A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.
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A tenement so called in the parish of St. Giles without Crepelgate, 1361 (Ct. H.W. II. 62).
No later mention.
East out of St. Katherine's Lane and New Street (P.C. 1732-Lockie, 1810).
Former names : "Leze Court" (Strype, 1720 and 1755). "Lays Court" (Rocque, 1746-Lond. Guide, 1750).
Removed for the erection of St. Katherine's Docks and adjacent warehouses 1827.
Leg and Ball Alley
South out of London Wall, in parish of All Hallows, London Wall, in Broad Street Ward.
Broad Street Ward School was in this alley in 1713-1829, and was rebuilt in 1844 on the same site, adjoining No. 58 London Wall, behind the premises fronting the street (End. Ch. Rep. 1903, p. 2).
Name derived from the union of two signs.
On the north side of Fleet Street, in Farringdon Ward Without (Rocque, 1746).
Site rebuilt, now occupied by offices and business houses.
Another tower by Baynard's Castle built by Ed. II. In the 2 Ed. III. it was given by the King to William, Duke of Hamelake in the County of Yorke and his heyres, since called "Legates Inne," 7 Ed. IV.
Divers wood wharfes now in place (S. 366).
Named after the owner.
Tenements of William Power called "Leggesaleye" in parish of St. Bartholomew the Less (Ct. H.W. II. 293, 1391-2).
Identified in Vestry Minute Book of the parish of St. Bartholomew the Litell in entries of the 16th century with "Nagg's Head Court" (q.v.).
Site now occupied by the Bank of England.
Named after the owner.
Tenements in an alley called "Lennes-aleye" in parish of St. Michael (de Croked lane), in will of J. Elyngham, stock fishmonger, 1424-5 (Ct. H.W. II. 436).
Not further identified.
Leonard (St,) Foster Lane
On the west side of Foster Lane, in Aldersgate Ward. The parish extends into Farringdon Ward Within.
First mention : "St. Leonard near S. Martin," 1278 (Ct. H.W. I. 35).
Staples, in his account of St. Botolph, Aldersgate, says St. Leonard's was founded about 1236, by Walter or Wm. Kyrkeham in the court or yard of the collegiate church of St. Martin (p. 31), but he does not give his authority for the statement.
Other forms : "Sancti Leonardi in venella Sancti Vedasti," 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. I. 229 and 235). "S. Leonard in S. Vedast lane," 1322-3 (Ct. H.W. I. 300). "St. Leonard in Fasterlane," "S. Leonard de Fasterlane," 1396-7 (ib. II. 323). "S. Leonard de Fastres lane," 1403 (ib. 355).
Stow describes it as a small parish church "for them of S. Martin's le graund," the parish being greatly increased by tenements being rebuilt in place of St. Martin's Collegiate Church (S. 308).
Repaired and enlarged 1631. The vicarage house before the Fire formed part of the Church. Burnt in the Fire and not rebuilt. Parish united to Christ Church, Newgate Street. Site enclosed for a burial ground (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 120).
A Rectory. Patron : Dean of S. Martin's le Grand and afterwards the Dean and Chapter of Westminster.
Leonard (St.) Eastcheap
On the east side of Fish Street Hill, in Bridge Ward Within, at the corner of Eastcheap.
The parish extends into Billingsgate and Candlewick Wards.
Earliest mention found in records : "St. Leonard," 15 John (Anc. Deeds, A. 6884).
Other names : "St. Leonard apud Estehep," 1238-9 (Harl. Ch. 46, A. 22). "St. Leonard of Estehep," c. 1255 (Anc. Deeds, A. 7837). "St. Leonard Estchepe," 46 H. III. (ib. A. 2274). "St. Leonard in Estchep," 1259-60 (Ct. H.W. I. 6). "St. Leonard de Estehep," 1274 (ib. 19). "St. Leonard at Estchyep," H. III. (Anc. Deeds, A. 1810).
Stow says it was called St. Leonard Milke Church, of one William Melker, an especial builder thereof, but commonly called Saint Leonardes in East Cheape corner (S. 214). Kingsford suggests William Melker of Easteheap, whose will was proved 1273 (Ct. H.W. I. 15).
Steeple, etc., burnt in 1618, taken down and the church enlarged towards the east and new built and steeple rebuilt 1618-21. The parishioners being poor were allowed to collect money for the work in other Counties (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 176).
Destroyed in the Fire 1666 and not rebuilt. Site of the church enclosed and reserved for a burial ground for the parish.
Parish united to St. Benet Gracechurch (ib. 181) and now to All Hallows Lombard Street.
A Rectory. Patrons : Prior of Christ Church Canterbury until the dissolution of the Monasteries, when it passed to the D. and C. of Christ Church Canterbury.
Dedicated to St. Leonard the hermit of France.
Leonard's (St.) Lane
"Parva Venella sancti Leonardi de feodo Canonicorum de Newenham." Mentioned in Add. Ch. 24488 (B.M.). Witnessed by John de Coudr, Alderman of the Ward, and others (1240-50).
John de Coudres seems to have been "Soknereve" to the Prior and Canons of St. Bartholomew (Lib. de Antiquis Legibus, p. 12, 1246) and may perhaps have been Alderman of Farringdon Ward Without or Aldersgate Ward, but without any clearer indication as to the situation of the Ward, it is difficult to identify the lane with any certainty.
Qy.=St. Leonard's Street.
Leonard's (St.) Street
This street was within the precinct of St. Martin's le Grand, adjoining the church of St. Leonard, Foster Lane, and in 9 Ed. I. permission was granted to the Canons to enclose the lane (venella) called St. Leonard's Street (vicus) next the church because of the enormities committed there and the dirtiness of the Esterlings, who frequented it, saving only ingress and egress to the church of St. Leonard towards the east part (Ch. I. p.m.).
