The Environs of London: Volume 3, County of Middlesex. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1795.
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In ancient records, this place is called Newtone, or Neweton, that is, the new town. The word Stoke (from the Saxon Stoc, a wood) frequently occurs, either as the name of a parish, or, as in the present instance, a discriminating addition. I find it prefixed to this place as early as the 15th century (fn. 1). Newcourt says, that it was sometimes called Neweton Canonicorum, from its connection with the chapter of St. Paul's. Stoke-Newington lies in the hundred of Ossulston, at the distance of above three miles north of London. The parish is bounded by Hornsey, Islington, Hackney, and Tottenham. It contains about 550 acres (fn. 2) of land, 18 of which are occupied by market gardeners; the remainder, almost wholly meadow and pasture. About 120 cows are kept in this parish. The soil on the south side of the parish is gravelly, on the north, clay. The quota paid to the land-tax is 482l. 1s. 6d., which is at the rate of about 1s. 10d. in the pound.
The manor of Newington was part of the ancient demesnes of St. Paul's cathedral. In Newtone, says the record of Doomsday, the canons of St. Paul's hold two hides, being two plough-lands and a half, all cultivated in culture. There are four villans and 37 cottars of 10 acres. This manor was valued at 40s. per annum in the Confessor's time, and when the survey was taken. It was, and is, says the record, parcel of the demesnes of St. Paul's. The manor of Newington has, from time immemorial, been the corps of a prebend (fn. 3) in that cathedral. It is probable that the prebendaries held it formerly in their own hands. The first lessee who occurs upon record is William Patten, Esq. (great nephew of the founder of Magdalen college) who renewed his lease with Thomas Penny (then prebendary) in 1560 (fn. 4). A few years afterwards (anno 1565) Mr. Patten obtained another lease from the same prebendary for 99 years, to commence from 1575. This lease he assigned in the year 1571 to John Dudley, Esq. who died in 1580, leaving a widow, afterwards married to Thomas Sutton, founder of the Charter-house, and one daughter Anne, who, during the mother's life, were joint proprietors of the manor (fn. 5). Anne Dudley married Sir Francis Popham, Knt. whose son Alexander purchased the fee-simple of the manor, when the church lands were sold in 1649 (fn. 6). At the Restoration, the church recovered its rights, Mr. Popham reverted to his former state of lessee, and Penny's lease (which was granted before the restraining act of Queen Elizabeth) being nearly expired, obtained a fresh lease for three lives, renewable according to the usual tenure of church leases (fn. 7). In 1699, Alexander, son of Sir Francis Popham, K.B. and grandson of Colonel Alexander Popham, above-mentioned, sold his interest in the then existing lease, to Thomas Gunston, Esq. who died the next year. His sister Mary, who inherited this manor as residuary legatee, married Sir Thomas Abney, some time Lord Mayor of London. After the decease of Mrs. Elizabeth Abney, their only surviving child, who died unmarried, at the age of 78, in 1782, the lease of this manor was sold, pursuant to her will (anno 1783), and purchased by Jonathan Eade, Esq. who is the present lessee, and as such lord of the manor. The demesne lands are 325 acres, or thereabouts, producing, with the manerial profits (as calculated in 1783), an annual revenue of 8261. 4s. (fn. 8) The reserved rent to the prebendary is 28l. per annum. The lord of the manor holds a court-leet, and court-baron.
The ancient manor-house was pulled down in 1695, and the site let upon building leases by virtue of a licence from the prebendary of Newington, and the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, for that purpose (fn. 9). Thomas Sutton, founder of the Charter-house, resided occasionally in this mansion, after he married Mr. Dudley's widow (fn. 10). I think it probable that, previously to her second marriage, she let it to the Earl of Leicester, a relation of her former husband. The arms of Dudley, with an Earl's coronet, and the order of the garter, were taken some time ago from a house on the site of the manerial residence, and are now in the possession of James Brown, Esq. of Newington. As an additional confirmation of the conjecture that the Earl of Leicester resided at Newington, it may be mentioned that a servant of his lady, the Countess of Essex, was buried there, Oct. 24, 1582 (fn. 11). Mr. Gunston, during the short time he possessed this manor, built a new house at a very considerable expence, and died just as it was finished (fn. 12), which occasioned a funeral poem by Dr. Watts, published in his Horæ Lyricæ. This eminent divine spent the latter part of his life in Lady Abney's house at Newington, and died there on the 25th of November 1748 (fn. 13). This house, though no part of the demesnes, has continued to be the manerial residence.
