bell above writyn, the sext prest, the fourt stall on the saide right side, and yat to be called Seint Barbara stall; and two of the saide clerks on the saide right side, and ye oy' two clerks and the clerk sacristane beneth yeme on the left side, at the assignacion of ye said dean; and the sex queresters yere places accordingly as ye saide deane shal assigne yeme.
(Successors to occupy and 'be always admytte by the deane to ye stall of hym beyng voide.')
Although no further appointments were made to the chaplaincies, the church continued nominally collegiate, with its dean and the 'minister for divine service' or 'clerk sacristan' till about 1830, when the dean, Dr. P. S. Wood, made appointments to the six chaplaincies, or 'canonries' as they were termed, and instituted a 'cathedral service' in the church. (fn. 108) The last of these 'canons' (one of whom had been the Rev. Charles Kingsley) died in 1897. On the death of Dean Wood in 1856 the decanal office and the peculiar were both suppressed, and the incumbent has since been rector only. (fn. 109) The deans had, however, exercised a peculiar jurisdiction independent in many respects of the archbishop until 1856. Marriage licences were granted, wills proved, &c., and the deans were admitted to a stall in the quire and vote in chapter by one of the neighbouring clergy by authority of a royal mandate. (fn. 110)
203. ST. CLEMENT'S COLLEGIATE CHAPEL, PONTEFRACT
This church of St. Clement was a free chapel royal, exempt from all episcopal and archidiaconal jurisdiction. It was situated within the castle of Pontefract and was founded by Ilbert (fn. 111) de Lacy. The college was founded for a dean and three prebendaries, (fn. 112) and was well endowed by the founder. The purpose of the foundation of the college was (fn. 113) to 'the intent that God should be served in the said Castle, to have mass and other divine services . . . and to minister all sacraments and sacramentalls to all within the Park of Pountfrett, (and) the Bedhouse called S. Nicholas' Hospital Bulhouse.' (fn. 114)
The Pope Nicholas' Taxation (fn. 115) in 1291 says that 'the Castle Chapel was divided into four prebends,' and it fortunately gives particulars:—
|Prebenda Magri Jacobi de Ispannya||17||6||8|
|Prebenda Ade de Poterton||13||6||8|
|Prebenda filii Theobaldi de Luco||13||6||8|
|Prebenda Prioris de Pontefracto||10||0||0|
The four prebends were the deanery and the three prebends of the foundation charter, for James de Ispannya was dean (fn. 116) in 1298. The third prebend, at this time held by the Prior of Pontefract, was afterwards 'apparently entirely swallowed up by the Priory.' (fn. 117)
In 1399 the dean of this college, John Bosevyle, received a grant for life of all the land of John de Bathe, citizen and weaver of London, in the parish of St. Botolph within Aldersgate, London. Without the royal licence, Bathe had bequeathed the land to the parson of St. Botolph's for the maintenance of a chantry. It was, therefore, forfeit to the king, who presented it to the dean at Pontefract to the annual value of 7 marks, the surplus to be passed on to the king, and Bosevyle was to celebrate for the soul of John de Bathe. (fn. 118)
As has been stated, there were three prebends in the college, though the founder's charter mentions only two parsons, whose names were Ranulph Grammaticus and Godfrey. (fn. 119) These two prebends are referred to in 26 Henry VIII, one of them consisting of the tithes in Campsall, &c., with a pension from the Prior of Nostell, and worth in all £14 16s. 4d. a year, the other consisting of tithes at Allerton, Newton, Castleford, Fryston, &c., and worth £13 8s. 8d. a year. There was also a chantry priest—the third prebendary, possibly—who received £5 a year, (fn. 120) and the deanery was valued at £15 15s. 3d.
