Cardiff Records: Volume 5. Originally published by Cardiff Records Committee, Cardiff, 1905.
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I. Brut y Tywysogion.
(King John's war against Rhŷs and Owain.) Then the Seneschal of Kaer Dyf, a man who was leader of the host, and Rhŷs and Maelgwn, sons of the Lord Rhŷs, overcame the hosts by their valour; and they went unto Pennwedic.
(Rickert Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, in conjunction with the Welsh Princes) conquered these towns and castles, to wit, Kaer Dyf, and Aber Gefenni (&c.), and rased them all to the ground except Kaer Dyf.
1094. Paen Twrbil (Payn de Turberville) led his hosts as far as Cardiff, and began to storm the castle. And when Robert Fitz Hamon saw that, he asked the cause, and Paen Twrbil shewed it, to wit, that the Welsh desired to have back the rights and primitive customs of their country, and the laws of Hywel the Good, and to have their lands free; and so great was the host, that Robert saw best to do that and satisfy the Welsh; and then tranquillity was established in the land.
1105. Hywel ab Gronw was slain by the French, by the deceit of Gwgan ab Meuryg, his foster-father; and for fear of the men of the country Gwgan ab Meuryg fled to Sir Rhobert ab Amon, (fn. 1) who gave him a great reward of gold and silver for his work, and hanged him for his treachery.
1110. About this time died Robert Fitz Hamon. Then the King gave Robert's daughter, who was called Mabli, to his son Robert whom he had a bastard of Nest, daughter of Rhŷs ab Tewdwr. And this Robert would force the King's law upon the Land of Morgan. And when the Welsh knew of this, Ifor ab Cedifor, who is called Ifor Bach [the Little], put himself at their head; and they made an assault upon Cardiff Castle, and broke into it suddenly, and took Rhobert and his wife, and put them in prison until he [Rhobert] gave back to the Welshmen their freedom and their rights and their laws as they had been since the time of Hywel Dda [the Good]; and obtained of the King that his hand should be bound by his oath, that he would not do aught save kindness to the Land of Morgan, and desired him that he would not put either office or work or cymhorth [manorial service or tribute] upon anyone of the Welshmen, without giving to every man upon whom those things should be put, his land free and his rights duly, as was just to the Race of the Welsh.
1146. This year died Uchtryd, Bishop of Llan Daf, a man of great learning and piety. He regulated the Sundays and holy-days, and the vigils of patron saints, and maintained them devoutly, where that was not done of will and custom.
1152. Geoffrey ab Arthur (fn. 2) (household priest to William Fitz Robert) was made a bishop, (fn. 3) but before he went in his state [sic literatim] he died in his house at Llan Dâf, and is buried in the church there. He was a man without his second for learning and knowledge and all devout exercises. And for his learning and his knowledge a Bachelor's degree was conferred on him in the church of Teilo at Llan Dâf, where he was a master of many scholars and nobles.
1172. King Henry went to Ireland; and he being at Caer Dydd, Rhŷs went thither, without taking man or servant with him; and asked the King to grant him what was necessary out of his (Rhŷs') property. And the King was agreeable thereto, and he confirmed unto Rhŷs the whole of his lands; and then the King went to Ireland.
