Allerthorpe

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Victoria County History

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K J Allison (Editor), A P Baggs, G H R Kent, J D Purdy

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1976

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133-140

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'Allerthorpe', A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 3: Ouse and Derwent wapentake, and part of Harthill wapentake (1976), pp. 133-140. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=23016 Date accessed: 30 August 2014.


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WILTON BEACON DIVISION (Western Part)

ALLERTHORPE

The Village of Allerthorpe lies about 13 miles east of York, just south of the main York-Hull road. (fn. 1) The largely depopulated village of Waplington is less than a mile to the south-west of Allerthorpe and close to Stone beck. Allerthorpe's name suggests a subsidiary Scandinavian settlement, but Waplington was apparently Anglian. (fn. 2) The parish, which is roughly lozenge-shaped, has an area of 2,391 a., of which Waplington accounts for 812 a. (fn. 3) In 1935 the civil parishes of Allerthorpe and Waplington were united. (fn. 4)

The more southerly parts of the parish lie at less than 50 ft. above sea-level, but the ground rises to 75 ft. at the northern parish boundary. Allerthorpe village is on the higher ground, and Waplington was probably similarly located. The soils of the parish are based upon sand and gravel deposits. (fn. 5) Allerthorpe's open fields lay on the higher ground around the village, where narrow curving closes still reflect their inclosure by agreement in 1640. (fn. 6) Waplington apparently had its own open fields until the inclosure of 1774, but their location is obscure. Much of the outlying western part of the parish, including some of the higher ground, has always been uncultivated; this waste land was encroached upon in both townships, and virtually disappeared at Waplington in the late 18th century. (fn. 7) Nevertheless, over 400 a. of 'bare land and felled woodland' survived into the 1960s in Allerthorpe, (fn. 8) when it was replanted by the Forestry Commission. A 15-acre nature reserve was established there in 1965. (fn. 9) Only 23 a. beside a former outgang leading from the village remained as common land in 1974. (fn. 10) The meadow land of the parish lay alongside Pocklington beck.

Drainage has long been a problem in the more low-lying parts of the parish. In 1415 frequent flooding, presumably on the road through Allerthorpe and Waplington to the mother-church of Pocklington, was held to justify the granting of burial rights to Thornton. (fn. 11) The streams and dikes of the parish formerly drained into Pocklington beck, which constituted the eastern boundary, but in 1818 the Pocklington canal was completed along the beck's course. (fn. 12) Part of the canal and one of its locks lie just within the parish boundary.

Allerthorpe is situated on a minor road which branches from the York-Hull road and crosses the parish in a south-westerly direction towards Thornton and Melbourne. In the west of the parish two minor roads cross the common. The York-Hull road, which runs along the north-eastern parish boundary and gives access to the neighbouring parishes of Pocklington and Barmby Moor, follows the course of a Roman road. Its repair between Barmby and Hayton was one of the objects of an indulgence granted in 1480. (fn. 13) It was turnpiked in 1764 and the trust was renewed until 1881; (fn. 14) two milestones from this period no longer survive. The road was widened and realigned in the 1950s and 1960s. (fn. 15)

Pocklington airfield (fn. 16) extended across the main road into Allerthorpe. The land and buildings adjoining the road have been used for commercial purposes in recent years, (fn. 17) and other airfield buildings have been converted to farm uses or demolished.

Allerthorpe village street is flanked by wide grass verges which virtually constitute a small green. (fn. 18) The church stands at one end, and at the other the street turns abruptly to become the Melbourne road. A back lane behind the garths on the north side of the village joins the street at both ends. The village consists mainly of small 18th- and 19thcentury houses, but it also includes the larger Gables farm-house and a Victorian parsonage. Since the Second World War houses have been built beyond the church, in the back lane, and alongside the Melbourne road, among them eight council houses. There were two licensed alehouses in Allerthorpe in 1755 but later only one. (fn. 19) The Plough was mentioned from 1823 (fn. 20) and is still the only public house in the village.

The former Allerthorpe Hall, a large brick and slate house of three storeys, stands in its own grounds in the angle between the village street and the Melbourne road. The present house was largely built between 1802 and 1809 by Charles Stanley on the site of an 18th-century house (fn. 21) and was substantially enlarged to the east and west during the 19th century. It was known as the Lodge until c. 1850. (fn. 22) It was used as a boarding school in the 1870s, (fn. 23) and T. W. Calverley-Rudston lived there from 1878 to 1915. (fn. 24) It was divided into a number of dwellings in the 1950s. (fn. 25)

A small estate in Allerthorpe belonged to the Prickett family, (fn. 26) who were also rectorial lessees, (fn. 27) and in 1672 they had the largest house in the village, with seven hearths. (fn. 28) The house was apparently that now known as the Gables. It originated as a 17thcentury brick building with a main range and a cross-wing extending towards the street at the east end. In the 18th century a similar cross-wing was added at the west end. New windows were put into the street front and there was some internal remodelling in the early 19th century, but much of this was swept away in major alterations in the 1880s, (fn. 29) when the garden front was rebuilt and the roof on that side heightened. The house was bought in 1947 by James O'Gram, who later purchased the manor. (fn. 30)

The few outlying houses in Allerthorpe include Manor Farm to the west of the village, Low, formerly Home, Farm, which was part of the Waplington Hall estate, (fn. 31) and Chicory Farm, where that crop was presumably grown. A few scattered houses have been built near the York-Hull road at different times.

Apart from Waplington Hall (fn. 32) only Manor Farm and a lodge remain at the probable site of Waplington village. The present Manor Farm is a mid-19thcentury building; an earlier house stands near by and was disused in 1973. Warren House and a few cottages lie at some distance from the hall.

