The Environs of London: Volume 4, Counties of Herts, Essex and Kent. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1796.
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Wansted lies in the hundred of Becontree, at the distance of about seven miles from Whitechapel church. The parish is bounded by Barking and Ilford to the east, Walthamstow and Woodford to the north, Leyton to the west, and Eastham to the south. It contains (exclusive of its share of the forest) about 600 acres of land; about 100 of which are cultivated with corn; about 50 for potatoes; the remainder is grass. The soil, in some parts of the parish, is clay; in others, loam; but principally gravel. Wansted pays the sum of 235l. 16s. to the land-tax; which, in the year 1795, was at the rate of 3s. 6d. in the pound.
In the year 1715, some labourers, in digging holes to plant an avenue of trees in the park at Wansted, (on the south side of the gardens,) discovered a Mosaic pavement. Mr. Lethieullier describes it as having a man on horseback in the centre, with several borders of wreathed work and ornaments. He adds, that Wansted was situated near a Roman road, which he calls the Southern Iceningstreet. It passed over the forest, and crossed the river Rodon at Ilford (fn. 1). About 300 yards south of the pavement were found, ruins of brick foundations; and, some years afterwards, fragments of urns, pateræ, Roman coins, &c.
The manor of Wansted was granted by Alfric to the church of Westminster, and confirmed by Edward the Confessor (fn. 2); but, before the end of that monarch's reign, it became (by exchange, it is probable) the property of the church of St. Paul, and was afterwards appropriated to the Bishop of London; under whom it was held (when the survey of Doomsday (fn. 3) was taken) by Ralph Fitz Brien. In the thirteenth century it belonged to the family of Hoding, or Hosdene (fn. 4). William de Huntercombe, who married to his second wife Alice, daughter and heir of Sir Hugh de Hoding, died seised of it in 1271 (fn. 5). In 1384, it was still in the family of Huntercombe (fn. 6). John Tatterfall of London, Gent. died seised of it in 1446 (fn. 7). Anne, his daughter and coheir, married Sir Ralph Hastings, who died at Wansted in 1495, having bequeathed this manor to his widow. Little more is known of its proprietors (fn. 8) till the reign of Henry VIII. when it belonged to Sir John Heron (fn. 9); whose son Sir Giles was attainted, and his estates became forfeited to the crown. King Edward VI. granted it, in 1549, to Robert Lord Rich (fn. 10); whose son sold it, in 1577, to Robert Earl of Leicester (fn. 11). The Earl devised it (with all his lands in Wansted, Woodford, Walthamstow, Great Ilford, and Leyton) to his widow and her heirs. The Countess of Leicester afterwards married Sir Christopher Blount. By some family conveyances this manor became vested in Charles Blount, Earl of Devonshire (fn. 12); who dying without lawful issue, in 1606, I suppose it escheated to the crown. It was afterwards the property of George Marquis of Buckingham, who, in 1619, sold it to Sir Henry Mildmay and Anne his wife. In 1673, it was conveyed by Sir William Mildmay and others to Sir Josiah Child (fn. 13); from him it descended to his son Richard, (created Viscount Castlemaine in 1718, and Earl Tylney in 1732,) and to his grandson the late Earl Tylney, who died without issue in 1784; when this manor, with other large estates, devolved upon Sir James Tylney Long, Bart. of Draycot in Wilts, (son of Sir Robert Long, by Emma, daughter of Richard Earl Tylney). Sir J. T. Long died in 1794, and was succeeded in his title and estates by his only son James Tylney, an infant.
On or near the site of Wansted-house stood an old mansion called Naked-hall Hawe (fn. 14), which seems to have been the manerial residence. It is probable that it was rebuilt by Lord Chancellor Rich, who made it his country residence. Queen Mary was there for some days, between her accession to the crown and her coronation (fn. 15). The Earl of Leicester, soon after his purchase, considerably improved and enlarged the house. In the month of May 1578, he entertained Queen Elizabeth there four or five days (fn. 16). At this house was solemnized his marriage with the Countess of Essex, in the presence of the Earls of Pembroke and Warwick, and Sir Francis Knolles, his chaplain Mr. Tindal performing the ceremony (fn. 17). This marriage took place on the 20th of September 1578, the Queen being then on a visit to Mr. Stonard at Loughton in the forest (fn. 18). This great Earl died in the year 1588, much involved in debt. After his death an inventory and estimate was taken of all his property, real and personal, the original of which is now in the British Museum (fn. 19). The furniture, stock, &c. at Wansted was valued at 1119l. 6s. 6d. In the gallery were three portraits of Henry VIII.; Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, Lady "Casimeur," Lady Rich, and 36 others not particularized. The pictures were valued all together at 11l. 13s. 4d. Seven pieces of tapestry with the story of Alexander were valued at 20l. The library consisted only of an old Bible; the Acts and Monuments, old and torn; seven psalters; and a service-book: valued all together at 13s. 8d. One of the rooms was called the Queen's; another Lady Rich's chamber. The Earl's horses at Wansted were valued at 316l. 0s. 8d. One horse called Bay Ley was valued at 26l. 13s. 4d.; Bald Dakers, an old horse, at 15l. (fn. 20) Among his geldings were "Bay Tedburie, Bald Tedburie, Grey Tedburie, and Bay Malmsburie." In the month of September 1607, Wansted being then one of the royal palaces, King James spent some time there, after his return from a western progress. Old Wansted-house is introduced in the back ground of a picture of Queen Elizabeth at Welbeck. There was a very small print of this house published by Stent in 1649.