In the 1546 report of the Commissioners the deanery is assessed at £22 12s. 7d., the various items making up the amount being given in detail. (fn. 121) A separate return is made of the two prebends. One is called 'The Prebende or Chantrie of Ade (Adam) de Potterton,' and the other that of 'Theobalde de Luce in the saide Fre Chapell.' Richard Weston was. prebendary of the former, his stipend from certain specified lands, &c., being £15 3s., the outgoings £1 9s. 7¾d., leaving a clear balance of £13 13s. 4¼d. The goods were valued at £2 11s. 6d. and the plate at £4 8s. and a note is given that 'the incumbents are not, resident but by deputies.' (fn. 122) The prebendary of the other chantry was John Stringar, whose net income was £11 18s. 5½d. (fn. 123)
Before the dissolution of the monasteries the college had been practically annexed to the priory of Pontefract, the prior being also the dean. At the dissolution the college reverted to the status quo ante, but was not long allowed to enjoy its recovered independence, for it was entirely suppressed as from Easter 1548 under the Chantries Act. (fn. 124)
Mag. Michael de Northburgh, appointed 21 May 1339 (fn. 127)
John Bosevyle, occurs 1399 (fn. 128)
Dom. Thos. Wykersley, appointed c. 1420 (fn. 129)
Mag. John de Waynflete, appointed c. 1420 (fn. 130)
Mag. John Thorneton, appointed c. 1430 (fn. 131)
James Thwaytes, died Oct. 1545 (fn. 134)
Francys Malett, D.D., occurs 1546 (fn. 135)
204. COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF ST. PETER AND ST. WILFRID, RIPON
The collegiate church of Ripon had its beginning in a monastery of monks following the Scottish rule, who received a grant of the place called Inrhypum from the Northumbrian king, Alchfrith, about the year 660. (fn. 136) This establishment, of which Eata was abbot, and Cuthbert guest-master, was granted by Alchfrith not long after its foundation to Wilfrid, and was abandoned by the Scottish monks, who were disinclined to accept the changes involved by Wilfrid's preference for Gallican customs. (fn. 137) During the stormy life of Wilfrid, Ripon was his favourite residence. He here raised his basilica of dressed stone, with columned arcades and aisles, (fn. 138) and called together the two Northumbrian kings, with the abbots, governors, and underkings of their realm, to its consecration in honour of St. Peter. (fn. 139) In 681, during Wilfrid's first banishment, Eadhaed was consecrated bishop with his see at Ripon. This bishopric, however, ceased with the restoration of Wilfrid in 686. (fn. 140) Ripon and Hexham were the possessions left to Wilfrid by the decision of the synod of Nidd in 705; (fn. 141) and to Ripon his body was brought from Oundle four years later. (fn. 142)
Such indications as we gain of the life of Wilfrid's monastery at Ripon point to the probability that the constitution of the collegiate church in the Middle Ages was derived from it with little interruption, and that the chapter of seven canons was a gradual development from the original foundation, involving no fundamental change, apart from a slackening of the rule under which Wilfrid's community seems to have lived. (fn. 143) As at York and Beverley, Athelstan was regarded as the great benefactor of the church and as the donor of its privilege of sanctuary, which here, as at Beverley, was valid within an area of a mile in every direction from the town. (fn. 144) The charter of Athelstan, preserved in more than one form, bears a strong resemblance to the similar Beverley charter, and contains a similar grant of liberties 'in all thyngges . . . as free as herte may thynk or eghe may se.' (fn. 145) No original copy of this charter exists, and it is probable that this and the rimed charter of Beverley. were composed in the 13th century as a memoria tecbnica of the privileges of the two churches. (fn. 146) In spite of the favour shown to Ripon by Athelstan, the harrying of Northumbria by his son Eadred about 948 was marked by the burning of the minster, in the ruins of which Wilfrid's body remained, exposed to desecration. (fn. 147) St. Oswald restored the services of the church; (fn. 148) but the highly probable story of his enshrinement of Wilfrid's remains was combated by the tradition that Archbishop Oda visited the deserted site about 952, and removed the relics to Canterbury. (fn. 149) In 995 Ealdhun removed the body of St. Cuthbert to Ripon from Chester-le-Street, before its final translation to Durham; (fn. 150) but of the state of the church at this time nothing is said. The foundation of certain prebendal estates is ascribed to Archbishop Ealdred. (fn. 151)
In Domesday Book the canons are mentioned as holding 14 bovates within St. Wilfrid's league, which was equivalent to the archbishop's manor of Ripon. (fn. 152) The limits of jurisdiction of the archbishop's and canons' liberties became a fruitful subject of discussion, and more than one instance occurs of encroachment upon the canons' peculiar by the sheriff and the archbishop's bailiff. In 1228 judgement was given on behalf of the canons, after a long trial in which the jurors upheld the traditional privileges of the chapter and defined the boundaries which separated the canons' from the archbishop's fee. (fn. 153) A list of tenants within the soke of the chapter showed that several were enfeoffed of property by the service of providing a man to carry the shrine of St. Wilfrid in procession at Ascensiontide and other feasts. Nicholas Warde of Sawley did service by bearing the standard of St. Wilfrid in front of the shrine, and before the townsfolk of Ripon in time of war. (fn. 154) The right of sanctuary was shared by the canons and the archbishop, each within their liberties. (fn. 155)
