VII. ADDITIONAL OFFICERS
WITH THEIR TITLES
Agincourt King of Arms
King of arms created by Henry V in memory of and soon after the great
victory on St Crispin's day 1415. Occurs several times down to 1419, but
name nowhere given. Uncertain whether rank was merely honorary or
whether, as Spelman thought, he had a province in France.
Aiyl Fauste Faire
See IL FAUT FAIRE.
Anjou King of Arms
King of arms retained by John, Duke of Bedford and Anjou. Sent to Dover
to meet the Burgundian ambassadors in 1425. Title lapsed in 1436. Name
of the 1425 Anjou not found.
1. WILLIAM BOYS (1427). See Norroy (8).
Pursuivant named from the badge given by Henry IV in right of his wife
Mary de Bohun, coheiress of Humphrey, Earl of Hereford, namely, a white
antelope with gold horns and hooves, a gold crown about its neck and
pendant chain. Office said to have been instituted by Henry IV, but its only
certain appearance is c. 1419. Lant misnames Wrexworth, W. Boys senior
and Tonge as Antelope under Henry IV, V and VI respectively.
1. THOMAS BOYS
Antelope c. 1418.
Younger s. of William Boys, Lancaster; probably the Antelope who
attended Henry V to Agincourt (Nicolas, Agincourt, App. 6, note).
2. THOMAS MORE (temp. Hen. V). See Guyenne (8).
3. JOHN WRYTHE (temp. Hen. V). See Garter (3).
4. ROBERT ASHWELL (temp. Hen. V). See Windsor (4).
5. JAMES BILLETT (temp. Hen. VI). See Chester (3).
6. JOHN MORE (temp. Hen. VI). See Norroy (12).
Under Henry V Arundel was the private herald of Thomas Fitzalan, Earl
of Arundel (d. 1415). The title was revived in 1727 as that of a herald
Badge, assigned 1958: A horse at speed argent with an oak-sprig proper
in its mouth.
I. HERALD OF THE EARL OF ARUNDEL
1. JOHN COSOUN (temp. Hen. V). See Clarenceux (4).
II. HERALD EXTRAORDINARY
2. CHARLES GREENE (1727). See Lancaster (32).
3. FRANCIS HUCHENSON (1735). See Chester (28).
4. JOHN CHEALE (1741). See Norroy (41).
5. THOMAS BEWES
Arundel, nom. c. 1754, R. wt. 24 March, cr. 26 May 1762.
S. of Thomas Bewes of St Neots, Cornwall, by Hannah, sister of the elder
Anstis; married Catherine, sister of the younger Anstis; d. 1768; burd at
Duloe. Nom. Arundel in lifetime of younger Anstis, but not created until
26 May 1762.
(Maclean, Trigg Minor, pp. 68, etc.; Alum. Oxon.)
Arms granted 1726: Argent, a lion with tail knotted gules, an eastern
crown or about its neck & 3 falcons proper, belled or in chief. Crest: On
a chapeau gules turned up ermine a Pegasus rising of a bright bay colour,
mane & tail sable, wings displayed or, in its mouth a laurel slip vert.
Motto: Major Ab Adversis.
6. WALTER ASTON BLOUNT (1830). See Clarenceux (38).
7. DERMOT MICHAEL MACGREGOR MORRAH
Arundel, E.M. wt. 16, R. wt. 27 April 1953.
B. Ryde, I.O.W., 26 April 1896, s. of Herbert Arthur Morrah and Alice
Elise dau. of Major C. A. Macgregor, R.E.; educ. Winchester and New
College, Oxford; sometime Fellow of All Souls; Lieutenant R.E. First
World War; 1922 F.R. Hist. Soc.; 1932 editorial staff of The Times; 1944
editor The Round Table; 1947 special correspondent of The Times on royal
tour, S. Africa; writer on history, constitutional law, imperial affairs and
heraldry with especial reference to coronation and other ceremonial; contributor to various periodicals (sometimes anonymous or under pseudonyms
Yorkist and Blancherose); Arundel 1953.
Pursuivantship instituted by Edward VI in 1552. At first treated as an officer
extraordinary in England, but from 1566 solely appropriated to Ireland.
1. PHILIP BUTLER
Athlone, pat. 28 June 1552.
Natural s. of B. Butler, Ulster; appd for duty in Ireland, but remained for a
certain time in England where he ranked as pursuivant extraordinary; d. 1566.
Arms: Gules, a fess between 3 covered cups argent with a baston sinister
azure (? sable) over all.
Aulet (aurtt) Pursuivant
In 1383 Aulet pursuivant and Northampton herald were sent to France by
Sir Peter Courtenay (Rot. Franc. 7 Ric. II, m. 16, 23 November). Not
known whether Aulet was retained by Courtenay or by another, nor whence
the name was derived.
Is this the same as Aurtt, a pursuivant who occurs on 15 February 1448
(Warrants for Issue, 26 Hen. VI)?
On 20 March 1399 Bardolf herald authorized Robert Baynard and his heirs
to omit the label from their arms (B.M. MS. Lans. 860, fo. 263; H. of N.,
pp. 46, 53; H. & H., pp. 73, 162–3). He was the officer of Thomas, Lord
Pursuivant of John Bourchier, Lord Barnes or Berners, when deputy of
1. RICHARD RATCLIFFE (c. 1532). See Somerset (6).
Bath, King of Arms of the Order
Bath, king of arms of the Order of the Bath, was instituted at the creation
of the Order by pat. of 18 May 1725. He was not and never has been a
member of the College, but by an additional Statute dated 14 January 1726
(cf. Blanc Coursier and Brunswick) Grey Longueville, then Bath, was constituted Hanover herald and Gloucester king of arms and principal herald
of the parts of Wales, with precedence before the provincial kings. These
additional titles were, however, soon dropped, see below s.v. Gloucester.
Later kings of arms were attached to the Orders of St Michael and
St George and the British Empire. These had and have no functions outside
the respective orders and have no special names of office.
Herald of John, Duke of Bedford; occurs from 14 November 1428 (Sureau
691) to February 1435 (H. of N., p. 54).
Pursuivant of Thomas de Montagu, Earl of Salisbury and Lord of Bellême,
near Alençon; sent by the Earl with a message to the King and slain by
brigands on his way back before 21 June 1421 (H. of N.).
Sent to France by the King in 1443 (Issue Roll, Easter, 22 Hen. VI); name of
his master unknown. See Biencele.
Pursuivant appointed for service on the Scottish border and attached to the
Governor of Berwick. Occurs frequently from time of Edward IV to
Elizabeth I. As garrison pursuivant title lapsed on the death of Harry Ray,
but it was revived for a few moments in 1602 as preliminary to St George's
appointment as Windsor. Lant misnames Benolt, Wall the younger and
Charles Wriothesley as Berwick temp. Edward IV, Henry VII and VIII
1. RALPH GOSSE
Berwick appd temp. Ed. IV, confirmed 12 August 1484.
Granted salary of £10 a year 12 August 1484; on duty 1485 when Jasper
Tudor was cr. Duke of Bedford (Pat. 2 Ric. III; Coll. of Arms MS. O.A.
2. WILLIAM JENYNS (temp. Ed. IV). See Chester (12).
3. LEONARD WARCOP (c. 1513). See Carlisle (5).
4. PETER RAY or RA
Pursuivant, c. 1527.
Attached to Berwick garrison and sent to Scotland April and August 1527
(L.T.A., v, 318, 325). Perhaps the 'Raa Inglisman' mentioned 1532–41
bringing messages from Berwick (ibid. vi, 100, vii, 449 passim). After
May 1541 the messenger is named as 'Harry Ra' (perhaps Peter's son).
5. THOMAS STEVENSON (c. 1536). See Rouge Croix (33).
6. HARRY RAY or REE
Berwick, c. 1539.
1532–41 according to Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland (v, 100
to vii, 449 passim) 'Raa Inglisman' took frequent messages between Berwick
and Scotland; does that mean Harry or Peter, q.v.? After May 1541 messenger
is called Harry Raa (ibid. vii, 446, etc.). In English records Harry Ray occurs
from September 1536 (L. & P. Hen. VIII, xi, 400) and is different person
from Berwick the King's herald (ibid. 922, etc.), i.e. Stevenson; April 1537
Harry Ray is called 'pursuivant of Berwick' (ibid. xii, 1, 839), but by February
1539 he is 'otherwise called Berwike' (ibid. xiv, 1, 275, ii, 749) having succeeded as Berwick pursuivant on Stevenson's removal to Rouge Croix.
Thereafter he occurs repeatedly down to April 1565 (Ashmole, Inst. of
Garter, 615), acting throughout the period as the usual means of communication between the Council of the North, Scotland and London; also for some
time confidential agent between Queen Margaret of Scotland and the Duke
of Norfolk; November 1542 was with Treheron, Somerset, when latter was
murdered, but escaped unhurt; December 1543 declared war on the Scots;
1544 accompanied Gilbert Dethick on his mission to Scotland; named in
Heralds' Charter of June 1549; was not promoted.
Arms: Gules, a bend ermine & over all a label or.
7. RICHARD ST GEORGE, pursuivant extraordinary (1602).
See Clarenceux (17).
Rewarded by John of Gaunt at Kenilworth 2 January 1380–1 (John of
Gaunt's Reg. 1379–83, no. 327). Not known who retained him.
Pursuivant to Matthew Goch, Captain of Bayeux Castle; attended the duel
between Chalons and du Breuil in 1446 (H. of N.).
Bien Alaunt Pursuivant
In reign of Henry VI was sent by the Earl of Warwick from Calais to Ostend
to secure the release from prison of Thomas Desseforde, vintner (H. of N.).
Probably the Earl's pursuivant though the title, whether interpreted as
'allant bien', quick moving, or as 'bon alant', good hound, has no apparent
reference to Warwick.
Biencele (Biendelle) Pursuivant
Biencele, Biencole, or Bientele occurs in 1434 carrying letters to and from
John, Duke of Bedford, and in 1455 du Bien Delle describes himself as 'le
poursuivant serviteur de Monsr de Rivieres'. Rivieres is Sir Richard
Wydevill, Lord Rivers, who had married the Duke of Bedford's widow,
Jaquetta of Luxembourg. It is therefore likely that Biencele and du Bien
Delle are variants of the same title (H. of N.). Bensilver and Bien Colier
are perhaps other variants.
Bien Colier Pursuivant
Pursuivant sent to Henry VI with despatches from the Council in France in
1444 (Issue Roll, Easter, 22 Hen. VI). Is this a variant of Biencele, q.v.? Not
known whose officer he was.
Blanc Coursier Herald
The office of Blanc Coursier herald was founded by a statute of 14 January
1726 and was to be perpetually united with the office of Genealogist of
the Order of the Bath which had been instituted a few months earlier by
the original statutes of the Order. The title was abolished when the Order
was remodelled in 1857.
The office was semi-private, like Blanch Lyon under Henry VIII, for
Blanc Coursier is described in the statute as 'Our Herald of Arms with...
Prince William, the First and Principal Companion of Our said... Order...'
and the tabard worn by Anstis and now in the Victoria and Albert Museum
displays the Royal Arms differenced by Prince William's label.
No officer of arms for the Hanoverian Guelphic Order was instituted by
the foundation statutes, but an additional statute of the same date, 12 August
1815, entrusted 'Our Blanc Coursier Herald' with various duties in connection with the order, and thereafter Nayler is habitually styled Blanc
Coursier king of arms, or Blanc Coursier, king of arms of Hanover.
The name is taken from the white horse in the arms of Hanover. The
badge worn by Blanc Coursier is enamelled gules with a white courser at
speed proper on a mount in base vert. The white horse is also prominent
in the insignia of the Guelphic Order.
Blanc Coursier was not a member of the College, but three of the five
incumbents were officers in ordinary, the exceptions being Fox and Brown.
(See also H. of N., pp. 50, 55; H. S. London, Royal Beasts, p. 55.)
1. JOHN ANSTIS (1726). See Garter (17).
2. SACKVILLE FOX (1754); resd 1757. No further details available.
3. JOHN SUFFIELD BROWN (1757); resd 1792. No further details
4. GEORGE NAYLER (1792). See Garter (23).
5. WALTER ASTON BLOUNT (1831). See Clarenceux (38).
Title abolished 1857
Blanch Lyon Pursuivant
Under Edward IV Blanch Lyon was a royal pursuivant, being sent to France
in 1482 (Cal. Doc. Scot., iv, no. 1474). The title was then taken from the
white lion of the Mortimer Earls of March, one of King Edward's favourite
badges (Royal Beasts, p. 29). The title lapsed under Henry VII, but it was
revived in 1537. Its status was then anomalous, for although James was
described as 'Our pursuivant' and was granted a salary by the Crown, he
was expressly said to be with the Duke of Norfolk and in the College he
was counted as an extraordinary (H. of N., pp. 48, 56). The title in this case
clearly refers to the white lion rampant, which was at once arms, crest and
badge of Mowbray and which, with a crown about its neck, is now one of
the Duke of Norfolk's supporters. Since 1602 the title has been revived from
time to time as that of a pursuivant extraordinary. Among the later incumbents a white lion was incorporated in the armorial insignia of Walker, and
1. JOHN JAMES (1537). See Norfolk (1).
2. FRANCIS THYNNE (1602). See Lancaster (21).
3. NICHOLAS CHARLES (c. 1603). See Lancaster (22).
4. JOHN PHILIPOT (1613). See Somerset (12).
5. JOHN HAMELIN
Blanch Lyon, cr. 14 February 1624.
B. c. 1596; sometime herald-painter; of St Clement Danes, London; burd
Bradfield, Berkshire, 16 October 1633; second husband of Mary Forster of
Aldermaston, Berkshire (marriage licence 1 March 1624), whose fourth heir
was Elias Ashmole, Windsor. Sometime miscalled Thomas.
(Genealogist, N.S. xxix, 66; 1665 Vis'n of Berkshire.)
Arms: Gules, a lion ermine crowned or.
6. EDWARD WALKER (1635). See Garter (12).
7. WILLIAM DUGDALE (1638). See Garter (13).
8. ROBERT BROWNE (1640). See Bluemantle (39).
9. CHARLES MAWSON (1680). See Chester (26).
10. THOMAS HOLFORD (1686). See Portcullis (16).
11. HUGH CLOPTON (1690). See Rouge Dragon (23).
12. ROBERT DALE (1694). See Richmond (23).
13. JOHN DUGDALE (1707). See Mowbray (15).
14. ARTHUR SHEPHERD (1719). See Rouge Dragon (26).
15. THOMAS BROWNE (1727). See Garter (20).
16. ALEXANDER OCHTERLONY
Blanch Lyon, 1784.
B. Boston, Mass., 11 September 1764; stepson of Sir I. Heard, Garter; s. of
Catherine née Tyler by her first husband Alexander Ochterlony, of Pitforthy,
Angus; his elder brother David, cr. baronet 1816; 1779 esquire to Sir Edward
Hughes, K.B.; Blanch Lyon 1784; d. 1803.
Arms: Azure, a lion argent holding in the dexter forepaw a trident erect
or & charged on the shoulder with a key in pale azure, a molet or in chief
for difference. Crest: A swan rousant argent crowned, collared & chained
or, a molet gules on the breast.
17. GEORGE HARRISON ROGERS-HARRISON (1831).
See Windsor (36).
Title derived from the white greyhound which has been a royal badge since
the time of Edward III (Royal Beasts, p. 39; Antiquaries J., xxxiv, 238;
Archaeologia...). Only known as borne in 1418 by 'William Boys junior
alias dictus Blanchlyverer pursevant', elder s. of William Boys, Lancaster
(Fine Roll, 6 Hen. V, co. Buckingham, n. 30, cited in Coll. of Arms MS.
O.A. II, 716).
1. WILLIAM BOYS
Blanchlyverer pursuivant, c. 1418–19.
Elder s. of William Boys, see Norroy (8). (Antiquaries J., xxxiv, 238.)
Blanc Sanglier Pursuivant
Pursuivant of Richard III both before and after his accession. The title, held
by one More at the time of Bosworth, recalls the King's favourite badge,
a white boar with gold tushes, hooves and bristles; whence his nickname
'Dickon the Hog'. This is presumably a differenced version of the blue boar
given by Edward III (Royal Beasts, pp. 25, 59; 'Heralds' Titles as Surnames',
Genealogists' Mag. (1954), p. 506).
Blanc Sanglier, before 1485.
Pursuivant of Richard III before and after accession; rescued Richard's
body after Bosworth and carried it to Leicester for burial. Hall's Chronicle,
p. 421, calls him 'Blaunche Senglier', but The Great Chronicle of London
(1938, p. 238) says 'a pursevaunt callid Norrey'; must therefore have been
s. of John More, Norroy 1478.
Arms: As his father.
Pursuivant of Sir Galiard de Durefort, Seigneur de Duras et de Blanquefort,
K.G., c. 1462, a Gascon retainer of Henry VI. Rewarded by the King in
1463 as pursuivant of an Englishman (H. of N.).
In July 1445 and 1448–50 Bonaventure was pursuivant of Thomas Hoo,
Chancellor of France and Bailiff of Mantes and later Lord Hoo (d. 1454).
A Bonaventure pursuivant also occurs in July 1494 when he had a reward
from the King of Scots; it does not appear whose servant he then was.
Bon Espoir Pursuivant
Sent with Rouge Croix from Rouen to Dinan in 1419. Perhaps pursuivant
of John Holand, Earl of Huntingdon (H. of N.).