The present Wansted-house was built about the year 1715, by the first Earl Tylney, then Sir Richard Child. It is one of the best works of Colin Campbell, a medallion of whom is placed over the door leading into the great hall. This magnificent structure is cased with Portland stone; the front is 260 feet in length; in the centre is a very handsome hexastyle, supported by columns of the Corinthian order. The great hall is 51 feet by 36, the ball-room 75 feet by 27, and the saloon 30 feet square. The other rooms, among which are no less than four state bed-chambers, are spacious and well proportioned. There is a good collection of pictures by the old masters; and a few portraits, among which are Lord Chief Justice Glynne and his family by Lely, Kent the painter, and Sir Josiah Child. In the Vitruvius Britannicus there is an elevation of Wansted-house, with a section, ground-plan, &c. (fn. 21)
The manor of Canon-hall, or Can-hall, belonged to the priory of the Holy Trinity as early as the year 1207 (fn. 22). After the suppression of that monastery, it was granted, anno 1535, to Nicholas Sympson and Joan his wife (fn. 23). Having reverted to the crown, it was granted by Queen Mary, anno 1553, to John Strelley and his heirs (fn. 24). Nicholas Strelley died seised of it in 1611; when, by intermarriage, it became the joint property of Humphrey Cardinall of Lincolnshire, and Thomas Woolhouse. Cardinall sold his share, in 1619, to Thomas Boothby, Esq.; whose son Richard Boothby, in 1639, purchased the other moiety, and, in 1662, sold the whole to Mr. James Flesher. Mr. Flesher aliened it, on the 16th of Dec. 1670, to Cornelius Bee and Thomas Carpenter; by whom it was conveyed, on the 20th of February following, to William Colegrave, ancestor of Robert Colegrave, Esq. of Isleworth in Middlesex, who is the present proprietor (fn. 25).
The nuns of Clerkenwell had some lands in this parish, given them by Henry Foliot; and a mill and grove, given them by Abraham de Wansted (fn. 26).
The seat of George Bowles, Esq. was built by Sir Francis Dashwood, about the year 1690; from him it passed to his son-in-law Sir Orlando Bridgman, who sold it to Mr. Gough. It was afterwards purchased by Matthew Wymondesold, Esq. who sold it to Humphrey Bowles, Esq. father of the present proprietor (fn. 27). The gardens belonging to this house are very extensive.
Wansted church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, was repaired and enlarged (fn. 28) in the early part of the present century, principally at the expence of the first Earl Tylney; but being still found small and incommodious, it was resolved, a few years ago, at the instance of the present rector, to pull it down, and build a new church on a larger scale, nearly adjoining to the old site. The first stone of the present structure was laid on the 13th of July 1787. It was finished in 1790 (fn. 29), and consecrated on the 24th of June that year. The building is of brick, cased with Portland stone; the portico is of the Doric order; at the west end is a cupola, supported by eight Ionic columns. The inside is extremely neat and elegant, without any unnecessary embellishment. It consists of a chancel, nave, and two aisles, separated by columns of the Corinthian order. The pavement is stone brought from Painswick in Gloucestershire. In the chancel is a beautiful window of stained glass, representing our Saviour bearing the cross, (from the picture at Magdalen College, Oxford,) by Egington of Birmingham. In the east window of the north aisle are the Royal arms; in the south aisle those of the late Sir J. T. Long, Bart. (fn. 30)
In the chancel is a superb monument, with the effigies of the deceased in white marble, to the memory of Sir Josiah Child, Bart. (fn. 31), who died in 1699. At the west end of the church are the monuments of Capt. John Morice, 1638; Mary, daughter of Robert Williamson, Esq. (fn. 32), 1683; David Petty, Esq. (fn. 33) (fifth son of George Petty, Esq. of Kent. by Anne, daughter of David Polhill, Esq.) 1745; Samuel Barlow, Esq. 1746; and Anne and Elizabeth, wives of Benjamin Barlow, 1765, and 1770.