II. Liber Landavensis.
In the year from Our Lord's Incarnation 1126, was made this agreement between Urban, Bishop of Landav, and Robert Consul of Gloecester, concerning all the plaints which the said Bishop had against the aforesaid Consul and his men in Walis, and concerning those lands which they did not acknowledge that they held of the Bishop. The said Consul hath granted unto the Bishop one mill which William de Kardi made, and the land unto the same mill belonging; and one fishery in the Eley, across that river; and 100 acres of land in the marsh between the Taf and the Eley, for ploughing or for meadow, and so that the head of those hundred acres begin by the demesne land of the said Bishop and extend continuously along it; and common pasture with the Consul's men; and in the Consul's groves (except Kybor) material to the use of the church of Landav, and of the said Bishop and his clergy and all the men of the fee of the church; and grazing and pasture—the Bishop's Welshmen with the Consul's (fn. 4) Welshmen, and the Bishop's Normans and Englishmen with the Consul's (fn. 4) Normans and Englishmen, outside Kybor; and the chapel of Stuntaf (fn. 5) and the tithe of that vill, and the land which the Earl gives to the same chapel, for a priest to be able to live by the tithe thereof; provided that the parishioners at Christmas and Easter and Whitsuntide visit the mother-church at Landav, and that from the same vill the bodies of the dead be carried to the same mother-church to be buried. And because of these aforesaid things which the Consul giveth and granteth unto the Bishop, he the said Bishop doth remit and quit-claim unto the Consul all the plaints which he had against him and against his men, concerning all those lands which they avowed to the fee of the Consul. And if anyone of the Consul's men, of his own free will (whether he be in health or sick) shall wish to acknowledge that he holds the church's land and that he wishes to render it to the church and the Bishop, and shall have acknowledged this in the presence of the Consul or in presence of his sheriff or prevost of Kardi, the Consul granteth that he may render the same land unto the church and the Bishop. And the Bishop will so admeasure the sluice of his mill below Bishop's Bridge, that there shall always be a way through, unless it be impeded by increase of water or the flow of the sea. And the Consul will cause to be destroyed the sluice of his mill on the Eley. And the Earl's men, and any others, shall sell and buy food and drink at Landav, and there shall eat and drink them, and shall carry nothing thence in time of war. And all the men of the Bishop's fee shall have any commerce at Landav, for selling and buying in all times of peace. And judgments of iron shall be carried to Landav, and the judiciary pit of water shall be made in the Bishop's land nearer to the castle of Kardi. And if anyone of the Bishop's men shall sue a Consul's man or a man of his barons, concerning any thing whereof duel ought to be done, in their own courts shall pledges be given and judgments be drawn, and the duel shall be done in the castle of Kardi. And if any man shall sue a Bishop's man in a matter for which duel ought to be done, pledges shall be given and the judgments done in the Bishop's Court, and they shall do the duel itself in the castle of Kairdi, and the Bishop shall there have the same legal dues of that duel as he would have if it were done at Landav. And if the duel is between Bishop's men only, it shall be drawn and done in his court of Landav. And the said Bishop shall have his own Welshmen written in his writ by the sight and witness of the Earl's sheriff, and they shall be sent out, and the said Consul's sheriff shall have his counter-script of those Welshmen. And the Bishop shall have a counter-script of the Consul's Welshmen similarly. And the Consul quit-claims unto the Bishop and the men of his fee the moneys and all the customs which he claimed against them. This agreement was made in the presence of King Henry; these being witness: William, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Geoffrey, Archbishop of Rouen, and William, Bishop of Winchester, and Roger, Bishop of Salisbury, and Ralph, Bishop of Durham, and John, Bishop of Lyons, and Oinus, Bishop of Evreux, and Geoffrey, the Chancellor, and David, King of Scotland, and Roderick, Earl of Perth, and Roger, Earl of Warewic, and Brian fitz-Count, and Robert D'Oilli, and Milo of Gloecester, and Edward of Salisbury, and Walter fitz-Richard, and Payn fitz-John, and Richard De Aquila, and Robert de Sele, and Uchtred, Archdeacon of Landav, and Ysaac, the Bishop's chaplain, and Ralph, Sheriff of Kardi, and Payn de Turberville, and Robert fitz-Roger, and Richard de Saint Quintin, and Maurice de Londres, and Odo Sore, (fn. 6) and Geoffrey de Maisi, at Wodestoke. And Robert the Earl hath the counterpart of this charter. Witness, the same persons.
III. William of Malmesbury.
Gunc etiam contentio inter Bernardum episcopum Menevensem et Urbanum Landavensem de jure parochiarum, quas idem Urbanus illicite usurpaverat, aeterno fine sopita est: tot enim ad curiam Romanam appellationibus, tot itinerum expensis, tot causidicorum conflictibus multis annis ventilata, tandem aliquando morte Urbani apud Romam soluta, vel potius decisa est; nam et apostolicus, aequitate rei perpensa, religioni et justitiae Menevensis episcopi qua decebat sententia satisfecit.