Among the eminent and remarkable inhabitants of this place, who will not be elsewhere noticed, may be mentioned the celebrated Daniel Defoe, who resided here about the year 1710 (fn. 14); Anderson, the commercial writer (fn. 15); James Burgh, author of political disquisitions and other works; Thomas Day, author of Sandford and Merton, and other publications (fn. 16); and the late celebrated John Howard (fn. 17). To these may be added, Thomas Cooke, Esq. a very eccentric character, of whom, as his name is not so well known, it may be necessary to say a few words. During his residence at Constantinople as a merchant, he contributed in a very munisicent manner to the relief of Charles XII. King of Sweden, then a prisoner in Turkey, and raised a large sum towards his liberation, by a scheme of exporting copper from Sweden, for which he procured the King's order (fn. 18). His connection with this parish was occasioned by his intermarriage with one of Sir Nathaniel Gould's daughters (fn. 19). He resided at Newington from the time of his return to England till his death, which happened on the 12th of August 1752. In the month of February preceding, he sent a note of 1000 l. to the governors of the bank, requesting that it might be distributed among the clerks in the proportion of a guinea for every year that each person had been in their service (fn. 20). Mr. Cooke was buried, pursuant to his will, near Morden college on Blackheath. His corpse was placed upright in the ground, covered only with a winding sheet; the coffin in which it was conveyed to the place of interment was left for the first pensioner it would sit. His funeral was attended by twelve poor men, members of a club at Newington; to each of whom he bequeathed a guinea and a suit of clothes, on condition of keeping himself sober. If any one transgressed this condition he was to forfeit his legacy, and only receive 2 s. 6 d. for his day's work (fn. 21).
The parish church, dedicated to St. Mary, consists of a chancel, nave, and two aisles. It was repaired, or (as Stow says) "rather new "builded," in 1562, by William Patten, Esq. lessee of the manor. Over the north door is the date, with these words, Ab alto. Over the door of a chapel on the same side are Mr. Patten's arms and initials. The church was considerably enlarged in 1716 and in 1723 (fn. 22).
On the south wall of the chancel is a marble monument, supported by pillars of the Corinthian order, to the memory of John Dudley, Esq. (fn. 23), who died in 1580. His effigies (in armour), and that of his wife in the dress then worn, are represented in kneeling attitudes. Underneath are some Latin verses, for which the writer was paid 10s. as appears by the roll of Mr. Dudley's funeral expences (fn. 24).
On the north wall of the chancel is a very handsome monument (by Banks) to the memory of Sir John Hartopp, Bart. who died anno 1762; Sarah Lady Hartopp, 1730; Joseph Hurlock, Esq. (fn. 25), 1793, and his wife Sarah (daughter of Sir John Hartopp), 1766. This monument, which is ornamented with an elegant female figure, of white marble, reclining on an urn, was put up at the expence of Anne, wife of Edmund Craddock Hartopp of Four-oaks Hall in Warwickshire, daughter of Joseph and Sarah Hurlock, and sole heiress of the (Newington branch of the) Hartopps. On the chancel floor are the tombs of John Stevens, citizen and stationer, 1726; John Taylor, 1729; his wife Judith, 1713; their son James, 1713; John Kirkman, 1765; and his sister Anne Neal, 1768. In the chancel-window are the arms of the Drapers' Company.
