Lochmaben - Lothian

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1846

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Pages

197-216

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'Lochmaben - Lothian', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 197-216. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43460 Date accessed: 22 August 2014.


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Lochmaben

LOCHMABEN, a royal burgh, the seat of a presbytery, and a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 8½ miles (E.N.E.) from Dumfries, and 68 (S. by W.) from Edinburgh, containing, with the hamlets of Greenhill, Heck, and Smallholm, and the villages of Hightae and Templand, 2809 inhabitants, of whom 1289 are in the burgh, which contains also forty-one persons in the adjoining parishes of Tinwald and Torthorwald. This place, which is supposed to have derived its name from the numerous lakes in the parish, is of very remote antiquity, and at an early period formed part of the possessions of the ancient lords of Annandale, whose baronial castle was on an eminence close to the town, called Castle hill, and surrounded by a deep moat and fosse. The castle thus situated continued to be the residence of the Bruces, lords of Annandale, till the end of the thirteenth century, and was the birthplace of Robert Bruce, subsequently King of Scotland, who, after his accession to the throne, erected a much larger fortress on a peninsula south-east of Castle Loch, and in the completion of which the stones of the former castle were used. This second castle was by far the largest and the strongest of the border fortresses, and, including the outworks, occupied an area of sixteen acres in extent. It consisted of three courts, inclosed with massive walls twelve feet thick, and was surrounded by a triple fosse, in which was a spacious basin defended by walls of hewn stone, affording to the boats belonging to the garrison and the town secure shelter, either from the weather, or the attacks of any enemy.


Burgh Seal.

The town, which had arisen near the site of the castle, is supposed to have been first erected into a royal burgh by Robert Bruce, soon after his elevation to the throne; but, from the frequent inroads of the English, by whom the town was often plundered and burnt during the border warfare, all its ancient records were either lost or destroyed. In 1463, the Earl of Warwick plundered and burnt the town; and in 1479, the Duke of Albany, at that time Lord of Annandale, being accused of treason, was publicly cited at the castle of Lochmaben, and at the market-cross of the burgh, to appear and answer to the charge. In 1592, a sanguinary feud took place between the Maxwells of Nithsdale and the Johnstones of Annandale, in which the former were defeated with great slaughter: a number of the Maxwells, in their flight from the field of battle, sought refuge in the church of Lochmaben, which the Johnstones on that occasion burnt to the ground. The castle, which had been annexed to the crown in 1487, was maintained as one of the strongest frontier garrisons, under the superintendence of the lords of Annandale, till the union of the English and Scottish crowns in the reign of James VI., after which time it was suffered to fall into decay. The only remains now are the shapeless walls, from the surface of which the hewn stone has been taken for building materials, leaving only the internal rubble, which is firmly cemented into a solid mass. In 1612, James VI. granted to the inhabitants a charter embodying all the privileges they had previously enjoyed under the charters that had been destroyed; and in the same year, that monarch bestowed the barony of Lochmaben, with the tithes and advowson of the church, upon John Murray, whom in 1625 he created Earl of Annandale and Lord of Lochmaben, and whose descendant, the Earl of Mansfield, is the present proprietor.

The town is situated between the Castle loch, on the south, and the Kirk loch on the south-west, and consists chiefly of one spacious street, in which are the church, the town-house, and the market-cross, and of a street extending nearly at right angles with it, on the road that leads to Dumfries. A public library is supported by subscription, and contains a valuable and well-assorted collection of literary and historical volumes. Neither any manufacture nor trade is carried on, with the exception of a few stocking-looms; there are three good inns, and some shops for the supply of the neighbourhood, but so little traffic takes place that the town has all the appearance of a large rural village. The government is vested in a provost, three bailies, a dean of guild, and ten councillors: there are several incorporated guilds, into which the fees of admission are, for strangers £1. 10., and for sons of burgesses 10s. 6d.; but they are very little regarded. The jurisdiction of the magistrates, comprehending that of royal burghs, is exercised chiefly by the provost, who ex officio is justice of the peace for the county; and the burgh is associated with those of Dumfries, Annan, Kirkcudbright, and Sanquhar, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the number of qualified voters being forty-eight. The town-hall, erected in 1745, is a good building with a tower and spire; and underneath it is what was once the gaol, consisting of two rooms, one for debtors, and one for criminals. In front of the town-hall is an arched weigh-house for the use of the market, as well as a market-cross. A market is held every alternate week during the winter for the sale of pork; all other produce is sent to the markets of Annan or Dumfries. There is neither river nor canal navigation; the chief medium of communication is by the road to Dumfries. It is expected, however, that a railway in contemplation, to connect Scotland with England, will pass not far from the parish. The post-office in the town has a tolerable delivery.

The parish, which is bounded on the east by the river Annan, and on the north and north-west by the water of Ae, is about ten miles in length and three in breadth, comprising an area of 10,750 acres, of which 5500 are arable, ninety woodland and plantations, and the remainder, with the exception of 400 acres of waste, good meadow and pasture. The surface is generally level, with a considerable ascent towards the west, and is diversified by numerous lakes, of which the most considerable are, the Castle loch, 200 acres in extent; the Broomhill loch, eighty acres; the Mill loch, seventy; the Kirk loch, sixty; and the Hightae loch, fifty-two acres in extent. Their average depth is about fifty feet; the water is peculiarly soft, and they all abound with various kinds of fish, among which are, pike, perch, two species of trout, one weighing from two to five pounds each, and the other from twelve to fourteen pounds, roach, chub, eels, loach, and minnow. In the Castle loch are found also bream, the greenback, and a sort called the vendace, resembling a small herring, but of more delicate flavour, and which is not found in any other water in Scotland. The vendace is remarkable for a thin membrane on the top of the head, in the form of a heart, of a brownish hue, and perfectly transparent, under which the brain is distinctly visible; it is from four to six inches in length, of a bright silvery colour, inclining to blue, along the back, and dies immediately on its being taken out of the water. The chief rivers are, the Annan; the water of Ae, which, after washing the north-western part of the parish, unites with the Kinnel, and flows into the Annan; and the Dryfe, which separates a portion of the parish from that of Dryfesdale, and runs into the Annan at Halleaths. The Castle loch, being free from the currents that occur in rivers and estuaries, is peculiarly adapted for aquatic sports; and accordingly, in the year 1843, a regatta club was formed, which has been attended with considerable success, the novelty of such races in the interior, and the beautiful wood and water scenery around the town, attracting strangers from all parts of the county. A vendace club, also, meets annually at Lochmaben in July or August, and is supported by the chief gentlemen of the district.

The soil along the banks of the rivers is a rich alluvial loam, producing luxuriant crops of every kind, and in many parts nine feet in depth; to the westward, or in the upland portion, it is light, gravelly, and cold. The only uncultivated portions are some tracts of peat-moss, which afford fuel for the inhabitants. The system of agriculture has been gradually advancing, and all the more recent improvements in husbandry have been adopted; the lands have been drained and inclosed; bone-dust has been introduced for manure, and the farm-buildings and offices are now generally substantial. The dairy-farms are well managed, and great attention is paid to the rearing of live-stock. The cattle are of the Galloway breed, except on the dairy-farms, where the cows are chiefly of the Ayrshire; they are usually sold to dealers when two years old, and fattened in the English pastures for the London market, where they obtain a ready sale. A considerable number of horses are reared in the parish; they are of good size, and by many judges are preferred to the Clydesdale breed. Great numbers of swine are also fed on the different farms, and almost every cottager feeds a couple of pigs. Few sheep are bred; such as are reared are fed chiefly on turnips. The plantations, which are mostly on the demesnes of the resident landed proprietors, consist of oak, ash, plane, and horse-chesnut, of which there are many stately specimens. The substrata are principally red sandstone and whinstone; the sandstone occurs in thin layers easily separated, and is quarried for the roofing of farm-buildings. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7708.

