An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1, South. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1912.
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a(1). Parish Church of St. Nicholas, stands on the W. side of the village, and is built of rubble, with limestone dressings. The roofs are tiled, except that of the S. aisle, which is covered with lead. The 12th-century church on the site consisted probably of a chancel, and an aisleless nave, shorter than the present Nave; this building appears to have been enlarged four times, during the 13th century, the work of each period being sufficiently marked to distinguish it from the others. A North Transept was added to the nave, and the Chancel was re-built c. 1220; a short and narrow South Aisle of two bays was added to the E. half of the nave c. 1230; a North Aisle, probably narrow, with an arcade of three bays, was built W. of the transept c. 1260, a short length of walling being retained between the transept arch and the first arch of the arcade; at the same time the S. aisle was lengthened by two bays towards the W.; c. 1290 the E. half of the S. aisle was widened to form a South Chapel. The N. aisle was widened, probably to the depth of the original transept which was incorporated with the aisle, c. 1330, when the W. respond of the transept arch was converted into a pillar and the first arch of the 13th-century arcade was re-built with a wider span; the South Porch is also of the 14th century. In the 15th century the West Tower was added, and several windows were inserted in other parts of the building. In the second half of the 16th century the N. aisle was shortened by one bay from the W. The North Vestry was added, and the church restored and re-roofed in the 19th century.
Architectural Description — The Chancel (24½ ft. by 15 ft.) has an E. window of three lights and tracery in a two-centred head, with an external label; the inner jambs are of the 14th century; the tracery is modern. In the N. wall is a 15th-century window of two cinque-foiled lights with tracery under a square head, and a modern doorway opening into the vestry. In the S. wall are two windows; the eastern is of the 15th century, and of two cinque-foiled ogee lights, with quatrefoil spandrels under a square head and moulded external label; the western window is of the 14th century, and of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with a moulded external label; apparently the head has been re-tooled outside. The two-centred chancel arch of c. 1220 is of two moulded orders, and has semi-octagonal jambs with moulded bases, probably restored, and simple bell-capitals, with plain abaci; the moulded label, in the nave, has return ends carried across the wall on each side, with a square stop where it meets the label of the first arch of the N. arcade. The Nave (49 ft. by 15½ ft.) has a N. arcade of three bays, formerly four; the first bay, originally the arch of the N. transept, is probably of c. 1220; the arch is of two chamfered orders with a moulded label; the E. respond is semi-octagonal, the column octagonal, with moulded bases and capitals similar to those of the chancel arch; the E. half of the column is of c. 1220, the W. half of c. 1260; the second and third bays are of c. 1260, and the arches are of two chamfered orders with shallow hollows; the eastern arch was re-built c. 1330, with the 13th-century voussoirs, and has a moulded 14th-century label; the western arch has a 13th-century label; the second column is round, and has a moulded base, a fluted and scalloped capital, and moulded abacus, probably copied from the first column of the S. arcade; the W. respond, originally the third column of the arcade, is partly buried in the wall; the base resembles that of the second column, and the capital, somewhat similar to those of the chancel arch, has a moulded abacus of c. 1260. The S. arcade is of four bays; the first two bays, of c. 1230, have arches similar to those of later date in the N. arcade, but the hollows are deeper and the arches narrower and lower; the E. respond is semi-octagonal, with a modern base and original moulded capital and abacus; the first column is circular, with moulded base and scalloped capital; the third and fourth bays, of c. 1260, have arches similar to the W. arches of the N. arcade, but they have been thrust forward by the pressure of the W. arch of the S. chapel; the second and third columns are circular with moulded bases and capitals; the W. respond is semi-octagonal, with moulded base and capital of similar section to those of the E. respond, and is probably of the same date, moved towards the W. when the aisle was lengthened. The capitals of both arcades and of the chancel arch have been re-rubbed. The North Aisle (36 ft. by 11½ ft.) has an early 14th-century E. window, of three cinque-foiled pointed lights and tracery in a two-centred head; the external label is moulded, and the rear arch is chamfered; the window has sunk towards the S., distorting the tracery. In the N. wall are two windows; the eastern of two lights with modern external stonework, the jambs inside and the chamfered rear arch are probably of the 14th century; the western window, probably of the 16th century, is of two four-centred lights, with sunk spandrels under a splayed square head and lintel; the 14th-century N. doorway has chamfered jambs and a two-centred drop-arch with a moulded