Hackney
Protestant Nonconformity

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Victoria County History

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T.F.T. Baker (Editor)

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1995

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130-144

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'Hackney: Protestant Nonconformity', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 10: Hackney (1995), pp. 130-144. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=22714 Date accessed: 22 October 2014.


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PROTESTANT NONCONFORMITY

A circulating preacher called Davenport, possibly the puritan John Davenport (d. 1670), was reported in 1637 at Hackney, (fn. 65) where in 1641 a crowd gathered for rebaptism in the Lea. (fn. 66) Daughters of the independent divine Philip Nye (d. 1672) were baptized at Hackney in 1634 and 1636, as was a son of the preacher Adoniram Byfield (d. 1660) in 1636. The republican John Goodwin (d. 1665), later ejected from his London vicarage, made his will as of Hackney in 1659. (fn. 67) One of the earliest and largest of the parish's noted girls' schools was founded before 1650 by a Presbyterian, Mrs. Salmon. Hannah Woolley, a puritan critic of the more wordly schools, opened her own establishment in 1655. (fn. 68)

After the Restoration many ejected ministers came to Hackney, where the vicar William Spurstowe was sympathetic and where London merchant families could patronize dissenters' schools. Spurstowe, the employer of Ezekiel Hopkins and host to Richard Baxter, remained in the parish after his resignation in 1662. His widow in 1669 was to marry Anthony Tuckney, formerly master of St. John's College, Cambridge, and father of the Hackney Presbyterian Jonathan Tuckney, who also had been ejected from St. John's. (fn. 69) Friends' meetings took place in 1662 (fn. 70) and secret meetings were reported in 1664, when the passage of the first Conventicle Act was expected. (fn. 71) Some 25 people in 1665 attended a conventicle at the house of Margaret Hammond of Hackney, widow, whereupon eight were fined, including Thomas Barnardiston, gentleman, and members of his family. (fn. 72) The biblical commentator Matthew Poole (d. 1679) wrote to Baxter from Hackney in 1667-8. (fn. 73)

An early instance of dissenters' co-operation was provided at Hackney in a 'lecture by combination', reported in 1669. The lecturers, all well known preachers, were Philip Nye, John Owen (d. 1683), formerly vice-chancellor of Oxford University, Thomas Goodwin (d. 1680), formerly president of Magdalen College, John Griffith, formerly minister at the London Charterhouse, Thomas Brooks, Thomas Watson, and William Bates (d. 1699), all ejected from London livings, and Peter Sterry, who had been chaplain to Oliver Cromwell. Watson, Bates, and possibly Sterry were Presbyterians, the others Congregationalist. Relief under the Declaration of Indulgence allowed a more enduring weekly lecture, financed by City merchants, to be established in London at Pinners' Hall in 1672. (fn. 74)

Nine houses in Hackney and one in Kingsland were licensed as Presbyterian meeting places in 1672. They included the houses of two London aldermen, John Forth, the son-in-law of Sir Henry Vane, and Henry Ashurst (d. 1680), a friend of Baxter and treasurer of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. (fn. 75) Philip Sterry, as a resident of Hackney, procured a licence for a friend's house. Four of the houses belonged to men who had suffered ejection: Thomas Senior and Jonathan Tuckney from Cambridge, Arthur Barham from London, and Martin Morland from Weld (Hants). (fn. 76)

Local Dissent drew much of its strength from rich residents with London connexions, who themselves conformed but whose sympathies were shown in their wills. William Spurstowe and Ezekiel Hopkins were remembered by Sir Thomas Vyner (d. 1665) (fn. 77) and William Bates was remembered by Sir Stephen White, by Nathaniel Barnardiston, together with Arthur Barham, and by Thomas Cooke (d. 1695). (fn. 78) Dame Jane Barnardiston, her son Nathaniel, and White all referred to their kindness to suffering ministers. (fn. 79)

Private schools continued to be run largely by dissenters. George Fox (d. 1691), founder of the Society of Friends, visited a school at Shacklewell in 1671 and again in 1684, when its principal was Jane Bullock, (fn. 80) who had been among Hackney residents cited for not attending church in 1669-70. (fn. 81) Thomas Cruttenden, ejected from Magdalen College, Oxford, assisted at the school of his mother-in-law, Mrs. Salmon, and Martin Morland, brother of the diplomatist Sir Samuel, probably also taught in Hackney, where his son Benjamin in 1685 founded a long lived academy. (fn. 82) Sir Thomas Marsh was reported c. 1682 to have turned his house into an academy for training nonconformist ministers, who were up at all hours of the night. (fn. 83)

Twenty fines, amounting to £600, were levied in 1682 on Arthur Barham, for preaching at conventicles in his own house. (fn. 84) The churchwardens complained that fines for attending conventicles had been unlawfully disposed of in 1683 and at least two other conventicles were reported in 1686. (fn. 85) After persecution had declined, three Presbyterian ministers were active c. 1690; two of them had a 'competent supply', one of them being the former combination lecturer William Bates. (fn. 86)

Many national figures served as ministers in the 18th and early 19th centuries, although secessions and changes of name obscured the continuity of their churches. The oldest ministry was later seen as originally Presbyterian, passing from Nye through Bates to Matthew Henry (d. 1714) and then to John Barker (d. 1762), (fn. 87) whose disputed election in 1714 led to the establishment of the Old Gravel Pit meeting. In 1731 Barker's followers were 'declaimed Calvinists' and the Old Gravel Pit worshippers were 'accounted Arminians'; later the Gravel Pit meeting was normally described as Congregationalist or Independent, as in due course was the older meeting. (fn. 88) Barker, a friend of Philip Doddridge, was suspicious of the Methodist upsurge inspired by George Whitefield, (fn. 89) who in 1739 preached three times in a field at Hackney or on the marsh to crowds of 2,000 and 10,000. (fn. 90) John Wesley preached in 1741. (fn. 91)

Hackney village had two meeting houses in 1761, when unidentified Presbyterians were said also to worship at Clapton. (fn. 92) It still had its Presbyterian and Independent meeting houses in 1778, when Methodists were using Ram's chapel, (fn. 93) but by 1790 there were four meeting houses, the Methodists having recently acquired two of their own. (fn. 94) At least eight places of worship were registered by dissenters in the 1790s, including a schoolroom in the house of John Eyre, minister of Ram's chapel, and possibly a forerunner of Hackney's first Baptist church. (fn. 95) Attendance at the parish church had not lessened in 1810, despite the existence of seven meeting houses, apart from Ram's chapel. (fn. 96)

The most famous pastor at either of Hackney's established 18th-century meetings was the theologian and scientist Joseph Priestley (d. 1804), who in 1791 briefly succeeded his friend Richard Price (d. 1791) at the Old Gravel Pit chapel. (fn. 97) Their Unitarian views gained ground under Priestley's successors and led to the opening of the New Gravel Pit chapel, the old one later passing to Independents. (fn. 98) Priestley, although not chosen unanimously, found advantages for his studies which led him to recall his time at Hackney as the happiest that he had so far known. (fn. 99) He and many other dissenters were active not only in pastoral work; they made Hackney noteworthy for academies which, while offering a general education, pioneered the work of the later theological colleges. (fn. 1)

Homerton College, (fn. 2) the most long lived of the institutions, was known as King's Head academy when it moved in 1768 from Plasterers' Hall, London, to a large copyhold house on the north side of Homerton's high street. Its trustees, who were appointed by the King's Head Society, remained strict Calvinists and so avoided what in the 1790s might have proved to be the fatal taint of Unitarianism and Jacobinism. John Pye Smith (d. 1851), (fn. 3) founder of Mill Hill school, was residential tutor and in effect principal at Homerton from 1800. The King's Head Society was replaced in 1817 by the Homerton Academy Society, concerned solely with maintaining the academy. In 1819 the house held masters, students, and a large library, and three other houses were let; 12 of the 18 students were supported by the society and 6 by the Congregational Fund Board. (fn. 4) The name was changed to Homerton College in 1823, graduates qualified for degrees from London University from 1840, and an amalgamation with Highbury and Coward colleges formed the purely theological New College, Hampstead, in 1852. Largely owing to the Liberal philanthropist Samuel Morley (d. 1886), (fn. 5) who then lived in Lower Clapton, the Homerton premises were transferred to the Congregational Board of Education for trainee teachers and a model school. In 1892 they moved to the former Cavendish College, Cambridge, where the name Homerton was retained.

The main house in Homerton's high street was enlarged in 1811 and replaced by a two-storeyed brick building, originally of seven bays and with the central three stuccoed and pedimented, to the design of Samuel Robinson in 1823. Dormitories and a school, designed by Alfred Smith, were built in the garden behind c. 1852. Bought by the London school board and used as a school for the deaf, the buildings made way for flats after 1945. (fn. 6)

Hackney College or Hackney New College (fn. 7) was founded in 1786 by Dr. Price of the Old Gravel Pit chapel and other eminent liberal dissenters, in consequence of the closure of Hoxton Square academy in Shoreditch. Hackney House at Lower Clapton was bought and enlarged to take 75 students, although a smaller number resided and not all were intended for the ministry. Tutors included the controversialist Gilbert Wakefield (d. 1801), (fn. 8) who objected to public worship, and Priestley, whose appointment led to the college being denounced as the 'slaughterhouse of Christianity'. Unorthodoxy and political radicalism infected the students, whose indiscipline undermined public support, hastening a financial crisis which led to closure in 1796. Thomas Belsham (d. 1829), (fn. 9) Priestley's successor at the Old Gravel Pit and, like him, a tutor at the college, took pupils at his own house in Grove Place after 1796.

Hackney Theological Seminary, (fn. 10) at first popularly called Hackney academy and later, officially from 1871, Hackney College, was founded in 1803, largely with a gift from Charles Townsend of Homerton. It was intended to fulfil the plans of the late John Eyre, minister of Ram's chapel, (fn. 11) to educate preachers for his Village Itinerancy or Evangelical Association for the Propagation of the Gospel. The academy was managed by a committee, with George Collison of Walthamstow (Essex) as tutor, (fn. 12) and used Eyre's house in Well Street, where the students lived in converted stabling until new quarters were built after purchase of the freehold in 1843. (fn. 13) Training of Congregational ministers came to predominate over missionary work, although in 1898 the college's trustees had built or enlarged over 50 chapels, many of which they still maintained. The college moved to Finchley Road, Hampstead, in 1887. (fn. 14)

Many new places of worship were registered in the early 19th century by Independents or by unspecified Protestants. (fn. 15) Several meetings founded Congregationalist chapels, although from 1813 the Unitarians who had moved to the New Gravel Pit chapel legally formed a new denomination. (fn. 16) By 1851, out of 24 Middlesex districts, Hackney was among the 10 with the highest number of protestant nonconformist worshippers. In that respect it was like its neighbours Islington and Bethnal Green, which it surpassed in being one of six districts where nonconformists formed more than half of all the worshippers. (fn. 17) Nonconformists still predominated in 1886, when they accounted for 23,458 attendances at churches and chapels within the ancient parish, while Anglicans accounted for 20,238; mission services were not included. (fn. 18) The contrast was greater by 1903, when, without including Salvation Army meetings, nonconformist attendances had risen slightly while Anglican attendances, including those at missions, had fallen to 17,705. (fn. 19)

Congregationalists, easily the largest nonconformist body in the metropolitan area c. 1850, were well supported in Hackney, where many leading families had long been linked with the City, Dissent, and Radical politics. Hackney Congregational association had been formed in 1846, two years before the London Congregational Chapel Building Society. Chapels were often attached to schools and formed part of an impressive range of buildings, as at Clapton Park, the successor to the Old Gravel Pit chapel, in 1871. Such expense testified to the munificence of individuals, notably of Samuel Morley, to the middle-class character of much of the parish, (fn. 20) and perhaps particularly to the strength of nonconformity in Clapton. (fn. 21) Congregationalists, although challenged in the poorer parts of London, were still dominant in Hackney in 1886, with 11,636 attendances. The various Methodists had 6,284 attendances, mostly Wesleyan, and the Baptists 4,226. (fn. 22) Wesleyans, the most numerous Methodists, by 1872 were organized into a Hackney circuit, which included some churches in metropolitan Essex, and a Dalston circuit. (fn. 23)

New arrivals c. 1850 (fn. 24) included the Brethren, who were encouraged by William T. Berger of the paint firm, his brother-in-law James van Sommer, a solicitor who published a magazine called The Missionary Reporter, and Samuel Morley's brother John, senior partner of the family's textile firm. (fn. 25) Latter-Day Saints and the Free English Church appeared in the 1850s, Presbyterians in the 1860s, and the Catholic Apostolic Church and German Lutherans in the 1870s. The Agapemonites' only London church, at Clapton Common, was opened in 1896 but was little used.