The residences are, Elshieshields, a handsome castellated mansion; Halleaths; and Newmains. Besides the burgh, there are several villages in the parish, of which the principal are, Hightae, containing 436, Greenhill eighty-nine, Smallholm eighty-two, and Heck fifty-seven, inhabitants. The lands attached to these were portioned out by Robert Bruce to his retainers, whose descendants hold them by Udal tenure, under the Murrays, against whose encroachments on their privileges they have frequently appealed to the sovereign, and obtained redress. These lands, which are called the "Barony of the Four Towns of Lochmaben," are transferable by any of the possessors under a simple deed of conveyance, enrolled in the rent-book of the lord without fee or reward. A large tract of common in which the tenants of the barony had also an interest, with the inhabitants of the burgh, was by mutual agreement divided many years since; and several portions have been purchased by different proprietors, and greatly improved. The largest portion was purchased by Mr. Bell, of Rammerscales. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Lochmaben and synod of Dumfries. The minister's stipend is £264. 19. 2., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 per annum; patron, the Earl of Mansfield. The church, which is at the south extremity of the burgh, is a handsome and substantial structure, erected in 1819, at a cost of £3000, and contains 1200 sittings. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, Burghers, and Cameronians. The parochial school, situated in the burgh, is well attended: the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees, averaging about £25; also the interest of a bequest of £200 by Mr. Richardson, of Hightae, for teaching ten poor children gratuitously, There is likewise a school at Hightae, of which the master has a salary of £17. 2. 2., with a house and garden, and fees averaging £21; he also receives the interest of £150 bequeathed by Mr. Richardson. Other schools in the parish are supported exclusively by the fees. There are some remains of Roman encampments, and part of the Roman road to Bodotria may be traced. Rochall Mount, situated on the side of a ridge of hills which overhangs the castle, and supposed to have been anciently a station for administering justice, and also a beacon for signals in times of danger, is perfectly circular at the base, and terminates in a sharp point. On the north of the parish are the remains of Spedlin's Tower, once the residence of the Jardines, of Applegarth; it is a massive quadrangular structure with circular turrets at the angles. The walls are of immense thickness; the entrance is on the north side; and over the circular gateway, near the summit of the tower, is the date 1605, thought to be the time when it was last repaired. In the Castle loch, ancient relics have been found at various times, spear heads, pieces of armour, and a gold ring without inscription; and in a tract of moss near the town, several silver groats of Alexander I. of Scotland and Edward I. of England, and other coins, have been discovered.

Lochrutton

LOCHRUTTON, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from Dumfries; containing 659 inhabitants, of whom 130 are in the village of Lochfoot. This place, which is situated in the eastern portion of the stewartry, takes its name from a lake on what was formerly the great road to Ireland, called in the Gaelic language Rutton, or "the straight road." The parish is four and a half miles in length and three miles in breadth, and comprises nearly 8000 acres, of which about 6500 are arable, meadow, and pasture; 250 woodland and plantations, and the remainder moss, moorland, and waste. The surface is boldly undulated to the south, east, and west, rising towards the boundaries in those directions into considerable elevation, but subsiding towards the north into a rich and pleasant vale. The lake from which the parish takes its name is about a mile in length and more than half a mile in breadth, and abounds with pike, perch, and eels; in the centre is a small circular island, partly artificial. The only river is the Cargen Water, a small stream issuing from the lake, and which, after receiving various others in its course for nearly two miles through the parish, falls into the broad stream of the Nith below Dumfries.

The soil is generally a light shallow loam, and the arable lands are under good cultivation; the crops are, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips, with the various grasses. The farm-buildings are substantial and commodious, and the various improvements in husbandry have been adopted. A considerable number of cattle and sheep are fed on the pastures, and sent to the English markets; and large quantities of oats and barley are forwarded to Dumfries for sale. The principal substrata are whinstone and granite; limestone is found, but of very indifferent quality; and a bed of shell-marl has been discovered, which is used as a substitute for lime. The Markland Well, a chalybeate spring supposed to be efficacious in diseases of the stomach, is resorted to during the summer and autumnal months. The village of Lochfoot is small, and inhabited chiefly by persons engaged in rural pursuits. There are a mill for oats and barley, and one for dressing flax, both of which are driven by the stream from the lake; and to the latter is attached machinery for carding wool and for sawing timber. The great military road from Dumfries to Portpatrick passes through the whole length of the parish. The rateable annual value of Lochrutton is £3836. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery and synod of Dumfries: the minister's stipend is £182. 6. 4. with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum; patron, the Duke of Buccleuch. The church, a neat plain structure erected in 1819, contains 300 sittings. The parochial school is attended by about seventy children: the master has a salary of £30, with a house and garden, and the fees, averaging £15 per annum; also the interest of a bequest of £62. A small school situated at the extremity of the parish is partly supported by a bequest from the Rev. George Duncan, formerly minister. On a hill in the eastern extremity of the parish are the remains of a Druidical temple; and near the lake is still, tolerably entire, one of the towers of the ancient castle of The Hills, a stronghold of the Douglas family when lords of Galloway, and in which Edward I. is said to have passed a night, on his route from the castle of Caerlaverock to Kirkcudbright.

Lochs

LOCHS, a parish, in the island of Lewis, county of Ross and Cromarty, 12 miles (S. by W.) from Stornoway; containing 3653 inhabitants. This parish derives its name from the great number of lochs by which it is distinguished. Its history is involved in much obscurity; but some indications of its ancient state may be obtained from the traditions of the old Shenachies, or bards, who resided in Uig and Barvas, and whose tales have been in many cases so faithfully transmitted as to entitle them to the credit of authentic history, especially when, as in the present instance, they are supported by the evidence of several interesting antiquities. The strong fort of Dun-Charloway, in the parish, is one of those circular fortifications that are generally allowed to be Danish. The tradition of the Highlanders states that this fort, which was a place of residence as well as defence, was once captured by the famous Donald Caum M'Cuil, well known in the stories of Lewis; and there is a portion of the parish which still goes by the name of "Donald Caum's Shealing." He is reported, indeed, to have resided here. A very large part of the parish was formerly uninhabited, and used, as several islands are at present, for shealings, or as summer pasturage for cattle; and the portion above mentioned, being appropriated to such a purpose by this farfamed robber and chief, came thus to be called by his name. On the island of St. Colm, at the entrance of Loch Erisort, is still the ruin of an ancient religious edifice, the ground surrounding which is the only cemetery in the parish; it is uncertain what the nature of this establishment was, but it furnishes us with evidence of the early occupation of the island by a religious fraternity.

The extent of the parish is variously stated; the lowest estimate makes it eighteen miles long and about nine miles broad, but its irregular form renders a correct calculation extremely difficult. It is bounded on the north by the parish of Stornoway and the river Creed; on the south by Loch Seaforth; on the east by the Channel which separates Lewis from the main land of Ross-shire; and on the west by the hills of Harris and the parish of Uig. The surface is intersected by numerous friths; and a large part of it forms a peninsula, called Park, or the Forest of Lewis, from the appropriation of the ground originally to red deer by the first Earl of Seaforth, who constructed a large stone dyke across the neck of the isthmus, for the security of the property. The arms of the sea by which the peninsula is formed are Loch Seaforth and Loch Erisort. The coast is bold and rugged, rising considerably in the vicinity of the headlands called Kilbag-head and RhuRairnish; the other parts of the shore are much more equal, and abound in sea-weed, the material for the manufacture of kelp. The interior of the parish is almost a continued flat covered with heath and coarse grass, but relieved towards the south by a boundary ridge of lofty mountains, interspersed with several fruitful valleys. The climate is damp and rainy, but not unfavourable to health, though by no means beneficial to agricultural interests. The chief rivers are the Creed and the Laxay. There are also several fresh-water lakes; the principal is Loch Trialivall, which is distinguished for its sandy bottom and transparent water, the other lakes being usually highly discoloured by their mossy bed. The most celebrated of the salt-water lochs are Seaforth, Erisort, Grimshadir, and Shell, the first of which is famous for its large extent and magnificent scenery; it is about twelve miles in length, and is intersected by numerous bays, surrounded on all sides by thick, and sometimes gloomy, foliage.