Fifty-nine people in Allerthorpe paid the poll tax of 1377. (fn. 33) The hearth-tax assessment of 1672 listed 31 households in the township; of the 27 that were chargeable 19 had only a single hearth, 6 had 2 or 3, and the other 2 had 5 and 7 hearths. (fn. 34) There were 27 families in the parish in 1743 and 1764. (fn. 35) In 1801 the population of Allerthorpe township was 125; it fluctuated during the rest of the century, rising to 172 in 1871, and stood at 117 in 1901. (fn. 36) It had risen to 163 by 1921 but fell to 137 in 1931. In 1951 Allerthorpe and Waplington together had a population of 240, and there were 178 inhabitants in 1971. (fn. 37)

Waplington had 15 poll-tax payers in 1377. (fn. 38) The township was apparently badly hit by the Black Death, for its tax assessment was reduced by about 40 per cent in 1354; in 1446 the reduction stood at 25 per cent. (fn. 39) In 1584 7 men attended the muster from Waplington. (fn. 40) There were 13 households in 1672, of which 4 were exempt from the hearth tax and the rest had one hearth each. (fn. 41) The population increased from 11 in 1801 to 58 in 1861, but fell to 30 in 1901. (fn. 42) There were 63 inhabitants in 1921 and 49 in 1931. (fn. 43)

William Dewsbury (1621-88), Quaker preacher and author, was born at Allerthorpe. (fn. 44)

MANORS AND OTHER ESTATES.

In 1086 the king had 6 carucates at Allerthorpe as soke of his manor of Pocklington. (fn. 45) By 1185 the estate had been granted by Richard de Moreville to the Knights Templars, (fn. 46) and by 1250 the order had also acquired 6 bovates in Waplington by the gift of William son of Roger of Waplington and Simon the archer. (fn. 47) Following the Templars' suppression in 1312 the manor of ALLERTHORPE, together with the Waplington holding, was transferred to the Knights Hospitallers. (fn. 48)

On the eve of the Dissolution the order leased the manor to John Manners for 30 years. (fn. 49) The Hospitallers briefly regained the property from the Crown in 1558. (fn. 50) For much of Elizabeth I's reign Allerthorpe was in the hands of lessees. (fn. 51) In 1587 the property, consisting of 12 bovates, 2 closes, and some meadow, was let to Robert Myers. (fn. 52) Despite a grant to Edmund Downing and Roger Rante in 1590 (fn. 53) the manor had passed by 1608 to Robert Myers. From 1625 Thomas Myers held it, described as the manor of Allerthorpe with Waplington in 1629. It was perhaps another Thomas Myers who was lord in the 1650s and a third of the same name whose guardians held the property in the 1670s. (fn. 54) The last-mentioned may have been the Thomas Myers who was lord of the manor from 1696 to 1717; he was succeeded by his son Jeremiah by 1719. (fn. 55)

By his will dated 1723 Jeremiah devised the manor to John Idle and William Cookson in trust; (fn. 56) the surviving Myers heir released her rights to Frances Idle, sister of John, in 1766. (fn. 57) Frances died the following year, whereupon the Idle inheritance passed to the Revd. Zachary Suger, son of Frances's cousin Anne Idle. In 1770 Zachary was succeeded by his sisters Martha Suger (d. c. 1773), Elizabeth Suger (d. c. 1782), and Jane Wilmer (d. 1806). (fn. 58) Jane passed the manor to her son-in-law Joshua Field in 1792. (fn. 59) Field's son John Wilmer Field died in 1837 seised of the manor and was succeeded by his daughter Delia and her husband Arthur Duncombe. (fn. 60)

In 1841 the manor consisted of 938 a., including the common. (fn. 61) In 1844 135 a. were sold to Robert Denison, (fn. 62) and a further 100 a. were disposed of in 1897. (fn. 63) Arthur Duncombe (d. 1889) was succeeded by his son C. W. Duncombe, (fn. 64) whose brother G. A. Duncombe was lord in 1913. (fn. 65) In 1919 B. A. C. Duncombe sold Manor farm, comprising 250 a., to H. E. Stubbins, and the manor and Allerthorpe common, amounting to 403 a., to Henry Whitworth. (fn. 66) Manor farm was still held by the Stubbins family in 1973. The manor and common were sold by H. P. Whitworth to James O'Gram in 1954. (fn. 67) In 1961 the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food bought 371 a. of the common. (fn. 68)

Although a manor-house was referred to in the 16th-century grants (fn. 69) and a house formed part of the Hospitallers' estate, (fn. 70) its location is unknown. The five-hearth house occupied by Henry Johnson, husband of the widowed Judith Myers, in 1672 was possibly the manor-house, (fn. 71) and Manor Farm may stand on its site.

The relationship of the main estate at Allerthorpe with that held of the Mowbray family is not clear. By the early 13th century Robert de Maluvel held 3 carucates in Allerthorpe as tenant of Niel de Mowbray. (fn. 72) John de Mowbray, returned as lord of Allerthorpe and Waplington in 1316, (fn. 73) died c. 1327, when his lands included ALLERTHORPE manor as ¼ knight's fee; his heir was his son John. The site of a manor-house was mentioned c. 1327. (fn. 74)

The king had 2 carucates at Waplington in 1086 as soke of Pocklington manor, (fn. 75) but by 1198 John le Poer had been granted 2½ carucates there, which he held with land elsewhere by the service of providing an archer for the defence of York castle. (fn. 76) Thenceforth the estate descended, like another at Barmby Moor, (fn. 77) in the Poer, Chamberlain, Crepping, and Stodowe families. (fn. 78)

Poer's Waplington holding was divided in the late 12th and early 13th centuries. (fn. 79) The largest part, comprising 12 bovates, was granted by John le Poer to John son of Henry of Fishergate, and he or another of his family conveyed it to Drax priory (Yorks. W.R.), to be held of Poer and his heirs. (fn. 80) In 1275-6 the prior was paying 2s. rent to Robert de Crepping. (fn. 81) About 1339 John of Hook granted the house a further 2 bovates in Waplington, held of John de Mowbray. (fn. 82) Drax retained its estate until at least the 1370s, when the prior took action against the lessee for waste; (fn. 83) the house's connection with Waplington was apparently severed before the Dissolution.