The analogies of York and Beverley, and the fact that the permanent number of canons at Ripon was seven, indicates that this was the original number of members of the chapter. The jurors of 1228 presented that, although rents from various tenements were assigned to individual canons, tenants held their property from the chapter as a whole, and no canon had separate soke in the lands on which his revenue was charged. (fn. 156) The constitution of the chapter was thus a compromise between that of the chapters of Beverley and York. As at Beverley, no canon had a jurisdiction distinct from that of the. chapter; while, as at York, each canon had a prebend derived from an assignation of definitely localized property, from which his stall obtained its name. This arrangement, which was probably traditional, explains the absence from Ripon of a provost, (fn. 157) whose duty was the oversight of the common property. The bulk of the chapter possessions lay within the large parish of Ripon, of which the Minster was the parish church; and six of the prebends, of which the definite names begin to appear towards the close of the 13th century, (fn. 158) were called after berewicks of the manor of Ripon, or other places within the soke—Thorpe (Littlethorpe), Monkton, Givendale and Skelton, Nunwick, Studley Magna, and Sharow. The seventh prebend was endowed by Archbishop Gray in 1230 with the church of Stanwick St. John in Richmondshire. The prebendary of Stanwick was appointed ruler of the quire in Ripon, with the duty of perpetual residence. (fn. 159) His vicar naturally resided at Stanwick. The remaining six prebendaries had their vicars in the church of Ripon, who were charged with the cure of souls in the district of the parish attached to each prebend. (fn. 160) Vicars, however, were not instituted until 1303. Until that time thecanons, who, after the usual manner of canons of secular chapters, were seldom resident, had been content to serve their cures by 'conducts' who undertook their duties, at Stanwick and Ripon, for a small yearly payment. (fn. 161) The citations of Archbishops Romanus and Corbridge were disregarded by the non-residents. (fn. 162) Corbridge succeeded in obtaining the appointment of vicars by a decree of 23 October 1303. The six vicars at Ripon were to be paid stipends of 6 marks a year each, and were to have a common house, which became known by the name of the Bedern, as at York and Beverley. (fn. 163) The vicars were in existence by 29 May 1304, when Nicholas of Bondgate granted them two messuages on which to build their dwellinghouse. (fn. 164)
Archbishop Greenfield proceeded, on the lines followed by Corbridge, to make the canons more sensible of their responsibility. Corbridge had forbidden the indiscriminate farming-out of prebends, (fn. 165) and in 1307 Greenfield sequestrated three of the prebends which had been let out to farm. (fn. 166) After a visitation in 1308 he found it necessary to forbid buying and selling within the church, (fn. 167) and to order the vicars to dwell in the Bedern. (fn. 168) In 1311 the prebend of Thorpe was sequestrated; its holder, an Italian, was said to have obtained it surreptitiously, and to be a married man. The sequestration had the desired effect of compelling the prebendary to look after his dilapidations. (fn. 169) Vicars and chantry priests gave the archbishop some trouble. Some of them were accused of going to dances and theatrical spectacles with lay-folk; others were suspected of being night-walkers, house-breakers, and incontinent. (fn. 170) Of this second class was William 'Pistor,' a chantry priest, who was defamed for incontinency with Clemence daughter of John called 'Preesres,' and was the ringleader in a gambling game called 'Dyngethriftes.' William fled from Ripon before Greenfield's visitation in 1312, and went to live at Aysgarth: the duty of discovering and correcting him was deputed to the Archdeacon of Richmond. (fn. 171) In 1315 Greenfield attacked the question of non-residence. None of the canons, other than the prebendary of Stanwick, were bound by any statutory conditions of residence; nor was there any inducement to reside in the shape of an extra share in the common fund. Greenfield took preparatory steps towards a remedy of this defect; (fn. 172) but it was left for his successor, Melton, to take the matter firmly in hand. A visitation of the chapter, held some time before 6 February 1331-2, was so poorly attended that Melton could take no action, and issued citations for a fresh visitation on 12 March. (fn. 173) The questions to be settled were the emoluments of residence, the means of repairing buildings which had fallen into ruin by neglect of the canons and the fury of the Scots, (fn. 174) the preservation of the liberties of the chapter, the degree of orders required by the holders of the several prebends, and the improvement of the stipends of the vicars. On 12 March two of the habitual absentees appeared in person, while the other four sent proctors. (fn. 175) The statutes which were the result of this convocation opened with a severe censure of the neglected state of the church. They proceeded to assign the lands and tithe of Nidd (fn. 176) and Grantley, with the whole altarage of the parish of Ripon, as a common fund for residents. The tithes due to the prebendary of Monkton, as treasurer of the church, were excepted from this ordination. The term of residence was fixed, as at Beverley and Southwell, at twelve weeks a year, kept continuously or with intervals. Payment of the vicars was to be made out of the common fund of the chapter. The other questions remained untouched. (fn. 177) Later in the century some dispute arose among the canons with regard to the allocation of prebendal tithes within the town of Ripon. In 1375 the disputed shares were united to the common fund, and an annual money payment was made in commutation to the six canons and the fabric of the church. By far the largest share went to the prebendary of Monkton. (fn. 178) The obligation of residence and the fact that his revenue was derived from a distinct source excepted the prebendary of Stanwick from these constitutional changes.