The soil throughout is mossy, being composed of decayed vegetable matter, with gravel or sand, and almost incapable of profitable cultivation. Even in the best parts it is poor; but in general it is a moss eight or ten feet deep, producing nothing but the worst heath: there are between 2000 and 3000 acres cultivated, or occasionally in tillage; and about 100,000, or more, are waste. A small copse of birch at Swordle is the only wood. There are a few cultivated tracts, but none strictly speaking arable, as no plough is used: the crooked spade, the unscientific implement so well known in the Highlands, is employed for turning the soil; and all the produce is not sufficient for the support of the inhabitants. The live-stock consists of black-cattle, sheep, and horses, all of which are small in size, being supported only on the heath of the moors. The whole of the parish is the property of the Mc Kenzie family, and its rateable annual value amounts to £2514. The cottages in which the people reside form detached hamlets, each containing from ten to forty families; the houses consist of but one apartment for the family and cattle, without any division, and are built chiefly of moss. There are, indeed, only three or four good houses; these are of stone and clay, and occupied by respectable farmers. The labour of the main part of the population is distributed in husbandry, fishing, kelp-making, and pasturing. Cod and ling are the fish that chiefly visit the waters; about sixty tons are taken annually. The herring-fishery, formerly so prosperous, has long failed, the fish having forsaken the shores since the prevailing manufacture of kelp, through the loss, as is supposed, of the beds of weed which afforded them shelter. A few salmon, and considerable quantities of small trout, are taken in the rivers and fresh-water lochs. The whole population are engaged in the season in the manufacture of kelp, which is exported to Liverpool, and the females spin yarn, and make many articles of wearing apparel. Mills abound so much in the parish, that one is to be seen on nearly every stream; they are constructed in the most simple and rude manner. No roads have been made in any part, and all communication with the market-town of Stornoway is therefore over the moors, or by sea. There are, however, several good harbours, the chief of which are, Cromore, at the entrance of Loch Erisort; and Loch Shell, and Mareg in Loch Seaforth, which have a depth of fifty feet, and afford protection to ships of the largest burthen.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Lewis and synod of Glenelg, and the patronage is in the Crown: the stipend of the minister is £158, of which about a fifth is received from the exchequer; and there is a commodious manse, built about forty years ago, and situated on the north side of Loch Erisort. The church, occupying a small peninsula on the farm of Keose, was rebuilt in 1831, and is a plain structure, containing 716 sittings. At Carloway is a preaching-station, where the clergyman of the parish officiates once a month, from April to September; but the communication with it is much impeded by morasses and rivers, and the want of roads and bridges. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. There is a parochial school, of which the master has a salary of £28, with a slated dwelling; no fees are charged, owing to the poverty of the inhabitants. Of several other schools, one is supported by Stewart Mackenzie, Esq., of Seaforth; and the teachers of two are allowed £20 per annum each by the Gaelic School Society, and of a fourth, £15 by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. The late Angus Nicolson, of Stornoway, bequeathed £100, the interest of which is distributed among twelve of his poorest relatives. The chief relic of antiquity is the circular fortification in the district of Carloway, supposed to have been built by the Danes. The lower part, which is the more capacious, was a place of residence, having communication by a subterraneous passage with a neighbouring hill; and it was once surrounded by two walls of stone, between which was a staircase leading to the top. The height of the whole building, when complete, was about twenty feet.

Lochside

LOCHSIDE, a hamlet, in the parish of St. Cyrus, county of Kincardine; containing 66 inhabitants. It consists of a small group of cottages, of which the occupants are feuars and crofters.

Lochthorn

LOCHTHORN, a village, in the Old Church parish of Dumfries, county of Dumfries; containing 64 inhabitants. This is one of a number of small villages, or rather hamlets, in the parish, of no particular interest or importance.

Lochwinnoch

LOCHWINNOCH, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Renfrew, 4 miles (N.) from Beith, and 12 (S. by E.) from Port-Glasgow; containing, with the village of Howwood, 4716 inhabitants, of whom 2681 are in the village of Lochwinnoch. The name of this place, signifying, in the Gaelic language, which, previously to the introduction of various manufactures, was exclusively spoken throughout the whole district, "the island of the lake," is derived from a very extensive lake near the village of Lochwinnoch, where, during the internal hostilities that prevailed in the 15th and 16th centuries, the proprietor of the barony, Lord Sempill, erected a strong peel or castle, of which there are still some remains. The Sempill family were vassals of the Stuarts of Renfrew, afterwards kings of Scotland, to whose fortunes they stedfastly adhered; Robert Sempill was created a baron by Alexander II., and his three sons zealously maintained the interests of Bruce during the disputed succession to the throne. John, the seventh lord, was one of the commissioners for procuring the liberation of James I., then a prisoner at the English court. On the separation of Renfrew from the county of Lanark, in 1406, Sir William Sempill was made sheriff of the former, which was erected into an independent county; and he obtained from James III. a grant of the barony of Castletown, now Castle-Semple, which passed from his descendants, the last of whom, Lord Hew, distinguished himself at the battle of Culloden in 1745, to the Macdowals, of Garthland, by purchase, and from them to its present proprietor, Colonel Harvey.

The parish is about twelve miles in length from east to west, and nine miles at its greatest breadth, and comprises 19,219 acres, of which about 9000 are arable, 700 woodland and plantations, 300 water, 100 garden and orchards, and 9119 hilly moorland, pasture, and waste. The surface is extremely uneven, and towards the western extremity rises into hills of great elevation, forming part of the lofty range that extends along the coast from Greenock to Ardrossan. The hill of Misty Law, which rises to the height of 1246 feet above the level of the sea, is within the limits of the parish; and its summit commands a most magnificent prospect over twelve counties, embracing the Frith of Clyde, and the isles of Arran, Bute, Ailsa, and others, with a richly-diversified view of the surrounding country. The hill of Staik, which is a portion of the western boundary of the parish, has an elevation rather greater than that of Misty Law; and in the east of the parish is part of a tract of elevated table-land stretching from Paisley to the western coast. There are several beautiful valleys among the hills; and in a large valley which passes through the parish, and is by far the most extensive and romantic, were formerly the three lakes of Castle-Semple, Barr, and Kilbirnie, which in rainy seasons frequently united their waters, and spread for miles over the valley. The lake of Castle-Semple, and the site of that of Barr, are within this parish; and though the first is so much contracted as to leave the castle, which was erected on an island in its centre, now almost upon its margin, yet it forms an extensive sheet of water, between which and Kilbirnie is a large area of richly-cultivated land. The Barr loch, situated near that of Castle-Semple, has been drained to a considerable extent, and, except in rainy seasons, when it still preserves the appearance of a lake, produces luxuriant crops of oats and meadow-grass. The vale affords throughout its whole length a rich combination of beautiful scenery and romantic objects: as seen from the west, the venerable remains of Barr Castle, for many generations the seat of the proprietors of the neighbouring lands; Garthland, the residence of the Macdowals of Garthland, who are the present proprietors; the agreeable village of Lochwinnoch; the lake of Castle-Semple, with the ruins of the ancient castle belonging formerly to that family; and the woods and pleasuregrounds of the mansion of Colonel Harvey, present themselves in succession, and, with the flourishing plantations and wooded eminences in the immediate vicinity, and the lofty hills in the distance, contribute to render this interesting valley one of the most pleasing and picturesque in the country. The chief river in the parish is the Calder, which has its source in the high lands on the borders of Ayrshire, and flowing in a south-eastern direction, after making a variety of cascades in its progress, winds round the village, and falls into Castle-Semple loch. On its issuing from the lake, it takes the name of the Black Cart, and, forming a boundary between Lochwinnoch and the parish of Kilbarchan, pursues a north-eastern course, and, uniting with the White Cart at Inchinnan, falls into the Clyde near Renfrew. The banks of this river, as it approaches the village, are richly clothed with natural wood and thriving plantations; and throughout the remainder of its progress, it adds greatly to the interest of the scenery of the valley. The small river Dubbs issues from the north of the loch of Kilbirnie, and, flowing through a level tract of rich meadow land, falls into Castle-Semple loch.