On the east wall of the north aisle is the monument of John Taverner (fn. 26), rector of Newington, with the following inscription: Joannes Taverner, natus in comitatu Hertfordiensi, familiâ honestâ, parentibus piis et probis. A primâ infantiâ literis operam dedit; primó sub privato magistro; dein Westmonasterii institutus, Cantabrigiæ studuit per annos 8, ubi item Magisterii gradum suscepit. Dein Oxonii per annos 5. Posteaque Johanni King Epo. Lon. a libellis per annos 9, et unus prælectorum in collegio Gresham. Lon. per annos 28. Demumq sacris ordinibus susceptis, vicarius de Tillingham in com. Essex, an. 5. Et postremúm hujus ecclesiæ rector an. 9. Híc expleto curriculo subtus sepultus fœlicem resurrectionem sperat. Nat. anno 1584. Denatus anno 1638. Vitam duxit cœlibem."
On the north wall are the monuments of William Frohock (fn. 27), corn-factor, 1764; Silvester Cole Frohock, vintner, 1767; and a neat marble tablet to the memory of Mr. Stephen Tyers (fn. 28), 1790, and Anne his wife, 1792; "they lived 57 years together in conjugal felicity." On the west wall is the monument of Gideon Guichenett, merchant, 1759. On the floor are the tombs of Captain Edward Allanson, 1723; Martha, wife of Mr. Samuel Wathen, and daughter of Mrs. Susan Allanson, 1747; Dame Sarah Hartopp, daughter of Sir Joseph Woolfe, 1730; Sir John Hartopp, Bart. 1762; Mrs. Anne Hartopp, 1764; Mr. John White, 1731; Elizabeth Smith, daughter of John and Lydia White, 1754; Mr. Thomas Heacock, apothecary, 1744; Miss Mary Cooke, daughter of Thomas Cooke, Esq. 1749; Mrs. Elizabeth Cooke, 1763; Mr. Edmund Hammond, 1759; Mrs. Sarah Cheselden, 1770; and Anna Maria, wife of Robert Thomas, Esq. 1792.
On the south wall of the nave is a monument to the memory of Thomas Parsons (fn. 29), Esq. citizen of London, 1784; Anne Hamill, widow, his daughter; and Mary Baunton, widow, another daughter. The monument was put up by Jane, wife of Thomas Trundle, a third daughter. On the floor is the tomb of Dr. Samuel Wright, with the following inscription: "M. S. V. R. Samuelis Wright, S. T. P. qui agro Eboracensi ortus ac disciplinis liberalibus bene institutus, sacrum suum munus rure suscepit, deinde Londinum prosectus, brevi temporis spatio ita se probavit, ut ecclesiæ Presbyterianæ pastor eligeretur, cui per annos octo et triginta pari diligentiâ et fælicitate præfuit, multigenæ autem doctrinæ eas naturæ dotes habuit adjunctas, ut in sacris administrandis (quæ summo decore semper præstabat), mentes auditorum attentas reddere sibique facilé conciliare posset; ad recondita etiam Sacrarum literarum sensa eruenda eximiâ facultate præditus erat, vitæque Christianæ virtutibus conspicuus. At defessus tandem labore, acerbisque doloribus quos fortiter pertulit, corpus hic sepeliri jubens, in Christo placidé obdormivit; Non. April, A. D. 1746, æt. suæ 64." In the nave are the tombs also of John Leigh (son of John Leigh by Talbot, daughter of Benjamin Pigott), 1652; and Mrs. Sophia Standerwick (grand-daughter of Daniel Defoe), who died Oct. 26, 1787, aged 62.
Weever mentions a tomb in Newington church to the memory of Matilda, wife of John Ekington, cofferer of the houshold to Edward IV. ob. 1473. Strype mentions the tomb of John Stocker, Esq. buried in the chapel of St. Thomas at Stoke-Newington, anno 1500.