Bon Rapport Pursuivant
Pursuivant who brought despatches from the Chancellor of France in 1448
and in 1450 was sent to the Duchess of Burgundy and Archbishop of
Cologne (Warrants for Issues, 26 Hen. VI, no. 124, 13 February and
28 Hen. VI, no. 164, 9 May).
Pursuivant sent to the Scottish border with letters from the King in 1434
(Issue Roll, Easter, 12 Hen. VI, 14 June; Cal. Doc. Scot., iv, no. 1077).
Bordeaux, capital of Guyenne, gave title to an English herald under
Richard II and Henry VI. Primarily, no doubt, he was attached to the
Bordeaux garrison, but he seems to have been used for general service in
that part of France (H. of N.).
1. WILLIAM MULTON or MOULTON
Bordeaux, c. 1389.
Received robes at Christmas 1389; 1391 granted life annuity of £10; then
tenant of house in Bordhaw Lane, London; d. January 1399, will dat.
14 January, pr. 20, leaving wife 'Eleanor Bordeaux' and 2 daughters; burd
St Catherine Creechurch; s. Thomas also burd there.
Probably related to John Multon, Mayor of Bordeaux c. 1380.
Arms: Argent, 2 bars & in chief 3 annulets sable.
2. WILLIAM PORTESLADE
Bordeaux, c. 1426.
Attended Sir John Radcliffe, Captain of Fronsac Castle in Aquitaine in
4 Hen. VI, p.s. 5 April 1426.
Pursuivantship instituted by Henry VIII in honour of the capture of the
town in 1544; title lapsed when the town was restored to France in 1550.
1. SIMON NEWBOLD (? 1544). See Rouge Croix (38).
2. NICHOLAS NARBOON (temp. Ed. VI). See Ulster (2).
Pursuivant of Robert Willoughby, Lord Broke, Steward of the Household;
accompanied Sir Robert Clifford and Roger Machado, then Richmond king,
on mission to Brittany in 1489 (H. of N.).
Brunswick Herald, an officer of the Order of the Bath, instituted like Blanc
Coursier by the additional statute of 14 January 1726, was a semi-private
officer being described as 'Our Herald of Arms with the Great Master...'.
The office was annexed in perpetuity to the office of Gentleman Usher of
the Scarlet Rod. It lapsed on the remodelling of the Order in 1857.
Brunswick was not a member of the College though the last four incumbents were all officers in ordinary. His badge was enamelled with the arms
of Brunswick, Gules, two lions passant guardant or.
Soon after the office was instituted Sawyer asked Garter Anstis whether
he ought to wear a tabard with the arms of the Duke of Montagu, Great
Master, namely, Argent, a fess of 3 fusils gules in a border sable quartering Or,
an eagle displayed vert. The correspondence was inconclusive and it does
not appear that Sawyer ever wore such a tabard.
1. EDMUND SAWYER (1 February 1726). No further details available.
2. CHARLES FREWIN. No further details available.
3. HENRY HILL (1763). See Windsor (31).
4. ISAAC HEARD (1774). See Garter (22).
5. GEORGE FREDERICK BELTZ (1814). See Lancaster (38).
6. ALBERT WILLIAM WOODS (1841). See Garter (27).
Office abolished 1857.
Buckingham was retained by the first, second and third Dukes of Buckingham. He is called pursuivant in 1447 and 1448 and again in 1508, but
herald in 1483 and 1514 (H. of N.).
1. WILLIAM HASYNG or HASTINGS (c. 1508).
See Somerset (4).
In 1490 'Baudewinus Stepman alias Bukky pursevaunt' was sent to Denmark and in 1491 'John Bukky pursevant' was attached to William Hewster's
embassy to the same country (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 193). From the
difference in the Christian names it would appear that Bucky was the
pursuivant's name of office, but there is nothing to show to what it alludes
or by whom he was retained. At the same time the possibility that it was
an alias surname cannot be excluded.
1. BALDWIN STEPMAN alias BUKKY
Pursuivant, c. 1490.
'Baudewine Stepman alias Bukky pursevaunt' sent to King of Denmark
1490 (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 193, citing 'Liber Compotus Garderobae',
Easter, 5 Hen. VII). Anstis seems to identify him with 'Bukky one of our
Messagiers' who was attached to William Hewstre's embassy to Denmark
in April 1491 (p.s. 10 April, 6 Hen. VII) although immediately above he
calls the latter 'John Bukky pursevaunt'. Was Bukky an alias surname or
title as pursuivant?
2. JOHN BUCKY
Pursuivant, c. 1490 (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 193). See above (1).
Herald of Thomas Beaufort, Earl of Dorset, in 1415 and pursuivant of his
nephew Edmund Beaufort in 1440. In 1416 Cadran was in trouble for
running off with four silver cups entrusted to him by a pursuivant of the
Chancellor of France, Septfaux, whom he had been charged to conduct to
Montmillin (H. of N.).
Anstis thought the title was perhaps chosen from the badge given by the
sixteenth-century marquesses of Dorset, of the Grey family, namely, a
unicorn lying down amid rays of the sun, where the unicorn's horn might
be likened to the gnomon of a sundial (Cadran). But was that badge given
by the Beauforts? No evidence of such use has been found.
1. JOHN ASHWELL (temp. Hen. V). See Norroy (7).
2. JOHN MOWBRAY (temp. Hen. V). See Rouge Croix (6).
3. JAQUES COLYER (temp. Hen. VI). See Lancaster (9).
4. RICHARD ASHWELL (temp. Hen. VI). See Ireland (6).
The pursuivantships of Calais and Guisnes were instituted by Edward IV
for the service of the English holdings in Picardy. Hammes and Risebank
were erected somewhat later to the same end.
In 1462 an unnamed Calais was sent on missions to and from Burgundy,
and Calais, still unnamed, appears in the public records down to 1491.
1. RICHARD CHAMPNEYS (temp. Ed. IV). See Gloucester (4).
2. ROWLAND PLAYNFORD (temp. Ed. IV). See York (4).
3. RALPH LAGO or LAGYSSE (temp. Hen. VII). See York (8).
4. JOHN JOYNER (1510). See Norroy (18).
5. RICHARD JOHNS
Calais, c. October 1528.
Still Calais 1 November 1529, but not so Whitsun 1530.
6. THOMAS MILLER or MILNER (?1529). See Lancaster (16).
7. RICHARD RATCLIFFE (1532). See Somerset (6).
8. MARTIN MARROFFE (1536). See York (12).
9. NICHOLAS FELLOW, FAIRLEWE or FAIRLOW
Calais, c. 1539.
First appears March and October 1539 when on the staff of Bishop Bonner,
English ambassador in France. Bonner calls him 'Nicholas Fellowe',
'Nicholas Norey' and 'Nicholas Norry alias Calais'. It follows that he was
s. of William Fellow, Norroy 1536–46. Probably brother of Henry Fellow,
Guisnes, and likely that he was appointed Calais somewhat before October
1539. Thereafter constantly employed in France. Slain during siege of
Calais 1558. The last Calais.
Arms: As William Fellow, Norroy.
Calveley herald in 1383 brought the King despatches from the Bishop of
Norwich in Flanders (Issue Roll, Easter, 6 Ric. II, etc.). He must have been
herald of Sir Hugh Calveley who was then serving with the Bishop.
'Cantebrugg le heraude', rewarded by John of Gaunt in 1380, must have
been an officer of Edmund Langley, Earl of Cambridge and later Duke of
York (John of Gaunt's Register 1379–83, no. 327).
According to Froissart a Carlisle herald was made by Edward III on an
expedition to Scotland, probably in 1327. In 1370 one John Carlill was sent
overseas with Hereford herald, but in that case Carlill may be his personal
surname. Thereafter the title disappears, but Richard III is said to have
revived it, and the succession was maintained until the 1550's. Under the
Tudors Carlisle was treated exactly like the other heralds, but Hawley and
Warcop specialized in Scottish affairs and were mainly employed in the
The revival of the title in favour of William Le Neve was suggested in
1624, but in the end he was made Mowbray. It was, however, revived as
that of a herald extraordinary in 1703.
1. JOHN CARLILL
? Pursuivant, c. 1370.
June 1370 'Richardus Hereford heraud' and 'Johannes Carlill' were sent
overseas (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. II, 721). Richard was without doubt a herald
by the title Hereford, but what of John? Was he an officer of arms, and if
so was Carlisle his title? Or was Carlill his personal surname?
2. CHRISTOPHER CARLILL (?temp. Ric. III).
See Clarenceux (9).
3. THOMAS WATERS
Comfort, temp. Ed. IV.
Rouge Croix, temp. Ed. IV.
Carlisle, temp. Hen. VII, appd 1493.
If he existed must have been made Carlisle 1493 on Carlill's removal to
Arms: As John Water, York.
4. THOMAS HAWLEY (1514). See Clarenceux (12).
5. LEONARD WARCOP
Berwick, cr. 5 Hen. VIII, 1513–14.
Carlisle, cr. 2 August, p.s. 18 September, pat. 6 November 1534.
A specialist in Scottish affairs; probably s. or otherwise related to Robert
Warcop whose widow, née Agnes Ingleby, was Garter Wriothesley's second
wife; as 'messenger of the Chamber' received liveries at Henry VII's funeral
and Henry VIII's coronation; May 1509 sent to Calais; 1513 or 1514 Berwick;
July 1518 as Leonard Warcop alias Berwick appd bailiff of Busby and Faceby,
co. York; 1522 with Lord Dacre at Carlisle; 1529 at Edinburgh; 1533 at
Newcastle and Edinburgh (not at Field of Cloth of Gold 1520 nor at Anne
Boleyn's creation as Marchioness 1522 or coronation 1523); said to have
been Bluemantle but not so; Carlisle 1534; still employed in the north;
1536 at Doncaster; 1544 attached to army against the Scots; 1547 at funeral
of Henry VIII, named as senior herald in heralds' charter 4 June 1549; living
Whitsun 1552; d. 6 Ed. VI, i.e. before 27 January 1553, when title of Carlisle
lapsed; 1538, 1540, 1544, 1546, granted Crown leases of various manors,
etc., in Yorkshire.
Arms: Sable, 3 covered cups argent, with crescent or, for difference.
Crest: A boar's head argent.
6. JOHN VANBRUGH (1703). See Clarenceux (21).
7. JOHN ANSTIS (1707). See Garter (16).
One of the only two extraordinary titles in the last two centuries which
were not connected with the Earl Marshal. Office erected to gratify Welsh
sentiment just before the now Duke of Windsor's investiture as Prince of
Wales at Carnarvon Castle on 13 July 1911. Carnarvon pursuivant extraordinary was one of the five officers of arms attached to the Prince on that
1. KEITH WILLIAM MURRAY (1911). See Portcullis (31).
In 1705, by letters pat. dated 1 June, the Lords Proprietors of the Province
of Carolina appointed Laurence Cromp, York, to be Carolina herald, with
power to grant arms to suitable persons, such arms to be set upon the face
of the sun (H. & G., v, 479). The office apparently lapsed on Cromp's death
Herald of Sir John Chandos, K.G., but a Crown officer after 1370.
1. ...CHANDOS (? 1366). See Ireland (1).
Clarence or Clarenceux herald (both forms are found) must be distinguished from Clarenceux king. He was retained by the Dukes of Clarence,
and more particularly by Thomas, the second duke, brother of Henry V.
Both Horsley, Clarenceux, and Ashwell, Clarence, attended the chapter of
English heralds at Rouen 5 January 1420 (H. of N.).
Under Edward IV George, Duke of Clarence, had his own herald, but
his title has not been found (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. II, 710).
Pace Lant it is unlikely that either Collyer or Mallett was Clarence under
Henry VI, for there was no duke of Clarence in that reign.
1. JOHN ASHWELL or HASWELL
Wallingford, temp. Hen. V.
Bluemantle, 2 Hen. V.
Clarence, c. 1419.
A John Ashwell or Haswell attended the chapter of Rouen 5 January 1420,
with the title of Clarence, herald to the Duke of Clarence. May be the same
who was Lancaster king, q.v. Lant's statements that he was Wallingford and
Bluemantle and bore these arms lack corroboration.
Arms: Sable, a cross between 4 crosses formy fitchy argent.
2. THOMAS COLLYER (temp. Hen. VI). See Ireland (3).
3. JOHN MALLETT
Falcon, pursuivant, temp. Hen. VI.
Rouge Croix, temp. Hen. VI.
Clarence, temp. Hen. VI.
Arms: Or, a chevron between 3 escallops azure.
Probably brother or perhaps father of Roger Mallett, Falcon.
This pursuivantship, of which the title was without doubt inspired by the
Lancastrian Collar of SS, occurs at various times from 1436 to 1488.
1. WILLIAM TYNDALE or TENDALE (1436).
See Norroy (9).
2. JOHN WREXWORTH (? 1443). See Guyenne (11).
3. RICHARD BENWELL
Collar, cr. 6 May, pat. 7 June 1459.
? Collar, c. 1465.
'John Coler of London pursevant' named in pat. 5 Ed. IV, p. 1, m. 32,
5. LEONARD PARVESYN
Collar, 7 July, p.s. 27 November 1486, pat. 12 March 1487, wages from 7 July
D. 1488 before 11 November when his annuity was granted to Bluemantle.
A Leonard Parvesyn was a merchant (? English) in Milan in 1409 (Cal.
Pat. Rolls, 1408–13, p. 231).
The office of Comfort pursuivant is said to have been instituted by Edward IV
for the service of his French dominions. He attended the translation of the
body of Richard, Duke of York, in 1476 and he was twice sent overseas in
1479. The origin of the title is not known.
1. HENRY FRENCH or FRANKE (temp. Ed. IV). See York (1).
2. RICHARD SLACKE (temp. Ed. IV). See Windsor (9).
3. THOMAS WATERS (temp. Ed. IV). See Carlisle (3).
4. GEORGE BERRY (? temp. Ric. III). See Rouge Croix (24).
Condé pursuivant is mentioned twice in 1428 and 1429 as serving in Normandy (Sureau, fos. 692, 698). Presumably named from Condé sur Noireau
(Calvados), a viscounty under English control in 1443 (Rolls Series 22, 11,
Conke (Concarneau) pursuivant
'Conke oon of oure Pursevants' occurs in the Issue Rolls, Easter, 5 and 6
Hen. VII, 1490–1. The name is derived from Concarneau in Brittany, one
of the cautionary towns delivered to Henry VII in 1488.
Pursuivant to Richard Gethin, one of John, Duke of Bedford's household
in France. Only known from a certificate of 30 August 1431, by Richard
Lucas, Keeper of the Duke's signet. Title probably derived from Gethin's
arms, argent, a chevron azure between 3 'corbyns' (crows) sable. But at a
much later date there was a Seigneurie de Corbin, in Guienne, which in
Corbin's day was in English hands and which might conceivably have been
held by Gethin.
Herald instituted by Richard II, presumably intended for the Prince of
Wales as Duke of Cornwall. Occurs in 1398–9 and again at the coronation
of Henry V in 1413.
1. JOHN HILTON
Cornwall, c. Easter Term 1398.
Granted 10 mks a year by Richard II as 'John Hilton Harpour otherwise
Cornwall Herald' (Issue Roll, Easter, 22 Ric. II). This grant probably
marks his promotion from harper to be Richard's herald for the Duchy of
December 1399 sent to Scotland by Henry IV as John Hilton the herald
and John Cornwall herald. Attended coronation of Henry V April 1413.
Named by Oswald Barron as a pursuivant of the Percies who gave a crescent
as badge (Encyclop. Brit. s.v. Heraldry). Otherwise unknown.
'Croyslett', an English officer, was with Henry, Earl of Derby (Henry IV),
at Königsberg in November 1390 and at Danzig on 26 March 1391. In the
former case he is called herald of the Duke of Gloucester (Thomas of Woodstock), but it is more likely that he was retained by Thomas Beauchamp,
Earl of Warwick, who was in league with Gloucester. In that case the title
would be derived from the Beauchamp arms, gules, a fess between 6 crosses
crosslet or ('Heralds of Henry IV', in N. & Q., xcxiii, 464).
Herald of Henry IV as Earl of Derby; royal herald from 1399. Mentioned
by Froissart 1384–9, in Henry's household accounts 1390–8 and at the
coronation of Henry V 1413 (H. of N.; 'Henry IV's Heralds...', in N. & Q.,
cxciii, 466, 486).
1. ADAM... (temp. Ric. II). See Vaillant (2).
Derby, c. 16 October 1393.
John Derby named as herald of Henry, Earl of Derby 1393; little doubt
but that he is the Derby herald who was with Henry at Calais in May 1390
and who remained in his service until his death in March 1413 (John's will
pr. 16 March 1414–Broun, 307b); of St Andrew Baynard.
('Henry IV's Heralds in 1390 and 1392', in N. & Q., cxciii (1948), 466.)
A herald sent from Normandy with despatches to the King in 35 Ed. III,
1361. Was he an officer of Sir Robert Knollys? Knollys was sometimes called
'sire de Derval' though perhaps not until after 1365 (H. of N.).
Pursuivant sent by the King to the Chancellor of France in 1435 (Issue Roll,
Easter, 14 Hen. VI).
Pursuivant of Walter, Lord Hungerford in August 1429 (Sureau, fo. 756).