The Salvation Army, recorded from 1880, had early links with Hackney: its founder Gen. William Booth (d. 1912) and his wife Catherine (d. 1890) lived at no. 1 Cambridge Lodge Villas from 1865 and at no. 3 Gore Road (later demolished) from 1868. Their move to Clapton Common in 1880 enabled them to equip the Gore Road house as the Army's first training home, for 30 women cadets. A similar home for men was opened at Devonshire House, no. 259 Mare Street, in 1881. The Army soon attracted much publicity to Clapton by adapting the London Orphan Asylum as its chief hall and training centre, called Congress Hall, which often drew enormous crowds. (fn. 26) The Army's National Headquarters of Women's Social Work, replacing offices at no. 259 Mare Street and a temporary branch in Lower Clapton Road, opened at no. 280 Mare Street in 1911. (fn. 27)

The older sects' relative strength had changed very little by 1903, when the Congregationalists had 11,640 attendances, the Methodists 6,332, and the Baptists 4,791. The Salvation Army had 4,083, followed by the Brethren with 1,498. (fn. 28) Hackney was still credited with the best attendance in east London, but by that date social changes were beginning to have an effect. Dalston, still largely middle-class, had a high proportion of worshippers, whereas Hackney Wick's was very low. (fn. 29) In 1904 a correspondent of the secretary of the London Congregational Union lamented the decay of Cambridge Heath church, whose supporters had moved away, leaving their houses to Jews or working people who let rooms. He knew of 28 places of worship within a half-mile radius, of which 18 were run on free church lines and all in difficulties. Although he did not admit that church activities had become less important in social life, he noted that there were many more places where people could meet and he feared that indebtedness could be avoided only by amalgamations. (fn. 30)

The forces affecting the churches' attendance and solvency continued in the period 1918-39, (fn. 31) when most new places of worship were registered by Jews. Presbyterians had no place after 1936, but few other major churches were forced to close. The greatest change was carried out by Wesleyans, who in 1914 merged their Hackney circuit with Victoria Park circuit to form Hackney (South) circuit, itself merged in 1931 with Hackney Central mission, which had been created on the opening of the long-projected Hackney Central Hall in 1925. (fn. 32)

The Second World War brought many closures. Some churches were demolished then or soon afterwards, others reopened for a while, often in halls or schoolrooms. From the 1950s amalgamations became common, although a few churches were rebuilt on a more modest scale. The Salvation Army gave up its Congress Hall for smaller premises in 1970. Surviving buildings were sometimes sold to other denominations, to Roman Catholics, to Jews, and especially to Pentecostalists serving the growing Afro-Caribbean population. In 1988 Hackney had five United Reformed (formerly Congregational) churches, of which the 'Round Chapel' at Clapton Park remained the finest example of Victorian affluence. There were three Baptist churches, two of which had been built since the war. The Methodists, whose circuits had undergone many changes, had five churches, of which only the one in Stoke Newington High Street was 19th-century.

The following abbreviations are used: Bapt., Baptist; Cong., Congregationalist; Dec., Decorated; demol., demolished; evg., evening; Ind., Independent; Meth., Methodist; mtg., meeting; min., minister; perm., permanent; reg., registered; temp., temporary; Utd. Ref., United Reformed; Wes., Wesleyan. Attendance figs. 1886 are from Brit. Weekly, 19 Nov. 1886, 4; figs. 1903 are from Mudie-Smith, Rel. Life, 64-6. Locations of the bldgs. are from Stanford, Maps of Lond. and Old O.S. Maps Lond. Liturgical directions are used in architectural descriptions.

CONGREGATIONALISTS.

Mare Street mtg., (fn. 33) seen as oldest in Hackney, claimed de scent from ministries of Phil. Nye and Wm. Bates. Bates preached in Hackney 1669 and was min. of first perm. mtg. ho., reg. 1694. Bldg. on W. side of street, with 3 galleries, formed out of dwelling hos. Fewer than 100 communicants 1712. Normally called Presb. or Calvinist. Distinguished pastors were Bates, John Barker, whose election led seceders to found Old Gravel Pit chapel (below), and nonconf. biographer Sam. Palmer (d. 1813), (fn. 34) who presided over move to St. Thos.'s Sq. (below) 1773, whereupon old mtg. ho. was demol.

Old Gravel Pit mtg. (fn. 35) formed by seceders from Mare Street, inc. Ryder fam., on election of John Barker 1714. Site at gravel pit near bowling green in Mare Street, opposite St. Thos.'s Sq., leased by St. Thos.'s hosp. to Allard Denn, Clapton brewer. Bldg. of brick S. of Morning Lane and E. of Chatham Pl. 1715-16; enlarged by one third 1787, after which it had three parallel hipped roofs. (fn. 36) Dan. Mayo (d. 1733) co-pastor until 1723, while retaining ministry at Kingston-on-Thames (Surr.). (fn. 37) Colleague and successor Geo. Smyth was Arminian, perhaps preparing way for move towards Unitarianism under Ric. Price, who often entertained John Adams, American envoy to London 1785-8 and later president. Unitarianism strengthened under Jos. Priestley, who reg. chapel for Presbs. 1792, (fn. 38) and Thos. Belsham, but formally acknowledged only after move to New Gravel Pit chapel in 1809 (below, Unitarians). Old Gravel Pit chapel considered unsafe and leased 1810 to Congs. who had formed ch. under John Pye Smith at Homerton Coll. 1804. Two schoolrooms added 1841, when windows may have been rearranged and stone dressings and cornice added. (fn. 39) Attendance 1851: 468 a.m. and 149 Sun. sch. with 85 children at separate svce. in schoolroom, 397 evg. (fn. 40) Bldg. enlarged 1853, when it may have received its late 19th-cent. pedimented front. (fn. 41) Last Cong. svce. 1871 but still used as Sun. sch. 1872 after cong. moved to Clapton Pk. (below). Reopened 1874 as undenom. Old Gravel Pit mission (below, undenom.), sometimes listed as Cong. (fn. 42)

St. Thomas's Square ch. (fn. 43) Mare Street mtg. under Sam. Palmer moved from W. to E. side of street 1773. (fn. 44) New bldg. on SW. side of St. Thos.'s Sq., enlarged 1824, altered and sch. rooms added 1841, seating 900 in 1851. (fn. 45) Palmer's successor 1814 was Hen. Forster Burder (d. 1864). Thos. Braidwood (d. 1806), (fn. 46) teacher of deaf and dumb, was buried in adjoining churchyard. Attendance 1851: 414 and 120 Sun. sch. a.m., 125 aft., 400 evg.; (fn. 47) 1886: 109 a.m., 141 evg. Bldg. of brick, two-storeyed and with stuccoed and pedimented street front 1891. (fn. 48) Listed as Cong. until 1879, although min. J. A. Picton allegedly introduced modified Anglican svces. without members' full support 1869. (fn. 49) Conveyed to Presbs. (below), who reg. ch. 1896-1912, (fn. 50) and later became cinema, then bingo hall. (fn. 51)

Kingsland ch. (fn. 52) Prayer mtgs. for brickmakers held in foreman's ho. by Thos. Cranfield 1789. Larger room found 1790, with Sun. sch. (previously in Cranfield's ho.) overhead 1791. Summer evg. svces. also on Kingsland green. Site for chapel in middle of Robinson's Row, W. side of Kingsland High Street, leased by Wm. Robinson 1792. Chapel next to no. 16 opened and reg. by Ind. 1794, (fn. 53) whereupon Calvinistic worshippers temporarily withdrew to ho. of John Truman (fn. 54) in Providence Pl. Svces. also in new Sun. sch. and day sch., reg. 1808. (fn. 55) Ministers inc. philanthropist and traveller John Campbell (d. 1840) from 1802 and writer Thos. Aveling (d. 1884) from 1838. (fn. 56) Chapel, seating c. 400, enlarged 1840 and 1845, to seat 950 by 1851. Attendance 1851: 664 a.m. and 20 Sun. sch., 100 aft., 763 evg. (fn. 57) New chapel on E. side of street, at corner of later Sandringham Rd., reg. 1852. (fn. 58) Site, previously leased, bought from Tyssen est. 1858. (fn. 59) Bldg. of brick with stone and terracotta dressings, seating 1,350 with schoolroom below for 800, in Dec. style by Fras. Pouget 1852: chancel, nave, SW. tower with crocketted spire; buttresses, pinnacles, large W. window by Wailes. (fn. 60) Attendance 1886: 430 a.m., 456 evg.; 1903: 196 a.m., 305 evg. Bldg. survived 1947, closed by 1951. (fn. 61) Mission in Castle Lane, seating 150, by 1881 and to 1894 or later; mission in John (later Dunn) Street, Shacklewell Lane, seating 300 in 1894, from 1871; attendance 1903: 172 a.m., 26 evg.; closed between 1926 and 1932. (fn. 62)

Clapton Park ch. (fn. 63) Seceders from Ram's episcopal chapel after d. of John Eyre met at Homerton Coll. and chose John Pye Smith as first pastor 1804. Took lease of Old Gravel Pit chapel (above), vacated by increasingly Unitarian cong., 1810. Site on E. side of Lower Clapton Rd., with adjacent ground to prevent bldg. of shops, acquired in 1868. Imposing 'Round Chapel' of Redhill stone with Portland stone dressings in Romanesque style, seating 1,150 in 1894, by Hen. Fuller 1869-71: (fn. 64) semicircular W. end flanked by octagonal towers; refaced with pale Ancaster stone 1906. Bldg. in similar style to N., entered from Powerscroft Rd., for Sun. sch. (fn. 65) Attendance 1886 largest of all Hackney Cong. chs.: 845 a.m., 659 evg.; 1903: 787 a.m., 708 evg. Utd. Ref. ch. from 1972. United with Middleton Rd., Dalston (below), 1975. Grove mission, Brooksby's Walk, from 1863, presumably first in 'Gravel Pit chapel mission rooms' in the Grove (later Homerton Grove), W. of Brooksby's Walk, later taken for hosp. (fn. 66) New mission room on E. side of Brooksby's Walk, seating 400 in 1894, reg. by unsectarian Christians 1881 and by Congs. 1899. (fn. 67) Attendance 1903: 179 a.m., 243 evg. Temp. closed in Second World War, taken over by Lond. City Mission (below, undenom.) 1952. Mission in Chapman Rd., Hackney Wick, from 1864, seating 200 in 1894. Attendance 1903: 34 a.m., 78 evg.; closed by 1910. (fn. 68) Mission at corner of Pratt's (later Glyn) Rd. and Presburg Street, where Sun. sch. previously held in Elizabeth Ho., from 1882. Hall and adjoining sch. of Kentish rag with Bath stone dressings in free Early Eng. style, extended 1890 and seating 500 in 1894, by E. M. Whitaker 1882: bellcot. Attendance 1903: 31 a.m., 148 evg.; closed 1939, when bldg. served as wareho. before being bombed. (fn. 69)

Well Street chapel. Mtg. said to have been founded by Geo. Collison, who from 1803 was tutor at new Hackney Theological Seminary in John Eyre's former ho. in Well Street. (fn. 70) New bldg. on E. side of street, in angle between Grove Street (later Lauriston Rd.) and Hackney Terr. (later Cassland Rd.) reg. 1805. (fn. 71) Bldg. probably rendered, of two storeys, with round-headed windows and one-storey wings. (fn. 72) Superseded by Hampden chapel (below) 1847 (fn. 73) and demol. by 1870. (fn. 74)

Upper Clapton ch. (fn. 75) Svces. by theology students at home of John Rumbal, Manor Ho. opposite Brooke Ho. in Upper Clapton Rd., 1812. Superseded by bldg. on W. side of rd., for which registration was sought by Wm. Slack and others 1813. (fn. 76) Bldg. was probably mtg. ho. opposite Mount Pleasant Lane, on part of Conduit field bought by Slack and others, opened 1816, enlarged 1841, seating 530 when closed 1850. Estimated average attendance 1850: 530 and 150 Sun. sch. a.m., 530 and 50 Sun. sch. evg. (fn. 77) Bldg. on enlarged site faced with Caen stone in Transitional style, seating 900-1,000, by T. Emmet 1851-2: nave, aisles, corner pinnacles, E. front 'bold and abbey-like'. (fn. 78) Attendance 1886: 359 a.m., 254 evg.; 1903: 424 a.m., 480 evg. Large assembly hall at rear for Sun. sch. 1891. Chapel damaged 1944; svces. in renovated large assembly hall, seating 300, from 1950. New chapel and adjoining rooms, seating 240 in 1988, by W. B. Attenbrow opened and reg. 1956. Utd. Ref. ch. from 1972. (fn. 79) Mission in Conduit (later Rossendale) Street, where Congs. had sch., seating 300, from 1882. Attendance 1903: 48 a.m., 111 evg.; closed between 1926 and 1932. (fn. 80)

Trinity chapel, Devonshire Road. (fn. 81) Mtg. formed by seceders from Well Street chapel (above). Bldg., seating c. 1,500 and inc. 2 schoolrooms, at end of East Pl., later NE. corner of Devonshire (later Brenthouse) and Stanley (later Frampton Pk.) rds. by Mat. Habershon 1832: (fn. 82) square-headed windows, stone-faced front with projecting pediment and Ionic pilasters. (fn. 83) Millenarian min. 1843. Attendance 1886: 510 a.m., 248 evg.; 1903: 248 a.m., 250 evg. Closed by 1907. Devonshire hall recorded on site from 1911. (fn. 84)

Hampden chapel, Grove Street (later Lauriston Rd.). (fn. 85) Blt. on W. side of rd. to replace Well Street chapel. Stock-brick bldg. with roundheaded windows and pedimented front, seating 340 and with schoolrooms beneath, 1847. (fn. 86) Attendance 1851: 65 and 6 Sun. sch. a.m., 29 Sun. sch. aft., 40 evg. First cong. moved to Stepney 1858. Probably Bapt. by 1863. (fn. 87)

Middleton Road ch., Dalston. (fn. 88) Ch. formed in disused chapel in Phillip Street, Kingsland Rd., Shoreditch, 1838. Bldg. of yellow brick with rusticated stone on N. side of rd. in Dec. style, seating 1,000, 1847; reg. 1848. Attendance 1851: 774 and 181 Sun. sch. a.m., 330 and 286 Sun. sch. aft., 733 evg.; (fn. 89) 1886: 343 a.m., 403 evg.; 1903: 249 a.m., 233 evg. Reg. again 1860. (fn. 90) Closed and united with Pownall Rd. ch., Shoreditch, c. 1948. United with Clapton Pk. Utd. Ref. ch. (above) 1975. Bldg. rebuilt behind street front and used by Pentecostals (below). Mission in Canal Rd., Shoreditch, seating 100 by 1883, from 1860 to 1898 or later.