In 1414 Henry V, at the instance of Archbishop Bowett, formed the six vicars into a college under the presidency of a proctor; (fn. 179) and Bowett granted them a site for a new Bedern. (fn. 180) Their devotion to duty seems to have attracted the favourable notice of the archbishop, but injunctions issued in 1439 by Archbishop Kemp's commissaries show that some negligence had been observed in their conduct, and, among other things, that the bad habit, prevalent at York and Southwell, of walking about the church during divine service was one of their faults. (fn. 181) Throughout the 15th century the church was in a far from flourishing condition. The fabric was in such a state of ruin that in 1450 service could not be held in the church but was performed in an adjoining chapel; (fn. 182) and a succession of indulgences for contributions to the fabric marks the various stages in decay and repair. (fn. 183) The chapter acts of the period note occasional cases of carelessness. The sacrist in 1453 neglected his duty of ringing the bells at the proper times; water was not provided for the lavatories, nor was the clock properly kept. (fn. 184) The vicar of Nunwick in 1460 was accused of incontinence. (fn. 185) In 1465 a woman who lived at the western gatehouse of Fountains Abbey was dying, and sent her daughter-in-law to Ripon for the vicar of Givendale, in whose parish she was. He could not be found, and the vicar of Thorpe, who was apparently the only one in residence, was too old to come, but commissioned two monks of Fountains to administer the last sacraments. As a result of this, the Abbot of Fountains claimed her body, but she was eventually buried at Ripon, the parishioners of three neighbouring hamlets carrying her to her grave. (fn. 186)
At a chapter held in 1477 the canons voted half of their annual dividends from the common fund to the fabric of the church. The repair of the prebendal houses within five years was also made obligatory, and fines in cases of default were allotted to the fabric. (fn. 187) Energy of this kind was, however, only occasional. The disregard of residence appears to have become chronic, and in 1534 and 1537 Archbishop Lee found, on the complaint of some of the other canons, that a single residentiary, the treasurer, Christopher Dragley, was exercising autocratic powers in the church, much to its disadvantage and to the prejudice of the prebendary of Stanwick who was at this time non-resident. (fn. 188) Dragley was a man of unsatisfactory character, and promoted slackness among the vicars, for whom special injunctions were necessary. (fn. 189) Before the Suppression, Dragley had disappeared from the chapter, but in 1538 he gave up to the uses of the fabric the surplus of the common fund which he claimed as sole residentiary, reserving only his statutory £10, and limiting his residence, in compensation, to six weeks in the year. (fn. 190)
At the visitation of 1439 the quire was said to be constituted of thirty-two members. (fn. 191) Thirty-one only were accounted for, viz. the seven canons, who were also the seven personae, (fn. 192) the six vicars, (fn. 193) six deacons, six thuribulers, and six choristers. In 1546-7 there were three deacons and six sub-deacons, and the six thuribulers were divided into an upper and lower class. (fn. 194) The prebendary of Stanwick, as ruler of the quire, was ex officio precentor; (fn. 195) the office of treasurer was annexed, as has been said, to the prebend of Monkton. (fn. 196) Of a chancellor there is no record: (fn. 197) the grammar-school had its own master, (fn. 198) but was under the supervision of the precentor. (fn. 199) The value of the prebends varied at different times. In the Ecclesiastical Taxation the richest was that held by Giles of the Wardrobe, identified with Monkton, (fn. 200) its annual value being £46 13s. 4d.; while Stanwick, Givendale, Studley, and the prebend of Master John of Evreux came next with £40 each. Nunwick was worth £30, and Thorpe £26 13s. 4d. (fn. 201) In 1535 the income of Stanwick was assessed at £39 7s. 6d., and was followed by Studley, £26 11s. 4d., Monkton £23 12s. 8d., (fn. 202) Nunwick £21, Thorpe £20, Givendale £14 10s. 4d. and Sharow £14 5s. 2d. (fn. 203) In 1546-7 the values of each prebend are reckoned somewhat differently, but the same order is kept, with the difference that Monkton and Studley change places. (fn. 204) At both dates the stipend of the six vicars is assessed at £6 each. (fn. 205) Nine chantries within the church are named in the Valor Ecclesiasticus and eight in the Chantry Certificate. (fn. 206)