Then also the strife between Bernard, Bishop of Menevia, and Urban, Bishop of Landav, concerning the right of parishes, which the same Urban had unlawfully usurped, (fn. 7) was set at rest for ever; and after so many appeals to the Court of Rome, so many expensive journeys, so many contests of lawyers, was, after lasting many years, solved, or rather, decided, by Urban's death at Rome. For the Pope, having thoroughly weighed the equity of the matter, satisfied the religion and justice of the Bishop of Menevia by the sentence which was fitting.
IV. Giraldus Cambrensis.
In this same town of Kaerdif, in the second year after the admirable passion and palm of our martyr Thomas, (fn. 8) because from that time began as well revelations as persecutions, on the King returning from Ireland along the maritime way through South Wales, he spent the night of Holy Saturday at the castle of Kairdif. And having heard Mass next morning, to wit Sunday, (fn. 9) when all had gone out of the chapel of Saint Piran (fn. 10) except the King, and he then remaining at his prayers perhaps longer than usual, when at length he went out and had mounted his horse at the chapel door, suddenly there stood before his face a man leaning on a post of the gate leading to the chapel from the hall, as though it served him for a spade; he was flaxen-haired and with a round tonsure, (fn. 11) his face thin, his stature somewhat tall, his age about forty years, clad in a white tunic closed at the neck and reaching to the feet, girdled with a belt, and his feet bare; who addressed the King in Teutonic (fn. 12) in words like these: "God houlde dhe, cuning" (fn. 13) [God protect thee, King.] And afterwards he proceeded in the same tongue as follows: "Christ and His Blessed Mother, with Saint John Baptist and the Apostle Peter, salute you, commanding you that throughout all the lands subject to your rule you strictly forbid the holding of markets on Sundays, and that no work be done on those days, except the Divine Office, (fn. 14) which is to be devoutly performed and heard, and the preparing of food for the day's use. Which if you shall do, you shall never begin anything which shall not come to good termination, and you shall die happy." The King said in French to a knight named Philip de Mercros, a native of those parts, who was holding the bridle of the King's horse and who himself truly related these things to us: "Ask that peasant whether he dreamed this." And when the knight had explained this in English, he [the peasant] added, in the former [i.e. the French] language: "Whether I dreamed this or not," says he (speaking to the King, not to the interpreter), "see what day this is; for unless thou do this and anon amend thy life, many and great troubles shall come upon thee within a year from this time." This having been said, the King, putting spur to his horse, proceeded towards the gate about eight paces; yet cogitating on what he had heard, he turned round in his saddle and said: "Call that good man to me." And though the aforesaid knight and a certain youth called William, who alone then remained in the town with the King, had called him and, not finding him, had enquired first in the chapel, then through the hall and all the inns, he never appeared. The King, seeing the man could not be found though he had awaited him some time longer alone in the town while the others sought him, somewhat sad and lamenting that he had not spoken more to him, resumed his journey towards Newport by the bridge of Remni.
V. Annales de Theokesburia.
The Marshal retook Kerdif, in the taking whereof Warin Basset was slain, in the ides of October, and was buried at Landav. Thereupon came the Marshal to Kerdif, on the 12th of the kalends of November, and the Burgesses incurred a great curtailment of their liberties. The Earl Marshal took hostages as well from the barons and knights of Glamorgan as from the Burgesses of Kerdif.
Several ships of Kerdif and Newport in Wales, and of Bristoll in England, were equipped in the manner of galleys, to respectively attack each other; and ships of Bristoll and Avereford were then captured.
We granted unto the Lord Elias, Bishop of Landav, and to the Chapter of that place, the church of Lanedern with its appurtenances; retaining the tithes of Lanbordan to the use of the Prior of Kerdif, to whose table they are recognised as belonging.
The Abbot was involved in litigation in the same Sheriff's Court, concerning the vicarage of Pennarh. On another occasion he came to Cardiff this year, and made peace between two belligerents, at the request of Richard de Clare; the disputants were Hoel ab Meredydd and De Turberville.]
The Archdeacon (fn. 15) of Landav wrongfully ordained a certain vicar in the chapel of Saint John of Kardif; on account of which injury Richard de Derby, then Prior of the said place, appealed in person to our Lord the Pope; and H., our Prior; went to the said place to obtain safeguard for the judges.