Pembury Grove chapel, Lower Clapton. (fn. 91) Ch. formed by seceders from St. Thos.'s Sq. under Burder's co-pastor Geo. Thompson. Leased chapel on N. side of rd. (probably from Bapts.) 1850. Bldg. of brick with stone dressings, seating 330 in 1851: small central pediment above cornice with inscription and porch. (fn. 92) Attendance 1851: 275 and 85 Sun. sch. a.m., 285 evg. (fn. 93) Meth. by 1886, after Congs. had moved to Lower Clapton ch. (below).

Lower Clapton ch., Amhurst Road. (fn. 94) Congs. from Pembury Grove (above) reg. new ch. at NW. corner of intersection with Dalston Lane and Pembury Rd. 1864. (fn. 95) Bldg. of Kentish rag with Box Hill stone dressings in Dec. style, seating 1,000 by 1894, by Hen. Fuller: clerestory formed by rose windows, elaborate buttresses, SE. tower with spire; (fn. 96) adjoining rooms and sch. to W. Attendance 1886: 310 a.m., 248 evg.; 1903: 421 a.m., 433 evg. Replaced by Downs Ct. flats (fn. 97) after cong. moved to former Clapton Presb. ch. (below), seating 400 in 1951, reg. 1936-63. (fn. 98) Mission in Morning Lane, seating 150 by 1881, from 1878 to c. 1926, (fn. 99) when acquired by Brethren (below). Attendance 1903: 143 a.m., 213 evg. Mission in Castle Street, Norfolk Rd., seating 150 by 1881; closed by 1883.

Southgate Road chapel. Ind. chapel adjoining sch. at N. corner of Balmes Rd. reg. 1860-9. Reg. as Brotherhood ch., on same site, 1897. (fn. 1) Attendance 1886: 204 a.m., 237 evg.; 1903: 57 a.m., 205 evg. Reg. as Cong. but only sometimes so described. (fn. 2) Closed between 1935 and 1938. (fn. 3)

Victoria Park tabernacle, South Hackney. Seceders from Victoria Pk. Approach Rd., Bethnal Green, met from 1862 at Scott's music hall and then in Patriot Sq., Bethnal Green, before moving to new iron ch. on NW. side of Wetherell Rd., seating 1,500 before enlargement with gallery. (fn. 4) New bldg. 1869-70, reg. 1871. (fn. 5) Attendance 1886: 404 a.m., 442 evg. Closed 1901 on union with Trinity ch., Lauriston Rd. (below). (fn. 6)

Cambridge Heath ch., Mare Street. (fn. 7) Iron chapel (fn. 8) on E. side of street, S. of Cambridge Lodge Villas, for ch. formed 1861. Replaced by ch. reg. 1866. (fn. 9) Bldg. of Kentish rag with Bath stone dressings, seating 1,200 in 1894, in Dec. style by Jos. James 1865-6: pinnacled tower with spire. (fn. 10) Attendance 1886: 296 a.m., 244 evg.; 1903: 253 a.m., 269 evg. Repairs needed 1904, when membership in decline. (fn. 11) Closed between 1936 and 1938. Orchard mission in hall at no. 179 Well Street, seating 350 in 1894, from 1865; reg. 1907. (fn. 12) Attendance 1903: 43 a.m., 77 evg. Closed between 1951 and 1960. Mission in Dove Row, Shoreditch, seating 350 in 1894, from 1871 to c. 1898. Morley hall built for Sun. schs. (fn. 13)

Shrubland Road ch., London Fields. (fn. 14) Ch. formed 1870. Took over Dalston (Eng.) Presb. ch. on S. side of rd. but did not reg. bldg. for Congs. until 1894. (fn. 15) Seating for 500 in 1894, 350 by 1910; Attendance 1886: 133 a.m., 226 evg.; 1903: 63 a.m., 74 evg. United with Trinity ch., Lauriston Rd., 1971. Bldg. acquired by Evangelical and Reformed ch. (fn. 16)

South Hackney or Bethany ch., Victoria Park Road. (fn. 17) Formed 1871 as South Hackney ch. In Cadogan Terr. 1880, 1883 when supplied by students from Hackney Coll. (fn. 18) Moved to former Bapt. Park chapel (below) at corner of Victoria Pk. and Homer rds. Bldg., seating 450 in 1894, reg. 1893. (fn. 19) Attendance 1886: 129 a.m., 129 evg.; 1903: 65 a.m., 94 evg. Ch. and Bethany hall recorded 1940, hall alone c. 1946-8. (fn. 20) Disused yellow-brick bldg. survived 1988.

Rectory Road. (fn. 21)

Trinity Introductory ch., often listed under Stoke Newington, formed from Harecourt chapel, Islington, as Paedobaptist ch. in Walford Rd., S. Hornsey, 1865. (fn. 22) Moved to temp. ch. on site later bought from Tyssen est. in SE. angle of Rectory and Evering rds., opened and reg. as Cong. ch. 1882. Bldg., seating 1,200 in 1894, by R. A. Lewcock, built and reg. 1887. (fn. 23) Attendance 1886: 374 a.m., 384 evg.; 1903: 346 a.m., 427 evg. Bombed 1940. New brown-brick bldg. with pantiled roof, seating c. 180, by Harrison & Stevens 1954-5. Utd. Ref. ch. from 1972. (fn. 24) Mission called Christian Institute in Hoxton Market, Shoreditch, seating 150 in 1894, from 1886; 'moribund' 1950, closed 1983.

Stamford Hill ch. (fn. 25) Site on E. side of Stamford Hill in S. angle with Portland Ave. bought by Thos. Kelsey, worshipper at Harecourt ch., Islington. Imposing building (fn. 26) of Kentish rag with stone dressings in Dec. style, seating 1,200, adjoining lecture hall to E., by J. Tarring & Son 1869-71: semicircular apse, tall W. tower and spire. Opened 1871, reg. 1872. (fn. 27) Attendance 1886: 615 a.m., 446 evg.; 1903, when Sun. total larger than that at any other place of worship in Hackney except Salvation Army's Congress Hall: 1,119 a.m., 1,336 evg. Old ch. demol. 1966. Lecture hall adapted for svces. 1965; seated c. 200 in 1988. (fn. 28) Utd. Ref. ch. from 1972. (fn. 29) Mission in St. Ann's Rd., Tottenham, from 1878, seating 150 in 1894. (fn. 30)

Homerton Evangelical hall, no. 116 High Street, Homerton, reg. by Congs. 1878-96. (fn. 31)

Chatsworth Road tabernacle. Bldg. on W. side at angle with Elderfield Rd. reg. by Congs. 1887. (fn. 32) Attendance 1886: 350 a.m., 447 evg. Bapt. by 1894 (below).

Trintiy ch., Lauriston Road. (fn. 33) Mtg. of 1823 moved from Hanbury Street, Mile End New Town, to bldg. of red brick with stone dressings in Tudor style, seating 800 in 1926, adjoining halls to W. in SW. angle with Rutland Rd. 1901: two copper spirelets above main doorways in Lauriston Rd. Dated and reg. 1901, (fn. 34) but inc. older foundation stone of 1861 (? from Victoria Pk. tabernacle). Attendance 1903: 231 a.m., 357 evg. From 1972 Utd. Ref. ch. (fn. 35) Closed 1988. (fn. 36)

Missions.

From late 18th cent. Inds. used various premises apparently briefly. Room in Eliz. Farrow's ho. 'at Stoke Newington', 1791. (fn. 37) Room in Wm. Hartwell's ho., Shacklewell, 1793. (fn. 38) Bldg. in Shore Pl., by Jas. Thurgood, min. (possibly later used by Bapts.), 1794. (fn. 39) Hall adjoining Chas. Buck's ho. 1797. (fn. 40) John Knight's ho. at Clapton, 1799. (fn. 41) Premises were later reg. specifically for Inds. Ho. in Brewhouse Lane, 1812. (fn. 42) John Gardner's ho., Stoke Newington High Street, 1820. (fn. 43) Mr. Hemsley's ho., no. 27 Charles Street, Dalston, 1825. (fn. 44) Thos. Geo. Williams's ho., no. 3 Orchard Street, 1828. (fn. 45) Jas. Alloway's ho., no. 8 Sheep Lane, Lond. Fields, 1834. (fn. 46) No. 4 Orchard Street, 1834. (fn. 47) No. 5 Morning Lane, 1834. (fn. 48) Rob. Butt's room, Church Street, 1837. (fn. 49) No. 4 High Hill Ferry, 1839. (fn. 50) 'New chapel', Upper Clapton (possibly repeat reg. of Upper Clapton Cong. ch., above), 1840. (fn. 51) No. 3 Perseverance Row, Sanford Lane, W. Hackney, 1842. (fn. 52) No. 1 Stratford Pl., Richmond Rd., 1843. (fn. 53) Other premises were reg. for unspecified Protestant dissenters, perhaps Inds. Wm. Everett's ho. at Kingsland, 1811. (fn. 54) Ho. in Paradise Row, Church Street, 1816. (fn. 55) Ho. near Bath Pl., Dalston, 1820. (fn. 56) Dye factory at High Hill Ferry, 1821. (fn. 57) No. 2 Wick Street, 1825. (fn. 58) No. 2 Buck Bldgs., Morning Lane, 1827. (fn. 59) Thos. Geo. Williams's premises, Mare Street, 1827. (fn. 60) Hos. in Coldbath Lane (later Kenmure Rd.), Jerusalem Sq., Sheep Lane, and Bennett's Yard, Well Street, 1829. (fn. 61) Strawberry Cottage, Kates Lane (later Brooke Rd.), Clapton, 1830. (fn. 62) No. 5 Wick Street and no. 3 Hackney Wick, 1832. (fn. 63) No. 11 Beauvoir Terr., Kingsland Rd., 1846, and no. 28, 1847. (fn. 64) Sch. in Manor Rd., S. Hackney, 1851. (fn. 65)

BAPTISTS.

Mare Street. (fn. 66)

Aft. mtgs. of worshippers from Little Prescot Street, Whitechapel, (fn. 67) under John Rance at small ho. in Shore Pl. 1796. Ch. formed with Rance, ordained at St. Thos.'s Sq. Ind. chapel, as first pastor 1798. New ch. on W. side of Mare Street N. of Flying Horse Yd. (later Exmouth Pl.) 1812. (fn. 68) Plain bldg., apparently rendered, with two rows of windows, (fn. 69) seating 1,150 by 1851 after addition of galleries. 'Well filled' 1830. Attendance 1851: 800 and 300 Sun. sch. a.m., 300 and 500 Sun. sch. aft., 850 and 300 Sun. sch. evg. (fn. 70) F. A. Cox (d. 1853), instrumental in founding Bapt. Mag. and Lond. Univ., (fn. 71) was pastor from 1811. After fire of 1854, new stone-faced ch. in Classical style, seating 1,200, by W. G. and E. Habershon built 1856: round-headed windows for galleries over square-headed windows, projecting cornice, Tuscan pillared pediment over main entrance. (fn. 72) Reg. by Particular Bapts. 1858. (fn. 73) Attendance 1886: 462 a.m., 568 evg.; 1903: 311 a.m., 537 evg. Supported Bapt. Union and in Lond. Bapt. Soc. 1928. (fn. 74) Ch. bombed 1940, when svces. held in St. Andrew's hall, Well Street, and 1944; repaired but damaged again 1945, when svces. moved to Congs.' Orchard mission, Well Street; demol. after war. Replaced by Frampton Pk. Rd. ch. (below).