The two residentiaries in 1546-7 were Richard Deane, prebendary of Stanwick, and Marmaduke Bradley, prebendary of Thorpe, (fn. 207) whose dealings with the commissioners of Henry VIII as last Abbot of Fountains are little to his credit. (fn. 208) In May 1547 Edward VI granted the chapter the right of jurisdiction in cases of probate, institution and visitation within the peculiar; (fn. 209) but under the second Chantry Act the college was dissolved, and its revenues, with those of its chantries, united to the possessions of the duchy of Lancaster. (fn. 210) Ripon, although surrounded by a portion of the new diocese of Chester, still continued to be part of the diocese of York, in which it remained until 1836. (fn. 211) For many years, however, the minster was reduced to the condition of a mere parish church, with a small and ill-paid staff. (fn. 212) The project of Archbishop Sandys and other strong churchmen of the Elizabethan period to establish a theological college at Ripon was never more than an idea, (fn. 213) and it was not until 1604 that James I, at the request of Anne of Denmark, reconstituted the collegiate body under the presidency of a dean. Six stalls were endowed, and in 1607, under a second charter, a sub-deanery was created, to which Dr. John Favour, the celebrated vicar of Halifax, was appointed. (fn. 214) Subsequently the sub-dean was always one of the prebendaries. (fn. 215) The first dean was Moses Fowler, who previously was one of the vicars who served the church, and had seconded Sandys in his abortive scheme. (fn. 216) After its suppression during the Commonwealth the chapter was revived at the Restoration. The deanery remained a Crown appointment, but the collation to the canonries rested with the archbishop, subject to the presentation of three nominees by the chapter. (fn. 217) In 1836 the new bishopric of Ripon was founded, and the number of prebendaries reduced, after the vacation of two of the stalls, to four residentiary canons. (fn. 218) The number of honorary canonries in the collation of the bishop is twenty-four.
The 12th-century seal (fn. 219) is a vesica, 25/8 in. by 2 in., with Agnus Dei standing on an altar, and the legend:
✠ SIGILLVM SANCTI WILFRIDI RIPENSIS ECLESIE
The 13th-century seal (fn. 220) of the commissary of the chapter is a small vesica, 1½ in. by 1 in., with a tree, in the branches of which are a crucifix and a bird. Below stands St. Wilfrid, and on the other side is a kneeling monk. At the foot is a lily. The legend is:
S' COMMISSAR' CAPL'I ECCLESIE RIPONIENSIS
The 15th-century seal of the vicars choral (fn. 221) is a vesica, and shows, under a canopy, a king giving a sealed charter to a bishop; on the right of the canopy is a key, on the left a star; below, under an arch, is a group of heads. Legend:
S ' CŌĒ . . . PER REGEM HENRICUM VTUM
205. JESUS COLLEGE, ROTHERHAM
Thomas Scot, afterwards known as Thomas Rotherham, was a native of Rotherham, and became its most distinguished son. Among other dignities he held the provostry of Beverley, (fn. 222) the see of Rochester, (fn. 223) the see of Lincoln, (fn. 224) the archbishopric of York, (fn. 225) the chancellorship of Cambridge University, and the lord-chancellorship. (fn. 226) He had the interest of his native town very much at heart, and by royal licence, obtained 28 July 1480 (fn. 227) and 22 January 1483, (fn. 228) he founded the collegiate church, of which he laid the foundation stone on 12 March 1483, (fn. 229) having by his own metropolitical authority drawn up the statutes on 1 February 1483. (fn. 230)
The site of the college is described as lying between Me ympyerd,' or abbot's close, and 'the common river.' Here, at a distance of 160 ft. from the parish church, (fn. 231) he erected 'the College of Jesu of Rotherham.' In founding the institution, the archbishop had several objects in view: (1) it was to be in every sense a religious house; (2) it was to be a means of securing that the Word of God was preached in the neighbourhood; (3) it was to afford chambers for the chantry priests of the town, and so save them from the temptation of living vagrant and idle lives; and (4) it was to be an educational institution, the district being 'very barayn of knowledge.' (fn. 232)
The house was founded for a provost, two fellows, and, funds permitting, six choristers; and later, when making his will, the founder added a third fellow, bringing the total up to ten in the college, and so in his will he was able to indulge in the conceit that in whatsoever he might have offended God in the ten commandments he might have ten people to pray for him. (fn. 233)
The provost was to be a priest, a doctor or at least a B.D. of Cambridge, the appointment remaining with the founder during life, and after his death the regents and non-regents of Cambridge were to present new provosts to the Archbishop of York within a month of the notice of any vacancy, such notice to have been given by letter within nineteen days from the vacancy. (fn. 234)
The provost was to keep perpetual residence for the greater part of the year, to preserve the college rights and honestly administer its revenues, and to preach the Word of God in the diocese, and especially in Rotherham, Laxton, and Ecclesfield, no Sunday in Lent ever to be omitted, and specially was he to preach on Palm Sunday, Good Friday, Easter Day, Corpus Christi, the feast of the Assumption, and All Saints' Day. (fn. 235) For his stipend he was to have 20 marks a year. (fn. 236) To the provost belonged the correction and reformation of fellows, choristers, servants, and others within the college precincts.
