10. BOREHAM. (F.b.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)xliv. N.W. (b)xliv. S.W.).
Boreham is a parish and small village 3½ m.
N.E. of Chelmsford. The Church and New Hall
are the principal monuments.
b(1). Parish Church of St. Andrew stands in
the village. The walls are of flint-rubble with
some ironstone and freestone; the dressings of
the 12th-century work are largely of Roman
brick, the other dressings are of limestone and
clunch; the roofs are tiled, except that of the N.
aisle which is of lead. A chancel, nave, and the
Central Tower were built in the 11th or first half
of the 12th century, but the upper part of the
tower was added or re-built probably c. 1200. The
Nave was reduced in width and almost entirely
re-built c. 1230, when the North and South Aisles
were added; c. 1300, the E. half of the S. aisle was
widened to form a South Chapel, and in the 14th
century the Chancel was re-built and probably
lengthened. During the 15th century the N.
aisle was widened and the South Porch added, and
late in the 16th century the Sussex Chapel was
built. The church was restored in the 19th century
when the Sussex Chapel was largely re-built and the
S. chapel refaced. The Annexe N. of the chancel
and the South-West Vestry are modern.
The church is interesting for its plan and for the
exceptional height of its 11th or early 12th-century W. tower-arch, with flanking altarrecesses; amongst the fittings, the Sussex monument and the font are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (38 ft.
by 16½ ft.) has a moulded internal string-course of
the 14th-century, largely restored. In the E.
wall is a modern window. In the N. wall are two
windows; the eastern is of three cinque-foiled
lights under a square head with a four-centred rear-arch; it is perhaps a 15th-century enlargement
of a 14th-century window, but is largely restored;
the western is an early 14th-century trefoiled light
under a square head with an almost semi-circular
rear-arch, the jambs partly restored. In the S.
wall is a modern window, and a modern archway
to the Sussex Chapel.
The Sussex Chapel (15½ ft. by 16 ft.) has a
modern window in each of the E., S. and W. walls.
The Central Tower (17 ft. square) is of three
stages and has an embattled parapet with 17th-century brick quoins to the merlons and a moulded
brick coping; it is surmounted by a pyramidal
tiled roof. The semi-circular E. tower-arch is of
two square orders on the W. and of one square
order on the E., and has a hollow-chamfered
impost. The mid 14th-century W. tower-arch
(Plate p. 16) is two-centred and of three chamfered
orders, the innermost springing from concavesided semi-octagonal responds with moulded capitals and modern bases; above the arch is visible
part of the semi-circular late 11th or early 12th-century arch, built of brick interspersed with
stone voussoirs. In both the N. and S. walls is a
late 11th or early 12th-century round-headed
window built partly of Roman bricks; E. of the S.
window is a modern doorway. In the S.W. angle
is an internally projecting stair-turret with a late
11th or early 12th-century round-headed doorway
with chamfered imposts; it is now blocked and
replaced by a modern external doorway; higher
up on the W. side is the blocked 15th or early 16th-century doorway to the former rood-loft. The
second stage or ringing-chamber has in both the
E. and W. walls an 11th or 12th-century semi-circular headed doorway with stone jambs and
Roman-brick arch; in both the N. and S. walls is
a contemporary window of two semi-circular
headed lights under a semi-circular outer order
with a solid tympanum; the central shaft has a
cushion capital. The third stage or bell-chamber
has in each wall a window of two two-centred
lights under a two-centred outer order with a
solid tympanum; the mullion has a chamfered
impost; all of late 12th-century date restored.
Boreham, The Parish Church of St. Andrew.
The Nave (60½ ft. by 17 ft.) has in the E. wall,
N. of the tower-arch, the N. half of a late 11th or
early 12th-century semi-circular wall-arch for a
side-altar, with Roman brick voussoirs interspersed
with stone; it springs from underneath the N.
arcade, showing that the original nave was wider
than the present one (Plate p. xxx). The N. and
S. arcades are each of four bays of c. 1230, the
arches are two-centred and of one chamfered order
springing from octagonal pillars with moulded
capitals and bases; at the E. end they die on to a
moulded corbel and at the W. on to a chamfered
impost, partly restored. In the W. wall is a late
15th-century window of five cinque-foiled and
transomed lights and vertical tracery under a four-centred head with a moulded label.
The North Aisle (14 ft. wide) has a moulded
plinth. In the N. wall are four windows, all of
the first half of the 15th century and of three
cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery under a
two-centred head; the moulded labels have
head-stops, some repaired with cement. In the
W. wall are traces of a former 13th-century window.
The South Aisle, including the former South
Chapel (13½ ft. wide at the E. end and 6 ft. wide
at the W. end), has in the E. half of the S. wall two
windows all modern except the splays which are
of c. 1300, re-set; W. of the western window, of
the N. end of the return-wall is a half-arch at
c. 1300 spanning the aisle and abutting against the
wall above the middle column of the S. arcade;
further W. are two doorways; the eastern retains
its 13th-century chamfered jambs but has otherwise been altered in the 18th or 19th century;
the western is modern. In the W. wall is a 13th-century lancet window restored with cement.