Perhaps Peter Herispin, a native of Normandy, Devoir pursuivant to Lord
Hungerford, endenizened in England 18 December 1439 (Pat. 18 Hen. VI,
p. 1, m. 7). Lord Hungerford was Captain of Cherbourg in February 1428
(Carte, Catalogue des Rolles Gascons..., 11, 264, cf. 249).
1. PETER HERISPIN
Devoir, c. 1439.
A Norman, Devoir pursuivant to Walter, Lord Hungerford, endenizened
by pat. 18 December, 18 Hen. VI (1439), p. 1, m. 7. Perhaps the same who
served Lord Hungerford as 'Desir' in 1429 (Accounts of Pierre Sureau,
Receiver General of Normandy, 1428–9; Bibl. Nat., Paris, ms. fr. 4488,
Dieu y Pourvoye Pursuivant
Pursuivant of the Provost of Paris in 1430 (Sureau, fo. 771), i.e. of Simon
Morhier, Provost of Paris 1422–36 and sometime Councillor of Charles VII
(Armorial de Berry, ed. Vallet de Viriville, p. 70 n.; Rolls Series 39 (1422–31),
p. 254 citing Cousinot, Chron. de la Pucelle, ed. V. de Viriville, C. 23; Rolls
Series 22, 1, 49, etc.).
Pursuivant of Sir Ralph Neville, sent by the Council to the Duke of Bedford
August 1431 (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 238 citing document in Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris).
Herald of Thomas Beaufort, Earl of Dorset, c. 1411–17. Title revived in
1494 when Henry VII created a Dorset herald for Thomas Grey, Marquess
of Dorset (H. of N.).
1. WILLIAM BOYS (c. 1413). See Norroy (8).
On 12 August 1502 'Dyvelyn oon of Our officers of Arms' was repaid his
expenses in escorting prisoners from Ireland to England (Coll. of Arms MS.
O. A. IX, 71). He was probably a pursuivant extraordinary.
The title does not appear again until 1783 when a Dublin herald was
instituted as an officer of the Order of St Patrick. He, however, had no
The eagle as a royal badge goes back at least to Edward III and it was used
as a signet device by Henry V, VI, VII and VIII (Royal Beasts, p. 61).
Thomas, Eagle pursuivant, who was sent with despatches to Scotland in
1389, was without doubt the King's officer.
On the other hand Barker, Garter 1536–50, assigned Eagle to the Earl of
Derby, and it is probable that the Eagle pursuivant who was sent to France
in 1489 and who made a copy of Francis de Foveis' heraldic treatise in 1490,
was retained by Thomas Stanley—Stanley had been created Earl of Derby
in 1465, and the 'Eagle' alludes to his bird and bantling crest (H. of N.).
Eagle, c. 1389.
Sent to Scotland, Issue Roll, Michaelmas, 13 Ric. II (Rymer, xi, 75; Coll.
of Arms MS. O.A. III, 89).
Eagle Vert Pursuivant
Pursuivant of the Earls of Salisbury; title taken from the arms of Monthermer, or, an eagle vert, quartered by the earls. In 1429 Eagle Vert was
sent by the then Earl, Thomas de Montagu, to Brittany (Lobineau, Histoire
de Bretagne, 1, 538, where he is miscalled 'Anglevert'). In 1455, when he
was sent north with despatches (Issue Roll, Easter, 33 Hen. VI), he was
retained by Richard Nevile, Earl of Salisbury in right of his wife, Montagu's
only dau. and heiress.
Esperance, pursuivant of the Percy earls of Northumberland, was named
from the motto Espérance, sometimes Espérance en Dieu or Espérance ma Confort.
In 1438 he was employed on the King's service (Pat. 16 Hen. VI, p. 2,
m. 30d, 22 May). In 1473 he attended Louis de Bruges' creation as Earl of
Winchester and later carried messages to and from James III of Scotland
(Cal. Doc. Scot., iv, 408; Scofield, Edward IV, 11, 62).
In 1513 he attended Northumberland on the Thérouanne expedition, two
tabards being supplied for his use (Longstaffe, 'Old Heraldry of the Percies',
Arch. Aeliana, N.S. iv, 209), and in 1523 he attended Lord Percy on his
expedition against the Scots (De Fonblanque, Annals of the House of Percy,
There is in the College of Arms an undated petition from one of this title
asking the earl to remember his promise that after a year's probation he
should have the wages, etc., of the office like his predecessors in time past
(Coll. of Arms MS. M. 16, 154). Indeed as the title was in use for nearly a
hundred years there must have been several who held it but their names have
not been found.
Esperance Herbert Pursuivant
Pursuivant who attended his master, the Earl of Worcester (Charles
Somerset, Lord Herbert) at Arthur Plantagenet's creation as Viscount Lisle
in 1523 (Bodleian MS. Wood F. 33, 20).
On 6 April 1422 Sir John Lisle certified that he had appointed Thomas de
Launey to be Espoir pursuivant (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 243 citing an
unspecified Cotton MS.).
1. THOMAS DE LAUNEY
Espoir, c. April 1442.
Pursuivant to Sir John Lisle who certified his appointment 6 April 1442.
Estoile Volant Pursuivant
Estoile Volant, mentioned in 1515 and sometimes called Toell Volland, was
pursuivant to Sir Richard Wingfield as Deputy of Calais 1513–19. The title
suggests that Sir Richard gave as badge a winged star, combining the wings
from his own arms with the star of Les Baux (Gules, a sun or molet of many
rays argent) which was quartered by his first wife Katherine Wydville in
right of her mother Jaquetta of Luxembourg (H. of N.).
Exeter herald first appears in 6 Hen. V, 1418–19, but the title was probably
instituted on the creation of his master, Thomas Beaufort, as Duke of Exeter
in 1416. The office seems to have lapsed on Beaufort's death in December
1426, but it was revived by John Holand, cr. Duke of Exeter 1443, and his
son Henry, Duke of Exeter 1446–61. In 1460 William Ballard was the
Duke's herald, but his name of office is not stated (H. of N.).
Lant lists Wrexworth as Exeter temp. Hen. V and 'John Mowbray' (i.e.
Cosoun) temp. Hen. VI, but this seems to be pure imagination.
1. WILLIAM BOYS (c. 1417). See Norroy (8).
2. ROBERT DUNHAM
Falcon, pursuivant, temp. Hen. VI.
Rouge Croix, temp. Hen. VI.
Exeter, herald to the Duke of Exeter, temp. Hen. VI.
If Dunham was Exeter it must have been between 1443 and 1452.
Arms: Azure, an indented chief or & a label gules.
3. THOMAS EVERARD
Exeter, c. 1452.
On Christmas Day 1452 Henry Holand, Duke of Exeter, granted an
annuity of £10 to 'Thomas Everard alias dictus Excestrie Herauld'. Still
living 1454, but probably d. before 28 March 1460, when William Ballard
was the duke's herald.
(Hist. MSS. Comm., 3rd Rep., 1872, p. 216; etc.)
4. WILLIAM BALLARD (c. 1460). See March (4).
Falcon King of Arms
The falcon as a royal beast goes back at least to the reign of Edward III, but
it is best known in its Yorkist combination with the fetterlock (Royal Beasts,
p. 21). As the title of an officer of arms Falcon was successively king, pursuivant (but?), herald, pursuivant and herald extraordinary. From about
1359 to 1412 Falcon was a king of arms and was for a time doyen of the
office of arms. Under the Houses of Lancaster and York the catalogues
name eleven pursuivants by this title, but these are of doubtful authority and
there is no real evidence for the existence of Falcon whether as king, herald
or pursuivant from 1412 till 1473. Under the Yorkists we meet with Falcon
as a herald and under Henry VII as a pursuivant. The title then lapsed until
1813 when it was revived for Stephenson, the only herald extraordinary
named after a royal badge.
Spelman and some later writers thought that Falcon pursuivant was
attached to the Prince of Wales, but no evidence has been found to support
Gerard Legh (ed. 1591, fo. 3) says that blazon by the days of the week
was devised by Falcon 'principall Herehaught of England' in the time of
Edward III. He probably meant no. 2 below (H. of N.; Coll. of Arms MS.
O. A. I, 75; II, 747; etc.).
Faucon, king, c. 1389.
'Colynet Faucon' received cloth for Christmas robes 1389, at same time
as William Multon, Bordeaux (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. II, 738 citing Wardrobe Account).
Falcon, king, c. 1394.
Of St Botolph's, Aldgate, London. Sent to Scotland 1394 (Issue Roll,
Michaelmas, 18 Ric. II); granted 7½d. a day for life 1400 (pat. 1 Hen. IV,
p. 6, m. 22, 15 March); 1403 acted as messenger about tourney between
Michael d'Orris of Aragon and John de Prendergast of England (Monstrelet,
I, c. 2, p. 5); d. 3 February 1412 (P.R.O., E. 404/27, no. 249; will dat.
3 February, Archdeaconry Court of London, 256, Reg. 1).
Doyen of the officers of arms in England between Lake and Richard
(See Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. I, 75; II, 748.)
3. NICHOLAS SERBY (temp. Hen. IV). See Leopard (2).
4. GILES WASTER (temp. Hen. V). See Mowbray (3).
5. THOMAS BROWNE
Falcon, pursuivant, temp. Hen. V.
Arms: Gules, a quarter sable & over all 3 lion paws erased bendways argent.
B.M. MS. Harl. 2169, fo. 45 gives this for 'John Browne, Lyncollchyre'.
6. THOMAS COLLYER (temp. Hen. V). See Ireland (3).
7. JOHN HORSLEY (temp. Hen. VI). See Mowbray (5).
8. JOHN MALLETT (temp. Hen. VI). See Clarence (3).
9. ROBERT DUNHAM (temp. Hen. VI). See Exeter (2).
10. THOMAS HOLME (temp. Hen. VI). See Clarenceux (7).
11. ROGER MALLETT (temp. Hen. VI). See below (15).
12. WILLIAM CARLILL (temp. Ed. IV). See Richmond (4a).
13. ROGER BROMLEY (temp. Ed. IV). See Chester (10).
14. JOHN WRYTHE (temp. Ed. IV). See Garter (3).
15. ROGER MALLETT
Falcon, pursuivant, temp. Hen. VI.
Bluemantle, temp. Hen. VI.
Falcon, herald, temp. Ed. VI.
Arms: Or, a chevron between 3 escallops azure.
Presumably brother or s. of John Mallett, Clarence, to whom Lant gives
the same arms.
16. RICHARD CHAMPNEYS (temp. Ed. IV). See Gloucester (4).
17. JOHN WALSHE
Hastings, c. 1480.
Falcon, ? herald, c. 1485.
'John Walsshe alias Hastynges' is one of Richard III's supporters whose
property Henry VII confiscated (pat. 7 August 1486). Is no doubt the
Hastings pursuivant (retainer of William, Lord Hastings, executed 1483)
who occurs in 1480 (Wardrobe Account of Edward IV, ed. N. H. Nicolas,
p. 119, etc.). Though Lord Hastings opposed Richard III Walshe evidently
supported him for Richard granted to 'John Walshe alias Fawcon' (pursuivant or herald?) £40 a year, the equivalent of Garter's salary, for his true
and faithful service (pat. 9 May 1485).
18. JOHN YONGE (temp. Hen. VII). See Norroy (16).
V. HERALD EXTRAORDINARY
19. HENRY FREDERICK STEPHENSON
Falcon, herald extraordinary, E.M. wt. 31 July, R. wt. 2 August 1813.
B. 18 September 1790, New St, Spring Gardens; baptized St Martin-inthe-Fields; natural s. of Charles, Duke of Norfolk by Miss Stephenson
(a Stephenson of Scaleby, co. Cumberland, descended from a Governor of
Jamaica in 1699), companion to the Duchess of Norfolk, then insane. Educ.
Trinity Hall and Trinity College, Cambridge; matric. 1808; LL.B. 1814;
Barrister Middle Temple 1814; Commissioner of Inland Revenue; Comptroller of the Household to Duke of Sussex; M.P. for Westbury; Falcon on
being attached to Garter mission to Czar Alexander 1813; d. suddenly
13 July 1858, at Duff House, Banffshire; burd Mausoleum there; remains later
transferred to Quidenham, Norfolk. Married Mary Keppel, dau. of fourth
Earl of Albemarle; 15 children all baptized St George's, Hanover Square.
(Coll. of Arms MSS. 12 D. 14, 94 and 18 D. 14, 134; H. & G., vii, 75;
A. C. Fox-Davies, Armorial Families, 1902; information from grandson
E. M. Stephenson 28 April 1950.)
Arms granted 14 October 1815: Vert, a chevron between 2 roses in chief
& a lion sejant guardant in base argent, on a canton argent another azure
charged with a capital (script) A or in a gold finger ring gemmed proper,
being the ring presented to him by Czar Alexander. Crest: A falcon rising
argent, beak & legs or, within a herald's collar of SS proper. Motto: Sola
A pursuivant extraordinary named after one of the Earl Marshal's baronies
and appointed for the coronations of Queen Victoria and her successors and
again in 1957. The first four Fitzalans all became pursuivants in ordinary and
the first three were eventually Garter.
Badge, assigned 1958: A sprig of oak proper.
1. ALBERT WILLIAM WOODS (1837). See Garter (27).
2. GERALD WOODS WOLLASTON (1902). See Garter (30).
3. ALGAR HENRY STAFFORD HOWARD (1911).
See Garter (31).
4. ALEXANDER COLIN COLE (1953). See Portcullis (36).
5. CHARLES WILFRED SCOTT-GILES, O.B.E.
Fitzalan, E.M. wt. 16 July, R. wt. 22 August 1957.
B. Southampton 24 October 1893, s. of Charles Giles, sometime Chairman
Parliamentary Press Gallery; educ. Emanuel School and Sidney Sussex
College, Cambridge; assumed additional name of Scott by deed poll
25 July 1928; served R.A.S.C. First World War; journalist and sometime
member Parliamentary Press Gallery; 1928 Secretary Institution of Municipal
Engineers; 1946 Secretary Public Works and Municipal Services Congress
and Exhibition Council; O.B.E. 1953; Founder member and Fellow
Heraldry Society, Corresponding Fellow Danish Society of Heraldry 1950;
Vice-Patron Australian Society of Genealogists 1957.
Published inter alia The Romance of Heraldry (1929); Civic Heraldry of
England and Wales (1933); edited Boutell's Heraldry (1950); articles in Coat
of Arms, etc.
Arms of Giles granted 1936: Ermine, a cross double parted & fretted gules
interlaced with an annulet or. Crest: On a torse argent & gules issuing from
a circular chain square-linked or a demi-swan rousant the head lowered
proper. Motto: Strive and Thrive.
'Fewater', pursuivant of Sir John Ratcliffe, K.G., Lord Fitzwalter, attended
the creation of Jasper Tudor as Duke of Bedford in October 1485 (Coll. of
Arms MS. O.A. III, 244 citing a MS. account of the ceremony probably
written by Wrythe, Garter).
Fleur de lis Herald
The fleur de lis of the royal arms of France was often used as a badge by
English sovereigns. A Fleur de Lis pursuivant was created herald by the
same title at the Garter feast in May 1435, and in the following July was sent
on a mission to France (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. II, 749, 751).
Gloucester King of Arms
Gloucester was herald to several dukes of Gloucester, but there was no duke
or earl of that title from 1399 to 1441 and the herald who d. in 1406 (no. 1
below) calls himself in his will herald of the King. He had probably been
retained either by Thomas of Woodstock, Duke 1385–97, or by Thomas
Despencer, Earl 1397–9, and kept his old name on entering the royal service.
The title reappeared in 1415, nos. 2 and 3 being heralds of Duke Humphrey,
and again at the end of Edward IV's reign (no. 4).
Under Richard III Gloucester was king of arms, but his province is
uncertain, for Clarenceux and Norroy had the south and north parts of
England and March the west. The title lapsed on the accession of Henry VII.
In 1726, however, Bath, king of arms of the Order of the Bath, was given
the additional title of Gloucester king of arms with heraldic jurisdiction over
Wales. At this Clarenceux and Norroy protested, the grant was found to
infringe their rights and the title was dropped (H. of N.).
Gloucester, herald, temp. Hen. VI, before 1406.
Administration of his effects granted 6 December 1406 (Commissary
Court, London, fo. 81 Broun).
Gloucester, herald, temp. Hen. V, c. 1420, perhaps 1415.
Named February 1420 and May 1421 in Plea and Memo Rolls, City of
London, 1413–37, p. 96. Probably the Gloucester herald in retinue of
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, 1415 (P.R.O., Exchequer T.R. Misc. 43/9);
if so sent to France 1415, to Spain and Portugal February 1416; present at
St George's Feast May 1416, when Emperor Sigismund elected K.G. (Coll.
of Arms MS. O.A. III, 245; Nicolas, Proc. of Privy Council, ii, 192; Devon,
Pell Records, p. 345).
3. ROGER LEGH or LYGH (temp. Hen. V). See Clarenceux (5).
4. RICHARD CHAMPNEYS
Calais, temp. Ed. IV.
Bluemantle, temp. Ed. IV.
Falcon, herald, temp. Ed. IV.
Gloucester, herald, temp. Ed. IV, king, appd before 7 July, pat. 18 September 1483,
d. or resd before battle of Bosworth.
No confirmation of Lant's statement that he was Calais, Bluemantle and
Falcon; seems rather to have been Gloucester herald to Richard III as Duke
of Gloucester; attended Richard's coronation July 1483 as king of arms and
14 September following had pat. describing him as king of arms and principal herald of the parts of Wales with the name of Gloucester; named as
Gloucester in heralds' incorporation charter 2 March 1484; must have d.