In the churchyard are the tombs of the following persons (several of which were in the old church): Francis Morice, Esq. clerk of the Ordnance, 1636; Alice, daughter of Jerom Heydon, (married, first, to John Morice, Esq. afterwards to Thomas Smith, Esq.) 1679; Henry Hankey, rector, 1706; Edward Farmer, Esq. (son of Sir Edward Farmer of Canons,) 1709; Edward Cooke, Gent. 1718; John Clarke, Gent. 1719; James Pound, rector, 1724; Mary, wife of David Petty, Esq. 1726; Samuel Short, Gent. 1728; Margaret, wife of Robert Gay, and daughter of Sir Edward Farmer, 1728; Robert Gay, Esq. 1738; William Henworth, Esq. 1733; James Curtis, citizen and biscuit baker, 1734; Joseph Curtis, his son, 1771; Anna Delicia, wife of Capt. George Curtis, 1795; Arthur Acland, merchant, (brother of Sir Hugh Acland, Bart.) 1740; Elizabeth, his relict, only daughter of Thomas Gilbert of Exeter, (remarried to Charles Browne, Gent.) 1754; Mrs. Anne Gilbert, 1746; Ann Sampson, widow, 1743; William Colegrave, Esq. of Canon-hall, 1749; Thomas Juson, rector, 1749; Daniel Waldo, Esq. 1749; John Swete, Esq. 1752; Henry Vanderstegen, Esq. 1754; Elizabeth, daughter of Matthews Beachcroft, 1764; Robert Porten Beachcroft, Esq. 1781; Marmaduke Westwood, apothecary, 1768; Richard Goodere, B. A. rector, 1769; Charles Scott, Esq. 1771; Edward Pavett, "whose death was occasioned (after a long and painful illness) by swallowing a prune stone," 1773; John Anna, wife of Sir Harry Goring of Highden, Sussex, 1774; Walter Fletcher, Esq. of Cumberland, 1775; Capt. John Crighton, 1776; William Hopkins, Gent. 1777; Thomas Colby, Esq. Commissioner of the Victualling-office, 1780; Rev. Parker Rowlands, 1780; Anne his wife, daughter of Charles Scott, Esq. 1792; Humphrey Bowles, Esq. 1784; Jeremiah Royds, Esq. 1786; Rev. Dr. Horne, rector, 1786; Sarah, wife of Capt. George Burton, 1787; Robert Butcher, Esq. 1788; Thomas Butcher, Esq. (fn. 34), 1794; Alice, wife of —— Foster, Esq. Governor of Bengal, daughter of —— Gray, 1791; and John Lagier Lamotte, Esq. 1792.
The church of Wansted is a rectory in the diocese of London, and in the deanery of Barking. It is rated, in the King's books, at 6l. 13s. 9d. In 1650, it was valued at 72l. (the glebe at 47l. the tithes at 25l.) (fn. 35). The patronage has been always vested in the lord of the manor. The prior and convent of the Holy Trinity enjoyed the tithes of their manor of Can-hall, in this parish, paying to the rector a quarter of pulse, and a quarter of oats, according to an agreement made in the year 1207 (fn. 36).
Mrs. Frances Harrison, widow, who died in 1690, bequeathed the house she lived in at Wansted (in default of heirs from her son and daughter) as a residence for the widow of a rector of that parish, whenever there should be any such, who would accept of it; when not so occupied, the rent to be given to the poor. No benefit has ever accrued, either to the rectors' widows, or to the parish, from this donation.
James Pound, who was instituted to this rectory in 1707, on the death of Mr. Hankey, distinguished himself as a naturalist and astronomer. He went out to the East Indies, as chaplain and physician to the English Factory in the island of Pulo Condore in Cochin-China, where he narrowly escaped the dreadful massacre in 1705. An account of this horrid transaction, with a journal of other incidents attending his voyage, was among the papers of his nephew Dr. Bradley, the late Astronomer-royal, and is now in the possession of Dr. Bradley's son-in-law the Rev. Samuel Peach of East Sheen. Several papers upon astronomical subjects by Mr. Pound are printed in the Philosophical Transactions. His collection of subjects in natural history was deposited in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford.
|Average of Baptisms,||Average of Burials.|
|1740–9 (fn. 37)||11||23|
|1780–9||16 7/10||20 7/10|
The report of the King's surveyor of houses and windows, in 1762, states, that there were then 112 houses in this parish; of which 70 were mansions, 42 cottages. The present number of houses is about 150.