The soil is generally light, but in some parts luxuriantly fertile; in others, clay, which has been drained, but not sufficiently; and in some parts, sandy. The principal crops are, oats, barley, and potatoes, with a small portion of wheat, which has been recently introduced, but with no great success; and the meadows and pastures produce good rye-grass and clover. Numbers of sheep and cattle are reared for the neighbouring markets of Paisley and Glasgow; the cattle are chiefly of the Ayrshire breed, and the cows on the dairy-farms are fine specimens of that kind. The farm-buildings are usually substantial and commodious, and roofed with slate. Great improvements have been made in draining and inclosing the lands; the fences are generally of thorn, though some of the old stone dykes are still preserved. The plantations are thriving; and where there is sufficient depth of soil, forest-trees of every kind attain a stately growth. On the lands of Castle-Semple are numerous ancient oaks, with beech, Scotch and English elms, and plane-trees of large dimensions; larch and silver-fir of extraordinary size; and some of the largest cedars of Libanus to be found in the country. Upon the Garthland estate are some very fine plantations of similar trees, but of more modern growth. The substratum of the lands is mostly whinstone. The rocks are of secondary trap, alternated with greenstone, basalt, amygdaloid, porphyry, and, in some instances, greenstone stratified with clay-slate, and crystallized free-stone, in which are imbedded petrifactions of arborescent fern. The hills of Misty Law and Staik are chiefly of porphyry, intersected towards their summit with dykes of greenstone. Carbonate of copper in small quantities is found in the whinstone; sulphate of barytes is prevalent in the trap-rocks, varying from six to sixteen feet in thickness; and trap-tuffa is occasionally seen imbedded in the porphyry. Coal is found in the vicinity of Castle-Semple loch, near the extremity of which it sometimes crops out; the thickest bed, at Hall hill, is from six to ten feet, and the others vary from two to three, in thickness. It has been wrought, but not to much profit, producing only to the proprietors a gain of about £300 annually after all expenses are paid. There is a smaller work at the western extremity of the parish, which has been lately discontinued. Limestone is found, but not to any great extent; it is quarried at Howwood, and abounds with organic remains, consisting mainly of bivalves, coralloids, entrochi, and encrini. Similar quarries were opened at Midtown and Garpel, but they have been completely exhausted. Minerals of various kinds occur throughout the district, chiefly of the zeolite species; many of them are very beautiful. Freestone of excellent quality for building is quarried in several places, chiefly for the use of the parish; but the quarries are only occasionally in operation. The rateable annual value of Lochwinnoch is £17,888. Among the principal seats is Castle-Semple House, the residence of Colonel Harvey, a handsome mansion, erected in 1735, on the north side of the loch, but by no means upon a scale corresponding to the splendid demesne in which it is seated; the grounds attached to it comprise more than 900 acres, and abound with diversity of character, and with every variety of natural and artificial embellishment. The eminences which intersect it are richly crowned with wood to their summits; and in several parts are noble avenues of trees, and detached clusters scattered over the verdant lawns: in every part, indeed, the greatest skill and the most cultivated taste have been displayed in the improvement of the grounds, which are almost unrivalled. To the north of the house are spacious gardens, laid out with great beauty, and containing long ranges of conservatories for plants, hot-houses for the choicest fruits, a large pinery, and every requisite for horticultural purposes. In front of the house is an extensive flower-garden, surrounded with shrubberies of rare plants; and encircling a fish-pond is a border of fragments of various rocks, among which is every variety of rock plants. Garthland, the residence of Colonel Macdowall, is beautifully situated near the remains of the ancient castle named Barr, and surrounded by grounds richly planted, and embracing much pleasing scenery. Lochsyde House is in a demesne forming an interesting feature in the surrounding scenery, and commanding extensive views. Glenlora, erected in 1840, and Muirsheil, in 1843, are also handsome mansions.

The village of Lochwinnoch consists of one principal street about half a mile in length, and of one smaller street crossing it at right angles. The houses, generally two stories in height, and roofed with slate, are neatly built; and there are several houses of superior order, belonging to the proprietors of the various works which have been established in the parish, and to the introduction of which is to be attributed the very rapid and progressive increase of the population within the last fifty years. To the north-west of the village is a bridge over the river Calder, which is noticed in many ancient records; it is of great antiquity, and of elegant design, and was widened and repaired in 1814. The linen manufacture established at Paisley in 1707 induced the farmers of this parish to cultivate the growth of flax for its supply; and many of their female domestics were employed in spinning yarn for the weavers of that place, till, in 1740, a company from that town built a factory here, and subsequently one of greater extent, which afforded employment to many of the inhabitants. The making of thread was introduced here in 1722, and about twenty mills were erected for that purpose; but, in process of time, that trade began to decline, and at present it is nearly discontinued. A bleachfield belonging to the company of Paisley was established here, into which was introduced the use of sulphuric acid by Dr. Home, of Edinburgh; at Lonehead, a second bleachfield was soon after begun; and another, at Burnfoot, was established by Mr. Hamilton Adams. Bleachfields, also, were commenced by Mr. Wilson, of Bowfield, and are still carried on with spirit; and at Midtown are similar works, constructed by Mr. Cameron, in connexion with which a beetling-mill has been built on the river Calder, for finishing goods for the market. About fifteen weavers are employed in making goods for home consumption; and more than 200 are engaged in weaving for the manufacturers of Paisley and Glasgow. The principal articles were formerly muslins of different kinds; but these have given place to the weaving of China crapes, Angola shawls, silk cypresses, and various stuffs of silk and cotton mixed. There is also a mill belonging to the Messrs. Crawford, partly used for carding and spinning wool, which is carried on in the upper part of the premises; in the lower part is a very spacious and complete mill for grinding corn: this building, which is substantial and handsome, was erected in 1814. The cotton manufacture, however, at present constitutes the staple trade of the place. The old mill, erected by Messrs. Houston, Burns, and Co., in the year 1788, is situated on the north-west of the village, and the machinery is put in motion by the waters of the Calder; the building is very extensive, five stories in height, and contains 8140 spindles for yarn and water twist of various sizes, affording constant employment to about 180 persons. The new mills, built by Messrs. Fulton and Co., are a spacious and handsome building, not far from the end of the high street, and near the Calder, by the stream of which the works are driven, together with a steamengine, added to the original building in 1825. In this establishment 25,224 spindles are constantly at work, which make on an average about 6000 pounds of cotton-yarn every week, and give occupation to 350 persons. A mill upon a smaller scale, employing eighty persons, was built by Messrs. Caldwell and Co. at Boghead, near the village; but it was burnt down by an accidental fire in 1813, and has not been rebuilt. A post-office has been established in the village; and excellent roads to every part of the parish, and public turnpike-roads kept in good repair, afford a facility of intercourse with Glasgow, Paisley, and the principal towns in the neighbourhood. A canal from Glasgow to Ardrossan was begun about the commencement of the present century, intended to pass along the side of Castle-Semple loch, and was completed as far as Johnstone; but it was then discontinued, and has not been since resumed. There is, however, a railway from Glasgow to Ardrossan and Ayr, which runs through the parish. Numerous shops in the village supply the district with all kinds of provisions and articles of merchandize; and three fairs are held in the course of the year. The Hill fair, so called from its being held on the market hill, is chiefly for cattle, on the first Tuesday in November, O. S. The May fair is on the second Tuesday in May, O. S., and was formerly celebrated by a procession of the trades; but a few cattle only are sold. On the first Tuesday in July a fair is held, at which the farmers on the north side of Castle-Semple loch assemble and parade the village, mounted on their best horses, which are showily caparisoned, and their riders also decorated with ribbons, sashes, and other ornaments: after the parade, races frequently take place. The numbers attending upon these occasions, however, are gradually diminishing; and the practice will probably be soon discontinued. A few cattle are still sent to this fair.