The Drax estate probably passed to the Percy family: in 1389 Henry Percy, created earl of Northumberland, was holding 2 carucates in Waplington of Denise Stodowe, and the custody of Robert Stodowe's inheritance in the township and elsewhere was subsequently granted to Henry Percy, the earl's son. (fn. 84) Waplington was forfeited to the Crown by the Percys in 1405 but restored to them in 1416. (fn. 85) In 1455 Henry Percy's lands included WAPLINGTON manor. (fn. 86) The estate, held in chief by 1489, (fn. 87) was conveyed to the Crown by Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland (d. 1537), along with his other northern estates, in 1537. (fn. 88)

The descent thereafter is confused. As a member of Pocklington manor Waplington was allegedly granted to Thomas Bishop during Henry VIII's reign. (fn. 89) After July 1553 Bishop complained of dispossession by his erstwhile steward Thomas Doweman, who with Christopher Estofte certainly secured a royal grant of the property in that month. (fn. 90) The Doweman, or Dolman, and Bishop families were apparently intermittently in dispute over Waplington for the rest of the century, (fn. 91) and c. 1590 Thomas Dolman was taking the issues of property in Waplington which was held to belong to the Crown by Thomas Bishop's attainder. (fn. 92) A licence for another Thomas Bishop to grant rents there to Marmaduke Dolman in 1628 may represent the end of the affair. (fn. 93) Sir Robert Dolman was dealing in the manor in 1625. (fn. 94) The Crown later seized part of it for Thomas Dolman's recusancy but let the property to him from 1629. (fn. 95) The manor was sequestrated by the Commonwealth and sold in 1653 to Edward Tooke, (fn. 96) but it was apparently regained by the Dolmans shortly afterwards. (fn. 97)

Under the terms of an Act of 1765, (fn. 98) which enabled some of Robert Dolman's estates to be sold to clear the family's debts and provide for its younger members, Waplington manor was conveyed to George Ewbank and Samuel Waud in 1769; Ewbank sold his interest to Waud in 1772. In 1775 the property passed to Henry Egerton and in 1776 to Samuel Crompton. The latter sold it to Thomas Chatterton and John Ball in 1788, and the manor was consequently divided into moieties in 1790. Purchases of 1804 reunited the property in the hands of Charles Stanley, who sold it to Robert Cockburn in 1831. Cockburn's tenure was short, ending in 1837 with a sale to Robert Denison of Kilnwick Percy, (fn. 99) who retained the property until at least 1856. (fn. 1) The manor was subsequently held by the Haffenden family, (fn. 2) before its acquisition by George Walker in 1882. (fn. 3)

In 1914 Walker's trustees sold Waplington to Walter Cliff. (fn. 4) A. F. Burton acquired the manor, Waplington Hall, and three farms, in all comprising 914 a. in Waplington and Allerthorpe, from Cliff's executors in 1920. (fn. 5) The property has since been divided. The hall was sold by A. C. Burton in 1950 and thereafter converted into separate dwellings. (fn. 6) In 1972 Burton sold the 334-acre Manor farm to John Huxtable, but in 1973 his trustees still retained over 500 a. (fn. 7)

A house on the Drax estate was referred to in the 1370s. (fn. 8) No large house at Waplington was mentioned in the hearth-tax assessment of 1672. (fn. 9) A map of 1839 shows no house, but Stonehouse croft lay close to a garth on the site of the later hall. (fn. 10) In 1846 Waplington Manor was described as a large mansion about four years old. (fn. 11) The house, which had been renamed Waplington Hall by 1856, (fn. 12) was surrounded by a park with a large lake. (fn. 13) It is a large and irregular building of brick and slate.

Wilberfoss priory held 2 bovates in Waplington by serjeanty in 1250. (fn. 14) A 2-bovate estate in Allerthorpe, held by Thicket priory of the Hospitallers at the Dissolution, was granted by the Crown to Henry Jones c. 1560. (fn. 15)

After 1252 Allerthorpe rectory belonged to the dean of York. (fn. 16) The tithes of corn and hay in Allerthorpe township were let to George Hall, farmer of the manor, in 1560 for 43 years, and his successors as lords of the manor leased them for lives from 1596. (fn. 17) They were worth £51 a year in 1650, when the wool and lamb tithes yielded about £13. (fn. 18) The tithes were commuted in 1839 for £185, including £30 for those of wool and lambs. (fn. 19) The 2-bovate rectorial glebe, first mentioned in 1593, was apparently let separately in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, (fn. 20) but from 1616 onwards it was usually included in the lease of the Waplington tithes. Leases for lives were adopted in the mid 17th century, and the Prickett family farmed these properties in the 17th and early 18th centuries. (fn. 21) They were followed as impropriators in the 1730s by the Revd. Leonard Ash. (fn. 22) In 1759 the lease passed to the Clark family, as relatives of Elizabeth Ash, (fn. 23) and the Clark trustees were still farming the tithes in 1839. (fn. 24) The corn and hay tithes of Waplington were worth £14 a year in 1650, the wool and lamb tithes £3 10s. (fn. 25) In 1839 the dean was awarded £61 for the Waplington tithes. (fn. 26) The rectory was vested in the Ecclesiastical Commissioners in 1844. (fn. 27)

ECONOMIC HISTORY.

By 1185 the Templars had let 5 of the 6 carucates they held at Allerthorpe. (fn. 28) Their tenants' obligations included carrying services to the order's properties at York, Faxfleet, and Weedley. (fn. 29) In 1327 the demesne lands of the Mowbray manor of Allerthorpe consisted of 16 a. sown with 'winter seed' and 19 a. with 'summer seed', as well as some fallow land and 6 a. of meadow. There were few tenants on the manor; 4 bondsmen paid 6s. for 4 bovates of land, and about 10s. was received from free tenants and 4 tenantsat-will. (fn. 30) The Hospitallers' manor had 310 a. of demesne in 1338, and its tenants' rents were valued at about £9, including 4s. for works. (fn. 31) The demesne was farmed out in 1363. (fn. 32) In 1539-40 the Hospitallers' estate in Allerthorpe and Waplington comprised about 40 bovates, excluding the demesne and some inclosed and waste land. Several individual strips or 'ridges' of land were rented by tenants, including two in Ox field. Of a total charge of £22 the rents of the tenants of 15 houses, 18 cottages, and land accounted for about £15; the residue represented the bailiff's farm of the demesne. (fn. 33)

At the beginning of the 17th century Allerthorpe had three open fields: Kirk field to the east of the village, North field towards the Hull-York road, and South field between the village and Waplington. (fn. 34) The township also had land in closes, some of which lay within the confines of the open fields. (fn. 35) Meadow land, including the Great ings, lay alongside the beck on the south-eastern boundary of the township. (fn. 36)

To the west of the village, and connected with it by an outgang, lay the common, where householders were entitled to agist their cattle, to cut turves once a year, and to take whins and wood for repairs. (fn. 37) These rights were extinguished by agreement in 1961. (fn. 38) Encroachment on the waste is suggested by 'Moresickeclose', which was mentioned in 1628, and by the New intack in Barmby Butts of 1633. (fn. 39) The common was similarly diminished in the 18th century. By 1741 another close called Intack had been made from High moor, (fn. 40) and this may be the inclosure called New Piece in 1839. (fn. 41)