Arms: Gules, 2 lozenges joined in fess argent. (Brass at Capel le Ferne,
Kent, to his dau. Margaret and her husband John Gibbes; Coll. of Arms
MS. SML. 64, p. 310; etc.)
5. GREY LONGUEVILLE (1726). See Bath.
Servant of Thomas Grey, Lord Ferrers of Groby and Marquess of Dorset.
Some writers call him herald and some pursuivant. Perhaps he was Grey's
pursuivant as Lord Ferrers and promoted to herald when Grey became
marquess in 1475. Groby was at the funeral of Queen Elizabeth of York
in 1503 and attended his master at a tournament in Paris in 1514 (H. of N.).
Pursuivant of the earls of Salisbury. Occurs in 1385 (no. 1 below) when he
was officer of Sir William Montagu, K.G., and in 1434 when he was probably
in the service of Richard Neville, perhaps also in 1473 (no. 2) when George,
Duke of Clarence, had the earldom.
A gold gryphon was a Montagu beast at least from the end of the thirteenth
century. At the siege of Carlaverock in 1300 Sir Simon de Montagu had
an indigo banner and shield charged with a gold gryphon, and on the Barons'
Letter to the Pope in 1301 his counterseal displays a ramping gryphon
though his seal bears the usual Montagu fess of three fusils (Royal Beasts,
p. 18; H. of N.).
1. THOMAS TURVILLE (c. 1385). See Salisbury (1).
2. THOMAS GRYFFYN (? temp. Ed. IV). See Richmond (4).
The town and county of Guînes, a few miles south of Calais, gave title to
one of the garrison pursuivant in Picardy, posts which so often were
stepping stones to an appointment in ordinary. Guisnes is mentioned in 1474
(Cal. Doc. Scot., iv, no. 1413), and he attended the translation of the body
of Richard, Duke of York in 1476 and the funeral of Edward IV in 1480,
but the first whose name is certain is Wall, no. 6 below. The title lapsed
after the return of Picardy to France in 1558. The catalogues misname John
Yonge, William Fellow and L. Dalton as Guisnes under Edward IV,
Henry VII and Henry VIII respectively.
1. ROGER STAMFORD (temp. Ed. IV). See Chester (9).
2. ROBERT BROWNE (temp. Ed. IV). See Richmond (6).
3. THOMAS FRENCH (temp. Ric. III). See Bluemantle (16).
4. WILLIAM TYNDALE or TENDALE (temp. Hen. VII).
See Lancaster (12).
? Guisnes, c. 1502.
A pursuivant of this name was executed in 1502 for aiding Sir Edmund
de la Pole (Fabian's Chronicle (1533), p. ccxxxii b). Probably related to
Sir Robert Curson who was also implicated. Probably Guisnes pursuivant
as he was executed there.
6. THOMAS WALL (temp. Hen. VII). See Norroy (17).
7. WILLIAM JENYNS (c. 1510). See Lancaster (14).
8. JOHN HUTTON (c. 1527). See Bluemantle (23).
9. ALLEN DAGNELL (1528). See York (10).
10. FULK AP HOWEL (1532). See Lancaster (17).
11. WILLIAM FLOWER (1536). See Norroy (26).
12. HENRY FELLOW
Guisnes, appd as from October 1543, p.s. 26, pat. 30 May 1544.
Probably s. of William Fellow, Norroy, and brother of Nicholas Fellow,
Calais, q.v. Attached to the English force sent to France 1544 and 1558 sent
by Lord Wentworth to arrange the capitulation of Calais. No later reference
to him. The last Guisnes pursuivant.
Arms: As Wm. Fellow, Norroy.
Guyenne and Aquitaine King of Arms
This king of arms was appointed, like Bordeaux herald, for the service of
the English domains in south-west France. Aquitaine was his more usual
title in the fourteenth and Guyenne in the fifteenth century, while both
names were used under Henry V. Under Henry VI we meet with Guyenne
both as king and as herald.
1. JAQUES HEDINGLEY
? Guyenne, king, c. 1306.
16 December 1546, Hawley, Clarenceux, confirmed a pat. of arms alleged
to have been made 8 April, 34 Ed. I (1306) to Peter Dodge, of Stopford,
co. Chester, by 'Jaques Hedingley dict Guyen Roy darmes'. Hedingley is
otherwise unknown and the authenticity of the grant is suspect (H. & G.,
Arms: Per bend... &... with 2 pales... in chief.
2. SIR PAYNE ROET
Guyenne, king, c. 1334 (?).
A Knight of Hainault, probably came to England in train of Queen
Philippa; father of Catherine, third wife of John of Gaunt, and of Philippa,
wife of Geoffrey Chaucer; called 'Guyenne rex armorum' on monument
in Old St Paul's; dates of appointment and death unrecorded; said to have
granted arms 1334 to Thomas Andrews and brothers, but document is
obvious fake; perhaps d. c. 1352.
Arms: Gules, 3 wheels or with a molet in fess point. Probably cartwheels
(Coll. of Arms, Vinc. MS. 88, 16 and Harl. 6163, 19; Guillim, 1724,
p. 298); but Catherine wheels on Duchess of Lancaster's mon., Lincoln
Cathedral, and on Duchess of Suffolk's mon., Ewelme, Oxfordshire; perhaps
changed to Catherine wheels in allusion to Duchess of Lancaster's Christian
Aquitaine king occurs in the 1360's; he would be the officer of the Prince
of Wales who held Aquitaine from 1362 to 1374.
Aquitaine, alias Guyenne, herald, c. 1373.
Named as herald of Aquitaine Issue Roll, Michaelmas, 47 Ed. III, 1373.
Probably the Aquitaine king mentioned in Warrant for Issue, 13 November,
40 Ed. III, 1366, and in Issue Roll, Michaelmas, 41 Ed. III, 1367 (Coll. of
Arms MS. O.A. I, 152b, 153).
4. NICHOLAS DU CHEYNE
Aquitaine, king, c. 1374.
Nicholas Duchayn or du Cheyne king of arms of Aquitaine; mentioned
in John of Gaunt's Register January 1375 (Camden Soc., 3 s., xx, no. 1609);
attended Earl of Buckingham in France 1380 (Froissart) and received robes
at Christmas 1383 (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. I, 153).
5. COTARD DU CHEYNE
Aquitaine, king, c. 1387.
By p.s. 27 February (9 or 10 Ric. II), 'Cotard du Cheyney roy d'armes
d'Acquitaine' was exempted from all taxation (Coll. of Arms MS. I, 153);
probably the Aquitaine king who gave evidence in case of Lovel v. Morley
1395, being then 70 years old (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. I, 153). Must have
succeeded Nicholas du Cheyne soon after 1383 unless they are one and the
6. WILLIAM BRUGES (1413). See Garter (1).
7. WILLIAM HORSLEY (temp. Hen. V). See Clarenceux (3).
8. THOMAS MORE
Antelope, temp. Hen. V.
Bluemantle, 6 Hen. V, 1418–19.
Richmond, temp. Hen. VI.
Windsor, temp. Hen. VI.
Guyenne, king, temp. Hen. VI.
Arms: Or, a bend cotised gules & label azure.
Martin Leake (Coll. of Arms MS. SML. 64, p. 281) says he was 'Richmond,
an extra herald' before Windsor, and calls him father of John More, Norroy,
but gives no evidence for either statement, latter probably mere inference,
Lant giving same arms to both men.
9. JOHN SMERT (temp. Hen. VI). See Garter (2).
10. WILLIAM HAWKESLOWE (temp. Hen. VI).
See Clarenceux (6).
11. JOHN WREXWORTH
Collar, c. Easter term 1445, perhaps appd 22 Hen. VI, 1443–4.
Guyenne, king, 6 February 1446.
Said to have been successively Antelope, Bluemantle 1 Hen. V, Exeter
and Guyenne, but no evidence for any but last title.
4 August 1441, described as 'our messenger' and sent to Duchess of
Burgundy; probably appd Collar, 22 Hen. VI, 1443–4, but first so named
Issue Roll, Easter, 23 Hen. VI, 1445; almost constantly travelling to and
from Continent (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 171, etc.); Guyenne king by
6 February 1446 (conf'n of arms to John Oxenden), and November following
asked French officers of arms to obtain release of Huntingdon herald
(?W. Whiting) then prisoner in France; various foreign missions 1451–2;
30 November 1460, named as Guyenne in pat. granting officers of arms
£243 arrears of largesses; d. between 13 May 1463 (pat. of arms to John
Wybarne) and October 1472 when Richmond (? Brereton) was cr. Guyenne.
Following patents of arms issued by him as Guyenne: 1446, 6 February,
John Oxenden (Arch. Cant., vi, 277); 1447, March, Ralph West of Sudbury;
1456, 18 November, John Bangor (Misc. Gen. & Her., 1, 54); 1456, Thomas
Wade; 1458, 4 December, Thomas Aleyn, of Norfolk (original in Peterborough Museum); 1458, John Grene, common Serjeant of London; 1461,
29 January, William Swayne, of Somerset (Harl. Soc. 77, 192); 1461, 31 May,
Cooks' Co. (see A. C. Cole in Coat of Arms, iv, 330); 1463, John Wybarne,
of Kent (Misc. Gen. & Her., 5 s. v, 238).
As king of arms of the Duchy of Guyenne status in issuing these patents
uncertain; some are mere confirmations, but others, for instance, Swayne
and Aleyn, are out and out grants—see H. & H., pp. 74, 76.
It is worth noting that in the West confirmation his signature 'Gyan
Kynge of Armes' is followed by a slipped trefoil somewhat like that in the
Arms: Azure, on a fess between 3 fleurs de lis argent 3 stag's faces sable.
Counterseal: An open crown (seal on Aleyn grant, etc.).
12. NAME UNKNOWN (1472), Richmond, herald, cr. Guyenne, king,
13 October 1472; perhaps identical with William Brereton, see below (13).
13. WILLIAM BRERETON
? Richmond, c. 1467.
Guyenne, king, c. 1475.
'Willelmus Brerton Gyan Rex Armorum' was received into the English
Hospice in Rome, Christmas 1475 ('Englishmen in Rome during the
Renaissance', Modern Philology, xxxvi (1938–9), 137). Probably he was the
Richmond herald who was cr. Guyenne 13 October 1472, and the same
who occurs as Richmond 1467, etc.
Hampnes, now Hames, is a castle and village near Calais which England
acquired by the Treaty of Bretigny in 1360. It gave title to one of the
garrison pursuivants who was present at the coronation of Henry VII, and
who may perhaps be identical with one 'Hannes' who occurs in the history
of Brittany in 1461 and 1462. Picardy having returned to the French Crown
in 1558, the title lapsed on Turpin's promotion (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A.
III, 74, etc., 81).
1. JOHN PONDE or POUND (temp. Hen. VII). See Somerset (3).
2. BARTHOLOMEW BUTLER (1529). See Ulster (1).
3. GILBERT DETHICK (1536). See Garter (7).
4. WILLIAM HERVY (1541). See Clarenceux (13).
5. EDMUND ATKYNSON (1543). See Somerset (8).
6. NICHOLAS TUBMAN (1545). See Lancaster (18).
7. RICHARD TURPIN (1549). See Windsor (14).
The statute of 1726 provided that the then Bath king of arms was to be
made Hanover herald and Gloucester king. See Bath.
Pursuivant of Thomas Grey, Marquess of Dorset (cr. 1475), who acquired
the barony of Harington by marriage to the dau. of William, Lord Bonvill
and Harington. He was present at the funeral of Edward IV in 1483 (H.
Hastings pursuivant was sent to France several times from 1479 to 1482
(Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 253; Scofield, Edward IV, ii, 319, 329). He was
a retainer of William, Lord Hastings, and Sir Thomas More in his 'History
of Edward V' (Coll. of Arms MS. Arundel 43) records that he attended his
master at his execution in 1483. He is very possibly the John Walsh who
was afterwards Falcon, and who as John Walsh alias Hastings was attainted
by Henry VII in 1485.
Hembre (Henlic) Pursuivant
Hembre and Henlic are mentioned by French writers among the pursuivants
attending the English ambassadors at Arras in 1435 (Coll. of Arms MS.
O. A. III, 187; R.G. ii, 334 note i; Edmondson, 1, 124).
Pursuivant of Sir Charles Somerset, Lord Herbert of Gower and Earl of
Worcester, who left him a legacy by a codicil to his will dated 10 April 1526.
As Sir Charles' first wife was heiress of William Herbert, Earl of Huntingdon (d. s.p.m. 1491) it is possible that Herbert was originally the latter's
In 1369 Hereford was herald of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford,
Essex and Northampton, but from the Earl's death in January 1373 he was
a royal herald and he remained so under Henry IV and V. He attended
Henry V's coronation in 1413, was sent overseas in 1414 (Warrant for Issue,
1 Hen. V, 14 February) and in 1415, owing to Richard Bruges' indisposition,
he was attached to the Agincourt expedition as 'marshal of the north'. The
title then seems to have slept, but it was revived in the 1470's by Henry
Stafford, second Duke of Buckingham, who claimed the earldom of Hereford as heir general of the Bohuns. In 1474 Hereford was one of the chapter
of heralds who concluded that the duke might bear the arms of Thomas of
Woodstock alone (H. of N.).
A manuscript in the Bodleian (Wood F. 33. 19b, probably copied from
a Glover MS.) calls Hereford herald of the Duke of Gloucester, but that
looks like a mistake due to the fact that Thomas of Woodstock had been
Duke of Gloucester.
Hereford, c. 1369.
1369 attended his master, Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, overseas
(p.s. 20 July), and 1370 attended Sir Robert Knollys (p.s. 19 June); Crown
officer from Bohun's death s.p.m. 1373; sent repeatedly to France, Flanders,
Germany, etc. 1376–86; on mission to Germany 1377 allowed 10s. a day;
same year was granted tenements in Calais which had belonged to Lord
Fitzwalter (French Roll, 51 Ed. III, m. 8; p.s. 6 March); 1385 attended
Richard II on Scottish expedition (protection by p.s. 28 June, 9 Ric. II).
Last mentioned Issue Roll, Easter, 10 Ric. II, 1387, when paid £45. 14s. 8d.
balance of £109. 6s. 8d. due for various missions temp. Ric. II.
(See Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. II, 719, etc.)
2. NAME UNKNOWN (temp. Hen. V). At coronation of Henry V;
marshal of the north in 1415.
Huntingdon occurs at various times from 1441 to 1458. In 1446 he is called
'Le harault serviteur en particulier de haut et puissant prince Mons. le Duc
de Exeter', that is, John Holand, who was also Earl of Huntingdon. In
November 1446 he was kept prisoner in France whereat Lancaster and
Guyenne protested to their French colleagues that such detention was contrary to the privileges of their office.
One of the books bequeathed by Benolt to his successors as Clarenceux
was a Chronicle 'wryttyn by William Whyting alias Huntingdon herauld
and after Chester', q.v. (H. of N.).
Ich Dien Pursuivant
Ich Dien was a pursuivant of the Prince of Wales whose ostrich feather badge
has been accompanied by that motto since the time of the Black Prince. In
1476 he attended the translation of the body of Richard, Duke of York, on
behalf of Prince Edward, then only 6 years old (H. of N.).
Il Faut Faire Pursuivant
According to Anstis (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 183) a pursuivant called
Aiyl Fauste Faire is named in the Issue Roll, Easter, 22 Hen. VI, as sent from
England with letters to the Council in France, but the reference is mistaken
and the name is obviously corrupt. The pursuivant in question must have
been Sir John Fastolf's officer named from his motto. This is variously given
but Il faut Faire or Me faut faire are the most plausible versions (H. of N.).
Ireland King of Arms
Ireland king of arms is first mentioned by Froissart who calls Chandos 'le
roy d'Irlande' in 1389. Although described as king of arms of the Dominion
of Ireland none of the incumbents had much to do with that island and all
were counted as members of the Office of Arms in England. The title lapsed
on Bellengier's death in 1487, but in 1552 Edward VI entrusted Ireland to
a new king called Ulster, q.v. The English king must be distinguished from
the Scottish Ireland herald or pursuivant who occurs in 1498.
Herald to Sir John Chandos, c. 1366.
Ireland, king, c. 1370.
Chandos herald is first mentioned 1366, but was probably so appd 1360
when his master, Sir John Chandos, was made banneret. After Sir John's
death, 1 January 1370, entered royal service and was made Ireland king,
becoming 'roy d'armes d'Engleterre', that is, doyen of the Office of Arms,
1377; still living 1383. Best known as author of a metrical life of the Black
Prince, the language of which shows that he was a native of Valenciennes.
Chandos is generally taken to be his name of office, but it is not impossible
that he was of kin to Sir John and that it was his own name.
(Froissart; Life of the Black Prince..., edit. Pope and Lodge, 1910.)
2. JOHN LAKE or OTHELAKE (temp. Ric. II). See Norroy (4).
3. THOMAS COLLYER (COLLIER)
Falcon, pursuivant, temp. Hen. V.
Bluemantle, 9 Hen. V.
Clarence, herald, temp. Hen. VI.
Ireland, king, temp. Hen. VI.