internal label. The W. wall of the aisle is about 13 ft. E. of the W. wall of the nave, and has a 16th-century window of three ogee lights and tracery under a four-centred head. The South Chapel (20½ ft. by 13½ ft.) has a late 13th-century E. window of three pointed lights and tracery in a two-centred head; the external and internal jambs have shafts with moulded bases and capitals; the labels are moulded; the workmanship is crude, and much distorted, as the window has sunk towards the S. In the S. wall are two windows, each of two trefoiled ogee lights and tracery in a square head, having a moulded external label with head-stops, apparently originally part of a string-course; the external stonework is of the 15th century; the splayed inner jambs have remains of late 13th-century shafts with capitals and bases similar to those in the E. window. In the W. wall, opening into the S. aisle, is a narrow two-centred arch, of two moulded orders, with a label on each face, apparently of c. 1290; the responds have clustered half-round shafts with moulded bases and capitals; the N. respond is set awkwardly against the second column of the S. arcade, and the S. wall of the aisle breaks forward in front of the S. respond. The South Aisle (23½ ft. by 5½ ft.) has, at the W. end of the S. wall, a window of two trefoiled ogee lights and tracery in a two-centred head; the internal stonework, with chamfered rear arch, is probably of the 14th century; the external stonework and label are modern: the S. doorway (see Plate, p. xxiv.), next to the arch from the S. chapel, is of c. 1260, and of two moulded orders, enriched with dog-tooth ornament, which has small holes between the flowers; the outer order of the jambs has shallow dog-tooth ornament, probably cut at a later date than the other, and detached shafts in the angles, with moulded bases and bell-capitals under grooved and chamfered abaci; the inner order is chamfered. The South Porch has an outer archway of two moulded orders and a moulded label, all modern, except a few stones, which are probably of the 14th century. The West Tower (11½ ft. by 10½ ft.) is of three stages, with a moulded string-course and embattled parapet, diagonal buttresses at the W. angles, and a shallow square buttress on the S.E.; at the N.E. corner is a half-hexagonal stair-turret, rising above the parapet. The 15th-century tower arch and jambs are of two chamfered orders with splayed stops at the base. The W. doorway, also of the 15th century, has a four-centred head and moulded jambs on a splayed plinth; the threshold has been lowered and the jambs therefore lengthened at a later date: the original W. window is of three cinque-foiled pointed lights under a four-centred head. The second stage has a trefoiled single light in the S. and W. walls, and a loop in the stair-turret on the N. The third stage has in each wall a 15th-century window of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil under a four-centred head and a label.
Fittings—Bracket: in S.E. corner of chancel, moulded, 15th-century. Font: circular bowl, ornamented with shallow arcade of pointed arches, moulded circular base, 13th-century. Glass: in the upper lights of E. window of S. chapel, two half-figures of angels, 14th-century. Niche: in gable of S. porch, three stones of former niche. Piscina: in S. chapel, with trefoiled head and circular basin, early 14th-century. Tiles: in the floor of the tower, mediæval, much worn. Miscellanea: on N. wall of chancel, carved corbel, bearded head with quatre-foiled band round the temples, probably 15th-century.
a(2). Tyringham Hall, now a village club, about 200 ft. N.W. of the church, is a small house, built of stone, early in the 17th century, probably in 1609, the date carved on the lintel of the staircase. The plan consists of a rectangular block, with a W. wing, formerly projecting towards the N. and S., now only towards the S., and an E. wing, which has been extended towards the N.; the E. wing is of one storey and an attic; the central block, containing the hall, now used as a billiard room, and the W. wing are of two storeys and an attic; part of the attic was formerly used as a dovecot. The S. Elevation has a projecting bay window, carried up to the eaves, and of five lights in each storey; the lower storey is of modern stone, but in the upper storey, which is almost entirely original, the lights have moulded jambs, mullions and transoms, all apparently of brick, coated with cement; on each side of the bay window in each storey is a two-light window of similar detail, but those in the lower storey are of modern stone; the dormer windows and the windows of the E. wing are of the 18th century; the W. wing is gabled, and has three original windows with moulded oak frames and mullions; over the window in the gable are three holes opening into the former dovecot. The W. Elevation has two original windows with moulded oak frames; the third window is of the 18th century. The N. Elevation has, on the first floor, three original windows with moulded oak frames, mullions and transoms, and at the W. end, in the lower part of the wall, the bonding for the former projection is visible; the two projecting stone chimney stacks have rectangular shafts of brick; the western stack is not carried down to the ground, but rests on stone corbels. The lower part of a chimney over the E. wing is of stone, and the upper part of thin bricks.