Some of the land reclaimed from the common was used as stinted pasture. The manorial court regulated the fencing and grazing of Cow Hold, west of the village, where tenants had beast-gates, from the 17th to the 19th century. (fn. 42) The Reas, or Old Hold, (fn. 43) towards Barmby may also have been used in common. Other common pastures probably lay in the north and east of the township; there were gates in Prick moor and the Pearts in the 17th and 18th centuries, (fn. 44) and a close called Ox Hold was mentioned from 1612. (fn. 45)

By 'the exchange and new inclosure' of 1640 the open fields were divided and allotted in unspecified amounts to about 20 tenants. (fn. 46) Meadow land was probably apportioned at about the same time, and in 1656 reference was made to inclosed land in the ings. One of the new closes was still 'inclosed, stooped and railed' in 1657, although its lessee was empowered to remove these temporary divisions and had agreed to hedge one of its sides. (fn. 47) In the 1780s the seigneurial estate of 448 a. was held by 9 tenants, and 26 freeholders and tenants had a further 504 a. in the parish. (fn. 48)

At Waplington the estate of Drax priory was worth about £1 a year in 1359 (fn. 49) and had been farmed out by the 1370s, when Thomas of Waplington was accused of wasting the property. The buildings included cow- and sheep-houses, stables, and granaries, as well as the house itself. (fn. 50) The Percy estate in Waplington was said in 1455 to be worth only £1 net because of neglect there, (fn. 51) but by the late 15th and mid 16th centuries its annual value had risen to nearly £4. (fn. 52)

Waplington had its own open fields, mentioned in 1563 (fn. 53) and named in 1774 as North, South, and Leys fields. In the latter year the lord and the two other proprietors of the township agreed to consolidate their holdings, and in 1777 the same two owners ceded their rights in the 169-acre common to the lord. Closes mentioned in the 18th century included some like Moor Syke which had almost certainly been made by encroachment on the common. (fn. 54)

The common was apparently used as a warren. Between 1777 and 1839 all but 40 a. was inclosed, some of the closes being named after the warren. (fn. 55) By the 1850s Warren farm had been established on the former common. (fn. 56) Two other fields described as warren in 1839 were later taken into the grounds of Waplington Hall. (fn. 57)

In the 19th and 20th centuries there were generally 6 to 8 farmers in Allerthorpe, 2 of whom had over 150 a. in the 1930s. Waplington was farmed by one to 3 farmers over the same period; in the 1930s the township's two farms were under one management. (fn. 58)

In 1786 at Allerthorpe there were 525 a. of pasture, 294 a. of meadow, 83 a. of corn, and 49 a. of fallow and turnips. (fn. 59) Only 77 a. were returned as under crops in 1801. (fn. 60) There were 700 a. of arable, 421 a. of grassland, and 450 a. of common at Allerthorpe in 1839. In that year Waplington had 647 a. of arable, 53 a. of grassland, 40 a. of common, and 50 a. of woodland. (fn. 61) By 1905 Allerthorpe and Waplington together had 942 a. of arable, 522 a. of permanent grass, and 127 a. of woodland. (fn. 62) Land use in the two townships changed little from the 1930s onwards; woodland covered a considerable area of the parish, notably on the common, and arable was more significant than grassland. (fn. 63) Since 1961 the Forestry Commission has managed about 350 a. of Allerthorpe common. (fn. 64)

The name Hempdike close, mentioned in the 17th century, suggests the retting of hemp, as do the hemp pits which lay to the west of the village in 1851. There was a saw-mill in Waplington in the same year; it was presumably steam-operated for close by was a tank, from which Tank plantation and Tank cottages were named. (fn. 65) A brickyard had been established in Waplington by 1840, but was not mentioned again. (fn. 66) Brickpit plantation is situated near Warren House in the south-west of the township and Brickpond plantation close to Waplington Hall. (fn. 67) Gravel was being extracted commercially from a pit near Chicory Farm in 1973. In 1960 land and buildings in Allerthorpe which had been part of Pocklington airfield were sold by the Air Ministry, (fn. 68) and they have since been used by a timber products firm (fn. 69) and agricultural trading companies. (fn. 70)

A windmill was mentioned at Allerthorpe as early as 1327, and there were possibly two in the township by 1338. (fn. 71) In the 16th century George Hall, farmer of the manor, rebuilt a windmill ; (fn. 72) the mill may have stood to the north-west of the village, in or near the field called Mill Doors, and was last mentioned in 1791. (fn. 73)

LOCAL GOVERNMENT.

Drax priory claimed amends of the assize of ale at Waplington in 1293. (fn. 74) Court rolls of the manor of Allerthorpe with Waplington survive for 1608-47, 1653-61, and 1669- 79. (fn. 75) The series is continued by court books covering 1696-1941. (fn. 76) There are also surrenders and admissions from 1576 to 1786, (fn. 77) a minute book and call roll for the period 1860-99, (fn. 78) and a book of pains for 1812-99. (fn. 79)

In 1609 the manorial officers included a greave, a constable, a pinder, 4 bylawmen, 2 aletasters, and 2 overseers of highways. (fn. 80) Two affeerors were mentioned in the 18th century. (fn. 81) In 1653 2 of the bylawmen were for the husbandmen and 2 for the grassmen. (fn. 82) There were only 2 bylawmen at Allerthorpe after the inclosure of the open fields; (fn. 83) in 1758 one was responsible for Low and the other for High moor. (fn. 84) The bylawmen were said to supervise the taking of wood from the common as late as 1870. (fn. 85) By the 19th century there were 2 constables and 2 pinders, and the officers in 1899 still included 2 affeerors, a bylawman, and 2 pinders. (fn. 86)

No parochial records survive before 1835. There were 2 overseers of the poor at Allerthorpe by 1814, when they opposed the fiscal demands of the Pocklington overseers. (fn. 87) Allerthorpe and Waplington joined Pocklington poor-law union in 1836 (fn. 88) and Pocklington rural district in 1894. (fn. 89) They became part of the North Wolds district of Humberside in 1974.

CHURCH.