The Lord Bishop of Landav absolved the Prior of Kardif from a sentence by which he was held for the vicarage of Kardif. And the vicarage was taxed so that the vicar shall have all the money coming to his hands in the chapel of Saint John, rendering thereout unto the Prior 20 shillings a year for the drink of a priest at the Prior's table.
We paid unto Master Henry de Stratford 10 marks and one pipe of wine to the use of the convent, about Michaelmas, on account of a dispute raised between him and Roger de Boyfeld, one of our monks, about a certain agreement for corn, made between them at Kardif when the said Roger was Prior there.
VI. R.O. Printed Calendar of Papal Registers among the Vatican Archives.
Confirmation to the abbot and convent of Theokesbiri of an indult granted to them by W. and H., bishops of Llandaf, with the consent of their chapter, of the parish church of Saint Mary, Kerdif, with its chapels, free from all synodals and Easter and other dues.
Lateran. Confirmation to the same abbot and convent of the churches granted to them by their patrons, with the consent of the diocesan, into which, on their voidance, they entered by indult of Pope Honorius; namely Meresfeld, (fn. 16) and the parish church of Saint Mary, Kerdif, with its appurtenances within and without the burgh.
Orvieto. Mandate of Pope Nicholas IV. to the archdeacon of Llandaf to make enquiry and grant dispensation to Kynuric ap Gruffin and Eva Wenne of his diocese, who intermarried in ignorance that they were related in the fourth degree of kinship, to remain in the marriage so contracted, declaring their past and future offspring legitimate.
Orvieto. Mandate to William de Hothum, a Dominican friar, bishop elect of Llandaf, to obey the Pope's provision made to him of the see to which he is appointed, notwithstanding his having urged that he has been elected prior of the province and is almost ignorant of the language of the diocese.
VII. Taxation of Pope Nicholas IV.
The Abbot of Kerlyon hath. . . . . .at Lestalelond (fn. 17) from rents of assize 1s. 6d.
Also the same hath at Listelbon (fn. 18) one ploughland of the value of 1l. 6s. 8d.
VIII. Chronicle of Matthew Paris.
Also this year, on the 18th day of January, at Kaerfilli in Senghenith in Wales, Leulin Bren took the Lord William de Berkerole, Sheriff of Glammorgant, in the full Court of the King of England. And, with his accomplices, he there killed full 12 other Englishmen, who were there on behalf of our Lord the King of England. And they imprisoned the said Sheriff and the governor. And so began the war between the Englishmen and the Welshmen in those parts.
This year Leulin Bren was condemned at Kerdif, as he deserved; and afterwards he was drawn by horses as a traitor, then hanged, his entrails burned and scattered, his limbs cut off and sent through the whole of Glammorgant, to strike terror into other traitors.
Leuky Bren, wife of the aforesaid Leulin Bren, being brought from London under the guard of many armed men, with her three sons, came to Bristoll. She was sent to Kerdif by water, in a small vessel, under the same guard, to receive her punishment, as she deserved, for the above-mentioned war of Leulin. Of which war she herself had been the moving cause.
IX. Valor Ecclesiasticus
Firstly from the glebe of the same being in his hands, as they lie in places called David Melans close and the close thereunto adjoining, and the close called the Smale close with the close thereunto adjoining, Pant Crappull and the close next adjoining thereto, and the close called y Weyn gron and the other close called Kae y Dyntur, 25 acres worth yearly 25s.
Also he shall receive the oblations on Saint Teilo's day, (fn. 19) or on another day appointed therefor, and it is worth in ordinary years 8s.
Also he is bound, according to the statutes of the church from ancient times, to find the paschal candle and other torches and wax candles for use in the time of divine service, throughout the year, as well on festal as on ferial days, and the charges of this kind extend yearly to the sum of 3l and more.
Also in certain acres of arable or pasture land at Landaf, commonly called Kae Goylym (fn. 20)—
The value of or lady s'vice (fn. 21) of Landaff 3l. 19s. 7d.
Vicars. The Parish Church (fn. 22) of Kaerdyff, Saint John Baptist.