Interior:—The hall, and the sitting-room in the E. wing, have each a wide fireplace, and the sitting-room retains a little original panelling; the doorway at the W. end of the hall and another which opened into the former N.W. projection have original moulded oak frames and battened doors; one room has an original panelled door, and lying loose in another room is a similar door with a carved frieze and ornamental scroll-hinges. On the first floor the room above the hall has a wide, open fireplace, and one door retains the original scroll-hinges. A room in the attic has an original fireplace with plastered jambs and four-centred head, and part of the walls are arranged with tiers of brick recesses for doves. The main staircase has original steps, and on a lintel over the foot of the staircase is carved the date 1609 between the initials T.R. The stairs to the cellar have octagonal newels with finials and a moulded handrail. The stairs to the attic are original, but much restored.
a(3). House, now two tenements, on the N. side of Lower Church Street, 60 yards N. of the church, is of two storeys, with a cellar and an attic. It was built probably in the first half of the 17th century on a rectangular plan; towards the end of the same century the S. end was re-built and the W. wing added, making the plan L-shaped. The S. front and the N. side of the W. wing are of brick, with plain projecting pilasters and a horizontal string-course; the W. end of the wing is of stone with a brick gable; the other walls are timber-framed with plaster filling. The roofs are partly thatched and partly tiled. The windows on the S. front are original, and have plain frames, mullions and transoms; on the E. side is an original dormer window with moulded wood frame and mullions. One chimney stack is original and has square shafts built of thin bricks, and another stack is of late 17th-century brick. A cellar door and a partition on the first floor are of 17th-century moulded battens.
a (4). House, now two tenements, is a small two-storeyed building of late 17th-century date, but much restored. In front one tenement is timber-framed with plaster filling, the other is re-faced with modern brick; at the back the walls are of stone, timber and brick. The roof is partly thatched and partly tiled. In each tenement is a wide, open fireplace and some of the ceilings have old beams.
a (5–8). Cottages, a range of four, are of two storeys, built of wichert, probably late in the 17th century, and restored with modern brick. The roofs are tiled. Some of the rooms have wide, open fireplaces and there are old beams in the ceilings.
a (9). House, now three tenements, is of two storeys, timber-framed with brick filling, except the lower part of the E. wall, which is of stone; the roofs are partly tiled and partly covered with slate. It was built early in the 17th century and has a modern addition at the W. end; much of the brick filling is modern. On the N. side is a large projecting chimney stack of stone, with two square shafts of brick, set diagonally; another stack has a rectangular shaft of brick, restored at the top. Inside the house some timbers in the S. wall possibly indicate a blocked doorway with a four-centred head. Some of the rooms have wide, open fireplaces and chamfered ceiling-beams; there are two panelled oak doors and a little panelling of early 17th-century date.
a (10). Holyman's Farm, 250 yards N. of the church, is a small two-storeyed house of stone and wichert, almost entirely covered with plaster; the roofs are thatched. The plan is L-shaped. It was built in the 17th century, probably in 1698, the date carved on a fireplace. One window, apparently original, has moulded oak mullions, transom and frame. A square chimney is of 17th-century brick. In the parlour is an open fireplace, now partly filled in, and built into one of the jambs is a stone inscribed WVI 1698. Two barns near the house are probably of the 17th century, and are built of wichert; the roofs are thatched.
a (11). Cottage, of two storeys, built in the 17th century, and restored in the 19th century. In front the wall is timber-framed, on a stone base; the filling is partly of plaster, partly of modern brick; at the back the lower part of the wall is of modern brick and stone, and the upper part is covered with plaster. The roof is thatched.
a (12). Cottage, at the corner of Frog Lane and Spicketts Lane, is of two storeys, built of wichert in the 17th century; the roof is thatched. In front, on the first floor, are two original windows with plain chamfered frames and mullions; one window is now blocked. A rectangular chimney stack is of 17th-century brick. Two rooms have wide, open fireplaces.