The early history of Allerthorpe church is the same as that of Thornton, except that Allerthorpe was not concerned in the confirmation of 1225. The curacy of Allerthorpe was usually held by the vicar of Thornton from the 17th century, and in 1973 the two places still constituted a united vicarage. (fn. 90)

In 1525-6 a chaplain serving Allerthorpe received £4 a year. (fn. 91) Allerthorpe was worth c. £76 in 1818, (fn. 92) and in 1835 the curate's stipend was £60. (fn. 93)

Small tithes in Allerthorpe contributed to the income of the joint living. At the ordination of 1252 the tithes of gardens, flax, and hemp, as well as a share of the altarage, were assigned to the vicarage. (fn. 94) The small tithes were worth £3 in 1650. (fn. 95) By 1684 the inhabitants of Allerthorpe and Waplington were paying a composition of £5 a year for tithes and surplice fees, (fn. 96) and in 1839 rent-charges of £60 were awarded to the vicar of Thornton and Allerthorpe in lieu of the Allerthorpe tithes and £13 12s. for those of Waplington. (fn. 97)

In the late 17th century the glebe in Allerthorpe consisted of two gates in the Cow Hold, the right to two loads of turf and whins from the common, and 2 a. in Yorkgate close; (fn. 98) by 1726 1 a. in Prick Moor close had also been acquired. (fn. 99) A small house and garth belonged to the church in 1684 and were possibly intended for the curate's use. In the 17th and 18th centuries, however, the incumbent of the joint living resided at Thornton. (fn. 1) By 1809 the vicar had moved to Allerthorpe and occupied a brickbuilt house containing two parlours, a kitchen, a back kitchen, and seven bedrooms. (fn. 2) The Vicarage was replaced in the 1860s, when adjoining land was bought and a large brick house built on the enlarged site with a grant from the Common Fund. (fn. 3)

In the 18th and early 19th centuries the incumbent also held the vicarage of Barmby Moor and Fangfoss. (fn. 4) Allerthorpe and Waplington marriages often took place at Thornton in the 18th century. (fn. 5) In 1743 there was a service at Allerthorpe once a fortnight; Holy Communion was celebrated four times a year and about 45 people communicated at Easter. (fn. 6) By 1851 services were weekly, (fn. 7) but the average number of communicants was only about 15 by 1865. (fn. 8) Between 1877 and 1915 two services a week were generally held. (fn. 9) There were weekly celebrations of Holy Communion in 1915; at Easter 1914 there were 19 communicants. (fn. 10) In 1973 there were three services a month in the church, two of which were held with the Methodists, and a further united service was held in the Methodist chapel.

The original church of ST. BOTOLPH was small, and consisted of chancel and nave with pedi mented bellcot and south porch. (fn. 11) It was in decay in 1615. (fn. 12) In the early 19th century a vestry was added to the north of the chancel. (fn. 13) It was rebuilt in 1876, by Arthur Duncombe, (fn. 14) of limestone rubble with ashlar dressings, in a mixture of 14th- and 15thcentury styles; it comprises chancel with north vestry and nave with bellcot and south door. The bellcot is supported by a large corbelled buttress.

The church has two bells as it had in 1552. (fn. 15) There was one chalice in 1552, a second having been stolen. (fn. 16) The plate includes a silver communion cup, made in York in 1570, and a pewter flagon and paten. In 1876 a silver service consisting of a chalice, paten, and flagon was presented by Charlotte Sykes, Arthur Duncombe's daughter. (fn. 17)

The registers begin in 1616, with no entries for baptisms in 1674-81 or marriages in 1674-95, and burial entries cease in 1695. (fn. 18)

Despite the grant of burial rights to Allerthorpe in 1360, and the entries in the Allerthorpe register, many Allerthorpe burials took place at Pocklington from the early 17th century (fn. 19) and there were also some at Thornton in the 18th century. (fn. 20) The churchyard at Allerthorpe, described as the 'ancient' one, was, however, consecrated in 1828 (fn. 21) and used thereafter.

NONCONFORMITY.

There were three Roman Catholics at Allerthorpe between 1637 and 1640. (fn. 22) Members of the Dolman family, lords of Waplington manor, were punished for recusancy in the 17th and 18th centuries. (fn. 23)

In 1814 the Methodists had seven members at Allerthorpe, (fn. 24) and a house was registered for dissenting, presumably Methodist, worship in 1824. (fn. 25) Wesleyan Methodists met in a house in 1851, (fn. 26) but a chapel was built in 1869-70 and was still used in 1973. (fn. 27) There was also a Primitive Methodist 'preaching-house' at Allerthorpe between 1861 and 1866. (fn. 28)

EDUCATION.

An old woman taught at Allerthorpe in 1743, (fn. 29) and in 1819 12 children attended an unendowed school there. (fn. 30) By 1835 the school drew a yearly income of £9 from a bequest of £200 under John Hart's will, dated 1818; 9 of the 23 pupils were then taught free. (fn. 31) In 1865 c. 30 pupils attended what was described as an unendowed church school. (fn. 32) It was later united with the National Society. There were 17 pupils in 1871, only one a fee-payer. (fn. 33) A new building was provided in 1874; (fn. 34) its income in 1876 came entirely from the fees of the 22 pupils. (fn. 35) By a Scheme of 1875 the school was allotted half the income from the Poor's Houses, Poor's Land, and Westoby's charities, and the whole of that from Hart's. (fn. 36) From 1878 the school received an annual government grant. (fn. 37)

Between 1907 and 1927 30-40 children attended the school, but by 1938 only nineteen. (fn. 38) In 1956 the senior pupils were transferred to Pocklington, and in 1958 the school was closed, the junior pupils similarly transferred, (fn. 39) and Hart's charity vested in the Diocesan Board of Finance. Since 1960 the former school has been used as a village hall. (fn. 40)

CHARITIES FOR THE POOR.

Thomas Wood, by will dated 1568, devised a rent-charge of £10 from an estate at Kilnwick Percy for the benefit of Allerthorpe, Waplington, and many other townships. In 1824 3s. 6d. was distributed in Allerthorpe and 1s. 8d. in Waplington. (fn. 41) Henry Frederick, Baron Hotham, owner of the Kilnwick Percy estate, redeemed the rent-charge in 1961 and £7 stock was subsequently assigned to Allerthorpe and £3 to Waplington. (fn. 42)

William Westoby's charity had been established by 1659, (fn. 43) and in the late 17th century its net annual value was,£4. (fn. 44) In 1813, when the trustees held c. 8 a. in Allerthorpe, the bulk of the income of £15 was distributed in doles of £2 to £6 to unrelieved inhabitants. (fn. 45)

At the inclosure of the open fields in 1640 two selions were assigned to the poor of the township, (fn. 46) and in 1777 the income of £2 from the Poor's Land, an acre in Prick Moor close, was administered by the Westoby trustees.