The parish is in the presbytery of Paisley and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the heritors; the minister's stipend is £277. 1. 6., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £19. 10. per annum. The old church, which was collegiate, was built by Sir John Sempill, who was created Lord Sempill by James IV., and was killed at the battle of Flodden Field, in 1513; it was amply endowed. The walls are still remaining; and the chancel, which was separated from the nave by a screen, and subsequently inclosed, contains the ashes of many members of that ancient family, and is still used as a place of sepulture for the existing proprietors of the Castle-Semple estate. The present parish church, a handsome edifice, was erected in the year 1806, and has a fine portico surmounted by a neat spire; it is situated near the western lodge of the grounds of Castle-Semple, surrounded on three sides by a high wall, and on the fourth inclosed by a parapet wall with an iron palisade. It is adapted for a congregation of 1250 persons; and the ground in which it stands is well planted, and embellished with flowering shrubs and evergreens. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, and United Secession. The parochial school is well regulated; the master has a salary of £34, with £32 fees, and a house and garden. There is a school at Beltrees, to the master of which £5 per annum are paid by the parochial schoolmaster; and a school is supported at Howwood, of which the master has a house and garden rent-free, and occasionally receives a sum of money raised by subscription. A school has also been established in the village of Lochwinnoch, by the proprietors of the new mill, who pay the master a salary of £36 per annum for instructing the children employed in their works, for which purpose they have provided an excellent schoolroom. A parochial library was established in the parish in 1823; and in 1833 another was opened, exclusively for religious purposes: there is also a small library of religious books for circulation among the children of the Sabbath schools. William Brown, Esq., who died in 1835, bequeathed to the Kirk Session the sum of £3300, to be invested, and the interest appropriated to the relief of the poor. There are five friendly societies in the village of Lochwinnoch, and one in the village of Howwood; also a female provident society and a female benefit society, the ladies connected with which visit all the poor in their neighbourhoods, and distribute clothing and fuel to such as are in need of assistance.

The walls of the ancient peel erected on the island in Castle-Semple loch, but the site of which, from the partial draining of the lake, is now up upon its margin, are still remaining, and show the fortress to have been an impregnable stronghold, well calculated for security during the turbulent times in which it was raised. On the opposite side of the loch are the remains of Elliston Castle, the residence of the Sempill family previously to the 15th century. It is a quadrilateral building, about forty-two feet in length, thirty-three in breadth, and about thirty feet high; the side walls are six and a half feet, and the end walls about nine feet, in thickness. Upon a headland to the west of the village are the remains of Barr Castle, which, with the exception of its roof, is still entire: it is a tower of oblong form and of great height, crowned with battlements, and strengthened with angular turrets; the walls are pierced with loop-holes for arrows, and also with port-holes for cannon. It consists of four stories: the lowest, which has an arched roof, appears to have been used for the security of horses and cattle in case of hostile irruptions; the story immediately above it contains the banqueting-hall; and the others, various apartments for the use of the family. On the public road to Dunlop are the remains of Auchinbathie Castle, said to have been the residence of the ancestors of the brave Sir William Wallace; an opinion confirmed by the name of the small barony in which it is situated, still called Auchinbathie-Wallace. From the ruins, it is difficult to ascertain its original dimensions; but the walls still standing, and which are in good preservation, are about thirty feet in length, twelve feet in breadth, and seventeen feet high. Near the castle is a small eminence in the midst of a morass, called Wallace's Knowe: here Sir William Wallace is said to have defended himself against a strong party of the English, and in the neighbourhood he performed many memorable exploits. In the eastern part of the parish are traces of an encampment, on the farm of Castlewaws, near which was fought the battle of Muirdykes, in 1685. The Duke of Argyll, who had assembled in Holland a force of 1500 of his countrymen, refugees, being on his arrival in Scotland surprised and captured at Inchinnan, the remnant of his troops was placed under the command of Sir John Cochrane, and attacked here by the army of James VII., which, after an obstinate engagement, called the battle of Muirdykes, they repulsed with considerable loss. Remaining masters of the field, they intrenched themselves behind a natural defence till it was dark, when, fearing a reinforcement on James's side, they retreated towards Beith. The camp is situated on the summit of one of the highest hills on the south side of the loch, and, on that part which is least precipitous, is defended by a rampart of stones and turf. Within the intrenchment is a circular wall of the same materials, about sixty yards in diameter; it was probably one of the hill forts of the ancient Britons, of which there are several in this part of the country, though by some it is supposed to have been a stronghold thrown up by Sir William Wallace in his wars with the English. Many canoes have at various times been found in the loch; and between the peel and the north side of the lake, twenty have been found buried in the mud within the last half century. Among the most eminent persons connected with the parish was Alexander Wilson, the poet, a native of Paisley, who followed the occupation of a weaver in the factories of Lochwinnoch. Many of his poems, indeed, have reference to incidents which happened in this parish. Having, however, incurred a fine for a satirical poem, he emigrated to America, and, living in Philadelphia, devoted himself to the study of natural history, and published a work entitled American Ornithology. James Latta, a native of this place, was the author of a Practical System of Surgery.

Lockerbie

LOCKERBIE, a thriving and populous town, in the parish of Dryfesdale, district of Annandale, county of Dumfries, 11 miles (N. N. W.) from Annan, and 12 (E. N. E.) from Dumfries; containing 1315 inhabitants. This place derives both its origin and its name from an ancient castle or fortress on a hill between two lakes, which castle was the baronial residence of the Johnstones, a branch of the family of the Johnstones of Lochwood, ancestors of the present Marquess of Queensberry. The small hamlet which arose round the castle gradually increased under the liberal patronage of its proprietors, who granted lands for building upon long and favourable leases; and its situation in the centre of an extensive pastoral and agricultural district has contributed to render it a prosperous and flourishing town. It is on the turnpike-road from Glasgow to Carlisle, and consists of one spacious and regularlyformed street, extending for more than half a mile from north to south, and from the northern extremity of which a similar street, of half that length, branches off at right angles to the east. The houses are well built, and of handsome appearance. A public library was formerly supported; and there was a public reading and news room, supplied with most of the Scottish and English journals and periodical publications. No manufactures have hitherto been established; but all the handicraft trades requisite for the wants of the adjacent district are carried on to a great extent; and there are numerous shops, abundantly stored with merchandize of every kind for the supply of the vicinity. Branches of the Edinburgh and Glasgow, and Western Banks have been opened in the town. The post-office has a tolerable delivery; and there are some excellent inns for the accommodation of the visiters who attend the fairs and cattle-markets for which this place is celebrated.

Fairs for lambs and wool, which are largely resorted to by persons for many miles around, are held at Lammas and Michaelmas; the former is on the 2nd of August, O.S., except it happen on Saturday, Sunday, or Monday, in which case it is postponed to the following Tuesday. At this fair, which was formerly held at the base of Lockerbie hill, from 70,000 to 80,000 lambs are now frequently sold to various dealers; and so much has the business of late years increased, that the whole of that hill, of which the superiority was purchased from the corporation of Glasgow by Lady Douglas, of Lockerbie House, is now appropriated to the purpose. The Michaelmas fair is held, with the same restrictions, on the 2nd of October, and is also numerously attended. There are markets for cattle, sheep, and horses on the second Thursdays, O.S., of January, February, March, April, May, July, September, October, November, and December, all of which are free of toll. Markets are also held fortnightly during the winter for the sale of pork, in the purchase of which £1000 are often expended in one day; and fairs for hiring servants take place in April and at Michaelmas. At the northern extremity of the village is the parish church, which, after having been twice removed from its original situation, to protect it from encroachments of the river Dryfe, was finally built on its present site, which is well adapted for the convenience of the parishioners. There are also in the village places of worship for members of the Free Church, and for Antiburghers. The old tower of Lockerbie has been adapted for the custody of prisoners previously to their commitment to the gaol of Dumfries; but it is scarcely ever occupied.