Perhaps identical with St. Leonard's Lane (q.v.).
See Litton Street.
As indicated s.v. "London," the levels of the City have varied considerably from time to time since its foundation, with the result that the present streets and buildings are at a much higher level than those of the ancient City. The subject is dealt with graphically in Plan 1, which shows the depth of the "made ground" in various localities and also the levels at which Roman remains of various kinds have been reached, so far as these have been ascertainable.
The London Clay has been reached in Copthall Avenue at a depth of 18-24 feet, under St. Mary le Bow at about 20 ft., and at Bishopsgate at about 30 ft., while the gravel has been reached at depths varying from 10 ft. at Beer Lane to 22 ft. at London Wall, and 30 ft. in Blomfield Street.
The marsh from the river's edge extends to about 300 ft. inland, the ground shelving upwards towards Thames Street.
Black boggy soil with indurated bog earth and peat have been found at different points in the area extending from Princes Street, Lothbury and Throgmorton Street to London Wall, and from Finsbury Pavement to Blomfield Street and New Broad Street.
It may be interesting to indicate the depths to which the "made ground" extends in different localities.
In the western area of the City the depth extends in Chancery Lane (Holborn end) to 12-14 ft.; Holborn Bars, to 13 ft.; Bartlett's Buildings, 7 ft.; Leather Lane, 10 ft.; Newgate Street, 11 ft.; Warwick Square, 18 ft.; New Bridge Street, 25 ft.; Blackfriars (Apothecaries' Hall), 12-121/2 ft. Old Fish Street, 10 ft.; Godliman Street, 71/2 ft.
In the Central area : Lombard Street, to 14 ft.; Bank of England, 22 ft.; Gracechurch Street, 16 ft.; Warnford Court, 221/2 ft.; Cannon Street, 9 ft.; King William Street, 11 ft.; Rood Lane, 15 ft.; Billingsgate, 27-35 ft.
In the eastern area : Gravel Lane, Houndsditch, to 184 ft.; Minories, 15 ft.; Royal Mint, 11 ft.; Royal Mint Street, 17 ft.; Tower Hill at Gt. Tower Street, 51/2 ft.; Tower Hill at the western entrance to the Tower, 14-22 ft.
In the northern area : Jewin Crescent, to 23 ft.; Finsbury Pavement, 10-16 ft.; London Wall, 91/2-12 ft.; Moorgate Street, 17-18 ft.; Bishopsgate, 7 ft.
It will thus be seen that the depth varies from 7 to 35 feet over the entire area.
Leze Court, St. Katherine's
See Lees Court.
The word "liberty" is frequently used to denote the privileged areas also known as "precincts," which are dealt with under that head.
But the word "liberties" is also used to denote the outlying areas not included within the City walls, which extended from the Wall and the Gates to the Bars and were originally known as the "portsoken," the soke or liberty without the gate. In London this term "portsoken" came to be exclusively applied to the eastern suburb, but in other large cities it was used indifferently to denote all or any of the suburbs lying outside the city gates. In early deeds relating to London, however, such land is generally referred to as "in suburbio London,"
Thus we find described : "Messuage with curtilage in the suburb of London without Allgate adjoining St. Botolph's churchyard," 52 H. III. (Anc. Deeds, A. 2587). "Rents in the suburb of London without Bysshopesgate," 41 Ed. III. (ib. B. 2300). "Land, etc., in Secollane in the suburb of London in the ward of Faryngdon Without" (ib. C. 3580). "Messuage apud Flete in Suburbio London" (Ch. I. p.m. 23 Ed. III. No. 127). "Tenement in the suburb of London without Crepelgate in Everardeswellestrat within the bar" (Anc. Deeds, A. 11861). "Messuage in Fletestrete in parish of St. Bridget in the suburbs of London" (Ch. I. p.m. 28 Ed. I. 77). "Same collectors appointed for the collection of murage, etc., in the suburbs without the gates as for the gates themselves," 10 Rich. II. 1386-7 (Cal. L. Bk. H. p. 300).
These outlying districts came in course of time to be attached to the nearest adjoining ward within the City walls, forming thenceforth an integral portion of such ward, which was thenceforth distinguished by the terms "Within" and "Without," thus "Bishopsgate Within and Without," "Cripplegate Within and Without," "the Ward of Farriagdon Within and Without" was temp. Richard II. separated into two distinct wards, with separate Aldermen.
These liberties are still included within the boundaries of the City area, while the term "suburb" has been indefinitely extended to embrace the outlying districts, which formerly existed as separate villages but are now united to form the County of London and the area of Greater London beyond. The Liberties correspond to the "pomerium," or "territorium" of the Roman city states, the unbuilt on territory appertaining to the City.
Liberties of the Tower
See Tower Liberty.
North out of Leadenhall Street. In Aldgate Ward (O. and M. 1677).
The site seems to have been at 100 Leadenhall Street.
Now occupied by offices and chambers.
Name derived from the sign.
Lily Pot Lane
West out of Staining Lane to No. 7 Noble Street (P.O. Directory). In Aldersgate Ward.
First mention : "Lillipot lane" (Leake, 1666).
So named from the tenement called "Lyllye potte" (q.v.).
South out of Leadenhall Street, at No. 159 to Fenchurch Street (P.O. Directory). In Aldgate, Lime Street and Langbourn Wards.
Earliest mention : "Limstrate," 12th century (Anc. Deeds, A. 5853). "Lymstrate," 32 H. III. (ib. A. 1470).
According to Stow the name is derived from the making or selling of lime there, and we certainly read in early times of a messuage there belonging to Gilbert, son of Fulk, and lands of Ailnoth the limeburner (calcerii) (Anc. Deeds, A. 11559, n.d.).