The Poor's Houses charity originated in 1765, when William Bell gave a house for the poor. By 1813 there were 2 houses divided into 3 dwellings. Of the 5 dwellings of 1824 2 were occupied rentfree by widows receiving pensions from the Poor's Land charity and one by a man supported by the parish. (fn. 47) The houses were sold before 1875. (fn. 48)

By a Scheme of 1875 the Westoby, Poor's Land, and Poor's Houses charities were consolidated and half of the net income applied to education. The poor's share of the income was applied mainly to gifts of money and goods. The charity lands were sold in the 1950s and 1960s. In 1973 the income, together with that from Wood's charity, was £59 from £1,258 stock; grants of over £4 each were made to seven persons. The educational part of the income was in 1973 vested in the Diocesan Board of Finance. (fn. 49)

Footnotes

1 This article was written in 1973.
2 P.N.E.R. Yorks. (E.P.N.S.), 182, 184.
3 O.S. Map 6", Yorks. (1855 edn.). Most of Allerthorpe appears on sheet 193, the rest on sheet 176.
4 Census.
5 Geol. Surv. Map 1", solid and drift, sheet 71 (1973 edn.).
6 These closes are best seen on O.S. Map 6" (1855 edn.).
7 See p. 137.
8 R.D.B., 1217/507/450; 1546/592/483.
9 Ibid. 1442/432/371.
10 Ex inf. Clerk to the Council, County Hall, Beverley, 1973.
11 Minster Libr., Torre MS., 'Peculiars', p. 718.
12 B. F. Duckham, Inland Waterways of E. Yorks. 1700- 1900 (E. Yorks. Loc. Hist. Ser. xxix), 64.
13 Fabric Rolls of York Minster (Sur. Soc. xxxv), 241.
14 K. A. MacMahon, Roads and Turnpike Trusts in E. Yorks. (E. Yorks. Loc. Hist. Ser. xviii), 7, 23, 70.
15 e.g. R.D.B., 1518/481/431; 1573/309/264; 1598/579/ 484; E.R.C.C. Mins. 1955-6, 499; 1966-7, 20; 1967-8, 128, 131.
16 See p. 140.
17 See p. 138.
18 See plate facing p. 112.
19 E.R.R.O., QDT/2/15.
20 Directories.
21 E.R.R.O., DDPY/3/2 pp. 99, 156.
22 Ibid. DDPY/3/3 p. 138; Sheahan and Whellan, Hist. York & E.R. ii. 554.
23 Kelly's Dir. N. & E.R. Yorks. (1872), 311.
24 E.R.R.O., DDPY/3/3 pp. 347-52; R.D.B., 171/105/ 88.
25 R.D.B., 1018/285/260; 1061/408/368; 1093/138/119; 1141/466/394.
26 Deeds penes Mr. T. O'Gram, 1974. For the Pricketts see F. F. Prickett, Pricketts of Allerthorpe.
27 See p. 136.
28 E 179/205/504.
29 Builder's bill, 1884, penes Mr. O'Gram.
30 R.D.B., 757/496/413; see p. 135.
31 O.S. Map 6" (1855 edn.); E.R.R.O., DDX/159/2.
32 See p. 136.
33 E 179/202/59 m. 25.
34 E 179/205/504.
35 B.I.H.R., Bp. V. 1764/Ret. 16; Herring's Visit, i. 39.
36 V.C.H. Yorks. iii. 492.
37 Census.
38 E 179/202/59 m. 77.
39 E 179/202/53, 120.
40 Miscellanea, v (Y.A.S. Rec. Ser. cxvi), 91.
41 E 179/205/504.
42 V.C.H. Yorks. iii. 492.
43 Census.
44 D.N.B.
45 V.C.H. Yorks. ii. 197.
46 Rec. of Templars in Eng. in Twelfth Cent. ed. B. A. Lees, pp. ccxi, 123.
47 Bk. of Fees, ii. 1202; Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 191.
48 Cal. Inq. Misc. ii, p. 476; Cal. Close, 1346-9, 188; Knights Hospitallers in Eng. (Camd. Soc. [1st ser.], lxv), 141.
49 Cal. Pat. 1560-3, 182.
50 Ibid. 1557-8, 318-19.
51 C 66/1287 m. 14; Cal. Pat. 1560-3, 182; 1569-72, p. 131.
52 C 66/1287 m. 14.
53 C 66/1349 m. 11.
54 E.R.R.O., DDKP/2/1-4; B.I.H.R., CP. H. 2543.
55 E.R.R.O., DDPY/3/1; R.D.B., F/336/724.
56 Ibid. DDPY/3/1 p. 118; R.D.B., H/619/1254.
57 E.R.R.O., DDPY/3/1 p. 55 (2nd part); R.D.B., AG/429/819.
58 E.R.R.O., DDPY/3/1 pp. 122, 135, 146, 174; DDKP/ 17/4.
59 Ibid. DDPY/3/2 pp. 7-8.
60 Ibid. DDPY/3/10.
61 R.D.B., FO/13/16.
62 Ibid. GC/195/233.
63 Ibid. 88/485/464 (1897).
64 J. Foster, Pedigrees of . . . Yorks. iii; Kelly's Dir. N. & E.R. Yorks. (1893), 356-7.
65 Kelly's Dir. N. & E.R. Yorks. (1913), 442-3.
66 R.D.B., 206/246/209; /478/416.
67 Ibid. 963/266/239.
68 Ibid. 1217/507/450.
69 e.g. Cal. Pat. 1560-3, 182.
70 Knights Hospitallers, 141.
71 E 179/205/504; B.I.H.R., CP. H. 2982.
72 Bk. of Fees, ii. 1461.
73 Feud. Aids, vi. 167.
74 Cal. Inq. p.m. vii, pp. 53-4.
75 V.C.H. Yorks. ii. 197.