Logie

LOGIE, a parish, in the district of Cupar, county of Fife; containing, with the village of Lucklawhill-Feus, 419 inhabitants, of whom forty-six are in the village of Logie, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from Cupar. This parish derives its name from the situation of its church in a hollow surrounded by hills, of which that term in the Gaelic language is descriptive. It is about four miles in length and little more than one mile in breadth, and comprises 3343 acres, of which 2700 are arable, 300 meadow and pasture, and about an equal number woodland and plantations. The surface rises into irregular hills, of which the highest, called Lucklaw hill, has an elevation of about 600 feet above the level of the sea; the general appearance is greatly diversified, and the scenery enriched by plantations of comparatively modern growth. The soil is various; in some parts, little better than moorland; and in others, especially on the sides of the hills, a rich loam which, under proper management, produces abundant crops. The system of agriculture is in a very improved state, and the rotation plan of husbandry prevalent; the crops are, oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, peas, beans, and turnips. The cattle reared on the several farms are of the Fifeshire breed, with a cross of the Teeswater occasionally; and the sheep, though few are reared, are of the Cheviot and Leicestershire breeds. The plantations are larch and Scotch fir, with some mixtures of hard-wood. The farm-buildings, though commodious, are inferior to some others in the county; but those of modern erection are upon an improved plan; and considerable progress has been made in inclosing the lands. The substratum is chiefly whinstone, of which, also, the hills consist; and in some parts of the parish porphyry is found, of a reddish colour, principally among the hills. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4013. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Cupar and synod of Fife; patron, the Crown. The minister's stipend is £170, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum. The church, built in 1826, and situated nearly in the centre of the parish, is a neat and substantial edifice adapted for a congregation of about 300 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords liberal instruction; the master has a salary of £34, with £9 fees, a house and garden, and fifty merks Scotch per annum, the proceeds of a sum bequeathed for that purpose by an ancient heritor. There is also a Sabbath school for the young, regularly taught under the immediate superintendence of the clergyman. Here are remains of an ancient square tower, apparently erected as a fortified residence; but nothing either of its founder, or its date, is recorded. John West, author of a Treatise on Mathematics, and of several valuable papers on that subject, was the son of one of the incumbents of this parish: he died a few years ago, an episcopal clergyman in the island of Jamaica.

Logie

LOGIE, a village, in the parish of Logie-Pert, county of Forfar, 4 miles (N. by W.) from Montrose; containing 332 inhabitants. This place is situated in the extreme east of the parish, on the south side of the North Esk, and but a short distance from that river. It is the seat of a large manufacturing establishment, comprising a flax spinning-mill and bleachfield, the property of a company at Montrose; and about a mile distant from these works, at Craigo, are others of a precisely similar description. Both employ nearly the whole of the population in their respective vicinities. The old church of Logie stands close by the village, where are also a school, and a good library containing suitable volumes for the working-classes.

Logie

LOGIE, a parish, in the counties of Clackmannan, Perth, and Stirling, 2 miles (N. E. by N.) from Stirling; containing, with the villages of Craigmill, Menstrie, Blairlogie, Bridge of Allan, and Causeyhead, about 2200 inhabitants. Logie derives its name from the Gaelic word lag or laggie, denoting "low or flat ground," the lands consisting principally of an extensive tract of perfectly level country. The parish is situated on the northern bank of the Forth, which separates it from the parishes of Stirling and St. Ninian's; and has a very irregular outline in this direction, on account of the many bends of the river. The extreme length from north to south is about six and a half or seven miles, and its greatest breadth six miles, comprising 10,000 Scottish acres, of which 4000 are arable, and 1000 under wood. The Devon bounds the parish on the east, and, after a beautifully-winding course of about thirty miles through a great variety of romantic scenery, falls into the Forth at Cambus, in the parish of Alloa, nearly due south of the spot where it rises, only a few miles off, on the north side of the Ochil hills. This range, stretching along the northern boundary of the parish, ascends abruptly from the plain to the height of 2500 feet, and from Demyat peak commands extensive and richly-diversified prospects. These embrace the Forth almost from its source in Loch Ard to the German Ocean, as well as the city of Edinburgh, with views of the adjacent lands, the romantic stream of the Devon, the ruins of Cambuskenneth Abbey, and the castle of Airthrey shrouded in sylvan beauty: on the north and west, the bold outline of the Grampians bounds the view, and forms a striking contrast to the wide-spread tracts below. From the foot of the Ochils, which have but little wood, though well clothed with pasture, the land is a rich, well-cultivated, and fertile plain entirely to the southern boundary of the parish; and besides many mountain streams and excellent springs, the lands are watered by the Allan, which, as well as the Devon and all the burns, contains a good supply of fine trout.

The soil of the carse land, which comprehends three-fourths of the arable portion of the parish, is a deep, rich, alluvial earth, occasionally mixed with gravel, but mostly formed solely of a strong tenacious clay, varying in depth from three to six feet, and incumbent on a dark blue silt with sand, plentifully interspersed with the shells of oysters, muscles, cockles, and many other fish. On the Ochils the soil consists principally of loam, gravel, and sand, and rocky deposits, among which are sometimes found large boulders. All kinds of grain and of green crops are raised; and the husbandry is excellent, and nearly the same on the dry-field portion as on the carse land, except that wheat is not sown upon the former. The pasture on the hills comprises about 5000 acres, and is grazed by upwards of 4000 sheep, chiefly the black-faced and Cheviots; the latter have been recently introduced, and the wool of the former has been greatly improved by a cross with the Leicester breed. Much attention is shown to the live stock; and the cows, which are the Ayrshire, are, as well as the horses, of good quality. The strata vary considerably according to the nature of the ground; the Ochil hills consist of trap-rock, comprising a large proportion of amygdaloid, with agates, calc-spar, and many other minerals peculiar to the trap formation. Ironstone also exists; and copper-ore has been wrought at the vein of the Mine-house, but it is now exhausted. The substratum immediately south of the Ochils is a continuation of the Clackmannanshire coalfield; but no works have been formed, as it is concluded that in this part the seams are too thin to be profitable. Logie derives much celebrity from its mineral spring, situated on the estate of Airthrey, near the village of Bridge of Allan, to which place large numbers of visiters resort every season for the benefit of the waters. The rateable annual value of the Clackmannanshire part of the parish is £6445, of the Perthshire part £3100, and the Stirlingshire £5292.

The wood in the parish consists chiefly of plantations of ash, elm, plane, beech, larch, oak, and fir, in the vicinity of Airthrey Castle, which stands on the brow of the Ochil hills, and is the seat of Lord Abercromby, grandson of the late Sir Ralph Abercromby. A saw-mill has been built on the spot, for the purpose of preparing the wood for transit to various parts of the country, where it is used for palings, in farm houses and offices, and for many other purposes. The castle is surrounded by a small but beautiful park, ornamented by an artificial lake, and is the only mansion of note, with the exception of Powis House, a neat and commodious modern structure. Independently of several small hamlets, the parish contains the villages of Menstrie, Blairlogie, Craigmill, Causeyhead, and Bridge of Allan. Craigmill is situated at the southern base of the Abbey-Craig, a remarkable rock of greenstone 500 feet high, in which there is an extensive quarry, affording a material employed for several purposes, but especially adapted, on account of its firm texture, and rough surface when broken, for grinding wheat. Upwards of three hundred pairs of millstones have been made for preparing flour, and for the use of distilleries, at a cost of from £12 to £20 per pair; but they are not at present in much demand, those made in France, and imported hither, being now sold for a low sum. The French millstones were originally the only ones employed, and, at the period of the war, rose so much in price as to induce the London Society for the Encouragement of Arts to offer 100 guineas for the discovery of any stone in Great Britain from which millstones could be manufactured, capable of being substituted for those from France. In consequence of this, Mr. James Brownhill, of the Alloa mills, presented specimens made from this rock; they were approved, and he received the premium. Afterwards, the stones from France long commanding from £45 to £60 per pair, the native stones continued in use till the peace, when the great reduction in the price of the former rendered those here prepared scarcely worth the cost of the labour. There is another village, called Abbey, situated where the celebrated abbey of Cambuskenneth once flourished; but this, with the barony of the same name, in which it stands, has been considered from time immemorial as belonging to the parish of Stirling. Law proceedings, however, were lately taken on the part of the parish of Logie, which claimed possession, in order to recover it. The commissary of Stirling and the commissary of Dunblane each exercise jurisdiction over it as belonging to their respective provinces.