The most remarkable tomb in the church-yard is that of Alderman Pickett's family. It was erected in memory of his father Mr. William Pickett, 1745; and Anne his mother, 1750. It commemorates also the melancholy and untimely fate of the Alderman's daughter Elizabeth, who died Dec. 11, 1781, "in consequence of her cloaths taking fire the preceding evening." The inscription adds, "Reader, if ever you should witness such an afflicting scene, recollect, that the only method to extinguish the flame is to stisle it by an immediate covering." There are tombs also to the memory of Mr. John Ebborne, 1707; Samuel Lane, citizen of London, 1708; Anne, his sister, wife of John Manship, Esq. 1734; John Manship, Esq. 1749; Elizabeth (Aubrey), wife of Robert Cassills, 1724; John Newman, Gent. 1729; his niece Anne, wife of John Shaw, 1729; John Phillpot, Gent. 1730; Mary, widow of James Brown, M.D. 1733; Zechariah Allen, apothecary, 1735; Joanna, daughter of William Walton, and widow of Mr. John Forbes (fn. 30), 1739; John Shuckburgh, Gent. 1739; Mary, his relict, afterwards the wife of Elias Brownsord, 1762; Mr. Samuel Martin, 1743; Mr. Francis Grizwell, 1745; Mr. John Derrick Garnum, apothecary, 1746; Mr. George Atkinson, 1747; Rhoda, wife of the Rev. Ralph Thoresby, 1751; Ralph Thoresby, rector of Newington, (son of the celebrated antiquary,) 1763; John Collins, Gent. 1751; John Jabez Hurst, his son in law, 1770; Robert Berkley, Gent. 1754; Mary, his wife (daughter of the Rev. Richard Sear), 1767; Mr. John Conway, 1754; Mr. Gabriel Beeching Galloway, 1755; Mrs. Elizabeth Turner, 1756; Mrs. Hannah Bentley, 1757; Mrs. Elizabeth Bentley, 1767; Mr. Hugh Robinson, 1758; Susanna, wife of William Dampier, apothecary, 1763; Alexander Burnett, Gent. 1768; Mr. Spencer Morris, 1768; Mary, his wife (daughter of David Rebotier), 1748; Elizabeth, his daughter (wife of Mr. John Starr), 1777; Herman Lewis, Esq. 1771; Mr. Samuel Deverell, of Minchinhampton in Gloucestershire, 1772; Mrs. Anne Bell, 1773; Mr. John Macbean, 1774; Philip Garbrand, Esq. 1774; Philip Nesbitt, Gent. 1775; Mary, wife of the Rev. Meredith Townsend, 1776; Mr. John Slater, 1776; Mr. Philip Grafton, 1778; Mary, his wife, 1775; Mr. Charles Rebotier, 1778; Magdalen, his wife (daughter of Henry Guinand), 1776; Mrs. Jane Guinand, 1789; Sarah, wife of the Rev. William Neale, rector of Essindon and Bayford, Herts, 1781; William Lawrie, merchant, 1781; Mr. John Wallbank, 1784; Mr. William Weston, 1785; James Brown, Esq. 1788; Peter Salleé, 1788; Sarah, wife of Capt. Fielder Dorset, 1792; and William Dampier, apothecary, 1793.
The church of this place is a rectory in the peculiar jurisdiction of the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, and in the patronage of the prebendary of Newington (fn. 31). The rector has a glebe of 18 acres, being the only freehold land in the parish (fn. 32). The rectory was valued at 10 marks per ann. in 1366 (fn. 33), and in 1650 at 54l. 17s. (fn. 34); in the king's books it is rated at 10l.
Dr. Sidrach Simpson, rector of Newington, who died anno 1704, gave to the use of his successors a copyhold messuage and about three acres of land in Newington, now let at 60 l. per annum. His successor Dr. Millington, who died in 1728, bequeathed two-thirds of the profits of certain lands in Acton (now about 24l. per annum (fn. 35)) to the rector of this parish for the time being, as an encouragement for his reading public prayers every day in the parish church.
John Taverner, rector of this parish from 1629 to 1638, had been professor of music in Gresham college (fn. 36).
Thomas Manton, who was appointed to this living by the committee for plundered ministers on the sequestration of William Heath, was, if we may believe Wood's account, a complete vicar of Bray. At first he was a zealous presbyterian, took the covenant, and frequently preached before the long parliament. When the independents were in power he joined their party; made a flattering speech to Oliver Cromwell when he took upon him the title of Protector; and at his son's inauguration officiated as prelate of the protectorate, said prayers, and gave him his blessing. At the Restoration he so far ingratiated himself with Charles II. that he made him one of his chaplains; and is said to have designed him a deanery, had he complied with the act of uniformity (fn. 37). Dr. Manton died Oct. 18, 1677, and was buried at Newington. His works were very voluminous, consisting chiefly of sermons and expositions of scripture. He resigned this rectory in 1656, when the parishioners proceeded to the election of another minister; but it was nearly a year before any successor was settled: at length Daniel Bull was unanimously chosen (fn. 38), and received his appointment from the lord protector November 25, 1657 (fn. 39).