"Mr. Saltmarsh was buried Dec. 15, 1647." This was John Saltmarsh, a celebrated puritan divine, who was a native of Yorkshire, and educated at Magdalen College in Cambridge. A pamphlet was published in 1648, giving a remarkable account of his death. It states, that on the 4th of December he left his house at Ilford, saying he had a command from God to prophesy to the army; and that he went, and prophesied their division and ruin, and his own death. On the 9th he returned (according to the narrative) in perfect health, the next day said he had finished his course, and on the 11th died. This narrative is accompanied with several prophecies, which he is said to have uttered in his last moments. Fuller tells us what is much more probable, that he died of a burning fever in a state of delirium, and venting strange expressions called prophetical raptures. He adds that he was a good preacher, and no contemptible poet (fn. 38). Mr. Saltmarsh published controversial and other tracts; some of which, if one may judge from their titles (fn. 39), were written when he was bordering on insanity.
Josiah, son of Josiah Child, Esq. born Dec. 20, 1668 (baptized at Hackney); Mary, born May 20, 1672; Barnard, son of Josiah Child and Emma, baptized June 11, 1677 (buried June 6, 1698); Richard, baptized Feb. 5, 1679–80. Sr Josiah Child, buried June 27, 1699."
John Howland, Esq. of Stretham, and Elizabeth, daughter of Sr Josiah Child, Bart, married Aug. 4, 1681. Charles Ld Herbert, eldest son to the Marquis of Worcester, and Rebecca, second daughter of the Rt Worshipful Sr Josiah Child, were married the 5th day of June 1682, in the chapel belonging to the manorhouse at Wansted, by Henry Barrington, chaplain." This marriage was celebrated with great magnificence; among the company assembled upon the occasion were the Bantam ambassador and his train (fn. 40). "The Rt Hon. Lady Elizabeth Somerset, daughter of Charles Marquis of Worcester, and Rebecca, born Mar. 7, 1687." "Mr Richard Child and Mrs Dorothy Glynne, married Apl 22, 1703; Emma (fn. 41) and Elizabeth, twins of Sr Richd Child, Bart, and Dorothy, born Dec. 10, 1707; Frederic, Feb. 13, 1709–10; Richard, July 24, 1711; John (fn. 42), Oct. 22, 1712; Dorothy, July 6, 1717; Dorothy Countess Tylney, buried Mar. 3, 1743–4; Richard Earl Tylney, May 29, 1750; the Hon. Josiah Child, May 19, 1760; John Earl Tylney, Dec. 16, 1784."
I A. B. doe, in the presence of Almighty God, promise, vowe, and proteste, to maynteyne and defend, as farre as lawfully I may, with my life, power, and estate, the true reformed protestant religion, expressed in the doctrine of the church of England, against all popery and popishe inovacions within this realme, contrary to the same doctrine, and according to the duty of my allegiance to his Majesty's royall persone, honor, and estate; as also the power and privileges of parliament, the lawful rights and libertyes of the subject; and every persone that makes this protestacion, in whatsoever he shall do in the lawful pursuance of the same; and to my power, as farre as lawfully I may, I will oppose, and by all good wayes and meanes, endevoure to bring to condign punishment, all such as shall ether by force, practice, counsell, plots, conspiracyes, or otherwise, doe any thing to the contrary of any thing in this present protestacion conteyned. And further, that I shall, in all just and honorable ways, endevoure to preserve the union and peace betweene the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland; and nether for hope, feare, nor other respecte, shall relynquishe this promise, vowe, and protestacion.—Wee, whose names hereafter followe, doe freely and unanimously make this protestacion afore written; and, in testimonye thereof, have subscribed our names this 27th day of June 1641." Signed, Humphrey Maddison, minister, William Brereton (fn. 43), Henry Herbert, Thomas Mildmay, Henry Mildmay, Richard Boothby, William Boothby, James Cambell, and 40 others.
Sir William Penn (father of the founder of Pennsylvania) was an inhabitant of Wansted, and died there in 1670. He was High Admiral of England during Cromwell's usurpation, and afterwards performed many signal services for Charles the Second (fn. 44).
There are two charity-schools in this parish, the one for boys, and the other for girls; at which nearly all the children of the poor are educated (fn. 45). These schools were established in the year 1786, some after the institution of the present rector. They are supported by voluntary contributions.
Robert Rampston, who died in 1585, gave 20s. per annum to the poor of this parish. The late Earl Tylney, anno 1784, bequeathed 100l. in the 4 per cents. to the poor; and Robert Mangles, Esq. in 1791, the sum of 50l. laid out in the purchase of 69l. 1s. 8d. 3 per cent. consol. Bank annuities.