Lant probably meant the 'Thomas Ireland Rex Armorum Hiberniae', of
St Michael Cornhill, who made his will 7 June 1414, pr. 16 June 1419 (Bishop
of London's Reg. 1418–38, fo. xxixb). Thomas accompanied Henry V to
Agincourt, but nothing more is known of him except that on 15 May 1417
the King confirmed an annuity of 10 mks previously granted him by
Edward, Duke of York (d. 1415); this suggests that he may have been the
Duke's own pursuivant and as such Falcon is not an unlikely title. Improbable
that he had the title Clarence under Henry VI as there was no duke of
Clarence from 1421 to 1461.
(Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. I, 128; II, 709.)
4. JOHN KIRBY, KIRKBY or KITEBY
Leopard, temp. Hen. V.
Ireland, c. 1419.
Said to have been Leopard temp. Hen. V, but not so. As 'Jehan Kyrkeby
autrement dit Irland, Roy darmes des Irlandois' attended chapter of heralds,
Rouen, 5 January 1420; said to have been appd Ireland on motion of James
Butler, fourth Earl of Ormonde; at coronation of Queen Katherine February
1421, but no further mention of Ireland until 1447.
Arms: Per pale argent & sable, a chevron embattled between 3 crosses
5. ?WILLIAM GRIMSBY (c. 1461). See Norroy (9a).
6. RICHARD ASHWELL
Cadran (pursuivant to Earl of Dorset), temp. Hen. VI.
Rouge Croix, temp. Hen. VI.
Lancaster, temp. Ed. IV.
Ireland, temp. Ed. IV.
Said to have been previously Cadran, Rouge Croix and Lancaster and is
possibly identical with Robert Ashwell. See Windsor (4).
Arms: as John Ashwell, Norroy (7).
7. WALTER BELLENGIER or BELLINGHAM
Ireland, king, cr. 9 June 1467, resd (possibly deprived by Richard III or Henry VII).
Native of Dieppe by name Bellengier, anglice Bellingham; must by his
own account have begun heraldic career about 1422 (Coll. of Arms MS.
L. 14, 211b), but nothing more is known of him until 1467 when 'Walter
Ireland' was created 'King of Arms of Our lande of Ireland' (P.R.O.,
E. 404/74, 9 Ed. IV, no. 59). At first employed in Ireland, but afterwards
sent to Scotland and overseas; seems to have retired soon after the death of
King Edward. D. 3 May 1487 and wife Elizabeth 9 days later (Records of
Bucks., vii, 530).
Most conspicuous mission in 1475 when, attended by two pursuivants, he
carried King Edward's final defiance to King Louis (Cal. S.P. Milan, p. 200,
no. 296); Commines confused this with the earlier message carried by
Garter Smert, q.v.
Free of Parish Clerks' Co., to whom he granted arms 1479 (Ebblewhite,
Parish Clerks' Co., p. 15; see also N. & Q., cciii, 232–6).
Arms: Argent, a saltire engrailed sable between 4 roses gules. Crest:
A demi-swan with expanded wings.
Pursuivant of Lord Bonvill at the battle of St Albans in 1455 (H. of N.).
Joye or Joies appears in the Issue Rolls, Michaelmas, 31 and Easter, 32 Hen. VI,
1453–4, as Lord Scales' pursuivant. Lord Scales' pursuivant was also employed as a King's messenger in 1451 (Issue Roll, Easter, 29 Hen. VI) but it
is not said whether that was Joye or Scales.
'Candalle', herald of John, Duke of Bedford, Earl of Kendal, etc., was
serving in Normandy in September 1430 (Sureau, fo. 768).
'Galdare' or Kildare was pursuivant of Gerald Fitzgerald, the 'Great' Earl
of Kildare. He had livery at the coronation and mourning at the funeral of
Henry VII. He also attended the coronation of Henry VIII and the fact that
no tabard was then provided for him shows that he was not a royal officer.
He may probably be identified with the 'herald' who attended Lambert
Simnel's coronation at Dublin in 1487 (H. of N.).
Leicester King of Arms
From 1380 or earlier Leicester (no. 1) was herald of John of Gaunt, Duke
of Lancaster and Earl of Leicester, from whose death he joined the royal
household. On Henry IV's accession he was made king of arms, probably
having the southern province. The title disappeared between 1415 and 1419,
but reappeared as a herald in 1478 at the marriage of Richard, Duke of
York, in 1483 at Edward IV's funeral, in 1485 (no. 2), and at New Year 1507.
1. HENRY GRENE, ATTE GRENE or DE GRENE
Leicester, herald, 24 June 1380, king, c. 4 October 1399.
Herald of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Earl of Leicester; sent
to Portugal 1380 and to Spain 1386. Herald of Richard II 1398–9; on Irish
expedition 1399. Made king of heralds by Henry IV before 4 October 1399;
in charge of the southern province; at siege of Coity Castle 1405; on
Agincourt campaign 1415; d. c. 1419.
Perhaps related to Sir Henry Grene, of Raundes, Northamptonshire, one
of John of Gaunt's knights (John of Gaunt's Register, 1372–6 and 1379–83).
Is he the English king of arms called 'Arieta' (sic,? Harry) who is said to
have founded the Portuguese office of arms?
2. ROGER MACHADO (temp. Ed. IV). See Clarenceux (8).
Leon d'Or Pursuivant
Pursuivant attending Sir John Sutton, Lord Dudley, Ambassador to France,
in 1446–7. He was present at the Chalons-du Breuil duel in 1446. Anstis
thought he was Dudley's officer and that his title was suggested by the arms,
but the lions in Lord Dudley's arms were respectively green with a double
tail (Sutton) and azure passant (Someri). If Leon d'Or was Dudley's officer
he is probably the 'pursuivant of the lords Duddelys the which went in oure
erand into France' in August 1447 (H. of N.).
This title, given to a herald under Henry V and VI, recalls the beasts in the
royal arms of England, now blazoned lions passant guardant, but for a time
called leopards. Lant lists John Wrythe as Leopard though he was really
1. JOHN KIRBY or KITEBY (temp. Hen. V). See Ireland (4).
2. NICHOLAS SERBY
Falcon, temp. Hen. V (sic).
Rouge Croix, 2 Hen. V. (sic).
Leopard, c. 1404.
Said to have been Falcon and Rouge Croix temp. Hen. V, but was already
Leopard in Michaelmas Term, 6 Hen. IV, 1404, when Nicholas Leopard
sent to Germany (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. II, 757, citing Issue Roll); still
Leopard at chapter of Rouen 5 January 1420.
Arms: Per chevron sable & ermine, 2 molets in chief argent.
3. JOHN ASHWELL (temp. Hen. V). See Norroy (7).
4. WILLIAM HAWKESLOWE (temp. Hen. VI).
See Clarenceux (6).
Le Sparre Pursuivant
In 1390 Le Sparre pursuivant came to England on behalf of his master
Florimond, Lord of Le Sparre in Gascony (Issue Roll, Easter, 13 Ric. II).
Later pursuivants of that name were retained by John Lord Tiptoft (Earl of
Worcester in 1449) and by John and Henry Holand, Dukes of Exeter, all
of whom held the lordship. Le Sparre attended Duke Henry at the first
battle of St Albans in 1455 (H. of N.).
Lisle or Lysley was pursuivant to Charles Brandon when he was Viscount
Lisle. Later he was retained by Arthur Plantagenet, Viscount Lisle (who
obtained a grant of this title on the surrender of the patent by Charles
Brandon), when Deputy of Calais 1533–40 (H. of N.).
1. CHRISTOPHER BARKER (1513). See Garter (6).
2. GEORGE SHAW
Lisle, ? 1533.
1534 imprisoned at Southampton on charge of piracy or plotting piracy;
variously described in correspondence from 27 March to 17 April as 'late
my lord Lisle's servant', 'my lord Lisle's pursuivant' and 'George Shaw
vintner' (L. & P. Hen. VIII, vii, 381–502 passim). Probably appd Lisle pursuivant when Arthur Plantagenet, Lord Lisle, was made Deputy of Calais
Pursuivant of the Lord of 'Courselles' (? Courseulles, dépt. Calvados);
employed in Normandy from 1433 onwards.
1. DENIS HURTYN
Longchamp pursuivant occurs repeatedly from July 1433 to Easter Term
1444 (Warrants for Issue, 11 Hen. VI, no. 162, 22 July; 12 Hen. VI, no. 131,
12 November and no. 152, 29 January; 13 Hen. VI, no. 359, 18 July; and
15 Hen. VI, no. 154, 28 November; Issue Rolls, Easter 13, 14, Michaelmas 15,
Michaelmas 18, and Easter 22 Hen. VI; Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 671). In
August 1439 he carried messages between England and the Peace Conference
in France (Nicolas, Proc. Privy Council, v, 386).
It is probable that these entries all refer to the same man. He is named
Denis in the wt. of 12 November 1433, when he had just brought despatches
from the Council in France to that in England and was about to take back
replies (Nicolas, Proc. Privy Council, iv, 182); and in that of 29 January
following he is called Denis Hurtyn, pursuivant of the Lord of Courseulle.
Louvre, Lovre or Lover pursuivant of John, Duke of Bedford, who as
Regent of France resided in the Palace of the Louvre; he was employed in
France and as courier to and from England 1430–2 (Issue Rolls, Easter 9,
Michaelmas 10, Michaelmas 11 Hen. VI; Warrants for Issue, 10 Hen. VI,
nos. 302, 17 June, and 349, 30 August; Rymer, p. 455; Coll. of Arms MS.
O. A. III, 77). In March 1432 he was granted £5 as compensation for his
ill-treatment when captured by the King's enemies on his way to England
(Devon, Pell Records, p. 123 citing Issue Roll, Michaelmas 10 Hen. VI).
One John Collis was the Duke's pursuivant at some time after 1422, but
his title is not stated and the date is uncertain (H. of N.).
1. FRANCISCUS DE PARISIIS
Louvre, cr. 16 April 1430.
Pursuivant of John, Duke of Bedford, who resided at the Louvre as Regent
of France; cr. by the King at Canterbury and given a silver-gilt cup of
10½ oz. weight (Rymer, x, 455); mentioned in Issue Rolls down to 11 Hen. VI,
2. JOHN COLLIS
Pursuivant to John, Duke of Bedford, c. 1435.
Mentioned as the Duke's pursuivant in letter from Henry VI to Mayor
of Southampton 2 October, year omitted (Hist. MSS. Comm., 11th Rep.,
part iii, p. 97, MSS. of Southampton Town). Title not stated; may have
been Racine who occurs as the Duke's pursuivant May 1435.
Loveyn or Laweyn pursuivant, employed by Henry VI in 1455 and 1456
(Issue Roll, Michaelmas and Easter, 34 Hen. VI) was presumably retained
by Henry Bourchier, then Captain of Calais, who was descended from and
quartered the arms of Louvaine (H. of N.).
Loyauté pursuivant carried despatches from and to the Council in France in
1444 (Issue Roll, Easter, 22 Hen. VI; Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 45). Not
said by whom he was retained.
Pursuivant of Thomas Burgh, who was Captain of Avranches in 1429
(Sureau, fo. 757), and father of Lord Burgh of Gainsborough, cr. 1487.
'Lyon' refers to the blue lion of Percy, arms, crest and beast of Thomas'
wife, Elizabeth, dau. and coheiress of Henry Percy of Athol, whose arms
were quartered by their descendants.
The French province of Maine was in English hands under Henry V and VI,
and Maine occurs as an English herald serving in France from 1428 to 1450.
His name has not been found.
In 1428–30 he was the officer of the Regent, John, Duke of Bedford and
Earl of Maine (Sureau, fos. 691, 775). On Bedford's death in 1435 he was
perhaps engaged by Richard, Duke of York, Regent 1436–7, but in August
1440, when he was granted 20 mks a year in consideration of the losses he
had sustained in the war, he was said to have been in the King's service for
the past two years or more (Pat. 18 Hen. VI, p. 3, m. 4, 18 August; Close
Roll, 18 Hen. VI, m. 3, 18 August; Issue Roll, Michaelmas, 21 Hen. VI, etc.).
In June 1449, when he brought the Duke of Somerset letters from the French
peace delegation at Louviers, he was accompanied by Villebon and Nogent
pursuivants (Rolls Series 32, pp. 385–513). The above-mentioned annuity
was paid down to the Easter Term 1450 (Issue Rolls, Michaelmas, 21 to
Easter, 28 Hen. VI; cf. warrants for Issue passim from 13 Hen. VI, no. 296
to 29 Hen. VI, no. 100, 14 December 1450; Nicolas, Proc. Privy Council,
No mention of Maine has been found after the wt. of 14 December 1450,
until November 1458, when he was attached to Sir John Wenlock, the
English Envoy to the Court of Burgundy (Rolls Series 22, 1, 365), but that
was probably a different man.
Maltravers was pursuivant of Henry, Lord Maltravers, as Deputy of Calais
1540–4 (H. of N.). In the nineteenth century the Duke of Norfolk, E.M.
and Lord Maltravers, revived the title as that of a herald extraordinary.
1. JOSEPH JACKSON HOWARD, LL.D., F.S.A.
Maltravers, E.M. wt. 21, R. wt. 26 November 1887.
B. 12 April 1827, only s. of Peter Howard of Woodside, co. Chester;
educ. Trinity Hall, Cambridge, LL.B. 1854, LL.D. 1859; F.S.A. 1854; Clerk
in Postmaster General's Department 1851–88; founded Civil Service Supply
Association; devoted leisure to heraldry and genealogy; founder and editor
Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica (1866–1902); a founder of Harleian
Society; joint-founder and editor 1893 The Vis'n of England and Wales and
1897 The Vis'n of Ireland; edited number of Vis'ns for Harleian and other
societies; many contributions to Notes & Queries, The Athenaeum, etc.
D. 18 April 1902; burd Twickenham Cemetery.
Arms granted 1893: Gules, on a bend between a fret in chief & a cross
crosslet in base or 3 annulets vert. Crest: A lion proper holding between his
forepaws a fret or & resting his dexter hind paw on 2 silver S's linked as
in a herald's collar, on the shoulder 2 annulets in pale vert. Motto: Credo
2. RT HON. SIR WILLIAM BULL, BT., P.C., F.S.A.
Maltravers, E.M. wt. 3, R. wt. 14 February 1922.
B. 29 September 1863, s. of Henry Bull, of a Sussex family long settled
as solicitors in London; d. 23 January 1931, at his house in Cadogan Gardens.
Member of L.C.C. 1892–1901; M.P. for Hammersmith 1900–29; Knight
1915; P.C. 1918; Bt. 1922; F.S.A. 1928. Founded and was first Knight
Principal of the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor.
(The Times, 24 January 1931; N. & Q., clx (1931), 91; Knights Bachelor
Arms granted 1923: Sable, 3 astronomical signs of Taurus or. Crest: On
a wreath or & sable a bull's face sable charged on the forehead with the sign
of Taurus gold. Motto: Hitherto.
3. (ARTHUR) OSWALD BARRON, F.S.A.
Maltravers, E.M. wt. 20 February, R. wt. 10 March 1937.
B. 1868, s. of Henry Stracey Barron, of a family settled in London more
than two centuries, hence the pen-name 'The Londoner' under which he
contributed a daily article to the Evening News for some thirty years. F.S.A.
1901; d. 24 September 1939.
His knowledge of medieval heraldry was unrivalled, and his output,
remarkable considering the other calls on his time, included many papers in
The Ancestor (editor 1902–5), the Northamptonshire County Families (1906)
volume of the V.C.H., and 'Heraldry' and other articles in the Encyclopaedia
Britannica. Also edited Parliamentary Roll and left valuable genealogical
collections to the Soc. Antiq.
His appointment as Maltravers shortly before the coronation of George VI
was a well-earned tribute to his outstanding authority on armory and
(The Times, 20 March 1937, 9 and 28 September 1939; Antiquaries J., xx,
124; Genealogists' Mag., viii, 419; New Eng. Hist and Genealog. Register,
xciv, 307; Evening News, 1 October 1946.)
March King of Arms
By November 1377 March was herald of Edmund Mortimer, third Earl of
March. After the Earl's death in 1381 the then March herald was put on
the royal establishment becoming king of arms by 1384, having the northern
province (Norroys) from 1386 and being doyen of the English heralds by
1393 if Froissart is to be trusted.
In 1419 Lobineau (Preuves de l'Hist. de Bretagne, p. 931) mentions that a
pursuivant of the Earl of March conducted the Duke of Brittany part of the
way on his journey to Rouen, but he gives neither name nor title. In 1425,
however, the fifth Earl of March, another Edmund who d. a fortnight later,
granted March herald 60s. 8d. a year, the grant, which was made at Trim,
being afterwards confirmed by Henry VI (Irish Genealogist, vol. 2, p. 5).
Under Edward IV and Henry VII March was a royal officer, king of arms
of the west parts of England, Wales and Cornwall. He attended the tournament between Lord Scales and the Bastard of Burgundy in 1467 and was
present at many other ceremonies (including the funeral of Edward IV)
down to 1488 when he was attached to the expedition to Brittany (H. of N.,
q.v. for references).
Under Richard III March seems to have been superseded by Gloucester
as king of arms of Wales.
1. JOHN LAKE or OTHELAKE (temp. Ric. II). See Norroy (4).
2. JOHN FERRANT
Wallingford, temp. Hen. VI.
Bluemantle, temp. Hen. VI.
Windsor, temp. Ed. IV.
March, temp. Ed. IV.
So Lant but without corroboration; probably an imaginary elaboration
of John Ferrant (no. 9 in list of additional names of officers with titles unknown).