It appears that Heath was not reinstated before 1662 (fn. 40), when it is probable that Bull was ejected in consequence of the act of uniformity. The present rector is William Cooke, D. D. Provost of King's College in Cambridge, and Dean of Ely. He succeeded William Henry Nicolls in this rectory anno 1767. The present lecturer is Thomas Sheppard, M. A.
The presbyterian meeting-house on Newington-green was built in 1708 (fn. 41). Richard Biscoe, minister there till the year 1727, conformed to the church of England, and preached the sermons at Boyle's lectures, which he digested afterwards in a work intituled, The History of the Acts of the Apostles. Mr. Loveden, a subsequent minister at Newington, left that place in 1738, and conformed to the church. He published a volume of sermons in 8vo. The next minister was Hugh Worthington, M. A. author of several charges and sermons. The late celebrated Dr. Price was afterwards, for several years, minister at Newington-green; whilst he resided there, he was married in Newington-church to Mary Blundell (by banns) June 16, 1757. In 1770, Dr. Thomas Amory, an eminent divine of this persuasion, and a copious writer, came as morning preacher. He died in 1774. The present ministers are, Joseph Towers, LL. D. and the Rev. James Lindsay.
There is another meeting-house belonging to the Diffenters at Stoke-Newington. Martin Tomkins, minister at this place, was dismissed for Arianism, about the year 1718, and published his case. He published also a work called "Jesus Christ the Mediator," and some other tracts. He is spoken of in Toulmin's preface to his new edition of Neale's History of the Puritans. The present minister is George Hodgkins.
|Average of Baptisms.||Average of Burials.|
|1580–1589||4 9/10||4 3/5|
|1620–1629||9 4/5||16 2/10|
|1734–1743||14 7/10||39 1/5|
The disproportion of the burials to the baptisms, is partly to be attributed to the number of Diffenters who live in this place, being about one-fifth of the inhabitants (fn. 42), and partly to the frequent interment of non-parishioners. The present number of houses is about 200. That part of Newington which lies on the east side of the London road is in the parish of Hackney.
In 1563, being a plague year, there were 13 burials at Newington; the average was then about four. In 1593, there were 34 burials, the average being nearly the same; in 1603, 65, the average being under 10; in 1625, 52; 40 persons buried that year died of the plague, and their names are marked in the register with a red cross; the average at that period was about 10. In 1665, only 26 burials are entered, but it is clear that the register for that year is inaccurate; for it appears by the minutes of the vestry (fn. 43), that the plague was very fatal at Newington. Perhaps many persons were buried in the fields, and therefore not entered in the register.
"My lady of Bath, died Dec. 20, 1561." Margaret, daughter of John Donington, Esq. married first to Sir Richard Long, Knt. and afterwards to John Bourchier, Earl of Bath, who died in 1560 (fn. 44).
"Anne, daughter of John Dudley, Esq. born Feb. 12, and christened Feb. 24, 1574–5; John Dudley, Esq. buried Jan. 12, 1580–1." Son of the Hon. Thomas Dudley, by Sarah, daughter and co-heir of Lancelot Thirkeld, of Yeanwith in Westmorland. The said Thomas was eldest son of Edmund Lord Dudley, by his second wife, and grandson of Sir John Sutton, Lord Dudley (fn. 45), K. G. Anne, daughter of John Dudley, married Sir Francis Popham, as before mentioned (fn. 46).
"Foulke Thomas, servant to the Countess of Essex, buried Oct. 24, 1582." This Countess was widow of Walter Devereux, Earl of Essex, who died in 1576, not without suspicion of poison from the hands of the Earl of Leicester, who soon afterwards married his widow (fn. 47).