Homerton Row chapel. (fn. 75) Mtgs. under Thos. Eason 1817. Ch. formed 1820. Bldg. on S. side of Homerton Row opened and reg. 1822; (fn. 76) seating for 350 in 1851. Attendance 1851: 225 and 58 Sun. sch. a.m., 40 aft., 195 evg.; (fn. 77) 1886: 69 a.m., 51 evg.; 1903: 121 a.m., 117 evg. In Metropolitan Assoc. of Strict Bapt. Chs. 1928. Closed between 1959 and 1964. (fn. 78)

Shacklewell chapel. (fn. 79) Bldg. of 1822 in Wellington Pl., Wellington (later Shacklewell) Rd., vested in trustees 1827. New bldg., seating 564, 1843-4, when min. was F. A. Cox of Mare Street ch. (fn. 80) Attendance 1851 (estimated average): 160 a.m., 90 aft., 180 evg.; (fn. 81) 1886: 57 a.m., 61 evg. Merged with Particular Bapt. former Devonshire Sq. ch. in Stoke Newington Rd., S. Hornsey, 1884. (fn. 82)

Pembury Grove chapel, Lower Clapton, reg. by Hen. Robinson of Grove Cottage, Clarence Rd., 1848. Probably bldg. leased to Meths. 1850. (fn. 83)

West (later Elsdale) Street chapel. Seceders from Mare Street under W. Emmet had ch. in West Street 1851. (fn. 84)

Hockley Street chapel. Mtg. in former street N. of Durham Grove off Morning Lane recorded 1862-8. (fn. 85) Perhaps same as Salem chapel, Hockley Street, reg. by Particular Bapts. 1875 (fn. 86) and dissolved 1880. (fn. 87)

Hampden chapel, Grove Street (later Lauriston Rd.). Bapt. mtg. said to have been formed 1863 and to have gone by 1883 (fn. 88) was probably group which took over Congs.' Hampden chapel, which name it later adopted. (fn. 89) Attendance 1886: 156 a.m., 147 evg.; 1903: 114 a.m., 116 evg. Closed 1927, (fn. 90) when sold to Assemblies of God. (fn. 91)

Chatsworth tabernacle, Chatsworth Rd., Lower Clapton. (fn. 92) Mtg. formed as Kingsland tabernacle 1864. New bldg. at corner of Enfield Rd. 1873. Moved to bldg. on W. side of Chatsworth Rd. at angle with Rushmore Rd. 1877, then to former Cong. ch. at angle with Elderfield Rd. reg. by Bapts. 1894. (fn. 93) Bldg. of brick with stone dressings, seating 800 in 1928: round-headed windows, octagonal corner tower with bellcot, halls beneath. (fn. 94) Attendance 1886: 103 a.m., 61 evg.; 1903: 296 a.m., 313 evg. Left Metropolitan Assoc. of Strict Bapt. Chs. by 1905; in no assoc. 1909; in Lond. Bapt. Soc. 1928. Closed c. 1948. (fn. 95)

Park chapel, Victoria Park Rd. Mtg. formed at St. Thos.'s hall 1864 moved to iron chapel probably replaced by bldg. at W. corner of Homer Rd. marked as Bapt. 1870. (fn. 96) Later South Hackney Cong. ch. (above).

Forest Road chapel, Dalston. Svces. in schoolroom in Grange Rd. before ch. formed in Forest Rd. 1865. Bldg. on N. side of rd. between Woodland and Holly streets. Attendance 1886: 87 a.m., 92 p.m. Served as Holy Trinity par. room by 1898. (fn. 97)

Blomfield Street.

Svces. in Albion hall, Dalston, (fn. 98) 1866. New bldg. in Downham Rd. 1871. Later moved to Blomfield Street. In Lond. Bapt. Assoc. Closed c. 1880. (fn. 99)

Ashwin Street ch., Dalston Junction. (fn. 1) Svces. in Luxembourg hall, N. end of street, 1868. (fn. 2) New bldg. on opposite side, seating 1,250 in 1928, 1871; reg. 1873. (fn. 3) Attendances largest of all Hackney Bapt. chs. 1886: 693 a.m., 770 evg.; 1903: 532 a.m., 715 evg. Supported Bapt. Union and in Lond. Bapt. Assoc. 1928. Became Shiloh Pentecostal ch. (below).

Speldhurst Road chapel, South Hackney. Mtgs. in schoolroom on W. side of rd. winter 1867-8. New bldg., seating c. 300, 1869. In Metropolitan Assoc. of Strict Bapt. Chs. Bought by Chas. W. Banks 1873. Closed c. 1886. (fn. 4) Bldg. presumably acquired by Ch. of Martin Luther. (fn. 5)

Downs chapel, Lower Clapton. (fn. 6) Open membership ch. (fn. 7) formed by worshippers at Mare Street and reg. 1869. Site intended to be in Avenue Rd. (later Midhurst Way) but moved to corner of Downs and Queen's Down (later Queensdown) rds. in expectation that rly. station wd. be opened at NE. corner of Hackney Downs. Bldg. of red brick with black- and white-brick bands and Bath stone dressings and roundheaded windows, seating 1,008 in 1928, by Morton M. Glover 1868-9: W. corner turrets and rose window over double porch; halls beneath and to E. (fn. 8) Attendance 1886: 480 a.m., 432 evg.; 1903: 540 a.m., 651 evg. Supported Bapt. Union and in Lond. Bapt. Assoc. 1928. Mission in Rendlesham Rooms, at corner of Heatherley and Landfield streets, from 1872. Attendance 1903: 74 a.m., 145 evg.; closed on expiry of lease by 1923. (fn. 9) Mission in Waterloo Rooms, Prout Rd., seating 80 in 1928, from 1877. Attendance 1903: 36 a.m., 68 evg.; closed after 1929.

Albion hall, Dalston, (fn. 10) used by Bapts. who moved to Blomfield Street (above) and by Strict Bapts. who celebrated anniversary in hall 1875. (fn. 11)

Retreat Place.

Mtg. begun nearby in Mead Pl. 1879. Belonged to Old Bapt. Union 1928. (fn. 12) Perhaps used Ram's sch., Retreat Pl., reg. 1900, although registration was cancelled 1925. (fn. 13)

Mallard Street chapel, Hackney Wick. Bldg. at S. corner of Percy Terr. Attendance 1886: 17 evg.; 1903, when called Bethsaida, 23 evg. Closed c. 1911. (fn. 14)

Norfolk (later Cecilia) Road.

Bapt.mtg. (probably in Shacklewell Green mission hall recorded 1894) (fn. 15) formed by 1902. Attendance 1903: 40 a.m., 42 evg. Belonged to Old Bapt. Union. Closed between 1914 and 1928. (fn. 16)

Loddiges Road chapel. Bapt. ch. (perhaps Christian ch. recorded 1894 and Loddiges Rd. chapel reg. by Independents 1900) (fn. 17) recorded by 1902. (fn. 18) Closed c. 1947. (fn. 19)

Frampton Park Road ch. Ch. on W. side of Frampton Pk. Rd., reg. as successor to Mare Street ch. 1955. Bldg. of brown brick, seating 320 and with adjoining halls, by Spalding, Myers & Attenbrow 1953-4; opened 1956. (fn. 20)

Barnabas Road ch. Strict Bapts. reg. ch. at corner of Barnabas Rd. and Daley Street 1963. (fn. 21) Bldg. of pale grey brick in modern style, with small clock tower and inc. hall.

Missions.

From early 19th cent. Bapts. reg. several premises. Bldg. called Stoke Newington chapel, behind no. 16 High Street, 1812. (fn. 22) Thos. Frankland's ho. near Marsh Gate, Lower Homerton, and David Ramsay's ho., no. 6 Homerton Row, 1817. (fn. 23) John Lee's ho. at Hackney Wick and Rob. Fletcher's schoolroom in Bridge Street, Homerton, 1819. (fn. 24) Hen. Simonds's ho., no. 3 Down Cottage, Shacklewell, 1836. (fn. 25) Schoolrooms at no. 5 Wick Street, 1840, and in Charles Street, Dalston, 1844. (fn. 26) No. 1 Jerusalem Sq. 1845. (fn. 27) Room at no. 8 Homerton Terr. 1848. (fn. 28)

METHODISTS.

Pleasant Place.

Newly formed Wes. mtg. at ho. in Grove Lane (fn. 29) moved to mtg. place in Shore Pl. vacated by Bapts. 1812. (fn. 30) Rent paid by members of City Rd. chapel. New smaller bldg. on N. side of Pleasant Pl. (later Paragon Rd.) c. 1816, enlarged 1825, seating c. 400 in 1843. Replaced by Richmond Rd. chapel (below) and later used by Brethren (below) as Providence chapel.

Stoke Newington High Street. (fn. 31)

Wes. chapel on E. side of street N. of Tyssen Rd. built and reg. 1816. (fn. 32) Enlarged c. every 7 years, seating c. 500 by 1843 and 640 by 1851. (fn. 33) Attendance 1851: 334 and 94 Sun. sch. a.m., 342 evg. Rebuilt in brick with stone dressings in vaguely Romanesque style 1851: three gable ends and two turrets on street front, which was largely obscured until removal of cottages and enlargement of ch. to seat 1,000 by T. Scott 1875. (fn. 34) Attendance 1886: 376 a.m., 427 evg.; 1903: 351 a.m., 461 evg. Again rebuilt as plain red-brick bldg. with hall behind and reopened 1958. Seating for 200 in 1970. (fn. 35)

Baker's Row, Hackney Wick. Calvinistic dissenters, probably Meths., reg. room in Wm. Edwards's ho. 1817. (fn. 36)

Kates Lane (later Brook Street, then Northwold Rd.).

Wes. chapel built 1833, seating 120 in 1851 when sold by Meths. to 'moderate Calvinists'. (fn. 37)

Hope Street, no. 2 reg. by 'Revivalist Methodists' 1834. (fn. 38)

Roseberry Place, Dalston. Wes. chapel built and reg. 1844, seating 226 by 1851. Attendance 1851: 130 and 30 Sun. sch. a.m., 35 aft., 158 evg. (fn. 39) Reg. again 1854-61. (fn. 40) Demol. for rly. 1865 and replaced by Mayfield Terr. chapel (below). (fn. 41)

Richmond Road.

Site leased from St. Thos.'s hosp. at E. end of later Richmond Rd., on S. side, 1846. Wes. chapel to replace one in Pleasant Pl., seating 1,110 in 1851, built and reg. 1846. (fn. 42) Bldg. of brick with stone dressings; rectangular plan, tall square-headed windows, pedimented street front with Ionic pillars flanking doorway. (fn. 43) Attendance 1851: 350 and 64 Sun. sch. a.m., 45 aft., 400 evg. Reg. again 1854. (fn. 44) Attendance 1886: 524 a.m., 475 evg.; 1903: 235 a.m., 294 evg. Closed 1925 and leased to Central Hackney synagogue on opening of Hackney Central hall, Mare Street (below). (fn. 45)

London Lane.

Lecture room reg. by Primitive Meths. 1859-66. (fn. 46)

Northwold Road, Stoke Newington Common. Primitive Meths. reg. chapel on S. side of rd. 1861 and again, perhaps after rebuilding, 1895-1954. (fn. 47) Street front of red brick with stone dressings in Gothic style, masking yellowbrick octagon beneath skylight. (fn. 48) Attendance 1886:85 a.m., 73 evg.; 1903: 258 a.m., 339 evg. Reg. as Northwold Rd. synagogue 1955. (fn. 49)

London Fields.

Primitive Meths. had chapel at SE. corner of Lond. Fields, W. of Exmouth Pl., from 1863, (fn. 50) reg. 1865. (fn. 51) Attendance 1886: 106 a.m., 74 evg.; 1903: 60 a.m., 68 evg. Also held open-air svces. 1872. Called Jubilee chapel 1873. (fn. 52) Closed between 1935 and 1938. (fn. 53)

Clapton Meth.

ch. (fn. 54) Wes. ch. founded from Richmond Rd. on W. side of Lower Clapton Rd. N. of corner of Downs Rd., reg. 1865. (fn. 55) Bldg. of ragstone with stone dressings in Dec. style, seating 1,000, 1863-5; not oriented; apse, pinnacled W. tower with tall spire over central porch facing Lower Clapton Rd. (fn. 56) Attendance 1886: 372 a.m., 325 evg.; 1903: 326 a.m., 328 evg. Closed 1934 and later demol. Replaced by lecture hall (later sch.) in Downs Rd., remodelled as ch. and reg. 1934. (fn. 57) Bldg. of stone faced in Dec. style, with bellcot, built by 1880. Damaged 1940 and reopened 1949. Seating for 160 in 1970. (fn. 58)

Mayfield Terrace, Dalston. (fn. 59) Wes. reg. chapel on NW. corner of Mayfield and Richmond rds. to replace Roseberry Pl. chapel 1865. (fn. 60) Bldg. in Dec. style, seating 1,000, 1865. (fn. 61) Attendance 1886: 374 a.m., 404 evg.; 1903: 225 a.m., 593 evg. Bombed 1945. Replaced on same site by Dalston, Richmond Rd., ch. (reg. as Dalston Meth. mission at no. 15 in 1954) (fn. 62) 1961. (fn. 63) Seated 203 in 1970. (fn. 64) Demol. by 1979. (fn. 65)

Pembury Grove, Lower Clapton. Utd. Meth. Free Ch. reg. bldg., acquired from Congs., 1866-1954. (fn. 66) Attendance 1886: 163 a.m., 134 evg.; 1903: 293 a.m., 268 evg. Bombed in Second World War and later closed. (fn. 67)

Church Road, Homerton. Wes. ch. on W. side of Church (later Barnabas) Rd. founded by 1868. Attendance 1903: 118 a.m., 109 evg. Reg. as Homerton Meth. mission 1937. Damaged in Second World War and closed. (fn. 68)

Cassland Road.