Arms: Argent, 5 scocheons in cross gules each charged with 5 silver roundels in
saltire (1613 version of Lant's Roll).
3. RICHARD CHESTER (temp. Ed. IV). Perhaps RICHARD
STANTON. See Chester (8).
4. WILLIAM BALLARD
Herald to the Duke of Exeter, c. 1460.
March, c. 1481.
S. of Thomas Ballard of Hurtisley, Hereford (Ballard's Book, fo. C). In
1460 was herald to Henry Holand, Duke of Exeter (pat. 38 Hen. VI,
28 March), but thereafter name disappears until 1485 when Thomas Gibbes
was granted reversionary pat. to be Alms Knight of St George next after
'William Ballard alias Marche' (pat. 2 Ric. III, 18 January). Never admitted
as Alms Knight; must have been appd March soon after 1480; his province
the West of England, Wales and Cornwall; d. c. 1490 when Garter Wrythe
bought from his widow the collection of arms and heraldic memoranda
known as Ballard's Book (C.E.M.R.A., p. 111).
Arms: 'Asure a gryffon ermyn regardant', i.e. full-face (Ballard's Book,
Marenceux was pursuivant to John Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester in 1462 (Issue
Roll, Michaelmas, 2 Ed. IV).
Marenceux or Marynsyn was a lordship in Aquitaine which was held by
the Earl's father, John, Lord Tiptoft 1426–43, and Seneschal of Aquitaine
1415–23. It was claimed by the younger Tiptoft as part of his paternal
inheritance when he was made Earl of Worcester in 1449, although the
lordship was then in French hands (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 261 citing
Coll. of Arms MS. WC. 16; Dugdale, Baronage, ii, 41; etc.).
1. JOHN SHORTER
Marenceux, c. 1462.
Retainer of John Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester and Lord of Marynsin in
Aquitaine; sent to York and Durham with despatches in 1462 (Issue Roll,
Michaelmas, 2 Ed. IV).
Perhaps the same who was yeoman of the Crown, ranger of Melchett
Forest, Wiltshire, 1475, and 'launder' of Clarendon Park, Wiltshire, 1482
(pat. 8 October, 15 Ed. IV, and 15 November, 22 Ed. IV).
Marleon de Aye Pursuivant
Pursuivant of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk and E.M. The title means
a little hawk in its eyrie and Anstis identifies it with the small bird which
Brandon's sinister supporter, a hawk or eagle, holds in one claw (Coll. of
Arms MS. O.A. III, 261).
1. WILLIAM FELLOW (1522). See Norroy (22).
'Merlyne pursevaunte' was sent to Normandy in 1444 (Rolls Series 22, 1,
451). Otherwise unknown. Uncertain whether Merlyne was the man's
name or title. (See no. 31 in list of additional names of officers with titles unknown.)
Herald or pursuivant of the Earls of Salisbury. Mentioned as herald in April
1373 when William de Montagu was Earl (John of Gaunt's Register 1372–6,
Camden Soc. 3s, xx, no. 1342), and as pursuivant in 11 Ed. IV when Richard
Nevile had the earldom (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. II, 513).
1. JOHN DEE
Montagu, c. July 1471.
17 July 1471 became a surety for good behaviour of John Water, Chester.
No doubt Earl of Salisbury's pursuivant.
Montorgueil was instituted by Henry VII as 'pursevant of Gurnesey', the
title being taken from Montorgueil Castle, headquarters of the Governor of
Jersey. He attended the coronation and the funeral of Henry VII. As herald
Montorgueil replaced Chester from 1516 to 1533. He is said to have been
appointed for service in the Channel Islands and to have resided in Jersey,
but there is nothing in the only known holder's record to support that
(H. of N.).
1. RANDALL JACKSON alias HOLMES (c. 1494). See Chester (13).
Moriton or Meriton is said to have been pursuivant to the Duke of Clarence
(Bodleian MS. Wood F. 33. 20); this probably refers to Thomas, Duke of
Clarence, who was Lieutenant of France and Normandy from 1415. The
title is the same as Mortain, a herald who occurs in 1449 and 1450 as officer
of Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, Count of Mortain and Governor
of Normandy (Rolls Series 32, pp. 385–513, and 22, 1, 286, 288; H. of N.).
Mouncells or Monceux pursuivant carried despatches from and to the
Chancellor of France in 1435 (Issue Roll, Easter, 13 Hen. VI; Warrant for
Issue, 14 Hen. VI, MS. 178, 16 December). It is not said by whom he was
From the time of Richard II to that of Henry VI Mowbray was the Duke of
Norfolk's private herald. Since its revival in 1623 the title has always been
given to a herald extraordinary (H. of N.; Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III,
I. HERALD OF THE DUKE OF NORFOLK
Mowbray, c. September 1392.
Attended future Henry IV on journey to Holy Sepulchre 1392. Probably
retainer of Thomas Mowbray, Earl Marshal and Duke of Norfolk, borrowed
by Henry because he had been to Holy Land before and 'knew the ropes';
mainly employed as painter and commissariat officer. Perhaps the John
Mowbray at whose house in Calais some of Henry's retinue stayed May
1390 on way to Prussia (Derby Accounts, Camden Soc., N.S. 52, passim;
'Henry IV's Heralds in 1390 and 1392', N. & Q., xcxiii (1948), 464, etc.).
Mowbray, c. 1398.
14 October 1398, licensed to take four lengths of russet and six of 'blanket'
cloth to the exiled Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray, whose herald he
was and who had granted him 20 mks a year from manor of Findon. On
Duke's death apparently entered Crown service; 16 March 1400 King Henry
confirmed above annuity by p.s.; sent to France several times 8 & 9 Hen. IV
(Issue Rolls) and 1407 he and wife Elizabeth were given custody of the
Exchange at Calais (p.s. 22 October, 9 Hen. IV); d. c. 1419 (see Coll. of
Arms MS. O.A. III, 263).
3. GILES WASTER
Falcon, temp. Hen. V.
Rouge Croix, 6 Hen. V.
Mowbray, c. 1420.
As 'Giles Waster dit Moubray' attended chapter at Rouen 5 January 1420.
Herald of John Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham and Earl Marshal and later
Duke of Norfolk.
4. JOHN COSOUN (c. 1416). See Clarenceux (4).
5. JOHN HORSLEY
Falcon, pursuivant, temp. Hen. VI.
Bluemantle, temp. Hen. VI.
Mowbray, temp. Hen. VI.
Arms: As William Horsley, Clarenceux.
6. GILES FRAUNCEYS
Mowbray, c. 1425.
Nothing known of Fraunceys except that as Mowbray he accompanied
Sir John Grey to France in 3 Hen. VI (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 263).
7. GILES STEKER or STEYKER
Mowbray, c. 1435.
Pardoned for failing to answer a summons for debt, pat. 14 July 1435;
given protection under p.s. 12 October 1435, while attending Lord Willoughby in France.
8. WILLIAM BAKER
Mowbray, c. May 1455.
Herald of the Duke of Norfolk; present at the Battle of St Albans 22 May
1455; still living 37 Hen. VI, 1458–9.
II. HERALD EXTRAORDINARY
9. JOHN BOROUGH (1623). See Garter (10).
10. WILLIAM LE NEVE (1624). See Clarenceux (18).
11. FRANCIS BURGHILL (1677). See Somerset (14).
12. PATRICK BUCHANAN
Mowbray, R. wt. 2, cr. 9 November 1681.
A Scot, Master of the Horse to Duke of Norfolk; d. 18 March 1683
(? 1684), burd St Clement Danes.
13. ROBERT PLOTT, D.C.L., F.R.S.
Mowbray, E.M. wt. 20 January, cr. 2 February 1695.
Of Sutton Baron or Sutton Barne, parish of Borden, Kent; s. of Robert
Plott of the same; b. there 1640; baptized Borden 13 December; educ. Wye
School, Kent, Magdalen Hall and University College, Oxford; B.A. 1661,
D.C.L. 1671; F.R.S. 1677 and Secretary 1682–4; 1683–90 first Curator of
Ashmolean Museum and Professor of Chemistry, Oxford; 1688 Historiographer Royal; 1687 E.M's Secretary and Registrar of Court of Chivalry;
20 January 1695 Mowbray herald extraordinary and 22 January Registrar of
College; intended for appointment as king of arms, but d. at Sutton Baron
30 April 1696, before vacancy occurred; burd Borden (M.I.).
Projected a natural history of England, but only published Natural History
of Oxfordshire (1677) and Natural History of Staffordshire (1686). For other
publications see D.N.B. and sources there quoted.
Left in MS. 'History of the Office of Earl Marshal of England'; 'Discourse
concerning the reasonableness of the revival of the Earl Marshal's Court';
and 'Defence of the Jurisdiction of the Earl Marshal's Court'; this last
printed in Hearne's Curious Discourses (1775), ii, 250.
Some records of Court of Chivalry remained in the College on his death;
others which he retained were bought by the College in 1715 from Hare,
Richmond, for £4. 10s.
A bon vivant and good company; friend of most scholars and antiquaries
of the day; extremely credulous, said to have been mercilessly humbugged
by gentlemen of Staffordshire; very acquisitive; when asked to return a
curio he had been lent replied that it was a rule among antiquaries to receive
and never restore (Hearne's Collections, 1, 67).
Arms: Quarterly, (1 & 4) vert, 3 quatrefoils argent each charged with a
lion's head erased sable; (2) ermine, a lion sable; (3) argent, 3 chevrons sable
bezanty. Crest: An arm in armour, the gauntlet brandishing a falchion, all
proper garnished or.
14. ROWLAND FRYTH (1698). See Lancaster (29).
15. JOHN DUGDALE
Blanch Lyon, E.M. wt. 21 November 1707.
Mowbray, R. wt. 10, cr. 17 June 1713.
B. 2 May 1690, at Blythe Hall, Warwickshire; d. 4 August 1749; burd
at Shustoke, Warwickshire (M.I.). S. and heir of William Dugdale, who
was only s. of Sir John Dugdale, Norroy; last direct male descendant of
Sir William Dugdale. Dying without issue he bequeathed Blythe Hall to
Richard Geast, eldest s. of his sister Jane, who took the name and arms of
Dugdale in 1799, and from whom Sir William Stratford Dugdale, Bt. (1936)
and F.S.A. is descended.
22 July 1698 William, his father, was authorized to add to his paternal
arms and crest 'such a coronet as Garter Principal King of Arms is crowned
with at his Creation'. As depicted in the Grant Book both coronets are
what is now known as a crest coronet or open crown, but latterly these
have been replaced by circlets like those now worn by kings of arms.
(Hamper, op. cit.; Burke's Peerage; etc.)
Arms granted 1698: Argent, a cross moline gules charged with an open
crown or, & in dexter chief a roundel gules. Crest: From a torse argent &
gules a griffin's head & wings gorged with an open crown, all or. Motto:
Pestis Patriae Pigrities.
16. JOSEPH EDMONDSON, F.S.A.
Mowbray, E.M. wt. 23, R. wt. 29 December 1763, cr. 21 January 1764.
Lived in Warwick St, Golden Square; coach-painter by trade and heraldpainter to the King, with considerable private practice, which members of
the College thought to encroach on their own prerogatives. D. at his house
17 February 1786; burd St James', Piccadilly.
Mowbray 1763; deputy to Sir Thomas Gery Cullum, Bath king of arms.
At the sale of his library 1788 the College bought thirty-two books and
Published Baronagium Genealogicum (1764), based on Sir William Segar's
collections; An... Account of the Noble Family of Greville (1766); and A Complete Body of Heraldry (1780), which includes copious extracts from the
Anstis MS. 'Officers of Arms', and an alphabet of some 50,000 coats of arms
which was the foundation of the armories of Berry, Robson and Burke.
(D.N.B.; Thomas Moule, Bibliotheca Heraldica; R. & C.; etc.)
Arms granted 1765: Azure, a fess ermine cotised engrailed or, in chief two
swans facing each other with wings raised argent & in base a lion argent
(in allusion to his office of Mowbray). Crest: A lion or collared gemel gules,
supporting a pennon azure, the staff gules & head argent.
17. EDWARD HOWARD GIBBON (1842). See Norroy (55).
Mushon King of Arms
John Mushon, herald or king of arms, occurs 1353–7. Doubtful whether
Mushon was name of office or personal name (q.v.).
Title instituted by Edward III in honour of the victory of Najara on 3 April
1. RICHARD MIDLETON
Nazers herald, c. 1374.
6 November 1374 accompanied John Duke of Brittany overseas; September
1379 attached to the Captain of Calais; December 1401 granted 1s. a day
for life (as pension?) for services to Edward III, Richard II and John of
Gaunt; 1408 witness for Lord Grey in case against Sir Edward Hastings.
Newhaven was the English name both for Ambleteuse, near Boulogne, and
for Le Havre at the mouth of the Seine. It seems to have given title to a
pursuivant attached to the English garrison at Ambleteuse (Hameltue) in
1544–9 and to the English force at Le Havre 1562–3 (H. of N.).
1. JOHN HART (? 1544). See Chester (16).
One of the two pursuivants who accompanied Maine herald (q.v.) in 1449.
Uncertain whether an English or French officer.
See NOIR TAUREAU.
Noir Lion Pursuivant
Pursuivant of John, Viscount Wells who bore Or, a lion with forked tail
sable. At Lord Wells' funeral in 1498 his coat of arms was worn by Berwick
pursuivant in the absence of 'Noirlion his owne poursurvant' (H. of N.).
Noir Taureau Pursuivant
Pursuivant of George, Duke of Clarence (Coll. of Arms MS. WC. 16).
Title taken from the well-known Yorkist beast, a black bull with gold horns,
etc. (Royal Beasts, p. 25). The Duke differenced this with his own silver label
with a canton gules on each point (Coll. of Arms MS. WGA. 156), though
the label is omitted in Coll. of Arms MS. 2 M. 16, fo. 1 (Barnard, Edward IV's
French Expedition of 1475, p. 8).
In the version of Thynne's paper on heralds at the end of the 1724 edition
of Guillim ('Honor Civil', p. 39) the title is given as 'Noyre Fawcone', but
Hearne's version of the same paper (Curious Discourses, 1, 160) has 'Noyre
Tauren', which is evidently correct.
This title first appears in 1539 when James was appointed. Although
appointed and granted a salary by Henry VIII, he was not regarded by his
fellow-officers as a Crown herald, but was expressly called herald to the
Duke of Norfolk. James shared in the heralds' fees as a herald extraordinary,
and at all the later revivals of the title that was the bearer's rank (H. of N.,
pp. 48, 79).
1. JOHN JAMES
Blanch Lyon, pat. 9 May 1537.
Norfolk, appd c. 6 January, p.s. 26 March, pat. 17 April 1539.
Though salaried by the Crown and described in his patents as one of the
King's pursuivants and one of the King's heralds he was 'with Thomas Duke
of Norfolk'; in the College was deemed 'extraordinary' and only allowed
reduced fees. 1540 secretary and courier to English embassy in France; April
or May 1541 absconded with money entrusted to him for embassy expenses;
caught at Lyons in September but escaped again.
2. JOHN ANSTIS (1707). See Garter (16).
3. WILLIAM OLDYS (1755). See Norroy (43).
4. STEPHEN MARTIN LEAKE
Norfolk, R. wt. 4 July, cr. 21 September 1761.
Of Thorpe Hall, Essex; b. 1737, eldest s. of Stephen Martin Leake, Garter;
Norfolk 1761; Deputy Registrar of Court of Chancery; d. 19 February 1797,
s. p.; burd Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex (M.I.).
Arms: As Garter with a label for difference.
5. WILLIAM WOODS (1825). See Garter (25).
6. ALBERT WILLIAM WOODS (1841). See Garter (27).
7. HUGH STANFORD LONDON, F.S.A.
Norfolk, E.M. wt. 14, R. wt. 27 April 1953.
Of Coldharbour, Buxted, Sussex; b. Rhyl, N. Wales, 3 April 1884, s. and
heir of Sir (Edgar) Stanford London, C.B.E., of Inland Revenue Department; educ. King's School, Canterbury, Dulwich College, and Clare College,
Cambridge; H.M. Consular Service 1908–44; Citizen and Glazier of London;
F.S.A. 1935; assistant editor of projected New Dictionary of British Arms
and member of the Croft Lyons Committee of the Soc. Antiq. 1941;
Member of Royal Commission on Historical Monuments (England) 1944;
Corresponding member of French & Swiss Heraldic Societies; member of
the Académie Internationale d'Héraldique; Officier d'Académie (France)
1951; F.H.S. 1954; F.S.G. 1955. D. 20 January 1959. Burd Buxted.
Publications: The Queen's Beasts (1954); Royal Beasts (1956); 'A Catalogue
of the English Officers of Arms' (Landed Gentry, 1952, pp. cvii–cxxi); and
many papers on heralds and heraldic subjects in Archaeologia, Archives
Heraldiques Suisses, Coat of Arms, etc. Designed several bookplates for self
Arms granted 1918: Azure, a bend of 5 lozenges between 2 crosses formy
fitchy or. Crest: A lozenge checky argent & sable between 2 wings or.
Motto: Virtus non Stemma.
8. GEORGE DREWRY SQUIBB, Q.C., F.S.A.
Norfolk, E.M. wt. 13 April, R. wt. 24 April 1959.