"Henry Viscount Bulbeck, sonne to the right honourable Edward Vere, Earle of Oxford, was borne the 24th of Feb. 1592–3, and christened the 31 day of March." Edward Earl of Oxford, a distinguished wit in the court of Queen Elizabeth, resided some years at Newington, where, as Norden says, he had a very proper house. His son Henry succeeded to the titles, but inherited a very small portion of his ancestors' estates; his father having squandered away the greater part of them to vex Lord Burleigh, whose daughter he had married. The offence, which was thus strangely resented, was a refusal on the Lord Treasurer's part, to exert his interest in favour of his son-in-law's friend, the Duke of Norfolk (fn. 48). It is probable, that some visit of Queen Elizabeth to the Earl of Oxford at this place, or to the Earl of Leicester, who seems to have resided here also, gave name to a walk, still called Queen Elizabeth's walk, and occasioned the tradition of her having had a palace at Newington, for which there is not the least foundation. Henry Earl of Oxford, whose birth is here recorded, died without issue at the siege of Breda, in 1625 (fn. 49).
"William Grey, brother of the Ld Grey, buried Aug. 29, 1594." Second son of William Lord Grey, and brother of Arthur Lord. Grey of Wilton, who died the preceding year in the Tower, having been attainted of high treason for a conspiracy with Sir Walter Raleigh (fn. 50).
"William Basset, Esq. and Judith Boothby (fn. 51), married May 11, 1598."
Mary, the daughter of Sr George Savell, Knt. (fn. 54) was christened the 23d day of March 1602–3."
Sir William Varnam, called the Ld of Powys, died at Mrs More, and was buried the 27 of July 1606." Collins says, that Thomas Vernon of Stocksey, by his wife Anne, daughter and co-heir of John Ludlow, by his wife Elizabeth Graye, daughter and sole heir of Richard Lord of Powis, had a son (Henry) who stiled himself Lord Powis, and died without issue in 1606 (fn. 55).
Sr John Burlacy, Knt, and Alice Ravis, widow (fn. 56), married Oct. 1, 1610."
Bennet, the sonne of Mr. William Shererd, was christened Dec. 18, 1621. Emlyn, son of Sr William Sherard, Knt, Nov. 21, 1622; Philip, Nov. 17, 1623." William Sherard was knighted at Oatlands, July 3, 1622. In the year 1627 he was created Baron Sherard of Leitrim in Ireland. His son Bennet succeeded to that title. Philip was ancestor to the present Earl of Harborough.
"Edward Ld Mandeville, Baron of Kimbolton (fn. 57), and Lady Anne Rich, daughter to the Earle of Warwick, married July 1, 1626."
"Sr Archibald Douglas, Knt (fn. 58), and Lady Eleanor Davies, widow, married Mar. 31, 1627."
"Abraham Raynardson (fn. 59), and Eleanor Wynne, married Aug. 2, 1626."
"Sr Francis Popham, Knt, buried Aug. 15, 1624." Son of Sr John Popham, Lord Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench, who resided at Newington (fn. 60). Sir Francis sat in the last parliament of Queen Elizabeth, and in all those of King James and Charles I. He was a zealous opposer of King Charles; to whom he became so obnoxious, that he was among those excepted out of the general pardon offered by that prince. Sir Francis married Anne, only daughter of John Dudley, Esq. of this place. His second son Alexander was a man of considerable note during the civil war. He sat in most of the parliaments during that period; was a commissioner for martial law in 1644, one of the council of state in 1649, a member of Cromwell's house of lords, in the council of state again in 1659 and 1660, and in the former year one of the army committee. At the Restoration he not only made his peace, but was much caressed by Charles II. who visited him at his seat in Wiltshire during one of his progresses. Col. Popham died anno 1669, and was buried at Chilton Foliot in Wilts (fn. 61). Many entries relating to the Popham family occur in the parish register at Newington (fn. 62).
Benoni, the son of Colonel John Lilburn, his birth-day on the 7th of April, in the year of our Lord God 1654." Lilbourn's principal residence was at Eltham, where he died in the month of August 1657 (fn. 63).