Wes. reg. chapel at W. corner of Queen Anne Rd. 1872. (fn. 69) Bldg., seating 1,000, in Dec. style; octagonal corner turret with spirelet. (fn. 70) Attendance 1886, largest of all Hackney Meth. chs.: 579 a.m., 518 evg.; 1903: 395 a.m., 373 p.m. Closed and probably demol. by 1946. (fn. 71)

Daintry Street, Hackney Wick. Chapel on E. side existed by 1879, reg. by Wes. Meths. 1886. Closely associated with Cassland Rd. Perhaps was ch. sometimes said to be in Chapman Road. Attendance 1903: 97 a.m., 150 evg. Closed 1951. (fn. 72)

Clapton Park tabernacle, Blurton Rd. (fn. 73) Primitive Meths. started mission when Thos. Jackson took over Theatre Royal, Glenarm Rd., reg. 1884-96. (fn. 74) Tabernacle on S. side of Blurton Rd. E. of Chatsworth Rd. opened 1885 and reg. 1887-1958. (fn. 75) Bldg. of ragstone with stone dressings: round-headed windows, small porch with Ionic pillars. (fn. 76) Attendance 1886: 204 a.m., 243 evg.; 1903: 137 a.m., 170 evg. Remained headquarters of mission, which had holiday home at Southend (Essex) and later at Herne Bay (Kent), until damaged in Second World War. Replaced by Chatsworth Rd. ch. (below) 1958. Former tabernacle became St. Jude's Rom. Cath. ch. (fn. 77)

Brookfield Road, South Hackney. Primitive Meths. in Brookfield Rd. by 1886 (fn. 78) reg. Tyndale Memorial ch. on W. side of rd. 1888-1941. (fn. 79) Attendance 1886: 112 a.m., 124 evg.; 1903: 74 a.m., 153 evg. Closed c. 1951. (fn. 80) Replaced by Tyndale Ct. flats.

Southwold Road, Upper Clapton. Primitive Meths. reg. chapel at W. corner of Theydon Rd. 1888-1951. (fn. 81) Attendance 1903: 59 a.m., 46 evg. Closed c. 1951. (fn. 82)

Olinda Road, Stamford Hill. Primitive Meths. had mission hall on S. side of rd. by 1898, perhaps Beulah hall there by 1894. (fn. 83) Attendance 1903: 88 a.m., 49 p.m. Possibly replaced by Ravensdale Rd. ch. (below).

Ravensdale Road, Stamford Hill. Primitive Meths. reg. chapel on S. side of rd. 1905. (fn. 84) New bldg. on N. side of rd., red-brick with stone dressings, with Perp. style windows and short tower, 1925; (fn. 85) reg. 1927. (fn. 86) Seated 300 in 1970. (fn. 87)

Hackney Central Hall, Mare Street. (fn. 88) Site on E. side, between Salvation Army hall and central libr., secured 1909 to replace Richmond Rd. ch. Bldg. of three storeys and seven bays, faced in yellow stone, with cornice and Ionic pilasters, 1924-5: headquarters of Hackney mission, inc. hall seating 1,500, three halls for 700 Sun. sch. children, gymnasium, ground-floor shops; reg. 1925. (fn. 89) Memorial chapel for silver jubilee opened on ground floor 1950. Seating for 350 in 1970. (fn. 90) Sold to Hackney L.B. 1979 but 4 shops retained by mission and converted into place of worship 1982. (fn. 91)

Chatsworth Road, Clapton Pk. Ch. reg. as new headquarters of Clapton Meth. Union 1958. (fn. 92) Bldg. S. of Elderfield Rd., yellow-brick and concrete, seating 200 in 1970. (fn. 93)

UNITARIANS. (fn. 94)

Growing Unitarianism of Old Gravel Pit mtg. formally acknowledged after move under Rob. Aspland (d. 1845) to New Gravel Pit chapel on E. side of Paradise Pl. (later S. part of Chatham Pl.). Octagonal bldg. in Gothic style, 'naked and angular', 1809; repaired 1824, when svces. held in Mermaid inn, and seated 500 in 1851. Attendance 1851: 400 and 28 Sun. sch. a.m., 150 and 28 Sun. sch. evg. (fn. 95) Rebuilt in Gothic style and reg. 1858. (fn. 96) Bldg. of ragstone with stone dressings in Dec. style: chancel, N. and S. transepts, SW. spirelet. (fn. 97) Attendance 1886: 93 a.m., 71 evg.; 1903: 54 a.m., 57 evg. Aspland hall, by R. P. Jones, opened 1913. Ch. damaged 1940, renovated hall used for worship 1946, ch. reopened under part-time min. 1953. Tercentenary of Wm. Bates's mtg. celebrated 1966 but ch. closed 1969 and all bldgs. demol. by G.L.C. 1970. Char. Com. Scheme established fund from sale proceeds and trust funds, used for maintenance of Unitarian chapel at Newington Green. (fn. 98) Worshippers inc. economist David Ricardo (d. 1823), theologian Chas. Hennell (d. 1850), and radical politician Daniel Whittle Harvey (d. 1863), first commissioner of Metropolitan Police, who was buried in churchyd. (fn. 99) John Boucher (d. 1878) min. 1848-53; Rob. Aspland's s. Rob. Brook Aspland (d. 1869), (fn. 1) min. from 1858, was 'practically the head of Eng. Unitarianism'.

BRETHREN.

St. Thomas's Square. Group probably mtg. at Ellis's rooms, between nos. 183 and 185 Well Street, 1847 had moved to schoolroom in St. Thos.'s Sq. by 1854. Members inc. Jas. van Sommer, who started Brethren's journal Missionary Reporter, his brother-in-law Wm. Berger, and zoologist Phil. Hen. Gosse (d. 1888). 'Open' or independent, rather than 'exclusive,' Brethren after schism of 1848. (fn. 2) Moved to Providence chapel (below).

Paragon Road.

Providence chapel, originally Pleasant Pl. Meth. chapel and by 1851 Ind. Calvinist, (fn. 3) was acquired on lease by Berger 1850s (fn. 4) and reg. 1866. (fn. 5) Thereafter known as Paragon Rd. mtg. room. Attendance more than 200 in 1870s; 1903: 66 a.m., 93 evg. Compulsorily bought by Post Office to make way for telephone exchange 1926. (fn. 6) Paragon gospel hall, Morning Lane (former Cong. Old Gravel Pit chapel, used as undenominational mission from 1874), renamed by Brethren and reg. 1926. (fn. 7) Damaged in Second World War, whereupon mtgs. held in elder's ho. until new Paragon hall (later chapel) in Glyn Rd. was reg. 1952. (fn. 8)

Clapton hall, replacing iron hall of 1867, paid for by John Morley and opened on E. side of Alkham Rd. 1880. Among largest of all Brethren's halls, with more than 700 members 1888. (fn. 9) Reg. from 1891. (fn. 10) Attendance 1903: 286 a.m., 324 evg.

Blurton hall, (fn. 11) N. side of Blurton Rd. near corner of Chatsworth Rd., used by 1884. Attendance 1903: 123 a.m., 95 evg. Normally listed as used by Brethren, before and after its reg. by undesignated Christians 1965. (fn. 12)

Downham Road hall, N. side at no. 68, used by 1894. Attendance 1903: 63 a.m., 77 evg. Served as Meth. mission room 1907 after Brethren moved to Bedford hall, no. 54 at corner of Mortimer Rd., which closed c. 1952.

Twemlow Terrace, Lond. Fields. Mission room at no. 6 (later no. 49A Westgate Street) used by 1894. Attendance 1903: 26 a.m., 29 evg. Closed c. 1916.

London Fields gospel hall, NW. corner of Lond. Fields, reg. by Bethesda mission 1889-97 and as undenominational 1897-1913. (fn. 13) Called West Side gospel hall 1903, when cong. described as Brethren. Attendance 1903: 28 a.m., 27 evg. Later served as League of Helpers' hall. (fn. 14)

Tower (later Martello) gospel hall, E. side of Lond. Fields, used c. 1911-1920. Cong. described as Brethren 1914. (fn. 15)

Ferry gospel hall, Little Hill, Upper Clapton. Attendance 1903: 96 evg. Listed as used by Brethren 1914 (fn. 16) and as undenominational by 1934. Closed c. 1948.

Buckingham Road, Kingsland. Room at rear of no. 27 reg. 1909-12 and again, after replacement by room at rear of no. 6 Kingsland Green 1912-13, 1913-14. (fn. 17) Replaced by room at no. 36A Stamford Hill 1914-41. (fn. 18)

Maberly hall, Ball's Pond Rd. Former Cong. chapel, in Islington until 1900, (fn. 19) reg. by Brethren 1922-52. (fn. 20) Replaced by Maberly (probably former Lond. City mission) hall, Crossway, reg. 1952-86. (fn. 21)

FREE ENGLISH CHURCH.

Albion hall, W. side of Albion Sq., Dalston, reg. by 'members of the Free Ch.' 1859 and by 'English Free Ch.' 1861. (fn. 22) Sect was presumably Free Ch. of Eng., which used slightly amended Bk. of Common Prayer and whose bp. had ch. at Teddington. (fn. 23) Albion hall was Bapt. by 1875. (fn. 24)

Christ Church, near the Triangle, Cambridge Heath, reg. 1861, disused by 1866. (fn. 25)

Holy Trinity ch., the Triangle, Mare Street, reg. 1864, closed between 1880 and 1884. (fn. 26)

Clapton Park.

Bldg. occupied by Chas. Geary, no. 6 Clarke's Terr., Pratt's Lane (later Glyn Rd.), reg. 1878-96. (fn. 27)

St. Andrew's ch., Chatsworth Rd., reg. by 'reformed Episcopal Ch.' 1892-4. (fn. 28)

Christ's mission ch., Rushmore Rd., reg. by 'Reformed Ch. of Eng.' 1894-1913. (fn. 29)

Dalston. No. 1 Colvestone Cres. reg. 1900- 13. (fn. 30)

St. Andrew's ch., Robinson's Retreat, Retreat Pl., reg. 1934-7. (fn. 31)

PRESBYTERIANS.

Dalston Presb.

ch. Iron ch. built on Rhodes land on S. side of Shrubland Rd. 1858, reg. by Presb. Ch. of Eng. 1863. (fn. 32) Cong. by 1871. Bldg., with lancet windows and spirelet, acquired by Evangelical and Reformed Ch. c. 1970. (fn. 33)

Downs Park Road ch., Lower Clapton. Presb. Ch. of Eng. reg. ch. at corner of Cricketfield Rd. 1872 and 1877-1936. (fn. 34) Bldg. of Kentish rag with stone dressings in Dec. style, seating 630 in 1872, begun 1863: (fn. 35) apsidal chancel, NE. and SE. chapels, N. transept over hall, aisled and clerestoreyed nave, S. porch, pinnacled SW. tower with spire. (fn. 36) Attendance 1886: 111 a.m., 60 evg.; 1903: 114 a.m., 143 evg. Closed and reopened for Lower Clapton Cong. ch. 1936. Later used by New Testament Ch. of God. (fn. 37)

Albion Presb. ch. (formerly at Albion ch., Lond. Wall) advertised svces. at St. Thos.'s hall, E. side of St. Thos.'s Rd., 1875. (fn. 38) Presb. chapel and ch. ho., recorded 1894, (fn. 39) presumably replaced by St. Thos.'s Sq. ch. (below).

St. Thomas's Square. Presb. Ch. of Eng. reg. former Cong. ch. 1896-1912. (fn. 40) Attendance 1903: 67 a.m., 83 evg. Bldg. used as cinema 1913. (fn. 41)

LATTER-DAY SAINTS.

Church Street lecture hall reg. 1854-66. (fn. 42)

John Street chapel, Shacklewell, reg. 1856- 96. (fn. 43)

Two Mormon elders from U.S.A. held regular mtgs. at Chatsworth Rd. Meth. ch. 1977. (fn. 44)

SALVATION ARMY.

Congress Hall, Linscott Rd., Lower Clapton, opened and reg. 1882. (fn. 45) Bldg., formerly Lond. Orphan Asylum, adapted by demol. of chapel and excavation of quadrangle, roofed over to create hall seating 4,700. Wings formed training barracks for 150 men and 150 women cadets, with classrooms on ground floor, work rooms below, and bedrooms above. (fn. 46) Attendance largest at any place of worship in Hackney 1903: 914 a.m., 1,635 evg. Huge crowds at lying-in-state of 'Army Mother' Cath. Booth 1890 and of founder Gen. Wm. Booth 1912. Renovated 1931. (fn. 47) Most of bldg. demol. after army's move to Clapton Congress hall (below) 1970, but facade survived 1988.

Clapton Congress Hall, no. 122 Lower Clapton Rd. Brown-brick hall and hostel by Alex. Dalziel, replacing Congress hall, Linscott Rd., opened 1970. (fn. 48)

Missions.