Of Cerne Abbas, Dorset, and 5 Paper Buildings, Temple, London, E.C. 4;
b. Chester, 1 December 1906; s. and heir of Reginald Augustus Hodder Squibb;
remote kinsman of Arthur Squibb, Clarenceux, 1646–51, and of William
Oldys, Norroy 1755–61; educ. King's School, Chester and Queen's College,
Oxford; Barrister, Inner Temple, 1930; a Master of the Bench 1951; Junior
Counsel to the Crown in Peerage and Baronetcy Cases 1954–6; Q.C. 1956;
Chairman of Dorset Quarter Sessions 1953; F.S.A. 1946; Member of the
Croft Lyons Committee of the Soc. Antiq. 1955; Vice-President of the
Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society 1958; Citizen and
Scrivener of London.
Publications: The Law of Arms in England (1953); Wiltshire Visitation
Pedigrees, 1623 (1954); Reports of Heraldic Cases in the Court of Chivalry,
1623–1732 (1956); The High Court of Chivalry (1959); and papers in antiquarian
and legal journals.
Arms granted 1944: Or, 3 bulls passant sable, armed & unguled gules,
a bordure engrailed of the last charged with 8 besants. Crest: A demi-bull
sable, armed & unguled gules, gorged with a collar with chain reflexed over
the back & supporting with the fore-legs a staff or, flying therefrom a banner
also gules charged with a tower argent. Motto: Deus Fortissima Turris.
Normandy King of Arms
Not hitherto noted as the title of an English king of arms, though in France
there was from 1347 a herald with jurisdiction over Normandy entitled
'duc des Normans' instead of 'roy d'armes' (Parties inédites de l'œuvre de
Sicile héraut, ed. le P. Roland (Mons, 1867), p. 93; P. Adam Even, Les
fonctions militaires des hérauts d'armes (Lausanne, 1957), p. 19). Dr Sydney
Anglo ('The Foundation of the Tudor Dynasty: The Coronation and
Marriage of Henry VII', Guildhall Miscellany, vol. 11, no. 1), however,
quotes from a hitherto unnoticed account of Henry VII's coronation on
30 October 1485 (B.M. MS. Egerton 985, fos. 41b–48a) a statement that
'Garter and Normandie Kinges of armes' were there present. Sir Thomas
Holme had resigned the office of Clarenceux on 4 January 1485 and the
office was apparently vacant until his reappointment on 1 May 1487. It
seems possible Normandy filled the gap. Could John More have held the
title briefly while displaced from Norroy by Roger Machado? The claim
of the Kings of England to be Dukes of Guyenne and Normandy was kept
alive down to 1760 by the inclusion in the coronation procession of two
gentlemen, specially habited, representing the Dukes.
Northampton has been listed by some writers among heralds of the nobility
and it is probable that the office was instituted by or for Humphrey de
Bohun, Earl of Hereford, Essex and Northampton, but on the Earl's death
in 1372 the earldom of Northampton reverted to the Crown and in 1372
the King expressly calls Macheby 'un de nos herauds' (H. of N.).
1. RICHARD MACHEBY
Northampton, c. 30 August 1372.
Of Theydon Mount and Theydon Gernon, Essex, and Great and Little
Hormead, etc., co. Hertford; s. of William Macheby, of Brewood, Staffordshire; retainer of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Northampton; 1372, on the
Earl's death, entered royal service and accompanied John of Gaunt overseas;
1382 for services to Edward III and Richard II granted alien priory of
Winghale for fifty years; sent to France 1383 and 1386 and to Rome 1387;
d. 1389 (will dat. 7 June 1387, pr. 5 July 1389, Commissary Court, London).
Retained style of Northampton to the end.
Herald of the earls of Northumberland from the time of Edward IV to that
of Henry VIII; often employed on the King's service; in 1527 and 1529 was
treated as a herald extraordinary (H. of N.; Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III,
275; Partition Book).
In 1472 attended Louis de Bruges' creation as Earl of Winchester (Coll.
of Arms MS. WQ. 78); 1482 accompanied Garter to Scotland (Rymer, xii,
165; Cal. Doc. Scot., iv, 1482); April 1484 attached to English embassy to
Scotland (Rolls Series 24, 1, 55); 1485 attended creation of Jasper Tudor
as Duke of Bedford; 1488 again in Scotland (L.T.A., 1, 96); 1491
attended ambassador Urswick to Scotland (Warrant for Issue, 13 May,
6 Hen. VII, and 21 October, 7 Hen. VII; Cal. Doc. Scot., iv, 1570); 1493
conducted the French ambassadors to Scotland (Warrant for Issue, 9 December, 9 Hen. VII); 1503 attended Princess Margaret on part of her journey
to Scotland wearing a tabard of the Northumberland arms (see J. Yonge's
account of the journey).
1. JOHN BEE
Northumberland, c. 1502.
Herald to the Earl of Northumberland. (Will of Wm. Blackburne of
Fyly, dat. 18 March 1502, cited by Longstaffe, 'The Old Heraldry of the
Percies', Arch. Aeliana, N.S. iv, 209.)
2. WILLIAM JENYNS
Northumberland, temp. Hen. VIII.
Herald of the Earl of Northumberland; d. 29 January 1527; successor
appd by 1 November following.
3. NAME UNKNOWN (1527), appd before 1 November 1527; still
there 1 November 1529.
At the first appearance of the title, in 1399, Nottingham must have been the
officer of the Duke of Norfolk who was also Earl of Nottingham, and who
is known to have maintained a herald in 1385. Whether the Nottingham
herald who attended the coronations of Henry V in 1413 and Queen
Katherine in 1421 was also a ducal officer is less clear for on the latter occasion
he is expressly described as the King's herald. The title was revived by
Henry VIII who attached a pursuivant to the household of his bastard son
Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset and Earl of Nottingham.
The first of these pursuivants, Towre, is not called Nottingham in his pat.
but all four of his successors are so named. The Duke having died in 1535 the
title lapsed on Davy's death. There is no apparent reason for its revival in
1778 save to recall that Nottingham had once been one of the Duke of
Norfolk's titles (H. of N.).
I. HERALD TO THE EARL OF NOTTINGHAM
1. JOHN KYNDALE
Nottingham, c. 1399.
As 'John Kyndale alias Notyngham herald' witnessed will of William
Multon, Bordeaux, 14 January 1399. Probably the herald of the Earl of
Nottingham who occurs 1385 (Sussex Arch. Coll., liv, 163) and the Nottingham herald who received robes for Henry V's coronation April 1413.
Perhaps the 'Notyngham signifer' to whom the fourteenth- to fifteenthcentury 'Becket's Murderers Roll' attributes Sable, 3 dexter hands or.
II. PURSUIVANT TO THE DUKE OF
RICHMOND AND SOMERSET
2. RICHARD DE LA TOWRE
Nottingham (?), p.s. 5, pat. 8 July 1525.
All his successors were named Nottingham, but his pat. merely appoints
him pursuivant to the Duke of Richmond and Somerset without giving any
name of office. Anstis, however (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 279), lists him
as Nottingham. D. c. April 1526.
3. WILLIAM HASYNG or HASTINGS (1526). See Somerset (4).
4. RICHARD CROKE
Nottingham, p.s. 30 April, pat. 5, cr. 31 May 1528.
Goldsmith of London; younger s. of William Croke of Colyweston,
Northamptonshire; sent to France with Sir Robert Wingfield 1529; slain at
Boulogne between November 1529 and April 1530. Lant's statements that
he was Rouge Dragon and Windsor are impossible. Probably father of
Dr Richard Croke, Greek Professor at Cambridge.
(Eton Coll. Reg.)
Arms: Argent, a dove rising azure & on a chief indented azure 3 estoiles or.
5. THOMAS TREHERON (1530). See Somerset (5).
6. JOHN DAVY
Nottingham, p.s. 2 September, pat. 3 October 1532.
His master, Henry Fitzroy, d. 24 July 1536, and Davy d. between then
and 9 May 1537.
III. HERALD EXTRAORDINARY
7. EDMUND KELLY
Nottingham, R. wt. 17 March, cr. 30 April 1778.
Still Nottingham 1805.
Pursuivant of Anthony Wydevill, Earl Rivers and jure uxoris Lord Scales
and Nucells. Attended Lord Rivers at Tours in 1446 at the Chalons–du Breuil
duel and is mentioned several times in Issue Rolls 1468–70 (H. of N.).
1. THOMAS WHITING (after 1462). See Chester (11).
In 1423 pursuivant of Gaston de Foix, Captal de Buch and Earl of Longueville, K.G., 1438–58 (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 676 citing accounts of Sir
John Radcliffe as Constable of Bordeaux).
Perhaps the Earl's pursuivant who took letters from Guyenne to England
in 1449 (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 40 citing Warrant for Issue, 27 Hen. VI,
no. 227, 22 August).
Pursuivant to Sir Thomas Stainer in 1431 (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 238,
Pursuivant employed in Normandy in 1447 (Issue Roll, Michaelmas,
26 Hen. VI).
Herald of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester and Earl of Pembroke, took the
Duke's challenge to the Duke of Burgundy in 1424 and 1436 and in 1430
accompanied the 'Duke' of Clarence to France (H. of N.).
1. WILLIAM CROSSE
Pembroke, c. 1424.
Pembroke herald was retained by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester and
Earl of Pembroke at least 1424–36. In 1427 attended the Bastard of Clarence
to France, his name being given as William Crosse.
In or about 1385 a herald of the Earl of Northumberland is mentioned in
the borough accounts of King's Lynn; his title is not given but in 1387 Percy
herald was serving with the Earl's brother, Sir Thomas Percy, before
Aurenne; he was then sent by the Duke of Lancaster to Aurenne wearing
the Duke's coat (Froissart, xii, 195). Percy is also mentioned several times
from 1401 to 1410 (H. of N.).
1. JOHN HERYNG (c. 1401). See Shrewsbury (1).
Pisore (Pisow) Pursuivant
Pursuivant named in French Roll, 3 Ric. II, m. 7, 1379. Probably retained
by the Earl of Salisbury (H. of N.).
1. THOMAS TURVILLE (c. 1379). See Salisbury (1).
Pursuivant extraordinary created in 1604, and never revived. The reason for
the choice of the title is not apparent, but in 1673 Charles II made his mistress,
Louise de Querouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth.
1. JOHN GUILLIM (1604). See Rouge Croix (46).
Purchase or Purchesse was sent overseas with despatches in 1439 (Issue Roll,
Easter, 17 Hen. VI); in 1440 he was attached to the English embassy to
France and was sent to St Omer with letters to the Duchess of Burgundy
(Issue Roll, Easter, 18 Hen. VI), and in 1441 he accompanied Garter Bruges
on a mission to the Duke of Orleans (Warrant for Issue, 19 Hen. VI, no. 186,
6 April). He is called pursuivant in 1439 and 1441 but herald in 1440.
Purchase, pursuivant, is mentioned again in 1447 in a despatch from Garter
to the Chancellor dated at Caen 21 July (Rolls Series 22, 1, 189, 192).
Rasyn or Racine, pursuivant of John, Duke of Bedford in 1435 (Warrant
for Issue, 13 Hen. VI, no. 292, 23 May), was so called from the Duke's badge,
a 'root' or uprooted tree-stump. The title is said to have existed also under
Henry VII (H. of N., note h), but that seems unlikely.
1. ?JOHN COLLIS (c. 1422). See Louvre (2).
Risebank, one of the French garrison pursuivants, took his name from the
tower or fort of Risban, part of the fortifications of Calais. The title is said
to go back to the reign of Edward IV, but its first mention in the public
records is at the coronation of Henry VII. The title was allowed to lapse
after the loss of Calais. Of the following names all but the first and last are
miscalled Rose Blanche by Lant and his followers (H. of N.; Coll. of Arms
MS. O.A. III, 85).
1. ?...BANELEE (c. 1501). See Bluemantle (19).
2. THOMAS BYSLEY (temp. Hen. VII). See York (9).
3. JOHN NARBOON (? 1522). See Richmond (9).
4. RICHARD STORKE
Risebank, cr. 31 May 1528.
D. last week of 1528. Noble and others say cr. Allhallows Day 1528, but
Partition Book says Whitsunday (31 May), 1528.
Arms: Azure, a stork argent, beak & legs gules, in a border ermine.
5. WILLIAM LAMBARDE or LAMBERT
Risebank, appd c. 1529, cr. 1 November 1532.
Called William Morris Lombard in a seniority list of officers of arms quoted
by Anstis and said to have been appd 20 Hen. VIII, 1528–9; d. before April 1554.
Arms: Gules, on a bend argent 3 dolphins vert.
6. JUSTINIAN BARKER (temp. Hen. VIII). See Rouge Croix (35).
7. JOHN HOLLINGSWORTH (1554). See Bluemantle (29).
Herald or pursuivant of Richard Wydevill, cr. Earl Rivers 1466 (H. of N.).
Rose, without addition, is the title borne by Robert Cooke for a few days
in January 1562. He is so styled in the pat. appointing him Chester, and also
in two contemporary manuscripts, Machyn's Diary (see H. of N., note h)
and a paper by Glover in Coll. of Arms MS. WC. 11, though Lant and his
followers call him Rose Blanche. The title seems to have been used even
earlier, for Stow (Annals, ed. 1631, p. 612, C. 1) mentions Rose herald in
1553. Anstis also calls Philip Holland, 1602–4, and Henry St George,
1610–11, Rose, but elsewhere they are called Rose Rouge.
1. RICHARD HALL
? Rose, c. 1553.
Richard Hall, pursuivant, is mentioned in the will of Richard Rapsley in
1552 (P.C.C. 11 Powell). Probably the Richard 'Rose herald' sent by the
Council to the Earl of Northumberland in 1553 after he proclaimed Queen
Mary at Cambridge (Stow, Annals, 1631, p. 612).
2. ROBERT COOKE (fn. 1) (1562). See Clarenceux (14).
3. PHILIP HOLLAND (fn. 2) (1602). See Portcullis (11).
4. HENRY ST GEORGE (fn. 2) (1609). See Garter (11).
5. ROBERT KNIGHT
? Rose, 1611.
S. of Edmund Knight, Norroy; recommended 1611 to succeed St George
as Rose, but no record of his appointment.
Arms: As his father.
Rose Blanche Pursuivant
The only certain references to this pursuivant are in 1482 when he attended
the English Ambassador to France (Cal. Doc. Scot., iv, 1478), and in 1483
when he attended the funeral of Edward IV and in the following August
brought news from Lord Dynham of the death of King Louis XI (Rolls
Series 24, 1, 8 and 11, 1). Most of the officers named by Lant as Rose Blanche
were really Risebank.
1. THOMAS HOLLINGSWORTH (temp. Ed. IV). See York (2).
2. JOHN WATER or WALTER (temp. Ed. IV). See York (3).
3. LAURENCE ALFORD (temp. Ric. III). See Bluemantle (18).
Rose Rouge Pursuivant
The red rose of Lancaster gave title to a series of pursuivants extraordinary
from 1604 to 1702. All but the last soon obtained appointments in ordinary.
Coote was the last pursuivant extraordinary named from a royal badge,
although two heralds, Blanc Coursier and Falcon were afterwards so named.
1. ? WILLIAM WYRLEY (c. 1603). See Rouge Croix (45).
2. SAMPSON LENNARD (1613). See Bluemantle (37).
3. AUGUSTINE VINCENT (1616). See Windsor (19).
4. JOHN BRADSHAW (1624). See Windsor (20).
5. WILLIAM RYLEY (1630). See Clarenceux (18D).
6. HENRY LILLY (1634). See Rouge Dragon (17).
7. HENRY BALL (1675). See Windsor (24).
8. SAMUEL STEBBING (1698). See Somerset (15).
9. THOMAS COOTE
Rose Rouge, R. wt. 12 April 1702.
B. c. 1693 in Essex, s. of Thomas Coote of Coote Hill, co. Cavan (Ulster),
by Ellinor, dau. of Sir Thomas St George, Garter; educ. Eton and Trinity
College, Dublin; Captain of Foot; d. April 1718.
(Eton Coll. Reg.; Le Neve's Knights, Harl. Soc., vol. 8, pp. 223–4; etc.)
Arms: Argent a chevron sable between 3 coots proper. Crest: A coot
proper. Motto: Vincit Veritas.
(Peerage sub Earl of Bellamont, and Coote, baronet.)
Herald of Edward, Earl of Rutland (Duke of York 1402–15) in 1395.
Rutland, c. 1394.
By pat. 21 Ric. II, p. 3, m. 27, 15 March (1398), John Carleton was
pardoned for the death of Roger Rutland, Messenger of the King and herald
of arms of the Earl of Rutland (Edward, afterwards second Duke of York),
'treacherously killed by await' 6 February 1395.
Herald of William de Montagu, Earl of Salisbury temp. Richard II (H. of N.).
1. THOMAS TURVILLE
Pisore or Pisow, pursuivant, c. 1379.
Gryphon, pursuivant, c. 1385.
Salisbury, herald, 18 February 1388.
1388 attached to Sir Thomas Swinburn, Governor of Roxburgh Castle,
and a p.s. dat. 18 February calls him Thomas Pysore alias Turvyle Gryffon
pursuivant alias Salisbury herald (Cal. Doc. Scot., iv, 373); already Pysore
1379–80 (French Roll, 3 Ric. II, m. 7), Gryphon by 27 April 1385, when
attached to Simon de Burgh, Treasurer of Calais; still Salisbury 1395 when
attached to Richard II's Irish expedition (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 95, 189,
289). As Gryphon and Salisbury was officer of William Montagu, Earl of
Salisbury, but name Pisore otherwise unknown.