The turnpike-roads to Crieff, Alloa, Dollar, and Stirling all meet in this parish, at the village of Causeyhead; but the first has long been in very bad condition, and is burthened with toll-gates. The Forth also affords facility for internal communication, and is crossed by an elegant bridge lately constructed, in place of the old one, at Stirling, to which place the river is navigable for vessels of considerable size. The mail-coach from Perth to Glasgow, besides several other conveyances to different places, passes through the parish; and there are regular steam-boats between Stirling and Edinburgh. Logie is ecclesiastically in the presbytery of Dunblane and synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the patronage of the Earl of Dunmore: the minister's stipend is £263, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £24 per annum. The church, built in 1805, is a neat edifice containing sittings for 644 persons, and is beautifully situated at the foot of the Ochil mountains. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords instruction in Greek and Latin, and all the ordinary branches of education; the master has a salary of £30, with £33 fees, and about eighty children receive instruction. The school-house is very conveniently situated. On the Abbey-Craig hill, the Scottish army under Wallace was posted the night before the celebrated engagement of Stirling, Sept. 13th, 1297: upon the summit were formerly the remains of a fort said to have been erected by Oliver Cromwell when he besieged the castle of Stirling. Large stones, so common throughout the country, set up to commemorate battles, are seen in some parts; and spear-heads, with other military relics, have been found, some of which, from the skill displayed in the construction, are supposed to be of Roman origin. The entire skeleton of a whale, between sixty and seventy feet long, was discovered in 1819 in the alluvial subsoil, and is now in the museum of Edinburgh University. The first earl of Stirling, born in 1580, an elegant scholar and poet, and a great favourite of James VI., was the sixth baron of Menstrie, in this parish; and General Sir Ralph Abercromby, the hero of Aboukir, was born at the family mansion, Menstrie, in 1734.—See Cambuskenneth, Bridge of Allan, &c.

Logie

LOGIE, or South Parish, Forfar.—See Kirriemuir.

Logie-Buchan

LOGIE-BUCHAN, a parish, in the district of Ellon, county of Aberdeen, 2 miles (E. by S.) from Ellon; containing 713 inhabitants. The word Logie, expressing "a low-lying spot," has been applied to this place on account of its appliability to the tract in which the church is situated; and the affix is used, as descriptive of the position of the parish in that part of the county called Buchan, to distinguish this from other places of the name of Logie. It is separated on the east from the German Ocean by the parish of Slains, and is intersected by the river Ythan, which crosses it in the centre in an eastern direction, and, after dividing it into two nearly equal parts, falls into the sea about three miles below the church. This river, the Ituna of ancient geographers, and once highly celebrated for its valuable pearls, has here four small tributary streams, two of which separate the parish on the north from Ellon, Cruden, and Slains, and two on the south from Ellon, Udny, and Foveran. The length of the portion of the parish in the former quarter is three miles and three-quarters, and of that in the latter five and three-quarters,, and the breadth of the whole varies from three-quarters of a mile to three miles; the entire district comprising 6600 acres, the number of which under tillage is 5900, and in plantation 60: the remainder is uncultivated. The surface is in general level, and the highest hills reach an elevation of only 130 or 140 feet above the sea. The principal object distinguishing the scenery is the Ythan, which enters the locality through a range of rocks, where there is a fine echo, near the "Needle's Eye:" beyond this point, at which its breadth is not more than fifty yards, it widens till it reaches, at high water, the breadth of 600 yards, and forms a noble basin. The river abounds with various kinds of trout, and salmon, eels, flounders, and muscles; and pearls are still occasionally found. It has a ferry opposite the church, where its breadth at low water is about sixty yards; and two boats are kept, the one for general passengers, and the other, a larger boat, for the conveyance of the parishioners to church from the northern side. A tradition has long prevailed that the largest pearl in the crown of Scotland was obtained in the Ythan; and about the middle of the last century, £100 were paid by a London jeweller to a gentleman in Aberdeen, for pearls found in the river. The pearl-fishery was formerly confined by patent, which privilege was withdrawn by an act of parliament of the reign of King Charles I.

The soil, which in some parts is clayey, produces oats, bear, turnips, potatoes, and grass for pasture and hay. Many improvements in agriculture have been introduced within the present century, including the rotation of crops and several other approved usages; the scythe has taken the place of the sickle in reaping, and most of the old farm-houses with thatched roofs have been succeeded by others, two stories high, built of stone and lime, and covered with slate. Oats and turnips are the principal crops: the former are of excellent quality, chiefly in consequence of the great care taken in the choice of seed; the latter are much indebted to the plentiful application of bone-manure. The influence of steam-navigation on the interests of agriculture has been here most powerfully felt; and the facility of communication with the London market thus afforded has given a decided impulse to the breeding and fattening of cattle, which are crosses with the short-horned breed. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3178. A mansion has lately been built in the Elizabethan style, on the estate of Auchmacoy, the property of James Buchan, Esq., whose ancestors, from a very remote period, have been located here, and were conspicuous in the political convulsions of several reigns, and, with the other chief proprietors of the parish, advocated the cause of the king in opposition to the Covenanters. Most of the inhabitants of the district are employed in agricultural pursuits, a small brick-work recently established being the only exception. The great north road from Aberdeen passes through the parish; and on it the mail, with other public coaches, travels to and fro daily. On another road, leading to the shipping-port of Newburgh, the tenantry have a considerable traffic in grain, lime, and coal, the last procured from England, being the chief fuel. The river Ythan is navigable for lighters of ten or twelve tons at high water. The marketable produce of the parish is sent to Aberdeen. Logie-Buchan is in the presbytery of Ellon and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of Mr. Buchan: the minister's stipend is £192, with a manse, and a glebe of five and a half acres, valued at £12. 10. per annum. The church was built in 1787, and contains 400 sittings, nearly all free. The parochial school affords instruction in the ordinary branches: the master has a salary of £25. 13., with a house, and £9. 7. 6. fees; he also partakes in the Dick bequest.

Logie-Coldstone

LOGIE-COLDSTONE, a parish, in the district of Kincardine O'Neil, county of Aberdeen, 9 miles (W.) from Kincardine; containing 936 inhabitants. This place comprises the ancient parishes of Logie and Coldstone, united in 1618, and of which the former derives its name from a Gaelic term signifying a "hollow" or "low situation," which is faithfully descriptive of its character. Of the name Coldstone, formerly Colstane, the derivation is altogether uncertain. The parish occupies a district between the rivers Don and Dee, from both of which it is nearly equidistant; it is bounded partly on the west by the river Deskry, separating it from the parish of Strathdon, and is about six miles in length and three miles and a half in breadth. It is of very irregular form, inclosing within its boundaries a detached portion of the parish of Migvy; neither have its superficial contents been duly ascertained. About 3000 acres are arable, 900 woodland and plantations, and the remainder hill pasture, moorland, and waste. The surface is diversified with numerous hills, of which a range of precipitous height extends along the western boundary; the most conspicuous is the hill of Morven, commanding from its summit an unbounded prospect towards the east. On the north the hills are less elevated, of more gradual ascent, and partly under cultivation. The river Deskry, after forming for some distance the boundary of the parish, flows into the Don; and there are some small rivulets, which, after intersecting various lands here, flow into the Dee in the parish of Aboyne. There are also several lakes, of which Loch Dawan, situated at the south-western extremity of the parish, is nearly three miles in circumference: Loch Uaine, which takes its name from the green colour of its water, is on the farm of Nether Ruthven; and though apparently impure, the cattle drink of its water in preference to any other. Of the numerous springs, several of which possess mineral properties, the most distinguished is a powerful chalybeate near the church, called the Poll Dubh, signifying in the Gaelic the "black mire," and which is still resorted to by many persons for its efficacy in the cure of scorbutic complaints.