The first two fellows were Dom Edmund Carter and Dom William Alanson, the masters of the grammar school and song school respectively. The third, ordered in the founder's will, was to teach writing and arithmetic to youths not intended for holy orders; this third fellowship to be held in perpetuity by the cantarist at the altar of St. Katharine in the parish church, which had been insufficiently endowed by Mr. John Foxe, its founder. (fn. 237) These four, the provost and fellows, were to be a corporation possessing a common seal. The fellows were to be priests, or at least one of them, who was to be chosen by the provost for his ability to teach 'grammar, poetry, and rhetoric.' (fn. 238) The second fellow was to teach song, especially 'plain' and 'broken,' and they were to have stipends of £10 and 10 marks respectively.
The choristers were to be six poor boys from the district, preference to be given to those of Rotherham and Ecclesfield. They were to be chosen by the provost, and instructed in grammar and music till eighteen years of age, when others; were to be elected to take their places. Food and clothing were to be supplied them amounting to the value of an exhibition of about £3 6s. 8d. each. (fn. 239) There was a butler and cook, each of whom, besides his keep, received a yearly wage of £1 6s. 8d.
The fellows, choristers, and servants were to be paid by the provost out of the common fund. The provost and fellows dined together, but paid for their own victuals. In addition to their stipends they were to have their barber and laundry free, and the provost was to have 18s. a year, while each of the fellows had 16s., to provide them cloth gowns. (fn. 240) All were provided with wood and coals.
The founder distinctly stated that the chief purpose of the college was that certain prayers might be said for the souls of Edward IV, Queen Elizabeth, Prince Edward, and the founder. (fn. 241) It was also ordained that the provost, fellows, and choristers, twice a week and on festivals, should celebrate their masses in the chapels of Jesus and St. Katharine in the parish church and their other masses in the college chapel, and that on 9 April each year the anniversary of the founder's parents and King Edward should be celebrated, on the morrow a requiem mass being sung. And after the founder's death the day should be kept as his anniversary, with a specified collect, and at such anniversary alms were to be distributed to thirteen poor people. Besides these things they were to sing on all festivals in the quire of the parish church at matins and vespers as well as mass, the scholars being specially enjoined to attend.