The South Porch has a modern S. wall and
entrance, but the side walls are of the 15th-century
and of open timber-framing now glazed; each
side is of six cinque-foiled lights under square
heads; the posts are moulded, and a heavier
moulded post against the N. wall supports a curved
brace forming a four-centred arch under a cambered
The Roof of the S. porch has a moulded wall-plate and cornice and a central purlin with curved
braces, all of the 15th century. The roof of the N.
aisle is a flat lean-to of six bays; the three eastern
bays have 15th-century moulded principal rafters
and central purlin; the three western bays have
chamfered timbers of later date and one moulded
15th-century principal; the wall-plates are all
moulded and of the 15th century.
Fittings— Bells: eight, 3rd and 8th by W.
Whitmore and J. Hodson, 1653; 5th by Miles
Graye, 1626. Brass and Indent. Brass: In
nave—on E. wall, S. of tower-arch, of Alse, wife
of Thomas Byng and late wife of James Chancellor,
gentleman of the Queen's Chapel, 1573, figure of
woman with close cap, puffed and slashed shoulders,
etc., and group of one son and five daughters
kneeling at desk, monogram, inscription-plate and
indent of scroll. Indent: In S. aisle—of bracket(?)
inscription-plate and shield, date uncertain. Chest:
In tower—in 2nd stage, with four legs, two locks
and staple, possibly 16th-century. Font (Plate p.
xxxii): hexagonal with moulded top-edge, each side
with deeply sunk trefoil-head panel with acutely
gabled label, moulded base and chamfered plinth,
early 14th-century, partly restored in cement.
Glass: In Sussex chapel—in S. window, fragments
of foliage, etc., 14th-century. Monument and
Floor-slabs. Monument: In Sussex chapel (Plate
p. 23)—of Robert Radclif, Earl of Sussex, Viscount
Fitzwalter, Lord Egremont and Burnal, K.G.,
Great Chamberlain of England, etc., 15(4)2; and
of his son, Henry Radclif, Earl, Viscount, etc., as
above, K.G., Chief Justice and Justice Itinerant
of all forests, parks, chases and warrens S. of the
Trent, 1556/7, and of Thomas Radclif, Earl, etc. as
above, K.G., Chief Justice of the forests, parks, etc.,
S. of the Trent, Captain of the Gentlemen Pensioners
and Gentlemen at Arms, etc., 1583; large altar-tomb of alabaster and black and coloured marble,
each side of three panels with moulded frames and
panelled pilasters; the middle panel on the E., N.
and S. sides has a shield with a garter, but the
former brass shields are gone; one panel on the
N., S. and W. sides has an inscription; the slab
has a moulded edge and bears on rush mattresses
three recumbent effigies of the three Earls in enriched plate armour with peascod breast plates,
swords broken, feet against couchant apes each
wearing a hat; garter on left leg of each effigy,
heads on cushions and behind them three couchant
oxen, much mutilated, chained and collared with
crowns; remains of fixing of metal chains round
neck of each effigy, and traces of red colour on
collar of N. effigy. Floor-slabs: In chancel—
(1) to Thomas Morriss, L.L.B., 1684/5, with arms;
(2) to ......... Bramston and his (wife(?)) Elizabeth, their eldest son ........ 1710 (?), two
shields of arms. In Sussex chapel—(3) to Jane,
daughter of Joseph Fountaine, 1705; (4) to Joseph
Fountaine, 1695, and Susannah, his wife, 1739.
In nave—(5) to Ann, wife of Richard Collins, 1670,
formerly a headstone with shaped head; (6) to
Richard Collins, gentleman harbinger to Charles II.,
1678, and his two infants, Christopher and Elizabeth. Panelling: In nave—against W. wall,
dado of late 16th-century panelling with moulded
rail, part modern. Piscinæ: In nave—in E.
wall N. of and adjoining tower-arch (Plate p. xxx),
with trefoiled ogee head, c. 1340, basin gone.