a (13). House, at the E. end of the lane, is a long rectangular building of two storeys and of late 17th-century date. The walls are of wichert on a stone base, and at each end is a brick gable. The roof is thatched. Three doorways have original beaded oak frames and most of the windows have old frames and mullions. Two rectangular chimney stacks of brick are also original.
a (14). Farmhouse, now several tenements, in a road between Spicketts Lane and Holly Tree Lane, is of two storeys, built of brick and timber, on stone foundations, in the 17th century; the roof is tiled. Two chimney stacks are of 17th-century brick and some of the windows are old. Inside the house are two large, open fireplaces and some chamfered ceiling-beams.
a (15). The Swan Inn, is a two-storeyed house of central chimney type. It was built of wichert in the 17th century, but the walls have been almost entirely re-faced with modern brick. The roof is tiled. There is an old brick chimney stack, and under it is a wide, open fireplace with the original corner seat and oven. Some of the ceilings have chamfered beams.
a (16). House, at the E. end of the street, is a rectangular building of two storeys and an attic, probably of early 17th-century date. The walls are of stone; the roof is tiled. The windows and chimney stacks are old. On the first floor is a cupboard with early 17th-century panelling, and a room and one staircase are lined with 17th-century moulded battens. The second staircase retains the original newel and a few carved flat balusters.
a (17). Cottage, E. of the Crown Inn, is of two storeys, built of timber and wichert, on stone foundations, probably early in the 17th century. The roof is thatched. One room on the ground floor has a richly moulded ceiling-beam.
a (18). The Crown Inn, is of two storeys, built probably in the 17th century, but much restored and altered. The walls are of wichert, partly re-faced with modern brick. The roof is thatched. One old chimney stack remains, and under it is a wide, open fireplace, partly blocked. Some of the ceilings have stop-chamfered beams.
a (19–20). Cottages, two, at the corner of the Haddenham and Aylesbury roads, are each of two storeys, built of wichert in the 17th century; the western cottage has been partly refaced with modern brick. The roofs are tiled. One chimney stack is of 17th-century brick. In the eastern cottage one room has, over the fireplace, fragment of plasterwork, evidently part of an overmantel, representing a greyhound, a thistle, a fleur-de-lis, etc.
a (21). House, at the S. end of the street, was built probably late in the 17th century, but has been much restored and altered. It is of two storeys, with walls of brick and stone; the roof is tiled. Some of the ceilings have chamfered beams, and in one room is a wide, open fireplace.
a (22). House, now the Post Office, is a rectangular building of two storeys. A panel in the gable at the N. end bears the date 1687 and the initials I.R. The walls are covered with rough-cast; the roof is tiled.
a (23). Cottage, at the N. end of the street, is of two storeys, built in the 17th century. The walls are partly of wichert, partly timber-framed, with brick filling; some of the filling is modern. The roof is thatched. One chimney stack and some of the windows are old. Inside the house is a wide, open fireplace with the original oven, and in one ceiling is a stop-chamfered beam.
a (24). Cottage, opposite the church, is of two storeys, built of brick and timber in the 17th century; the roof is tiled. The building is of modified central chimney type; an outhouse has been added at one end, making the plan L-shaped. The front is covered with plaster, but in the gables the timber-framing is exposed. Some of the windows have old iron casements.
b (25). Cowley Farm, about 1 mile N.E. of the church, is a small 17th-century building of two storeys, with stone walls; the roofs are tiled. The plan is L-shaped. Some of the windows have old iron casements. A large chimney stack has three square shafts, of 17th-century brick, set diagonally on a stone base. Inside the house are some stop-chamfered beams and a wide, open fireplace.
b (26). The Bottle and Glass Inn, is of two storeys, built of wichert in the 17th century and covered with modern plaster. The roof is thatched. One chimney stack is of 17th-century brick. Inside the house are old chamfered beams and a wide, open fireplace with the original oven.
b (27–28). Cottages, two, at the back of the Bottle and Glass Inn, are of two storeys, and of central chimney type, built in the 17th century. The walls are covered with plaster; the roofs are thatched. Some of the rooms have open fireplaces and chamfered beams.