A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
Leg and Ball Alley
Another tower by Baynard's Castle built by Ed. II. In the 2 Ed. III. it was given by the King to William, Duke of Hamelake in the County of Yorke and his heyres, since called "Legates Inne," 7 Ed. IV.
Leonard (St,) Foster Lane
Staples, in his account of St. Botolph, Aldersgate, says St. Leonard's was founded about 1236, by Walter or Wm. Kyrkeham in the court or yard of the collegiate church of St. Martin (p. 31), but he does not give his authority for the statement.
Other forms : "Sancti Leonardi in venella Sancti Vedasti," 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. I. 229 and 235). "S. Leonard in S. Vedast lane," 1322-3 (Ct. H.W. I. 300). "St. Leonard in Fasterlane," "S. Leonard de Fasterlane," 1396-7 (ib. II. 323). "S. Leonard de Fastres lane," 1403 (ib. 355).
Repaired and enlarged 1631. The vicarage house before the Fire formed part of the Church. Burnt in the Fire and not rebuilt. Parish united to Christ Church, Newgate Street. Site enclosed for a burial ground (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 120).
Leonard (St.) Eastcheap
Other names : "St. Leonard apud Estehep," 1238-9 (Harl. Ch. 46, A. 22). "St. Leonard of Estehep," c. 1255 (Anc. Deeds, A. 7837). "St. Leonard Estchepe," 46 H. III. (ib. A. 2274). "St. Leonard in Estchep," 1259-60 (Ct. H.W. I. 6). "St. Leonard de Estehep," 1274 (ib. 19). "St. Leonard at Estchyep," H. III. (Anc. Deeds, A. 1810).
Stow says it was called St. Leonard Milke Church, of one William Melker, an especial builder thereof, but commonly called Saint Leonardes in East Cheape corner (S. 214). Kingsford suggests William Melker of Easteheap, whose will was proved 1273 (Ct. H.W. I. 15).
Steeple, etc., burnt in 1618, taken down and the church enlarged towards the east and new built and steeple rebuilt 1618-21. The parishioners being poor were allowed to collect money for the work in other Counties (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 176).
Leonard's (St.) Lane
John de Coudres seems to have been "Soknereve" to the Prior and Canons of St. Bartholomew (Lib. de Antiquis Legibus, p. 12, 1246) and may perhaps have been Alderman of Farringdon Ward Without or Aldersgate Ward, but without any clearer indication as to the situation of the Ward, it is difficult to identify the lane with any certainty.
Leonard's (St.) Street
This street was within the precinct of St. Martin's le Grand, adjoining the church of St. Leonard, Foster Lane, and in 9 Ed. I. permission was granted to the Canons to enclose the lane (venella) called St. Leonard's Street (vicus) next the church because of the enormities committed there and the dirtiness of the Esterlings, who frequented it, saving only ingress and egress to the church of St. Leonard towards the east part (Ch. I. p.m.).
As indicated s.v. "London," the levels of the City have varied considerably from time to time since its foundation, with the result that the present streets and buildings are at a much higher level than those of the ancient City. The subject is dealt with graphically in Plan 1, which shows the depth of the "made ground" in various localities and also the levels at which Roman remains of various kinds have been reached, so far as these have been ascertainable.
The London Clay has been reached in Copthall Avenue at a depth of 18-24 feet, under St. Mary le Bow at about 20 ft., and at Bishopsgate at about 30 ft., while the gravel has been reached at depths varying from 10 ft. at Beer Lane to 22 ft. at London Wall, and 30 ft. in Blomfield Street.
Black boggy soil with indurated bog earth and peat have been found at different points in the area extending from Princes Street, Lothbury and Throgmorton Street to London Wall, and from Finsbury Pavement to Blomfield Street and New Broad Street.
In the western area of the City the depth extends in Chancery Lane (Holborn end) to 12-14 ft.; Holborn Bars, to 13 ft.; Bartlett's Buildings, 7 ft.; Leather Lane, 10 ft.; Newgate Street, 11 ft.; Warwick Square, 18 ft.; New Bridge Street, 25 ft.; Blackfriars (Apothecaries' Hall), 12-121/2 ft. Old Fish Street, 10 ft.; Godliman Street, 71/2 ft.
In the Central area : Lombard Street, to 14 ft.; Bank of England, 22 ft.; Gracechurch Street, 16 ft.; Warnford Court, 221/2 ft.; Cannon Street, 9 ft.; King William Street, 11 ft.; Rood Lane, 15 ft.; Billingsgate, 27-35 ft.
In the eastern area : Gravel Lane, Houndsditch, to 184 ft.; Minories, 15 ft.; Royal Mint, 11 ft.; Royal Mint Street, 17 ft.; Tower Hill at Gt. Tower Street, 51/2 ft.; Tower Hill at the western entrance to the Tower, 14-22 ft.
Leze Court, St. Katherine's
But the word "liberties" is also used to denote the outlying areas not included within the City walls, which extended from the Wall and the Gates to the Bars and were originally known as the "portsoken," the soke or liberty without the gate. In London this term "portsoken" came to be exclusively applied to the eastern suburb, but in other large cities it was used indifferently to denote all or any of the suburbs lying outside the city gates. In early deeds relating to London, however, such land is generally referred to as "in suburbio London,"
Thus we find described : "Messuage with curtilage in the suburb of London without Allgate adjoining St. Botolph's churchyard," 52 H. III. (Anc. Deeds, A. 2587). "Rents in the suburb of London without Bysshopesgate," 41 Ed. III. (ib. B. 2300). "Land, etc., in Secollane in the suburb of London in the ward of Faryngdon Without" (ib. C. 3580). "Messuage apud Flete in Suburbio London" (Ch. I. p.m. 23 Ed. III. No. 127). "Tenement in the suburb of London without Crepelgate in Everardeswellestrat within the bar" (Anc. Deeds, A. 11861). "Messuage in Fletestrete in parish of St. Bridget in the suburbs of London" (Ch. I. p.m. 28 Ed. I. 77). "Same collectors appointed for the collection of murage, etc., in the suburbs without the gates as for the gates themselves," 10 Rich. II. 1386-7 (Cal. L. Bk. H. p. 300).
These outlying districts came in course of time to be attached to the nearest adjoining ward within the City walls, forming thenceforth an integral portion of such ward, which was thenceforth distinguished by the terms "Within" and "Without," thus "Bishopsgate Within and Without," "Cripplegate Within and Without," "the Ward of Farriagdon Within and Without" was temp. Richard II. separated into two distinct wards, with separate Aldermen.
These liberties are still included within the boundaries of the City area, while the term "suburb" has been indefinitely extended to embrace the outlying districts, which formerly existed as separate villages but are now united to form the County of London and the area of Greater London beyond. The Liberties correspond to the "pomerium," or "territorium" of the Roman city states, the unbuilt on territory appertaining to the City.
Liberties of the Tower
Lily Pot Lane
According to Stow the name is derived from the making or selling of lime there, and we certainly read in early times of a messuage there belonging to Gilbert, son of Fulk, and lands of Ailnoth the limeburner (calcerii) (Anc. Deeds, A. 11559, n.d.).