People's hall, Havelock Rd., Well Street, reg. by Christian Mission of army 1880- 97. (fn. 49) Perhaps same as later premises in Havelock Rd. Attendance 1903: 66 a.m., 72 evg. Citadel in rd. reg. 1908-41. (fn. 50) Clapton Pk. theatre, Glenarm Rd., reg. 1881. (fn. 51) Probably taken over by Meths. as forerunner of Clapton Pk. tabernacle (above). Nisbet Street, Homerton, barracks reg. 1888-96. (fn. 52)

High Street, Homerton, barracks at no. 97 reg. 1889-96. (fn. 53) Perhaps same as later premises in High Street. Attendance 1903: 48 a.m., 149 evg. Hall behind no. 98 reg. 1910-80. (fn. 54) Durham Grove, barracks reg. 1892-1903. (fn. 55) Mallard Street, Hackney Wick, barracks at no. 34, reg. 1892-1911. (fn. 56) Attendance 1903: 35 a.m., 57 evg. Replaced by Hedgers Grove hall (below). Kingsland Rd., hall, at no. 383, reg. 1893-1931. (fn. 57) Havelock Rd., Well Street, hall recorded 1894. (fn. 58) The Temple, Almack Rd., Lower Clapton. Bldg. behind Congress hall reg. 1895-1971. (fn. 59) Attendance 1903: 105 a.m., 124 evg. Ball's Pond Rd., barracks at no. 83, reg. 1898-1911. (fn. 60) Attendance 1903: 55 a.m., 115 evg. Rossington Street, Upper Clapton, mission ho. reg. 1903-64. (fn. 61) Cambridge Heath citadel, Mare Street, reg. 1908-57. Presumably Mare Street premises with attendance 1903: 249 a.m., 459 evg. Bombed in Second World War. Yellow-brick and concrete hall by Wm. Charles opened 1957. (fn. 62) Clapton Common, no. 4 (formerly W. Springfield) acquired as training coll. c. 1909 and as Army's maternity home c. 1922-50. (fn. 63) Hedgers Grove, Cassland Rd., hall reg. 1911-20. (fn. 64) Middlesex Wharf, Lea Bridge, hall reg. 1925-41. (fn. 65) Lawrence Bldgs., Northwold Rd., hall reg. 1935. (fn. 66) Florence Booth hall, Valette St., reg. 1947. (fn. 67)

GERMAN LUTHERAN CHURCH. (fn. 68)

Site on S. side of Alma (later Ritson) Rd., ch., and minister's ho. paid for by compensation from Metropolitan Dist. Rly. Co., which had bought old Hamburg Lutheran ch. in Gt. Trinity Lane (Lond.). Bldg. of yellow brick with stone dressings in Dec. or 'German Gothic' style, seating 280, by Habershon & Brock 1875-6: (fn. 69) chancel, N. and S. transepts, aisleless nave; (probably later) tower with broach spire next to S. transept; not oriented. Reredos, attributed to Grinling Gibbons, and organ from old ch. Partly served adjacent hosp., (fn. 70) whose chapel was converted into a ward, and other German homes. Attendance 1886: 120 evg.; 1903: 86 a.m., 132 evg. Hall added to E. wing 1899, enlarged as Luther hall 1932. Pentecostal 1983. (fn. 71)

AGAPEMONITES. (fn. 72)

Ch. of the Ark of the Covenant at corner of Rookwood and Castlewood rds., N. end of Clapton common, reg. by 'Ch. of the Son of Man' 1896, (fn. 73) followers of Hen. Jas. Prince (d. 1899), who had Agapemone or Abode of Love at Spaxton (Som.). (fn. 74) Bldg. of Bristol stone with Portland stone dressings and spire in eclectically ornamental Gothic style, seating c. 400, by J. Morris of Reading 1893-5: apse, aisleless nave, W. tower with symbols of 4 Evangelists in place of pinnacles at base of spire, other sculptures at corners of ch. Ornate interior, with hammerbeam roof, mosaic wall in sanctuary, and stained glass, illustrating woman's submission to man, by Wal. Crane. Scene of enthronement of Prince's successor John Hugh Smyth-Pigott as second Messiah, attended by hostile crowd, 1902. Ch., a tribute to sect's early wealth, probably not long used for regular svces. (fn. 75) and closed 1920s. Ownership doubtful 1955. (fn. 76) Acquired by Ancient Cath. Ch. (below).

JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES.

Kingdom hall, no. 383 Kingsland Rd., reg. 1944-54. (fn. 77)

Kingdom hall, ground-floor room at no. 72A Woodland St., Dalston, reg. 1949 and 1972. Moved to Pitfield St., Shoreditch, 1974 and to rear of nos. 1-7 Fassett Rd., Dalston, 1974. (fn. 78)

PENTECOSTALS.

Assemblies of God reg. Hampden chapel, Lauriston Rd. (formerly Bapt.) 1928. (fn. 79)

Anglo-West Indian Assembly (later Evangelical Reformed Church) reg. by Pentecostals at nos. 2, 4, and 6 Sandringham Rd. 1961. Reg. again in Lauriston Rd. 1989. (fn. 80)

Shiloh Pentecostal ch., previously worshipping in St. Luke's ch. hall, Morning Lane, took lease of Ashwin Street Bapt. ch. 1968 and bought bldg. 1976. (fn. 81)

United Pentecostal Church of God reg. at no. 16 Rossendale Street, Clapton, 1977. (fn. 82)

Clapton Pentecostal ch. reg. at no. 171 Rushmore Rd. 1977. (fn. 83)

Hackney Pentecostal Apostolic ch. (formerly Middleton Rd. Cong. ch.) used by W. Indian Fellowship 1979 (fn. 84) and reg. 'as heretofore for worship by Pentecostals' 1982. (fn. 85)

Faith Tabernacle Church of God acquired and began to worship in former German Lutheran ch., Ritson Rd., 1982, (fn. 86) where Ch. had international headquarters 1989.

Refuge Temple of Churches of Jesus Christ (Apostolic) reg. room at no. 109 Brooke Rd. 1987. (fn. 87)

OTHER DENOMINATIONS.

Free Church reg. bldg. at corner of Albert (later part of Middleton) and Lansdowne rds., Lond. Fields, 1860-4. (fn. 88)

Christians (unspecified) reg. no. 199 Richmond Rd., Dalston, 1863-96. (fn. 89)

Independents reg. St. Thos.'shall, St. Thos.'s Rd., 1864. Used by former Anglican curate J. Allen, on doubtful authority, for svces. like those at Ram's chapel 1869. (fn. 90)

Evangelical Free Church reg. Christ Ch., at corner of Amhurst and Rectory rds., 1876-86. (fn. 91)

Church of Martin Luther, Speldhurst Rd., reg. by Evangelical Christians 1887-1941. (fn. 92) Attendance 1886: 212 a.m., 351 evg.; 1903: 21 a.m., 37 evg.

Gospel hall, Wellington Rd., reg. by sect refusing to be designated 1888-1903. (fn. 93)

Brotherhood church, Southgate Rd., reg. 1897 in Cong. ch. (above) (fn. 94) for mtg. formed 1891 by John Bruce Wallace, who preached mixture of Christianity and Marxism and opened food co-operative in Downham Rd. (fn. 95) Continued sometimes to be described as Cong. Closed between 1935 and 1938. (fn. 96)

The Sanctuary, nos. 2 and 4 Cassland Rd., reg. by 'King's Cross Higher Life Mission' 1892-4. Reg. again by Christians 1894, closed c. 1902. (fn. 97)

Christian Scientists reg. rooms at no. 43A Stamford Hill 1910. (fn. 98) Comprised reading room and, in 1912, Fourth Ch. of Christ Scientist, both at Stamford hall. Closed c. 1914. (fn. 99)

Christian Tulipeans reg. Tulip hall, on ground floor of no. 55 King Edward's Rd., 1941-67. Replaced by Tulip hall on ground floor of no. 64 Holly Street, Dalston, reg. 1967-85. (fn. 1)

Spiritualists reg. Kenton hall, Kenton Rd., 1954-64. (fn. 2)

Christians (undesignated) reg. rooms at no. 28 Alcester Cres. as 'Baltic Svce.' 1962. (fn. 3)

New Testement Church of God reg. former Presb. ch. in Downs Pk. Rd. 1964. (fn. 4)

Evangelical and Reformed Church occupied former Cong. ch. in Shrubland Rd. from c. 1970. (fn. 5)

First Deeper Life Ministry reg. basement at nos. 101-7 Chatsworth Rd. 1984-6 and, as Deeper Life Ministries International, no. 1 Sandringham Rd. 1986. (fn. 6)

Church Of The Call Out reg. room at no. 9 Urswick Rd. 1985. (fn. 7)

UNDENOMINATIONAL MISSIONS.

Chritian Mission hall reg. in Loddiges Rd. (presumably distinct from later Loddiges Rd. Bapt. chapel) 1874-1906. (fn. 8) Attendance 1886, when described as 'Christian Ch.': 37 a.m., 43 evg.

Christian Mission hall in Stoke Newington High Street reg. 1875-96. (fn. 9)

Old Gravel Pit chapel, (fn. 10) Chatham Pl., vacated by Congs. who moved to Clapton Pk. 1871. Taken for 'new Independent ch.' (fn. 11) under Revd. J. De Kewer Williams 1874, (fn. 12) reg. 1875, and again sometimes listed as Cong. (fn. 13) Attendance 1886: 309 a.m., 297 evg. Lease acquired for Old Gravel Pit undenom. mission, by young men who formed Sick and Provident soc. 1888 and reg. mission 1898, (fn. 14) survived until 1969. (fn. 15) Attendance 1903: 245 a.m., 364 evg. On expiry of lease name was transferred to new bldg. at corner of Valette Street and Morning Lane, called Old Gravel Pit hall, 1913. Valette Street hall was taken for rd. widening and Trelawney est. 1959. Old Gravel Pit office was opened in new bldg. in Morning Lane 1961 but mission was liquidated 1971. Chapel in Chatham Pl. survived as part of factory, with plaque to commemorate Jos. Priestley 1985. (fn. 16)

Bruce hall, Lyme Grove, reg. for mission 1885-97. Bruce hall, Havelock Rd., reg. by unsectarian Christians 1897-1906. (fn. 17) Attendance 1903: 241 evg. Bruce hall mission, founded as Hackney juvenile mission 1871, (fn. 18) was in Chatham Pl. c. 1908-20.

League of Helpers' hall (formerly Bethesda mission, then London Fields gospel, hall), (fn. 19) West Side, Lond. Fields, reg. by undesignated Christians 1913-46 and by London Fields fellowship 1946-64. (fn. 20)

London City Mission had Kingsland mission hall on S. side of Castle Street (later Crossway) by 1880; reg. 1930-52. (fn. 21) Attendance 1903: 71 evg. Also had hall at no. 1 Hassett Rd. by 1888; reg. 1900-13. (fn. 22) Attendance 1903: 129 evg.

Morley hall, the Triangle, Mare Street, was reg. for unsectarian worship 1901-25. (fn. 23) Attendance 1903: 175 evg. Welsh svces. also held there 1903, attendance 31 evg.

Kingsland Gospel mission was presumably at hall, no. 493 Kingsland Rd., reg. 1908-41. (fn. 24) Attendance 1903: 26 a.m., 39 evg.

Brunswick hall free gospel mission, S. side of Retreat Pl. Attendance 1903: 23 a.m., 47 evg. Closed c. 1950. (fn. 25)