In addition to the site of the college and the buildings, the founder gave for the support of the college certain lands in the counties of Hertford, Essex, and Kent, and he appropriated the church of Laxton in co. Nottingham. These properties were of considerable value, and the exhibitions of the six choristers, made contingent on the funds being sufficient, were all duly established, and all other expenses easily paid. (fn. 242)
In 1512 a friend of the founder died, Henry Carnebull, Archdeacon of York. In his will, dated 12 July of that year, he founded a chantry in Rotherham Parish Church, leaving certain properties to the college for its endowment, the chantry priest to have 10 marks yearly if the endowment sufficed. It did suffice, and the chantry continued until the Suppression. Carnebull also bequeathed £40 to the provost, Mag. Robert Cutler, (fn. 243) and in addition to this Rotherham chantry he also founded the 'Name of Jesus' chantry in York Minster, which was to be in the patronage of the Provost of Rotherham. (fn. 244)
Ten years later another legacy was made to the provost by Thomas Reirsby, whose will was made 2 August 1522. He left the residue of his goods to be 'at the disposicion of Robert Nevile, Provost of the College of Jhesu in Rotherham.' (fn. 245) Three years afterwards this same provost was the recipient of a personal legacy under the will of Sir Thomas Swift, 4 February 1524-5: 'my best gowne cremysyn furryd with mattrons, my best surples, a booke of blake velvett with . . . of silver and gilt, a girdle harneshed with silver and gilt having a flower on the bucle and a other in the pendent.' (fn. 246) Neville was still provost in 1536, the three fellows then being William Drapour, master of the grammar school, William Simmes, master of the music school, and John Addy, master of the writing school. (fn. 247)
The Chantry Certificate of 1546 gives minute particulars of the college revenues and outgoings. The college with its garden and orchard, 2 acres in extent, were 'inverounde with a brick walle,' (fn. 248) and together with the house in which the three schools were kept were valued at £3 6s. 8d. per annum, and the college properties in various counties brought up the total annual revenue to £127 7s. 7¼d. The outgoings, including £6 13s. 4d. for 'hys stypende' to Thomas Bayschaw (evidently the Carnebull cantarist), amounted to £20 2s. 1¼d. yearly, leaving a clear sum ultimately available for annexation of £107 5s. 10d. (sic) per annum. (fn. 249) Out of this balance there was to be paid to the
|Provost, 'Robert Busshoppe, of Hull' (fn. 250)||14||4||8|
|13 dinners to poor||0||2||2|
|13 pennies to poor||0||1||1|
The goods were valued at £54 7s. 8d. and the plate at £247 0s. 4d. (fn. 251)
The 1548 survey differs somewhat. The goods are valued at £32 10s., and the plate is described by weight: 'Gylte 517½ oz., parcell gilte 520½ oz., white 24¼ oz.' The freeholds are entered as £130 16s. 1¼d., the outgoings £7 19s. 7¾d., leaving a balance of £122 16s. 5½d.
The provost in 1548 was said to be forty-four years of age, and received a stipend of £13 6s, 8d., a gown worth 18s., and an allowance for three horses. He was also certified to have a pension of 250 marks from the king, (fn. 252) and a prebend in York Minster of £58. The grammar-school master, Thomas Snell, was thirty-six years of age, a B.A., with a stipend of £10, 12s. for his gown, 3s. 4d. for fuel, barber and laundry free. Robert Cade, the song-school master, was thirtyeight, his stipend £6 13s. 4d., with 12s. for his gown, 3s. 4d. for fuel, and free laundry and barber. John Addy, the writing-school master, was sixty-one, his stipend being £5 6s. 8d., with 16s. for his gown, 3s. 4d. for fuel, and free laundry and barber. The six choristers each received in money and food £3 6s. 8d. a year. Thomas Pakyn, the butler, was forty, and Robert Parkyn, the cook, was forty-five, and each received yearly £1 6s. 8d. for wages.
The annual distribution to the poor was said to amount to 6s. (fn. 253)
Provosts of Rotherham
William Graybarne, S.T.P., first provost, appointed 1 Feb. 1483 (fn. 254)
William Rawson, occurs 1495, died that year (fn. 255)
John Hoton, S.T.B., instituted 4 Feb. 150- (fn. 256)
Robert Cutler, S.T.B., instituted 4 Mar. 1508 (fn. 257)
Robert Neville, S.T.B., instituted 9 Jan. 1517 (fn. 258)
Richard Jackson (fn. 259)
Robert Newrie, occurs 1534 (fn. 260)
Robert Pursglove, instituted 26 June 1544 (fn. 261)
206. COLLEGE OF ST. JAMES, SUTTON-IN-HOLDERNESS
