No. VI. (Supra, p. 311, 425.)
Procession, with Ceremony of the Investiture and Installation of his Highness Oliver Cromwell, as by the Parliament appointed to be performed in Westminster-hall, on June
26, 1657, written by me Edmund Prestwick, of the City of
London, an eye and ear-witness to all that passed on this Glorious Occasion. Now set forth by me John Prestwick, Esq.
In Westminster-hall, at the upper or south end thereof, there was
built an ascent, whereon was placed the chair of Scotland, (fn. 1) brought
for this purpose out of Westminster-abbey, and here set under
a prince-like canopy of state. Before his Highness, and below
him, was set a table covered with pink-coloured velvet of Genoa,
fringed with fringe of gold. On this table, besides the Bible,
sword, and sceptre, of the Commonwealth, were pens, ink, paper,
sand, wax, &c. &c.
Before this table, on a chair, sat Sir Thomas Widdrington, the
Speaker to his Highness and the Parliament. At some distance
were seats built scaffold-wise, like a theatrum, where, on both
sides, sat the members of his Highness's Parliament, and below
were places for the Aldermen of London, and the like.
After all things were thus ordered, the Protector came forth out
of the Council-room adjoining to the Lords' House, and in the
order following proceeded into the Hall.
First went his Highness's gentlemen, two and two.
Aldermen of London, two and two.
Edmund Prideux, his Highness's Attorney-general.
The Judges following of both Benches.
John Glyn, Lord Chief-justice.
Peter Warburton and Richard Nudigate.
Justices of the Upper Bench.
Barons of his Highness's Exchequer.
Norroy King at Arms.
Commissioners of the Treasury.
Commissioners of the Great Seal of the Commonwealth,
and their officers, viz.
Commissioner Nathaniel Lord Fiennes, carrying the Great Seal.
Commissioner John Lord Lisle.
William Lenthal, Master of the Rolls.
Officers attending, viz.
Henry Middleton, Serjeant at Arms.
Mr. Brown and Mr. Dove.
Garter King at Arms.
Before the Protector came, first,
Robert Earl of Warwick, with the Sword of the Commonwealth, bare-headed, on the right-hand; and on
the left, the Lord Mayor, Tichborn, carrying
the sword of the City of London, bare-headed.
His Highness, Oliver Cromwell,
richly dressed, habited with a costly mantle of estate, lined with
ermines, and girt with a sword of great value; his Highness's
train supported by three Generals, bare-headed, and
armed with drawn swords.
Close to his Highness followed the Members or Lords of the
other House, i. e. House of Lords, in order, two and two.
In like manner, in order, two and two, were the Members of the
Parliament, as knights of the counties, citizens of the cities, and
burgesses of the boroughs and towns, and Barons of the Cinque
Ports, of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland; of
which first came those of England, the county of Middlesex,
and the northern counties leading the way; as Yorkshire, Lancashire, Northumberland, and so in like manner.
Besides these, were many persons of distinction, and no small
number of Scotch and Irish nobles.
Installation of his Highness.
The Protector, with loud acclamation, was enthroned, being
seated in the chair of state: on the left hand thereof stood the
Lord Mayor, Tichborn, and the Dutch Embassador; the French
Embassador, and Robert Earl of Warwick on the right.
Behind the Protector stood his son, Lord Richard Cromwell,
Charles Lord Fleetwood, Lieutenant general of the army, John
Lord Cleypole, Master of the Horse to his Highness: and the
Privy Council, of whom, as of the nobility, were the Earl of Manchester, Lord Wharton, and Lord Mulgrave, the rest being very much
their inferiors. Upon a lower descent stood the Lord Viscount
Lisle, Lords Montague and Whitlock, with drawn swords.
The heralds, in the name of his Highness and the Commonwealth,
commanding silence; then the Speaker, (Sir Thomas Widdrington,)
in the name of the Parliament, presented to his Highness, Oliver
Cromwell, a rich and costly robe of purple velvet, lined with
ermines; a Bible, ornamented with bosses and clasps, richly gilt;
a rich and costly sword; and a sceptre of massy gold. At the
delivery of these things, the Speaker made a short comment upon
them, and on the ceremonies thereof, which he addressed to the
Protector, dividing them into four parts, viz.