76 V.C.H. City of York, 521; Bk. of Fees, i. 4-5; ii. 1354.
77 See p. 142.
78 C 136/64 no. 4; Bk. of Fees, ii. 1202; Cal. Fine R. 1347-56, 248; 1383-91, 339; Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, p. 199.
79 Bk. of Fees, ii. 1202; Cur. Reg. R. i. 365; Plac. de Quo Warr. 191.
80 C 145/178 no. 17; E.Y.C. i, pp. 344-5; Bk. of Fees, ii. 1202. A 14th-cent. inspeximus suggests that Poer's grant was made directly to Drax: Cal. Chart. R. 1300-26, 180.
81 Rot. Hund. (Rec. Com.), i. 104.
82 C 145/178 no. 17; Cal. Pat. 1338-40, 243.
83 Monastic Notes, i (Y.A.S. Rec. Ser. xvii), 42.
84 C 136/64 no. 4; Cal. Fine R. 1383-91, 339; 1391-9, 69; Rot. Hund. i. 104.
85 J. M. W. Bean, Estates of Percy Family, 1416-1537, 159; see below p. 151.
86 C 139/160 no. 20.
87 C 142/5 no. 14.
88 Bean, Percy Estates, 154. For Percy pedigree see Complete Peerage, s.v. Northumberland.
89 E 318/Box 6/222.
90 C 1/1492 no. 67; E 318/Box 28/1599; Cal. Pat. 1553, 257. For Dolman pedigree see Foster, Pedigrees of . . . Yorks. iii.
91 Cal. Pat. 1560-3, 394; Yorks. Fines, i. 271; ii. 148, 174.
92 E 178/3018.
93 E.R.R.O., DDPY/19/6.
94 C.P. 25(2)/518 pt. 2/1 Chas. I East. no. 3.
95 C 66/2689 no. 8.
96 E.R.R.O., DDPY/19/7; Cal. Cttee. for Compounding, iv. 2642; Royalist Composition Papers, iii (Y.A.S. Rec. Ser. xx), 22.
97 C.P. 25(2)/615 no. 9.
98 5 Geo. III, c. 91 (Priv. Act).
99 E.R.R.O., DDKP/15/17, abstract of title of Rob. Denison, 1765-1841.
1 Sheahan and Whellan, Hist. York & E.R. ii. 554.
2 R.B.D., HX/94/117; IB/204/261; LQ/304/428; NB/ 262/429; Kelly's Dir. N. & E.R. Yorks. (1872), 311; (1879), 338.
3 R.D.B., NM/206/334.
4 Ibid. 53/162/153 (1892); 164/53/46; Kelly's Dir. N. & E.R. Yorks. (1893), 356; (1897), 385; (1901), 403; (1913), 442.
5 R.D.B., 181/291/245; 209/398/337.
6 Ibid. 866/9/9; 953/24/23; 962/1/1; 984/440/396.
7 Ibid. 1201/555/498; 1787/208/169.
8 Monastic Notes, i. 42.
9 E 179/205/504.
10 B.I.H.R., TA. 441S.
11 White, Dir. Hull & York (1846), 469.
12 Sheahan and Whellan, Hist. York & E.R. ii. 554.
13 O.S. Map 6" (1855 edn.).
14 Bk. of Fees, ii. 1202.
15 E 318/Box 44/2402; Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v. 94.
16 See p. 187.
17 Minster Libr., Torre MS., 'York Minster', p. 542; D. & C. Archives, S 3 (5) a, f. 1; S 3 (5) c, ff. 1-2; W 2 (1788); E.R.R.O., DDDA/32/3; R.D.B., D/166/274; F/360/772; FD/324/369; Lamb. Pal. Libr., COMM./ XIIa/17/374-5; B.I.H.R., CC. DY. Allerthorpe; Y.A.J. xiv. 122.
18 Lamb. Pal. Libr., COMM./XIIa/17/374-5; Y.A.J. xiv. 122.
19 B.I.H.R., TA. 317M.
20 Minster Libr., Torre MS., 'York Minster', pp. 542-3.
21 Ibid. D. & C. Arch., S 1 (2) f, ff. 5, 15; S 3 (5) a, f. 14; S 3 (5) b, pp. 87-9; Lamb. Pal. Libr., COMM./XIIa/17/ 374-5; Y.A.J. xiv. 122; see above p. 134.
22 Minster Libr., D. & C. Arch., S 3 (5) a, f. 14; S 3 (5) c, f. 65; R.D.B., N/200/449; /392/859.
23 R.D.B., AB/115/257; Minster Libr., D. & C. Arch., S 3(5) c, f. 65; W 2 (1783, 1785).
24 R.D.B., FD/139/155; Minster Libr., D. & C. Arch., S 1 (1) e, f. 38d.
25 Lamb. Pal. Libr., COMM./XIIa/17/374-5; Y.A.J. xiv. 122.
26 B.I.H.R., TA. 441S.
27 Lond. Gaz. 19 July 1844, p. 2499.
28 Y.A.J. xxix. 380.
29 Rec. Templars, 123.
30 C 135/5 no. 5.
31 Knights Hospitallers, 141.
32 Yorks. Sess. of Peace (Y.A.S. Rec. Ser. c), 60.
33 Miscellanea, iv (Y.A.S. Rec. Ser. xciv), 100.
34 E.R.R.O., DDKP 2/1 (1610, 1611).
35 Ibid. (1609).
36 Ibid. DDPY/3/1 (1700); B.I.H.R., TA. 317M.
37 B.I.H.R., TA. 317M; E.R.R.O., DDPY/3/9 (1834), 11.
38 R.D.B., 1217/510/451.
39 E.R.R.O., DDKP/2/2.
40 R.D.B., R/45/105.
41 B.I.H.R., TA. 317M.
42 E.R.R.O., DDKP/2/3 (1653); DDPY/3/9 (1843).
43 Ibid. DDPY/3/6 (1725).
44 Ibid. DDKP/2/3 (1654); DDPY/3/1 (1700).
45 Ibid. DDKP/2/1.
46 Ibid. DDKP/2/2. There is no inclosure award as such, but the manorial court roll contains the surrenders and admissions by which the inclosure was effected. No details of the lord's part in the inclosure are given.
47 Ibid. DDKP/2/2 (1635); /2/3.
48 B.I.H.R., CC. DY. Allerthorpe.