Sans Repose Pursuivant
Pursuivant; brought Henry VI despatches from France in 1434 (Coll. of
Arms MS. O.A. III, 47 citing Issue Roll, Easter and Michaelmas, 13 Hen. VI).
Pursuivant of Anthony Wydevill, Earl Rivers and jure uxoris Lord Scales.
While in France with his master in 1475 he was taken prisoner and his
despatches read by King Louis. Was present in 1477 when Lord Rivers did
homage to the Prince of Wales for lands held of him (H. of N.).
In 1451 Wydevill's father-in-law, Thomas, Lord Scales (1445–60), had
a pursuivant who was sent to Scotland, but his title is not given; it may have
been either Scales or Joye (H. of N.).
Secret or Segret, pursuivant of Sir John Fastolf from 1425 (H. of N.).
1. LAURENCE DE FUGIERS (FOUGÈRES)
Sir John Fastolf appd de Fugiers his pursuivant by the name Segret 1425;
with Fastolf in France 1428–9 (Accounts of Pierre Sureau, Receiver General
of Normandy, Bibl. Nat., Paris, ms. fr. 4488, fos. 692, 775, 777). Fastolf
afterwards suspended him but restored him to his office 28 June 1432.
Shortly after he and Gloucester herald (Roger Legh) fell among thieves on
their way from Rouen to Dieppe and barely escaped with their lives as
certified by the mayor of Dieppe 4 September 1432 (Coll. of Arms MS.
O.A. II, 134).
Pursuivant to Sir Richard Nanfort, Deputy-Lieutenant of Calais. He was in
Henry VII's retinue when he met Philip of Austria in 1500 and he attended
the funeral of Queen Elizabeth in 1503 (H. of N.).
In recognition of the services rendered by George Dunbar, the Scottish Earl
of March, at the battle of Shrewsbury 21 July 1403, Henry IV authorized
the Earl to call his officer Shrewsbury herald, but that use of the title soon
Later John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury 1442–53, had a herald, but his title
is not recorded and it may have been Talbot (q.v.); it was he who recognized
his master's mangled remains on the field of Châtillon. He is represented in
the Shrewsbury book wearing a tabard of the Talbot arms, and as late as
1582 an inventory of the sixth Earl's effects includes 'a coate for a harralde
of armes with my Lordes armes on it' (H. of N.).
1. JOHN HERYNG
Wales, c. 1393.
Percy, c. 1401.
Occurs 1393–4 as Wales herald and John Wales; presumably Richard II's
herald for the Principality of Wales (cf. Wm. Bruges' appt as Chester 1398);
c. 1401 Percy, herald to the Earl of Northumberland; after battle of Shrewsbury 21 July 1403 retained by George Dunbar, Earl of March, as Shrewsbury pursuivant; 1404 attached to the Governor of Berwick and 19 April
had protection as 'Johannes Shrouesbury heraud alias dictus Johannes Heryng
pursuant comitis Dunbard'; still living 1409.
(L.T.A., 1, ccxcvi, etc.; Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. II, 735–9; III, 287
citing Issue, Pat. and Fine Rolls.)
See LE SPARRE.
Suffolk herald appears at various times from 1385 to 1452 and again from
1517 or somewhat earlier to 1522; he was then herald of the earls or dukes
of Suffolk. The title was revived in 1707 as that of a herald extraordinary,
Henry Howard, Earl of Bindon, s. and heir of the Earl of Suffolk, being
then D.E.M. It was again revived in 1774 when the title was apparently
chosen because the new herald was a Suffolk man (H. of N.).
I. HERALD OF THE EARL, MARQUESS OR
DUKE OF SUFFOLK
Suffolk, c. 1385.
Witness 9 & 10 Ric. II, 1385–7, in case of Lovel v. Morley (Coll. of Arms
MS. O.A. III, 303).
2. WILLIAM MAYLARD
Suffolk, c. 1434 (?).
By pat. 30 July 1452, William Maylard, Suffolk herald, 'servitor noster',
was authorized to go to France to fetch his wife, children and goods long
detained there by the French. Must have been retainer of William de la
Pole, Earl and Marquis of Suffolk; is probably the anonymous Suffolk often
mentioned 1434–49, usually in France or Brittany with Pole; doubtless
entered royal service on Pole's execution 1450.
3. CHRISTOPHER BARKER (? 1514). See Garter (6).
II. HERALD EXTRAORDINARY
4. ROBERT DALE (1707). See Richmond (23).
5. JOHN IVES
Suffolk, cr. October 1774.
B. 1752, s. of John Ives, wealthy Yarmouth merchant; educ. Caius College,
Cambridge; friend of Tom Martin of Palgrave many of whose MSS. he
bought; F.S.A. 1771; F.R.S. 1773; 1774 nom. Suffolk by Earl of Suffolk,
D.E.M.; d. of consumption at Yarmouth 9 June 1776, aged 25.
Keen antiquary, collector of coins, medals and other antiquities, and of
MSS. chiefly about Suffolk and Norfolk. College has 10 volumes of his
Published Garianorum of the Romans (Burgh Castle, 1774) and Select Papers
(D.N.B.; Nichols, Lit. Anec. and Lit. Hist.; Memoir in 1803 edit. of
Garianorum; J. Brit. Arch. Assoc., xxi (1865), 158.)
Arms: Argent, a chevron between 3 moor's heads sable.
The choice of this particular title for a herald extraordinary in 1856 was no
doubt inspired by the same motive which in 1842 had led the fourteenth
Duke of Norfolk to assume the additional name of Fitzalan, the earldom of
Surrey having been in the Fitzalans and their Howard descendants since the
1. EDWARD STEPHEN DENDY (1856). See Chester (32).
2. CHARLES ALBAN BUCKLER
Surrey, E.M. wt. 7, R. wt. 16 July 1880.
Architect; b. 25 September 1824, s. of John Chessel Buckler; d. 14 June
1905 in a private asylum; burd at Sutton Place near Guildford; designed
armorial decorations at Arundel Castle, Mowbray House and elsewhere,
also a few bookplates.
(Armorial Families (1902); Crisp, Vis'n of England, ii, 183; Fox-Davies,
The Art of Heraldry, p. 462; N. & Q., 12s, xii, 123, etc.)
Arms: Sable, on a fess between 3 dragon heads erased or 3 estoiles sable.
Crest: A dragon's head couped sable gorged with 2 gemels and goutty gold.
Motto: Fidelis Usque Ad Mortem.
Pursuivant in 1456 and herald in 1457–8; retained by John Talbot, Earl of
Shrewsbury 1453–60 (H. of N.). See also Shrewsbury above.
Talbot, pursuivant, c. 1456, herald, 1457.
Sent thrice with letters on royal business 1456–8; called pursuivant 1456
but herald 1457–8 (Issue Roll, Michaelmas, 35 Hen. VI, Michaelmas and
Easter, 36 Hen. VI; Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. III, 309).
Thury or Tury, pursuivant of the Bailiff of Rouen in 1428–9 (Sureau, fos.
Sir John Salveyn, one of the English notables at the battle of Verneuil
17 August 1424, was Bailiff and Justiciar of Rouen and Gisors down to 1455
(Rolls Series 22, ii, 24, etc., and 1, 322, 499). Probably Sir John of New
biggin, d. c. 1471, s. of George Salveyn of North Duffield, Yorkshire (Graves,
Cleveland, p. 289). Another Sir John, s. of Sir Gerard of North Duffield,
d. c. January 1432 (Surtees, Durham, iv, 118).
Thury, now Thury-Harcourt (dépt. Calvados), an important lordship in
Normandy, belonged to the Ferrières family. It was confiscated and granted
to Sir Lewis Robsart, Lord Bourchier, in 1429 (Norman Roll, 7 Hen. V,
p. 1, m. 70; Carte, Roles Gascons, p. 298), and must have been afterwards
given to Salveyn.
See ESTOILE VOLANT.
Pursuivant of John Holand, Earl of Huntingdon and later Duke of Exeter;
carried letters from Rouen to the Duke of Bedford in Paris May 1431.
Torrington is the chief town in the Hundred of Tremington, Devonshire,
which belonged to Holand (H. of N.).
Only known from a letter written by Edmund Bedyngfield to Sir John
Paston and dated Calais, 17 August 1477. In this Bedyngfield said that the
'French Keng with inne these iij dayes rayled gretely of my lord to Tygyr
Pursevaunt'. There can be little doubt but that 'my lord' was William,
Lord Hastings and that Tyger was his pursuivant. Hastings had been
Lieutenant-General of Calais since 1471 and his seal displays two man-tygers
as supporters (H. of N.).
Ulster King of Arms
Office instituted by Edward VI February 1552 as king of arms and principal
herald of Ireland. The title replaced that of Ireland which had lapsed on
Bellengier's death in 1487. The first two Ulsters had been English heralds
and even after their promotion they seem to have been regarded as members
of the College of Arms though only sharing in the fees as extraordinaries.
After Narboon's resignation in 1588 all connection with the College was
severed, although the sixth Ulster, Thomas Preston, 1633–43, had been
The office was maintained as a purely Irish kingship until 1943 when,
Eire having become a Republic and Sir Neville Wilkinson having d. in
December 1940, it was united with the Office of Norroy and confined to
Northern Ireland (see Norroy).
1. BARTHOLOMEW BUTLER
Hampnes, appd c. November 1529, cr. 25 April 1530.
Rouge Croix, p.s. 7, pat. 12 January 1535.
York, p.s. 14, pat. 24 June 1538.
Ulster, cr. 2 February, pat. 1 June 1552.
A Scot from Galloway; successively Hampnes, Rouge Croix and York.
In 1552 it was decided to make a king of arms of Ireland and Butler was
so created. At first remained in England where he was counted as 'extraordinary' and only allowed a herald's share of fees; went to Ireland about
mid-1554. D. probably early 1566, Nicholas Narboon's pat. being dated
7 July 1566.
Wrote 'Church Notes in Gloucester' 1535, and description of Scotland 1542.
Also left descriptions of ceremonies at which he was present as pursuivant
and herald (but not as Ulster) with notes on his other employments (as
courier rather than diplomat); these now in Trinity College, Dublin.
His natural s., Philip, was Athlone pursuivant.
(Hermathena, xx (1930), 284, etc.)
Arms: (1) In England: Gules, a fess between 3 covered cups argent. So
Lant and dictionaries from Berry to Burke's General Armory (1848). Glover
and Edmondson list the coat but do not mention Ulster. (2) As Ulster:
Sable, a saltire between 4 covered cups or. (Trinity College, Dublin, MSS.
E. 4. 28 (sixteenth century), E. 1. 21 (late sixteenth or early seventeenth
century); Burke's General Armory (1878). In E. 4. 28 this quarters 2 & 3 ...,
a double eagle... & over all 2 bars....)
2. NICHOLAS NARBOON
Boulogne, temp. Ed. VI.
Bluemantle, p.s. 1, pat. 28 August 1550, salary from Michaelmas 1549.
Richmond, appd 1557, cr. 8 January, pat. 27 July 1559, salary from Lady Day
Ulster, cr. 6, pat. 7 July 1566, resd 1588.
Of Richmond, Surrey; s. (? fourth) of John Narboon, Richmond, by
Joan Bird; said to have been Boulogne (the last so named), but not so styled
in pat. of Bluemantle 28 August 1550; nom. Richmond 1557 while in Spain;
his pat., dat. 27 July 1559, grants salary from Lady Day 1557; 1566 Ulster,
cr. by Duke of Norfolk in London; resd 1588 since when no connection
between Ulster and the College until 1943.
Instituted funeral certificates, but few taken during his Ulstership.
7 July 1566, Vis'n commission from Lord Deputy and Council; said to
have visited twelve counties in next six years, but all copies lost except part
of that concerning Dublin and neighbourhood (Ulster Office MS. 123).
Inherited his father's MSS. and those of B. Butler; now in Trinity College,
Arms: As his father with martlet sable for difference.
Vaillant (Volant) King of Arms
It is uncertain whether Vaillant and Volant are two distinct titles, or variants
of one title; in either case the name is evidently an epithet and therefore
more appropriate to a pursuivant than to a king of arms. Nothing is recorded
as to the province, if any, entrusted to these kings. William, in the 1350's
and 1360's, might have had either the north or the south of England. In
1400, however, the only one of the four then provinces whose king has not
been identified is Guyenne.
Vaillant or Volant, c. 1354.
Occurs several times as king of heralds Michaelmas, 28 Ed. III, 1354, to
Christmas 1363 when he and Faucon received winter robes; March 1358
sent overseas to announce forthcoming tournament and later that year
served at the Garter Feast; attended tournaments at Smithfield 1359 and
1363 (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A. I, 63, 156 and Devon Pell Records citing
Issue Rolls and Wardrobe Account).
Having acted as king of arms of the Order 1358 no doubt he whom
William Bruges meant as having been doyen of the English heralds (Anstis,
Reg. Garter, 1, 329 m. para. 7).
Derby, temp. Ric. III (?).
Vaillant, c. May 1400.
Adam's name is only known from a p.s. and pat. of 15 May 1400, in
which he is called 'nostre servant Adam Derby autrement dit Vaillant nostre
heraut', and from a Wardrobe Account of 1402 where he appears as Adam
Derby alias Vaillant.
Though Derby may have been his personal surname it is more likely that
he was Derby herald to King Henry IV before his accession. He is probably
the Vaillant king who was a witness in the case of Lovel v. Morley in 1395;
he was then 60 years old.
(Coll. of Arms MSS.)
Pursuivant who accompanied Chester herald when sent with letters to the
Duke of Brittany in 1468 (Issue Roll, Easter, 8 Ed. IV).
One of the two pursuivants accompanying Maine herald (q.v.) in June 1449.
Wales appears to have given title to a herald for a few years from 1393 or
somewhat earlier. Though there was no Prince of Wales at the time, King
Richard probably intended that he should eventually be attached to the
Prince's household—cf. William Bruges' appointment as Chester in 1398.
1. JOHN HERYNG (c. 1393). See Shrewsbury (1).
Wallingford Castle, whence this title was taken, belonged to the Prince of
Wales as part of the Duchy of Cornwall until 31 Hen. VIII. If the title was
used in the reigns of Henry V and VI its incumbent must have been a Crown
officer, but there is no reliable evidence for its existence before 1489 when
Wriothesley was created.
1. JOHN ASHWELL or HASWELL (temp. Hen. V).
See Clarence (1).
2. ROGER LEGH or LYGH (temp. Hen. V). See Clarenceux (5).
3. WILLIAM HAWKESLOWE (temp. Hen. VI).
See Clarenceux (6).
4. RICHARD STANTON (temp. Hen. VI). See Chester (8).
5. JOHN FERRANT (temp. Hen. VI). See March (2).
6. JOHN BALLARD (temp. Hen. VI). See Windsor (6).
7. THOMAS WRYTHE, later WRIOTHESLEY (1489).
See Garter (4).
'Werk' pursuivant occurs in 1454; he was presumably retained by Richard
Grey, first Lord Grey of Powis, who then held Wark Castle in Northumberland (H. of N.).
1. HENRY CROFTON
Wark, c. 1454.
'Henricus Crofton alias dictus Werk, de Derney (Dorney), in com.
Bukingham, pursevant' occurs in bond dated 17 November 1454 (Coll. of
Arms MS. O.A. III, 52). Presumably retained by Richard Lord Grey
(of Powis), who then held Wark Castle in Northumberland.
Warwick herald occurs repeatedly from 14 Hen. VI (1435–6) to 8 Ed. IV
(1468–9), first as officer of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick 1401–39,
then of his s. and successor Henry 1439–45, and lastly of the Kingmaker,
Richard Nevill, Earl of Warwick and Salisbury. In the interval between
Henry Beauchamp's death in 1445 and Nevill's recognition as Earl of
Warwick jure uxoris in 1449, Warwick herald was employed by the King.
In 1445–6 Warwick is twice called pursuivant in the Issue Rolls, but that
may be a mistake (H. of N.).
1. JOHN WATER (date unknown). See Chester (7).
2. DAVID GRIFFITH
Warwick, pursuivant, c. 1455, herald, c. 1461.
David Warwick, herald of the Earl of Warwick, appears on Close Roll,
6 Ed. IV, 1466–7, and on 30 October 1468 the earl granted 40s. a year to
David Griffith alias Warwick herald and Joan his wife. Dead by 13 May
1480, when Edward IV confirmed the annuity to Joan.
Though not mentioned elsewhere by name he is probably the Warwick
pursuivant sent to Wales in 1455 and on later missions including one to
Bordeaux c. April 1461, when he talked too much on his way through Paris
(Scofield, Life of Edward IV, 1, 238, 243). The earlier version of the Salisbury
Roll (C.E.M.R.A., p. 104) was perhaps his work.
(Memoirs of P. de Commines, ed. Dupont, iii, 201–2; B. de Mandrot,
Dépêches des ambassadeurs milanais en France, ii, 80–1; Scofield, Life of
Edward IV, 1, 87, 238, 243, 337; H. & G., 1, 252–5.)
Arms: Azure, a chief gules & over all a griffin leaping or (MS. Harl. 2169,
Pursuivant of John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury and Waterford, who was
styled Earl of Wexford. Called 'Waysford' in Issue Roll, Easter, 14 Hen. VI,
1436, when he brought despatches from France (Coll. of Arms MS. O.A.
Herald of John Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester 1449–70. In 1464 he was sent
from Amiens to Normandy (H. of N.).