William, son of John Oglander, Esq. (fn. 64) baptized Feb. 22, 1664, buried Mar. 9."
Charles Hartopp, Esq. the son of Sr John Hartopp, Knt. Barannet, was borne in the parish of Stoke-Newington, the fifth day of June 1672." Sir John Hartopp, of Freathby, Leicestershire, Bart. married Elizabeth, daughter of General Fleetwood. He died anno 1722, aged 85; and was buried at StokeNewington, April 11: his wife Elizabeth, Nov. 26, 1711; his son, Sir John, in whom the title became extinct, Jan. 28, 1762. Numerous entries relating to the Hartopp family occur in the parish register (fn. 65).
"Bridget Fleetwood, buried Sep. 5, 1681." The eldest daughter of Oliver Cromwell. She was first married to General Ireton, and after his death to Charles Fleetwood, of Armingland-hall in Norfolk, a very distinguished character during the protectorate of his father-in-law. He was Lord Deputy of Ireland from 1651 to 1654. After the death of Cromwell he became head of the Republican party in the army, and may be said to have possessed, for a short time, the supreme authority. Upon the Restoration, he was fortunate enough, through the interest, as it is said, of Lord Litchfield (fn. 66), to escape with his life and liberty, being permitted to retire to his house at Stoke-Newington, where he spent the remainder of his days in privacy among his friends (fn. 67). Fleetwood, and his son-in-law Sir John Hartopp, were heavily fined for nonconformity in the reign of James II. (fn. 68) General Fleetwood died in 1692, and was buried in Bunhill-fields. His house at Newington was inhabited for many years by his descendants the Hartopps and Hurlocks. It is now a ladies' boading-school, in the occupation of Mrs. Crisp.
Mr Nathaniel Carter, of Yearmouth, and Mrs Mary Fleetwood, married Feb. 21, 1677–8." Noble says, that Mary Fleetwood was daughter of Bridget Cromwell, by her first husband, and sup went by the name of Fleetwood, because it was less obnoxious than that of Ireton (fn. 69). But is it not more probable, unless there is positive evidence to the contrary, that she was the daughter of Fleetwood? Supposing it so, she might have been 25 years of age at the time of her marriage; if she was Ireton's daughter, she must have been some years older. Many other entries relating to the Fleetwood family occur in the parish register, as may be seen in the copious pedigrees, printed in the Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica.
Sir Charles Lee, Knt. of Edmonton, and the Hon. Sarah Viscountess Corbett (fn. 70), of Buckinghamshire, married Dec. 18, 1679."
John, son of Peter Monamy (fn. 71), buried Mar. 31, 1680."
Robert, Ld Viscount of Arbuthnot, in the kingdom of Scotland, bachelor, and the Lady Anne Southerland, maiden, daughter of George Southerland, Erle in Scotland, were married by licence the 3d of May, in the year 1683."
Joseph (fn. 72), son of Mr Sam1 Danvers, baptized Jan. 5, 1687–8."
Sr Thomas Powell, Bart. (fn. 75) and Judith Herbert, married July 27, 1698."
"Samuel Wright, D. D. buried April 10, 1746." Dr. Wright, son of Mr. James Wright, a nonconformist minister at Redford in Nottinghamshire, was a very eminent divine among the Presbyterians. He was many years pastor of a congregation in Blackfriars, and afterwards at the meeting-house in Carter-lane, which was built for him, and opened by him in 1734 (fn. 76). He published a great number of single sermons on various subjects, and a treatise on the New Birth, which went through 15 editions in his life-time. Dr. Wright is said to have written the song, beginning "Happy hour all hours excelling." As a preacher, he was remarkable for elocution and melody of voice. He died at his house at Newington-green, on the 3d of April 1746. His epitaph was written by Dr. Obadiah Hughes (fn. 77).
"John Sinclair (fn. 78) and Elizabeth Wilmer, married May 7, 1774."
"The Rt Hon. Sr John Shelly, Bart. and M. P. for Shoreham, Treasurer of the Household, and of the Privy Council, and Elizabeth Woodcock (daughter of Edward Woodcock, Esq.) married (by special licence) Feb. 14, 1775."