Footnotes

65 Cal. S.P. Dom. 1636-7, 545; D.N.B.
66 Robinson, Hackney, ii. 302; Bk. of Common Prayer in H.A.D.
67 Calamy Revised, 227, 370; D.N.B.; Lysons, Environs, ii. 479.
68 V.C.H. Mdx. i. 251-2.
69 Calamy Revised, 457, 496; D.N.B.
70 W. Beck and T. F. Ball, Lond. Friends' Mtgs. (1869), 37.
71 Cal. S.P. Dom. 1663-4, 587.
72 Mdx. County Rec. iii. 345, 347.
73 D.N.B.
74 Orig. Rec. of Early Nonconf. ed. G. L. Turner, i. 92; ii. 957-8; iii. 91; M. R. Watts, The Dissenters (1978), 289; D.N.B. s.vv. Nye; Owen; Goodwin; Bates.
75 Early Nonconf. ed. Turner, ii. 956-7; D.N.B. s.vv. Ashurst; Vane.
76 Early Nonconf. ed. Turner, ii. 956-7; Calamy Revised, 28, 355, 433, 496.
77 P.R.O., PROB 11/316, f. 55.
78 Ibid. PROB 11/358, no. 329; PROB 11/363, f. 101; PROB 11/425, f. 46.
79 Ibid. PROB 11/330, f. 101; PROB 11/363, f. 91; PROB 11/358, no. 329.
80 Jnl. of Geo. Fox, ed. N. Penney, ii. 169, 424; Short Jnl. and Itinerary Jnls. of Geo. Fox, ed. N. Penney, 89, 305.
81 Guildhall MS. 9537/19, ff. 75, 78v., 81 sqq.
82 Calamy Revised, 153, 355; V.C.H. Mdx. i. 243; D.N.B. s.v. Morland, Sam.
83 Cal. S.P. Dom. 1682, 610.
84 Calamy Revised, 28.
85 Cal. Mdx. Sess. Bks. vii. 30, 149-50.
86 Freedom after Ejection, ed. A. Gordon, 72.
87 Robinson, Hackney, ii. 243-4; D.N.B.
88 Robinson, Hackney, ii. 245; A. R. Ruston, Unitarianism and Early Presbyterianism in Hackney (1980), 10; below, Congs.
89 R. T. Jones, Congregationalism in Eng. 1662-1962 (1962), 148.
90 Geo. Whitefield's Jnls. (1960), 276-7, 315.
91 Works of John Wesley (1872), i. 319. His retirement near Hackney in 1754 was to Bishop's Hall in Bethnal Green: ibid. ii. 317.
92 Lond. and its Environs Described, iii (1761), 121.
93 Guildhall MS. 9558; above, list of churches.
94 Guildhall MS. 9557, f. 31.
95 Ibid. 9580/1, pp. 13, 15, 56, 68, 76, 146; 9580/2, p. 41; below, Congs., Bapts.
96 Guildhall MS. 9558.
97 Robinson, Hackney, ii. 249; D.N.B.
98 Robinson, Hackney, ii. 250; below, Congs.; Unitarians.
99 Memoirs of Jos. Priestley (1809), 130.
1 V.C.H. Mdx. i. 250.
2 Para. based on T. H. Simms, Homerton Coll. 1695- 1978 (1979); Robinson, Hackney, ii. 272-3, 278-84; V.C.H. Mdx. i. 250.
3 D.N.B.
4 2nd Rep. Com. Educ. of Poor, 94-5.
5 D.N.B.
6 Simms, Homerton Coll. 12, 89-90, and illus.; Lost Hackney, 70-1.
7 Para. based on Robinson, Hackney, i. 117-19; ii. 291- 3; V.C.H. Mdx. i. 250-1.
8 D.N.B.
9 Ibid.
10 Para. based on A. Cave, Story of Founding of Hackney Coll. (1898); Robinson, Hackney, ii. 295-7, 301-2.
11 Above, list of churches; D.N.B.
12 V.C.H. Essex, vi. 226.
13 Cong. Year Bk. (1846).
14 V.C.H. Mdx. ix. 154.
15 Guildhall MSS. 9580/2-8, passim.
16 G. Hague and others, Unitarian Heritage, Architectural Surv. (1986), 9; Doctrine of the Trinity Act, 53 Geo. III, c. 160.
17 V.C.H. Mdx. i. 147.
18 Figs. for Hackney census dist. in Brit. Weekly, 19 Nov. 1886, 4, excluding City workho., chs. in Stoke Newington, and St. John's, Vartry Rd., Tottenham.
19 Figs. for Hackney census dist. in Mudie-Smith, Rel. Life, 67, 287, excluding St. John's Vartry Rd.
20 Cong. Year Bk. (1847); Trans. Cong. Hist. Soc. xx (1), 22-4, 26, 34; D.N.B.
21 Hackney Gaz. 31 July 1869, 4.
22 Figs. for Hackney census dist. in Brit. Weekly, 19 Nov. 1886, 4, excluding Stoke Newington.
23 Hackney Dir. (1872); H.A.D., TS. catalogue, D/E/234/A.
24 Para. based on lists of individual chs. below.
25 F. R. Coad, Hist. of Brethren Movement (1968), 166, 174, 222.
26 R. Collier, General Next to God (1965), 49, 56, 88; below.
27 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1902); Deliverer, June 1911, 91-2; inf. from Salv. Army International Heritage Centre.
28 Mudie-Smith, Rel. Life, 64-7.
29 Ibid. 26-7.
30 Trans. Cong. Hist. Soc. xx (12), 372.
31 Two paras. based on lists of churches below.
32 H.A.D., TS. catalogue, D/E/234/A.
33 Para. based on Robinson, Hackney, ii. 243-5; Ruston, Unitarianism and Early Presbyterianism, 2-5, 10.
34 D.N.B.
35 Para. based on Robinson, Hackney, ii. 248-50; Ruston, Unitarianism and Early Presbyterianism, 7-20; J. Davies, Acct. of Old Gravel Pit Mtg. Ho. (1853), passim.
36 H.A.D., WP 2497/1-2.
37 D.N.B.
38 Guildhall MS. 9580/1, p. 24.
39 H.A.D., WP 2497/3 (proposed elevations).
40 P.R.O., HO 129/11/4/1/9.
41 H.A.D., Y54, Vol. II, p. 15; E. Matthews, Clapton Pk. Utd. Ref. Ch. 1804-1984 (1984), 10; A. Peel, Clapton Pk. Cong. Ch. as seen in its Mins. 1804-1929 (reprint from Trans. Cong. Hist. Soc. 1929), 19.
42 e.g. Cong. Year Bk. (1875 and later edns.); Brit. Weekly, 19 Nov. 1886, p. 4a.
43 Para. based on Robinson, Hackney, ii. 245.
44 Ruston, Unitarianism and Early Presbyterianism, 2. Mtg. ho. under construction 1769: H.A.D., D/E/230/THO/13.
45 P.R.O., HO 129/11/5/1/2.
46 D.N.B.
47 P.R.O., HO 129/11/5/1/2.
48 Clarke, Hackney, plate facing p. 32.
49 Cong. Year Bk. (1878, 1879); Hackney Gaz. 11 Sept. 1869, 3.
50 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 35491.
51 Clarke, Hackney, 290 n.
52 Para. based on Robinson, Hackney, ii. 252-4; A. S. Aveling, Memories of Kingsland (1887), 7-12, 31-35.
53 Guildhall MS. 9580/1, p. 76.
54 Ibid. 8 Oct. 1794.
55 Ibid. 3, 25 Feb. 1808.
56 D.N.B.
57 P.R.O., HO 129/11/3/1/6.
58 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 55; further reg. 1861: ibid. no. 11656.
59 G.L.R.O., M79/TA/15, no. 2.
60 Cong. Year Bk. (1853).
61 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1947, 1952); G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 52646.
62 A. Mearns, Guide to Cong. Chs. of Lond. (1884), 65; Cong. Year Bk. (1881 and later edns.). Dunn Street mission later said to have originated in 1848.
63 Para. based on S. C. Tongue, 'One Hundred and Seventy Years On' (TS. 1971 in H.A.D.); Peel, Clapton Pk. Cong. Ch.; Matthews, Clapton Pk. Utd. Ref. Ch. passim.
64 Cong. Year Bk. (1872); reg. by Congs. 'being Paedobaptists': G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 20098.
65 List of Bldgs. (1975); above, plate 54.
66 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 15781; Old O.S. Map Lond. 14 (1870).
67 Cong. Year Bk. (1894); G.R.O. Worship Reg. nos. 25812, 37035.
68 Cong. Year Bk. (1894 and later edns.); G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 16417.
69 Cong. Year Bk. (1883 and later edns.); H.A.D., Y54, vol. IV, p. 19. Reg. only in 1899: G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 37036.
70 Robinson, Hackney, ii. 245.
71 Starling's Map (1831); Guildhall MS. 9580/2, p. 146.
72 H.A.D., P 12492.
73 P.R.O., HO 129/11/5/1/3.
74 Old O.S. Map Lond. 41 (1870).
75 Para. based on Robinson, Hackney, ii. 251; Upper Clapton Cong. Ch. 1812-1962 (booklet in H.A.D.), passim.
76 Guildhall MS. 9580/4, 23 Apr. 1813.
77 P.R.O., HO 129/11/2/1/2.
78 Cong. Year Bk. (1853); H.A.D., Album I, p. 86.
79 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 65653; inf. from ch. sec.
80 Cong. Year Bk. (1894 and later edns.).
81 Para. based on Robinson, Hackney, ii. 256-7.
82 Guildhall MS. 9580/7, p. 78.
83 H.A.D., P 987 (from lithograph c. 1840).
84 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1907 and later edns.); Old O.S. Maps Lond. 41 (1913).
85 Para. based on P.R.O., HO 129/11/5/1/3.
86 Guildhall MS. 9580/8, p. 286.
87 Cong. Year Bk. (1862, 1863); below, Bapts.; other denom.
88 Para. based on Cong. Year Bk. (1847 and later edns.); Mearns, Guide to Cong. Chs. 16.
89 Guildhall MS. 9580/8, p. 307; P.R.O., HO 129/11/4/1/10.
90 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 9404.
91 Para. based on Mearns, Guide to Cong. Chs. 14; H.A.D., D/E/233/LOW/1.
92 H.A.D., P 1054.
93 P.R.O., HO 129/11/4/1/8.
94 Para. based on Cong. Year Bk. (1863 and later edns.).
95 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 16315.
96 H.A.D., Y54, vol. IV, p. 20.
97 Clarke, Hackney, 302 n.
98 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 56988; H.A.D., D/E/LOW/5.
99 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 24219.
1 Ibid. nos. 9483, 35958; below, other denom.
2 e.g. in Harris and Bryant, Chs. and Lond. 394; not listed in Cong. Year Bk.
3 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1935, 1938).
4 Hackney Gaz. 18 Dec. 1869, 3; H.A.D., D/E 233 CAM.
5 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 19990.
6 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1901, 1902); G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 38769.
7 Para. based on Cong. Year Bk. (1864 and later edns.); H.A.D., D/E 233 CAM.
8 Mearns, Guide to Cong. Chs. 20.
9 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 17291.
10 H.A.D., P 12122.
11 Trans. Cong. Hist. Soc. xx. 372.
12 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 42202.
13 Above, social.
14 Para. based on Cong. Year Bk. (1871 and later edns.).
15 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 34619; below, Presbs.
16 Terrier, Summer 1992; H.A.D., D/E 233 CAM; below, other denom.
17 Para. based on Cong. Year Bk. (1894 and later edns.).
18 P.O. Dir. Lond. County Suburbs, North (1880); A. Mearns, Lond. Cong. Dir. (1883), 35.
19 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 33995.
20 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1940 and later edns.).
21 Para. based on Cong. Year Bk. (1865 and later edns.); H.A.D., TS. catalogue, D/E/233/REC; D/E/233/REC/2/1.
22 V.C.H. Mdx. viii. 213; Mearns, Guide to Cong. Chs. 38.
23 G.R.O. Worship Reg. nos. 26165, 30486.
24 Ibid. no. 65147; H.A.D., D/E/233/REC/9/9; inf. from min.
25 Para. based on J. Bristow, Stamford Hill Cong. Ch. 1871-1971; Cong. Year Bk. (1871 and later edns.).
26 H.A.D., Y54, vol. IV, p.21; a 'Cong. cathedral': Clarke, Hackney, 225.
27 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 20460.
28 Inf. from ch. sec.
29 Ibid.
30 V.C.H. Mdx. v. 362.
31 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 23985; P.O. Dir. Lond. County Suburbs, North (1880 and later edns.).
32 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 30341.
33 Para. based on Cong. Year Bk. (1926 and later edns.).
34 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 38769.
35 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1973).
36 H.A.D., D/E 233 CAM.
37 Guildhall MS. 9580/1, p. 13.
38 Ibid. 9580/1, p. 56.
39 Ibid. 9580/1, p. 68.
40 Ibid. 9580/1, p. 146.
41 Ibid. 9580/2, p. 41.
42 Ibid. 9580/3, 4 Jan. 1812.
43 Ibid. 9580/5, 8 Nov. 1820.
44 Ibid. 9580/6, pp. 16-17.
45 Ibid. 9580/6, p. 214.
46 Ibid. 9580/7, p. 128.
47 Ibid. 9580/7, p. 138.
48 Ibid. 9580/7, p. 153.
49 Ibid. 9580/7, p. 252.
50 Ibid. 9580/8, p. 26.
51 Ibid. 9580/8, p. 59.
52 Ibid. 9580/8, p. 135.
53 Ibid. 9580/8, p. 155.
54 Ibid. 9580/3, 22 Oct. 1811.
55 Ibid. 9580/4, 18 Oct. 1816.
56 Ibid. 9580/5, 5 Aug. 1820.
57 Ibid. 9580/5, 30 June 1821.
58 Ibid. 9580/6, p. 67.
59 Ibid. 9580/6, p. 137.
60 Ibid. 9580/6, p. 158.
61 Ibid. 9580/6, pp. 247-8, 264-5.
62 Ibid. 9580/6, p. 282.
63 Ibid. 9580/7, pp. 57, 77.
64 Ibid. 9580/8, pp. 257, 284.
65 Ibid. 9580/9, p. 78.
66 Para. based on J. Ivimey, Hist. Eng. Bapts. iv (1830), 405-6; C. M. Moore-Crispin, Ter-Jubilee Memories of Mare Street Bapt. Ch. 1798-1948.
67 E. F. Kevan, Lond.'s Oldest Bapt. Ch. (1933), 103.
68 1803 according to min.'s return 1851: P.R.O., HO 129/11/5/1/4.
69 H.A.D., P 12077/1-2 (pencil sketch of 'Bapt. chapel, Shore Place' [sic]).
70 P.R.O., HO 129/11/5/1/4.
71 D.N.B.
72 H.A.D., P 12554-5; Y54, Vol. II, p. 15; above, plate 58.
73 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 8270.
74 W. T. Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. (1928), 141, 279.
75 Para. based on Ibid. 150, 279.
76 Guildhall MS. 9580/3, 28 Aug. 1822.
77 P.R.O., HO 129/11/4/1/12.
78 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1959, 1964).
79 Para. based on Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 106.
80 Robinson, Hackney, ii. 251.
81 P.R.O., HO 129/11/3/1/7.
82 V.C.H. Mdx. viii. 214. Wellington Rd. chapel briefly reg. again by Bapts. 1888-9: G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 30885; later W. Hackney synagogue (below, Judaism).
83 Guildhall MS. 9580/8, p. 302; below, Meths. (Pembury Grove).
84 Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 176.
85 Ibid. 191.
86 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 22510.
87 Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 216.