"First, the Robe of Purple; this is an emblem of magistracy, and
imports righteousness and justice. When you have put on this
vestment, I may say you are a gown-man. This robe is of a mixed
colour, to show the mixture of justice and mercy. Indeed, a magistrate must have two hands, plectentem et amplectentem, to cherish
and to punish.
"Second, the Bible, is a book that contains the Holy Scriptures,
in which you have the happiness to be well versed. This Book
of Life consists of two Testaments, the Old and New. The
first shows Christum velatum; the second, Christum revelatum;
Christ veiled and revealed. It is a book of books, and doth contain
both precepts and examples for good government.
"Third, here is a Scepter, not unlike a staff, for you to be a staff
to the weak and poor. It is of ancient use in this kind. It is
said in Scripture, that 'the (fn. 2) sceptre shall not depart from Judah,
nor a law-giver from between his feet, until Shilo come, and unto
him shall the gathering of the people be'!!! It was of the like
use in other kingdoms. Homer, the Greek poet, calls kings and
"Fourth, the last is a Sword, not a military but a civil sword. It
is a sword rather of defence than offence; not to defend yourself
only, but your people also. If I might presume to fix a motto
upon this sword, as the valiant Lord Talbot had upon his, it
should be thus, Ego sum Domini Protectoris, ad protegendum Populum meum; I am the Lord Protector's, to protect my people."
This comment or speech being ended, the Speaker, Sir Thomas
Widdrington, took the Bible, and gave the Protector his oath. (fn. 3)
After the administration of the oath, Mr. Manton, who for this
purpose was appointed, made and delivered a prayer, wherein he
recommended the Protector, Parliament, Council, the forces by
land and sea, Government and people of the three nations, to the
protection of God. Which being ended, the heralds, by loud
sound of trumpet, proclaimed his Highness Oliver Cromwell,
Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions
and territories thereunto belonging; commanding and requiring all
persons to yield him due obedience. Then did the trumpets
again sound, and the people with loud shouts cried, " Long live his
Highness! long live his Highness! long live his Highness ! huzza,
huzza, huzza!" (fn. 4)
Silence being commanded, and his Highness being respectfully saluted; he rose from the chair of estate, and descending,
proceeded as follows, himself leading the way.
His train carried up by the Lord Sherard, Warwick's nephew, and
Lord Roberts his eldest son.
After followed those who had before marched in the first of the
procession; the Protector and these returning in the same
posture to the great gate or entrance of the hall, without
which was a state coach ready to receive his
The Protector being now seated in his coach; with him sitting
opposite at one end, was Robert Earl of Warwick, Lord Richard
Cromwell his son, and Bulstrode Lord Whitlock, in one, and
Philip Lord Viscount Lisle and Lord Montague in the other boot,
with swords drawn; and the Lord Cleypole, Master of the Horse,
led a horse of honour in rich caparisons to Whitehall. The members, two and two, proceeded to the Parliament-house, where they
prorogued their sitting to the twentieth of January.
At night were great proclaimings of joy and gladness, both in
London, Westminster, and the surrounding towns, villages, and
hamlets. On this occasion, for his Highness and the Parliament,
were ensigns armorial of their power; which signs or tokens of
honour were commanded to be engraven and cut on seals for the
sealing and stamping all public writings.
The great seal of the Commonwealth was a large circle, having
thereon the Protector bare-headed, mounted on mareback, attired
in a short coat or jacket of mail, over which was a military sash,
placed over his right shoulder and under his left-arm, tied behind;
pendant to his left-side, a large and broad sword, his right-hand
grasping the head of a truncheon, which he holds before him, one
end resting on the pommel of the saddle, his left-hand holding the
bridle. Behind, on the space on the sinister side, and near the top,
was a civic shield, with four quarters; the first and fourth, with the
Cross of St. George for England; 2d, the Saltier or Cross of
St. Andrew for Scotland; and 3d, the Harp of King David for
Ireland. On the margin of this side the seal, these words, Olivarivs. Dei. Gra. Reip. Angliœ. Scotiœ. et Hiberniœ. &c. Protector.
On the other side of the Broad Seal, the like arms as that for proclamations, as before described, only with this différence, the
mantling lamberquin'd with four doublings or folds: on the margin
of this side, Magnvm. Sigillvm. Reipvb. Angliœ. Scotiœ. et Hiberniœ. (fn. 5)