"James Brown, Esq. aged 79, buried Dec. 31, 1788." Mr. Brown was the last survivor of the merchants who established the trade through Russia to Persia in 1741. From a long residence in Eastern countries, he acquired great knowledge in their languages, which enabled him to compile a very copious Persian Dictionary, accompanied with a Grammar, the manuscript of which is now in the possession of his son James Brown, Esq. of Stoke-Newington. Mr. Brown published a translation of two Orations of Isocrates (without his name), and may be considered as a great benefactor to the public, by first starting the idea of a directory to tradesmen, &c. in London (about the year 1732). He was at considerable pains in arranging the materials for it, which he gave to Mr. Henry Kent, a printer, who made a fortune by the publication (fn. 79).
In the year 1664, Thomas Stock, Esq. gave by will the rent of a house at Newington (fn. 80), towards educating five poor children. A regular charity-school was established before the year 1729, when Thomas Thompson, Gent. bequeathed to it a rent-charge of 2l. 2s. per annum, during the continuance of a lease which expires in 1809. George Green, Esq. by his will, bearing date 1762, and proved in 1764, gave an annuity of 50s. to the school. Miss Mary Hammond, by her will, bearing date 1772, and proved in 1774, gave the sum of 100l. producing now 3l. 6s. per annum. Sarah Bowles, anno 1788, bequeathed an annuity of 2l. 2s. (fn. 81) Mr. John Haines, by his will, dated 1792, and proved in 1794, gave the sum of 20 guineas. Six pounds per ann. are paid to this school by the trustees under the will of Mr. John Newman (fn. 82). These are all its endowments; with which, aided by voluntary contributions and collections at charity sermons, 15 boys and 12 girls are clothed and educated. The bequests of George Green and Mary Hammond are to be appropriated to the apprenticing poor children, if the charityschool should be discontinued.
It appears by the chantry-roll at the Augmentation-office (which contains an account of all bequests for charities, obits, &c. previously to the first year of Edward VI.), that the parish of Newington was possessed of three acres of land, and one of wood, for the use of the poor. The donor's name is not mentioned (fn. 83). This land was let in 1654, for seven years, at the rent of 61. per ann. (fn. 84); in 1710, on a lease of 99 years, at 81. The year preceding this lease, four houses were built upon it near the London road, for the reception of some of the poor Palatines who fled to England, as an asylum, in the month of June 1709 (fn. 85). These houses, with some others adjoining, still go by the name of the Palatine houses.
William Stephens, Gent. by his will, bearing date 1638, and proved in 1639, gave 10l. as a stock for the poor, and a rent-charge of 5l. issuing out of his lands in Hornsey, to be distributed yearly at Christmas. Thomas Stock, before-mentioned, gave the rent of two houses (fn. 86) to the poor, and a third house toward bringing the New River through the street, if that work should be completed within three years, otherwise the rent to be appropriated to keeping the other houses in repair. This (third) house now belongs to the parish, and is occupied by poor families, pursuant to an order of the vestry.
George Green, Esq. gave the remainder of the interest of 100l. (after paying 50 s. to the charity-school) to be distributed among the poor inhabitants, as their necessities should require; Mrs. Elizabeth Abney, anno 1782, bequeathed the sum of 100l. to the poor; John Haines, before-mentioned, bequeathed 20 l.
Sidrach Simpson, D. D. rector of Newington, by his will, anno 1704, bequeathed an annuity of 50s. (charged upon a house and land which he left to his successors), to be given to the poor in bread; Elizabeth Baker, anno 1716, gave the interest of 50l. to buy six twopenny loaves weekly for six poor widows. Mr. John Stevens, by his will, dated 1725, and proved in 1727, gave the interest of 10l. for bread. George Green, above-mentioned, gave a rentcharge of 20s. per annum; and Sarah Bowles, anno 1788, an annuity of 2l. 12s. for the same purpose. The last-mentioned donor directed the residue of the interest of 250l. 3 per cent. (after paying other benefactions to this and another parish, to the amount of 61. 16s.) to be laid out in the purchase of yarn stockings for the poor.