88 Ibid. 193.
89 Above, Congs.; G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 35365.
90 Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 280.
91 Tower to Tower Block, no. 33; below, Pentecostals.
92 Para. based on Whitley, Bapts of Lond. 195, 279.
93 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 34579.
94 H.A.D., P 10368.
95 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1948, 1949).
96 Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 195; Old O.S. Map Lond. 41 (1870).
97 Ibid. 197; P.O. Dir. Lond. County Suburbs, North (1894, 1898).
98 Earlier reg. by Free Eng. Ch.: below, this section.
99 Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 200.
1 Para. based on ibid. 205, 279.
2 Hackney Gaz. 13 Nov. 1869, 3.
3 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 21096.
4 Hackney Gaz. 9 Oct. 1869, 3; Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 205.
5 Below, other denom.; Old O.S. Map Lond. 41 (1870).
6 Para. based on Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 207, 279; Downs Chapel, Diamond Jubilee Programme (1929).
7 A. C. Underwood, Hist. of Eng. Bapts. (1947), 207 n.
8 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 19259; Hackney Gaz. 18 Sept. 1869, 4; datestone.
9 Reg. 1886-1923: ibid. no. 29388. The same or a neighbouring mission was also reg. 1901-25: ibid. no. 38571.
10 Earlier reg. by Free Eng. Ch.; below, this section.
11 Hackney Gaz. 5 June 1875, 4.
12 Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 224, 280.
13 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 38110.
14 Mudie-Smith, Rel. Life, 64; P.O. Dir Lond. County Suburbs (1911, 1912).
15 P.O. Dir. Lond. County Suburbs, North (1894).
16 Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 258, 280; Harris and Bryant, Chs. and Lond. 393
17 P.O. Dir. Lond. County Suburbs, North (1894); G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 37938.
18 Whitley, Bapts. of Lond. 255, 280.
19 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1946, 1947).
20 Bapt. Union Dir. (1988-9); G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 65049; datestone.
21 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 69122.
22 Guildhall MS. 9580/3, 15 Feb. 1812.
23 Ibid. 9580/4, 27 Feb., 5 Aug. 1817.
24 Ibid. 9580/5, 22 Feb., 12 Aug. 1819.
25 Ibid. 9580/7, p. 240.
26 Ibid. 9580/8, pp. 91, 215.
27 Ibid. 9580/8, p. 242.
28 Ibid. 9580/8, p. 293.
29 Para. based on Robinson, Hackney, ii. 255-6.
30 Above, Bapts. (Mare Street).
31 Para. based on Robinson, Hackney, ii. 254.
32 Guildhall MS. 9580/4, 2 Oct. 1816.
33 P.R.O., HO 129/11/3/1/5.
34 Hackney Gaz. 5 June 1875, 3; Meth. Recorder, 9 Oct. 1902, 15; Clarke, Hackney, 230.
35 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 66779; Meth. Statistical Return, i. 8.
36 Guildhall MS. 9580/4, 10 Nov. 1817.
37 P.R.O., HO 129/11/2/1/3.
38 Guildhall MS. 9580/7, p. 155.
39 Ibid. 9580/8, p. 224; P.R.O., HO 129/11/3/1/4.
40 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 1797.
41 H.A.D., TS. catalogue, D/E/234/A.
42 Guildhall MS. 9580/8, p. 271; P.R.O., HO 129/11/4/1/7.
43 H.A.D., Album I, p. 9.
44 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 3990.
45 H.A.D., TS. catalogue, D/E/234/A; below, Judaism.
46 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 8987.
47 Ibid. nos. 11780, 34665.
48 When used as synagogue, 1987.
49 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 64951; below, Judaism.
50 Hackney Dir. (1872).
51 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 16917.
52 Hackney Dir. (1872); O.S. Map 1/2,500, Lond. XVIII (1873 edn.).
53 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1935, 1938).
54 Para. based on Clapton Pk. Meth. Ch. 1865-1965 (booklet in H.A.D.); H.A.D., TS. catalogue, D/E/234/A.
55 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 16648.
56 H.A.D., Album I, pp. 41-3, 49; Meth. Recorder, 9 Oct. 1902, 13.
57 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 55314.
58 Meth. Statistical Return. i. 7.
59 Para. based on H.A.D., TS. catalogue, D/E/234/A.
60 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 16723.
61 Meth. Recorder, 9 Oct. 1902, p. 13.
62 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 64476.
63 H.A.D., 234 DAL (2) P (cutting).
64 Meth. Statistical Return. i. 7.
65 O.S. Map 1/10,000, TQ 38 SW. (1979 edn.).
66 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 17636.
67 H.A.D., TS. catalogue, D/E/234/A.
68 Ibid.; G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 57812.
69 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 20666.
70 Meth. Recorder, 9 Oct. 1902, 14.
71 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1940, 1946).
72 H.A.D., TS. catalogue, D/E/234/A; G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 29087. Attendance figs. for 2 Wes. chapels at Hackney Wick are in Brit. Weekly, 19 Nov. 1886, p. 4.
73 Para. based on H.A.D., TS. catalogue, D/E/234/A.
74 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 28043.
75 Ibid. nos. 30322, 66665.
76 H.A.D., Y54, Vol. IV, p. 21.
77 Above, Rom. Cathm.
78 Brit. Weekly, 19 Nov. 1886, p. 4.
79 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 31061.
80 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1950, 1951).
81 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 31090.
82 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1951, 1952).
83 P.O. Dir. Lond. County Suburbs, North (1894, 1898).
84 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 41327.
85 Datestone.
86 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 50693.
87 Meth. Statistical Return. i. 8.
88 Para. based on After Twenty-Five Years. Ann. Rep. of Hackney Meth. Mission 1925-50; New Central Hall, Programme of Stone-Laying 1924 (photocopy in H.A.D.); H.A.D., TS. catalogue, D/E/234/A.
89 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 49891.
90 Meth. Statistical Return. i. 7.
91 Hackney Gaz. 12 Apr. 1979, 1; 17 Sept. 1982, 4.
92 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 66665.
93 Meth. Statistical Return. i. 7.
94 Para. based on A. R. Ruston, Unitarianism and Early Presbyterianism in Hackney, 23-4, 30-8.
95 P.R.O., HO 129/11/4/1/13, which says chapel blt. 1812.
96 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 8264.
97 H.A.D., P 10510.
98 V.C.H. Mdx. viii. 213.
99 D.N.B.
1 Ibid.
2 Jnl. of Christian Brethren Research Fellowship, xxi. 34, 42 n.; F. R. Coad, Hist. of Brethren Movement (1968), 159, 166; D.N.B. s.v. Gosse.
3 P.R.O., HO 129/11/4/1/11.
4 D. J. Beattie, Brethren, Story of a Great Recovery (1940), 80.
5 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 17266.
6 Beattie, Brethren, 80, 82.
7 Ibid. 84; G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 50452.
8 Jnl. of Christian Brethren Research Fellowship, xxi. 34; G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 62766.
9 Beattie, Brethren, 82; Coad, Hist. Brethren, 174.
10 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 32721.
11 Following accounts of Brethren's halls based on P.O. Dirs. Lond., Lond. Suburban, North, and Lond. County Suburbs (1880 and later edns.).
12 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 69947.
13 Ibid. nos. 31334, 36282.
14 Below, undenom.
15 Harris and Bryant, Chs. and Lond. 393.
16 Ibid.
17 G.R.O. Worship Reg. nos. 43562, 45083, 45659.
18 Ibid. no. 46123.
19 V.C.H. Mdx. viii. 104; H.A.D., TS. catalogue, D/E/233/MAB/1.
20 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 48656.
21 Ibid. no. 63565.
22 G.R.O. Worship Reg. nos. 8869, 11959.
23 V.C.H. Mdx. iii. 80.
24 Above, Bapts.
25 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 14238.
26 Ibid. no. 16320; P.O. Dir. Lond. County Suburbs, North (1880, 1884).
27 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 24249.
28 Ibid. no. 33080.
29 Ibid. no. 34575.
30 Ibid. no. 37880.
31 Ibid. no. 54980.
32 Terrier, Summer 1992; G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 15488; above, Congs.
33 Below, other denom.
34 G.R.O. Worship Reg. nos. 21047, 23385.
35 Hackney Dir. (1872), which says built 1871; datestone has 1863.
36 H.A.D., Y54, Vol. II, pp. 21, 23.
37 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 56988; below, other denom.
38 Hackney Gaz. 2 Jan. 1875, 1.
39 P.O. Dir. Lond. County Suburbs, North (1894).
40 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 35491.
41 Clarke, Hackney, 290 n.
42 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 5288.
43 Ibid. no. 7556.
44 Hackney Gaz. 7 Apr. 1977, 4.
45 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 26277.
46 The Times, 15 May 1882, 8f.
47 D.N.B. s.vv. Booth, Cath.; Booth, Wm.; H. V. Rohu, 'Short Hist. of Congress Hall (TS. in H.A.D.).
48 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 72274; War Cry, 25 July 1970, 7
49 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 25304.
50 Ibid. no. 43303.
51 Ibid. no. 25559.
52 Ibid. no. 30845.
53 Ibid. no. 31755.
54 Ibid. no. 44403.
55 Ibid. no. 33405.
56 Ibid. no. 33422.
57 Ibid. no. 33739.
58 P.O. Dir. Lond. County Suburbs, North (1894).
59 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 34922.
60 Ibid. no. 36923.
61 Ibid. no. 39986.
62 Ibid. nos. 43267, 66451. War Cry, 5 Oct. 1957, 3
63 H.A.D., D/F/BAG/1, p. 103; Kelly's Dir. Stoke Newington, Stamford Hill, and Clapton (1909-10, 1921, 1922); P.O. Dir. Lond. (1950).
64 G.L.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 44789.
65 Ibid. no. 49826.
66 Ibid. no. 56174.
67 Ibid. no. 61699.
68 Para. based on Hackney Gaz. 8 May 1875, 3.
69 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 22959; List of Bldgs. (1988).
70 Above, pub. svces.
71 Below, Pentecostals.
72 Para. based on Cathedral Ch. of the Good Shepherd (booklet c. 1953 in H.A.D.); D. McCormick, Temple of Love (1962), 69-70, 169; C. Mander, Revd. Prince and his Abode of Love (1976), 134, 137-8.
73 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 35401.
74 V.C.H. Som. vi. 124.
75 Not recorded in Mudie-Smith, Rel. Life. The Agapemone in Som. became a girls' reformatory in 1920s: Mander, Revd. Prince, 141. Above, plates 53 and 56.
76 H.A.D., H/LD 7/24, pp. 182, 193-4.
77 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 60684.
78 Ibid. nos. 62429, 73206, 73619, 73788.
79 Ibid. no. 51153; Tower to Tower Block, no. 33.
80 G.R.O. Worship Reg. nos. 68059, 68066-8, 77948.
81 Ibid. no. 71889; inf. from Revd. W. P. Ryan.
82 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 74716.
83 Ibid. no. 74803.
84 Hackney Gaz. 20 Apr. 1979, 10.
85 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 76175.
86 Inf. from Bp. R. Thomas; ch. reg. 1983: G.R.O., Worship Reg. no. 76317.
87 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 77459
88 Ibid. no. 9472
89 Ibid. no. 15707
90 Ibid. no. 16412; Hackney Gaz. 11 Sept. 1869, 1; 25 Sept. 1869, 4
91 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 23104.
92 Ibid. no. 30310.
93 Ibid. no. 31251.
94 Ibid. no. 35958.
95 Cong. Year Bk. (1895); B. Burke and K Worpole, Hackney Propaganda (1980), 31.
96 Above, Congs.
97 G.R.O. Worship Reg. nos. 33550, 34580; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1901, 1903)
98 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 44580.
99 P.O. Dir Lond. County Suburbs (1911-15).
1 G.R.O. Worship Reg. nos. 59734, 70844.
2 Ibid. no. 64243.
3 Ibid. no. 68862.
4 Ibid. no. 69522.
5 H.A.D., P 4877-9; P.O. Dir. Lond. (1969, 1970).
6 G.R.O. Worship reg. nos. 76563, 77190.
7 Ibid. no. 76929.
8 Ibid. no. 21929.
9 Ibid. no. 22252.
10 Para. based on C. M. Gardner, 'Old Gravel Pit Sick and Provident Soc.' (TS. 1972 in H.A.D.).
11 Hackney Gaz. 24 Apr. 1875, 3.
12 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 22427.
13 e.g. Cong. Year Bk. (1875 and later edns.). Williams did not use the term 'Congregational'.
14 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 36547.
15 H.A.D., D/S/22/69.
16 Clarke, Hackney, 291 n.; Hackney and Stoke Newington Past, 74.
17 G.R.O. Worship Reg. nos. 28709, 36344.
18 Burdett's Hosp. Annual (1910)
19 Above, Brethren.
20 G.R.O. Worship Reg. nos. 45653, 61500.
21 Ibid. no. 52379.
22 Ibid. no. 37760.
23 Ibid. no. 38580.
24 Ibid. no. 43221.
25 P.O. Dir. Lond. (1949, 1950).