In wide S. chapel—in S. wall, with moulded jambs
and large trefoiled head, points of foils formerly
joined to form shelf, plain round drain in hexagonal
sinking, front broken away, former gabled label
cut back, c. 1300. Plate: includes cup of 1699,
inscribed and dated 1700. Screens: Under E.
arch of tower—of six bays, two forming doorway;
the two northern have triple trefoiled and traceried
heads with modern shafts; the bays of the doorway and two southern bays have each two trefoiled, sub-cusped and crocketed heads with
modern shafts to the S. bays and modern central
pendant to the doorway; the moulded head is
continued beyond the ends; moulded posts;
rail, lower panels, sill and cresting modern, rest
late 15th-century, not in situ. Enclosing vestry
at W. end of N. aisle—modern screens incorporating
twelve cinque-foiled and sub-cusped heads with
foliated or grotesque main points, 15th-century,
parts restored; lower part incorporates late 16th-century wall-panelling. Sundial: On re-set stone
on S.E. angle of S. Aisle, large scratched sundial,
date uncertain. Miscellanea: In nave—built into
recess N. of tower-arch, slab with grooved and
chamfered front edge and now forming narrow
b(2). At Boreham Hall, nearly ½ m. S.S.W. of
a(3). At Brent Hall, 2 m. N. of the church.
b(4). New Hall, nearly 1½ m. W.N.W. of the
church, is of two storeys with a basement; the
walls are of brick with stone dressings and the roofs
are slate-covered. The house was built by Henry
VIII. soon after 1518, on a quadrangular plan
with a gatehouse in the S. range, Great Hall in the
E. and Chapel in the W. ranges. The house was
granted in 1573 to Thomas Radclif, Earl of Sussex,
who soon after re-built or remodelled the N. range
as it still remains, retaining the earlier basement.
c. 1738 the whole house except the N. range was
pulled down, the adjoining portions of the E. and
W. ranges being remodelled to correspond with it.
The house is a good example of Elizabethan work
and the stone achievement of the arms of Henry
VIII. is a fine piece of carving.
Elevations—The S. front (Plate p. 22) has
seven bay windows with panelled mullions and one
or two transoms; between the storeys is a moulded
string-course and the parapet has in each bay a
small pilaster and pedestal carved with a star
and surmounted by a ball. The middle bay is
similar to the others but has on the parapet a stone
sundial of 1660 with a segmental pediment; in
place of a middle window on the ground floor there
is a square-headed doorway flanked by Doric
pilasters; the entablature has in the metopes
alternate stars and porcupines; above the doorway
is a carved panel of the royal Tudor arms with the
inscription, "[Viva Elizabetta] in terra la piu
savia regina | en cielo la piu lucenta stella | virgine
magnanima dotta divina | legiadra honesta e bella."
The short projecting side wings on this side are
built of old brick but they must have been reconstructed in the 18th century as they do not
correspond with engravings of the house before
the demolition. The N. front has a number of
modern additions and the late 16th-century
building has a series of projecting bays and wings
as shown on the plan and more or less symmetrical.
The general details are similar to those of the S.
front and there are seven late 16th-century chimneystacks with octagonal shafts, all partly restored.
The E. side has at the basement level, three
original early 16th-century windows with four-centred lights under square heads. The remaining
windows are of late 16th-century date and of
similar character to those on the other fronts.
One part of this side rises to a third storey. Adjoining this side is a courtyard of the 18th century,
largely built of refused material from the demolished portions of the house. In the E. side
is a gateway with two re-set arches of the 16th
century, each with chamfered jambs, four-centred
arch and label. Lying in the courtyard is a large
carved stone inscribed C(V)NCTANDO. Some
outbuildings and the walls of a small garden on this
side are built of old brick and may be of the 16th
century. The W. side is almost entirely covered
by modern additions but retains some late 16th-century windows.
New Hall, Boreham.
Interior—The Basement under the E. end of
the house had originally two ranges of octagonal
columns, one running N. and S., the other E. and
W., and both of early 16th-century date. The
elliptical arches are of two chamfered orders, but
some have been cut away and others have been
built up. There are also two original doorways,
one with moulded and one with chamfered jambs;
both have four-centred heads. In the modern
chapel, in the middle of the main block is a re-set
and repainted stone panel (Plate p. 85) with a
carved achievement of the arms of Henry VIII
with dragon and greyhound supporters, crowned
rose, pomegranate, foliage, etc., with a black letter
inscription—"Henricus rex octavus rex inclit'
armis | magnanimus struxit hoc opus egregium."
On the first floor the projecting bay-windows of
the S. front have ribbed and vaulted ceilings three
of which have, in the middle, the arms of Radclif,
Earl of Sussex.
In the garden S.W. of the house is a carved
stone dragon of 16th-century date.
The following monuments, unless otherwise
described, are of the 16th century and of two
storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs
are tiled. Several of the buildings have original
chimney-stacks, wide fireplaces and exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good, or fairly good, unless noted.
b(5). Bull's Lodge, house and barn, ¼ m. E. of
(4). The House has on the W. side an original
porch with carved barge-boards and enriched
plaster work: the sides are open at the top and
have flat shaped balusters. Inside the building
there is an original doorway with a moulded frame
and panelled door. The roof is of queen-post type.