49 C 145/178 no. 17.
50 Monastic Notes, i. 42.
51 C 139/160 no. 20.
52 C 142/5 no. 14; S.C. 6/ Hen. VIII /4283-91.
53 Castle Howard MS., Box 24, Survey of Estates, 1563.
54 E.R.R.O., DDKP/1/3.
55 B.I.H.R., TA. 441S; R.D.B., CS/530/745.
56 Sheahan and Whellan, Hist. York & E.R. ii. 554.
57 B.I.H.R., TA. 441S; O.S. Map 6" (1855 edn.).
58 Directories.
59 B.I.H.R., CC. DY. Allerthorpe.
60 1801 Crop Returns.
61 B.I.H.R., TA. 317M, 441S.
62 Acreage Returns, 1905.
63 [1st] Land Util. Surv. Map, sheet 27; 2nd Land Util. Surv. Map, sheet 699 (SE 64-74).
64 See p. 135.
65 E.R.R.O., DDPY/3/1 (1697); O.S. Map 6" (1855 edn.).
66 White, Dir. E. & N.R. Yorks. (1840), 232.
67 O.S. Map 6", SE 74 NE. (1958 edn.).
68 R.D.B., 1180/6/5; 1195/509/452; /511/453.
69 Ibid. 1205/299/273.
70 Ibid. 1368/509/454; 1540/163/151.
71 C 135/5 no. 5; Knights Hospitallers, 141.
72 Lamb. Pal. Libr., COMM./XIIa/17/473.
73 Minster Libr., D. & C. Arch., W 2 (1784, 1791); Torre MS., 'York Minster', p. 542; E.R.R.O., DDFA/9/5, 8, 10, 11.
74 Plac. de Quo Warr. 191.
75 E.R.R.O., DDKP/2/1-4.
76 Ibid. DDPY/3/1-3, 15.
77 Ibid. DDPY/3/5; DDKP/2/5.
78 Ibid. DDPY/3/4.
79 Ibid. DDPY/3/9.
80 Ibid. DDKP/2/1.
81 Ibid. DDPY/3/1 (1727).
82 Ibid. DDKP/2/3.
83 Ibid. DDKP/2/3 (1660); DDPY/3/1 (1697).
84 Ibid. DDPY/3/1.
85 Ibid. DDPY/3/11.
86 Ibid. DDPY/3/9 (1813, 1879, 1899).
87 Ibid. DDPY/3/9.
88 3rd Rep. Poor Law Com. 169.
89 Census.
90 See pp. 187-8.
91 Y.A.J. xxiv. 72.
92 Lawton, Rer. Eccl. Dioc. Ebor. 316.
93 Rep. Com. Eccl. Revenues, 972.
94 Reg. Gray, pp. 212-13.
95 Lamb. Pal. Libr., COMM./XIIa/17/373.
96 B.I.H.R., TER. I. Allerthorpe 1684.
97 Ibid. TA. 317M, 441S.
98 Ibid. TER. I. Allerthorpe 1684.
99 Ibid. TER. I. Allerthorpe 1726.
1 Ibid. TER. I. Thornton 1716, 1786; CP. H. 1783; Herring's Visit, i. 39.
2 B.I.H.R., TER. I. Allerthorpe 1809.
3 Ibid. TER. I. Allerthorpe 1865; R.D.B., JO/270/390; JT/287/403; Lond. Gaz. 5 Apr. 1867, p. 2126.
4 B.I.H.R., Bp. V. 1764/Ret. 16, 45, 82, 178; TER. I. Barmby Moor and Thornton 1716, 1726, 1781, 1809, 1825; Herring's Visit, i. 39.
5 B.I.H.R., PR. THORN. 3.
6 Herring's Visit, i. 39.
7 H.O. 129/23/516.
8 B.I.H.R., V. 1865/Ret. 540.
9 Ibid. V. 1877/Ret.; Bp. V. 1884/Ret.; Bp. V. 1894/ Ret.; Bp. V. 1915/Ret.
10 Ibid. Bp. V. 1915/Ret.
11 T. Allen, Hist. Co. York, iii. 416; Sheahan and Whellan, Hist. York & E.R. iii. 554.
12 B.I.H.R., V. 1615/CB. f. 188.
13 Sheahan and Whellan, Hist. York & E.R. ii. 554.
14 Yorks. Ch. Plate, i. 211; Kelly's Dir. N. & E.R. Yorks. (1879), 338.
15 B.I.H.R., TER. I. Allerthorpe 1770; Boulter, 'Ch. Bells', 26; Inventories of Ch. Goods, 75.
16 Inventories of Ch. Goods, 75.
17 Yorks. Ch. Plate, i. 211.
18 B.I.H.R.
19 Pocklington par. reg., penes the vicar.
20 B.I.H.R., PR. THORN. 3.
21 Ibid. CD. 148.
22 Aveling, Post Reformation Catholicism, 59.
23 E.R.R.O., QDR/2/21-2; see p. 135.
24 E.R.R.O., MRP/1/7.
25 B.I.H.R., DMH. Reg. 1, p. 460; G.R.O. Worship Returns, Vol. v, no. 3890.
26 H.O. 129/23/516.
27 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 19779; E.R.R.O., MRP/1/ 70, 94.
28 G.R.O. Worship Reg. no. 13740.
29 Herring's Visit, i. 39.
30 Educ. of Poor Digest, 1075.
31 Educ. Enquiry Abstract, 1078; Char. Com. files.
32 B.I.H.R., V. 1865/Ret. 540.
33 Returns relating to Elem. Educ. 794.
34 Char. Com. files.
35 Ed. 7/135 no. 3.
36 Ed. 49/8507; see below.
37 Rep. of Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1877-8 [C. 2048-I], p. 838, H.C. (1878), xxviii.
38 Bd. of Educ. List 21 (H.M.S.O.).
39 E.R. Educ. Cttee. Mins. 1955-6, 152; 1957-8, 196.
40 Ex inf. Secy., York Dioc. Bd. of Finance, 1974; see p. 140.
41 11th Rep. Com. Char. 721-2, 735.
42 Ex inf. Char. Com., Liverpool, 1974.
43 E.R.R.O., DDKP/2/3.
44 Ibid. DDBV/2/1.
45 11th Rep. Com. Char. 721-2.
46 E.R.R.O., DDKP/2/2.
47 11th Rep. Com. Char. 721-2.
48 Char. Com. files.
49 Char. Com. files; see p. 139; ex inf. the vicar, 1974.


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