In 1346, when John de Sutton was lord of the manor of Sutton, and his uncle Thomas Sampson was rector, the royal licence was granted to alienate in mortmain the advowson to six chaplains to celebrate divine service daily in the chapel for the good estate of the king, Queen Philippa, Sir John and Alina (fn. 262) his wife, and for their souls after death, as well as the souls of Sir John's parents and ancestors. (fn. 263) On Friday in Whit-week 1347 Sir John founded the college for six chaplains and for the purposes specified, (fn. 264) appointing as the first master his uncle, Thomas de Sampson, (fn. 265) the existing rector. (fn. 266) On the following 11 August Archbishop Zouch made his ordination for the regulation of the collegiate society of the following tenor:—In the rectory a hall, kitchen, stable, granges, and other necessary houses were to be provided for the master, chaplains, and servants. The master or custos was to be presented by the founder and his wife and the heirs of Sir John within fifteen days after a vacancy. In case the patron died sine prole, then the patronage was to be in the hands of the chaplains, who were to appoint within eight days. The custos was to administer the college properties, be in residence, and have charge of the inhabitants of Sutton and Stone Ferry. In addition to the master there were to be five chaplains; vacancies were to be filled up by the founder and his wife during their lives, and afterwards by their heirs. But, as in the case of the mastership, if there were no issue, then the appointments were to be made by the custos within eight days. The founder and his heirs and all future owners of the manor were to pay, under pain of the greater excommunication, for the support of the college, all the tithes small and great growing or being upon the manor lands. The custos was to pay one mark yearly, together with the mortuaries and obventions of Sutton and Stone Ferry, &c., to the Chancellor of York in the name of the church of Wawne. (fn. 267)
These statutes having been ordained, the chapel of Sutton was appropriated to the college by the archbishop on 17 November in the same year, the custos to pay to the Archbishop of York £1 yearly, and to the dean and chapter one mark yearly, as compensation for any losses caused by the appropriation. (fn. 268)
A new ordination was made by Archbishop Alexander Nevill on 6 May 1380. The college was to consist of one major or custos, five perpetual chaplains, and two clerks. One of the clerks was to be provided by the custos and at his cost; the other was to be the aquae bajulus, and have his victuals in addition to the parochial alms, and the offerings of the master and chaplains. At the death or cession of a custos, the lord of the manor, Sir Thomas de Sutton, while he lived, and after his death Agnes his wife, while she lived, and after both their deaths the chaplains, were within twenty days of the vacancy to nominate one of the chaplains to the custody, if any among them were considered suitable. If not, then some other fit chaplain of the lord of the manor, or his attorney, was to be appointed. The chaplains were to be nominated by the custos and existing chaplains, and presented by the lord of Sutton within twenty days of any vacancy. One of the chaplains was to be deputed by the master to the cure of souls of the parish belonging to the chapel, such appointment to be terminable at the pleasure of the custos. The custos was to have a stipend of not more than 8 marks yearly besides his keep. The chaplain with the cure of souls was to have 4 marks a year, and each of the others 3½ marks. The master and chaplains were to have their commons together and lodge in one house, or else two and two, unless hindered by infirmity. Each of the six was to celebrate his own mass; on Sundays and festivals they were to say matins, parochial mass, and vespers; on Fridays and Saturdays our Lady's mass with note; on the other days masses, matins, and other 'hours.' Special masses and prayers were also ordered for the founder's soul, &c. The reserve payments and mortuaries were to be continued as under Archbishop Zouch's ordination. (fn. 269)
In 1447 a dispute was settled between the college and the parish of Wawne from which originally the chapel had been cut off. It was now arranged that a sum of 20s. was to be paid to the inhabitants of Wawne 'as an acknowledgement of subjection.' (fn. 270) In 36 Henry VI it was found by a jury that Ralph Bygod, kt., John Salvain, kt., William Bulmer, esq., and Lady Isabella Goddard had the presentation to the mastership and to one of the five chantries of the collegiate church, and that Peter de Mauley, lord of the manor, made the last presentation. (fn. 271) In 1536 the annual value of the college was given as £13 18s. 8d. (fn. 272)
How the college was dealt with at the Suppression there are no records to show, the last facts known of the house being the appointments in 1547 to the second and fourth chantries respectively of John Stother, priest, and Edward Hodgson, priest, the former being presented by the archbishop per lapsum.
Masters of Sutton (fn. 273)
Thomas Sampson, appointed 1347
William de Denford, appointed 1349
Thomas de Louthorp, resigned 1370
Peter de Elyngton, appointed 1370
William de Barnby, died 1402
Thomas de Poynton, appointed 1402, died 1410
John Poynton, appointed 1410, exchanged 1413
Robert Marflete, appointed 1413, died 1432
Simon Seller, appointed 1432, died 1443
William Semanson, appointed 1443, died 1458
Peter Ouste, appointed 1458
William Walsh, appointed 1470
Robert Thomlynson, appointed 1471
William Warde, appointed 1472, died 1487
John Curwen, appointed 1487, resigned 1489
Robert Ferys, appointed 1489
Thomas Alderson, appointed 1499
Ralph Bulmer, appointed 1517 (?)
Christopher Brasse, appointed 1515, died 1522
Thomas Jenyson, appointed 1522, resigned 1528
John Brandesby, appointed 1528