The Barn, N. of the house, is thatched and has
a(6). Bird's Farm (Plate p. 110), house, 2½ m.
N.N.W. of the church, has cross-wings at the N. and
S. ends. On the W. front the upper storey projects
at the ends of the cross-wings. The original central
chimney-stack has three diagonal shafts. Inside
the building there are original fireplaces with
three-centred heads and a doorway with moulded
jambs and four-centred head.
a(7). Holt's Farm, house, nearly 1 m. S.S.E. of
(6). The upper storey projects and is gabled at
the W. end of the N. front. On the W. side is a
plaster panel with conventional foliage and the
initials and date—R.M., 1692.
b(8). Wallace's Farm, house, nearly 1¼ m. N.
of the church, was built late in the 15th or early
in the 16th century with cross-wings at the E.
and W. ends. The E. cross-wing has been re-built
and the upper storey projects at the end of the
W. cross-wing. Inside the building the W. wing
has an original king-post truss.
b(9). Porters, house, nearly ¾ m. N.N.E. of the
church, was built late in the 14th or early in the
15th century, with cross-wings at the N. and S.
ends. The main block has been entirely altered
and there are modern additions at the back. The
upper storey projects at the E. ends of the crosswings. A door on the E. front is of nail-studded
battens with strap-hinges. Inside the building
in the S. wall of the N. cross-wing are two original
oak doorways with chamfered jambs and two-centred arches. There was probably a third doorway further W. and all three no doubt communicated with the former 'screens.' One room has
a dado of 17th-century panelling.
b(10.) Cock Inn, 70 yards S. of (9), is of half H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards
the N. The S. front has been refaced with modern
brick. Inside the building is an original doorway
with a four-centred head.
b(11). Clock House, now three tenements, 300
yards S.W. of (10), has cross-wings at the N. and
S. ends. The upper storey projects at the E. end
of the S. wing; a similar projection to the N.
wing has been under-built. An early 17th-century
chimney-stack at the S. end has grouped diagonal
shafts and on the E. front is an original window of
four transomed lights with moulded frame and
mullions. Inside the building there is an original
doorway with a three-centred head, and the S.
wing has a king-post roof-truss. The S.E. room
has remains of paintings on the walls, but these
are now papered over.
b(12). House, now Post Office, 600 yards N.W.
of the church, has cross-wings at the N.E. and S.W.
ends and two modern additions. Inside the building is an original window with diamond-shaped
mullions and now blocked.
b(13). Buckshorns, house, 300 yards W.S.W. of
(12), was built probably in the 17th century, and
has cross-wings at the N. and S. ends.
b(14). Boreham Mill, 200 yards W.S.W. of (13),
was built early in the 17th century.
b(15). House, formerly the General's Head Inn,
500 yards W.S.W. of (14), has cross-wings at the
N.E. and S.W. ends.
b(16). Cheese Farm, house, 100 yards S.W. of
(15), was built late in the 15th or early in the
16th century, but only an L-shaped building remains. The 17th-century chimney-stack has
pilasters at the angles. Inside the building the
S.W. room has original moulded ceiling beams.
The mid 17th-century staircase has heavy turned
balusters, square newels with ball finials and close
strings. There are two doors probably of the
same date. The roof has an original king-post
b(17). House, now three tenements, 100 yards
S.S.W. of the church, was built probably late in
the 15th century and has cross-wings at the E.
and W. ends. There is a 17th-century wing at
the back. In front the upper storey projects
at the ends of the cross-wings and it also projects
at the end of the added wing. The W. chimney-stack is corbelled and crow-stepped at the top
and has two diagonal shafts. Inside the building
in the same stack is an original fireplace with
moulded jambs and four-centred arch. The crosswings have each an original king-post truss.
b(18). House, two tenements, 50 yards S.E.
of the church, was built in the 17th century and
has later and modern additions at the back.
b(19). House, now three tenements, E. of (18),
was built probably in the 15th century, with
cross-wings at the E. and W. ends. The Hall
was divided into two storeys probably late in the
16th century. The upper storey projects at the
N. end of the W. wing. The W. chimney-stack is
original and has diapering in blue bricks and two
octagonal shafts. Inside the building are two
original windows, each of three lights with square
mullions and now blocked. There is also a late
16th-century window with a moulded mullion.
One room is lined with 16th-century panelling.
The former Hall has an original king-post truss
dividing it into two bays. The W. wing has
original tie-beams with curved brackets.
b(20). House, five tenements, known as the Old
Workhouse, 200 yards E. of the church, has crosswings at the E. and W. ends. Inside the building
are two late 17th-century fireplaces with moulded
architraves and overmantels with a panel and
two fluted pilasters on each. There is also an
original panelled door.
b(21). Culvert's Farm, house, ¾ m. E.S.E. of
the church, was built in the 17th century but has
large modern additions.