The soil is various; in some parts, a deep rich loam; in others, light and sandy; and on the slopes of the high grounds, generally fertile; the whole producing favourable crops of grain, potatoes, and turnips, with the usual grasses. The system of husbandry has been greatly improved, and considerable tracts of moor and waste have been brought into profitable cultivation. The lands have been inclosed; the houses and offices are usually substantial and well arranged; threshingmills have been erected on most of the farms, and all the more recent improvements in the construction of agricultural implements have been adopted. The moors abound with grouse, snipes, woodcocks, partridges, hares, and game of every other variety; ptarmigan and white hares are found in abundance on the hill of Morven, and great numbers of wild ducks and geese frequent the lower grounds. There are but small remains of ancient wood, consisting chiefly of dwarf alder; but roots of oak, fir, and hazel of large growth, are often dug up on the mosses. The modern plantations are principally fir and larch, for which the soil seems well adapted, and which are all in a thriving state. The rocks in the parish are of the granite formation; but there are neither mines nor quarries of any description. The rateable annual value of Logie-Coldstone is £6258, the amount for Logie being £3178, and for Coldstone £3080. The seats are Corrachree and Blelack, both modern mansions. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil and the synod of Aberdeen. The minister's stipend is £217. 9. 3., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum; alternate patrons, the Crown, and the Farquharson family, of Invercauld. The church, rebuilt in 1780, is a neat plain structure, and well adapted to the accommodation of the parishioners. The parochial school is attended by about 100 children: the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £25 per annum; he has also a portion of the Dick bequest. There are several cairns in the parish, two of which, of large dimensions, have given the name of Cairnmore to the farms on which they are respectively situated. In the gable of one of the offices on the farm of Mill of Newton is a sculptured stone, originally erected on ground in the vicinity, which is still called Tomachar, or the "Hillock of the Chair." Within the last few years, part of a paved road was discovered below the surface of a ploughed field, on the lands of Blelack; and near the spot is a hollow called the Picts' Howe. On removing some of the stones, layers of charred wood were found beneath them.

Logie-Durno

LOGIE-DURNO, Aberdeenshire.—See Garioch, Chapel of.

Logie Easter

LOGIE EASTER, a parish, in the county of Ross and Cromarty, 5 miles (S. S. W.) from Tain; containing 1015 inhabitants. The name of Logie, so frequently applied to designate Scottish parishes, is derived from the Gaelic word laggie, which signifies a "hollow," and is used in the present instance in reference to the site of the first church, the ruins of which are still to be seen. The place is not remarkable for any events of historical importance; but there are many cairns remaining, the ancient and ordinary memorials of bloodshed, and said to have originated in a battle fought between the Danes and Scots, in which the latter were conquerors. The parish is seven miles long and about three broad, and is bounded on the north by Tain-parish; on the south by Kilmuir Easter; by Nigg on the east; and by Eddertoun on the west. The climate is usually mild, but intensely cold when the wind sets in from the east, which is, however, but seldom, as the westerly winds are most prevalent. The soil varies considerably in different parts, consisting in some places of a light, sandy, unproductive earth; in others, of deep clay; and in some tracts, of a rich black mould. Wheat is the principal grain raised, and it is of a very superior quality. The most approved system of agriculture has become general since the breaking up of the small farms; the lands are now let in large allotments, and exhibit the natural effects of good cultivation. The population, however, has been greatly diminished by the change in the system.

The whole land is the property of four individuals, two of whom are resident: the rateable annual value of the parish is £3297. There are several quarries of freestone; and a manufactory for tiles employs about thirty hands. A cattle-market is held at Blackhill in the month of May, at which large numbers of cows are sold. The mail-coach runs daily through the parish; but the roads, with the exception of a line of about three miles, are in bad condition. Calrossie, the seat of the Ross family, and Shandwick and Scotsburn, are very handsome mansions. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Tain and synod of Ross, and the patronage belongs to the family of Hay Mackenzie, of Cromertie: the stipend of the minister is £237, with a glebe of twenty-two acres. The church, which is an excellent and commodious building, capable of accommodating 700 persons with sittings, is situated on Chapel hill, and was erected about twenty-five years since: near it is the manse, built about fifty years ago, and commanding an extensive view of rich and beautiful scenery. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. There is a parochial school, the master of which has a salary of £35, with a good school-house and about £6 fees. Another school, in the district of Scotsburn, is called the Assembly school; the master receives £20 per annum and some fees, and connected with it is a small library. The language generally spoken in the parish is Gaelic; but the younger part of the population can all speak and read English. There was till lately no assessment for the poor, whose relief was obtained chiefly from the funds of the Kirk Session; they have the interest of about £100, the aggregate of various bequests.

Logie-Pert

LOGIE-PERT, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 5 miles (N. W.) from Montrose; containing, with the villages of Craigo, Logie, and Muirside, 1560 inhabitants. This parish was formerly called Logie-Montrose; but, upon the annexation to it of the parish of Pert about the year 1610 or 1615, it assumed its present name of Logie-Pert. The word Logie, so frequently used in Scotland, is of Gaelic origin, signifying a "flat or low situation," and is strikingly applicable to the old church of Logie, situated in a hollow or piece of low ground close by the North Esk river. The name of Pert is very old, and of uncertain derivation; but its ancient church, like that of Logie, is still standing, though both have fallen into disuse since the erection of a central church for the accommodation of the united parish in the year 1775. The parish is about five miles in length and three in breadth, and is bounded on the north by the North Esk, which separates it from Kincardineshire; on the south by the parish of Dun, on the east by the parish of Montrose, and on the west by the parish of Strickathrow. The lower part lies along the banks of the river, which here makes a beautiful curve; the upper part is tolerably high, and generally with a gentle declivity to the river, though a considerable portion of it has a southern exposure. The river, sometimes called the North Water, gives the title of Earl to the noble family of the Carnegies, earls of Northesk, who formerly held a large tract of land in Pert and its vicinity, on both sides of the stream, which property now belongs to the Earl of Kintore and others. This river takes its rise, like the South Esk, from the Grampian torrents, and falls into the sea about three miles north of Montrose; it abounds with excellent trout and salmon, the fisheries of which yield a considerable revenue to the different proprietors.

The soil in the lower part of the district is a fine deep loam, and in the upper part generally a black earth resting upon a subsoil of clay. About 3795 acres are under cultivation; 300 are waste, and 1100 are lying under wood, consisting mainly of larch, spruce, and Scotch fir. Oats and barley are the grain chiefly grown, the amount of wheat being small; and potatoes and turnips are produced in considerable quantities, with other green crops. A good revenue is also derived from the dairy produce, the chief part of which is disposed of at the Montrose market. The system of husbandry here followed is of the best kind; and the crops, especially the grain, are of excellent quality: the cattle are of the Angus breed, and a few sheep are kept for the purpose of consuming the turnips in the winter. The farm houses and offices are in general in superior condition, and some of them built even in a handsome manner. There are but a few thorn hedges, and scarcely any stone fences, the inclosures being mostly constructed of a strong and moveable paling. The chief improvement recently carried out has been extensive and effectual draining; scarcely any other is required. The limeworks formerly in operation are now given up; but there is an excellent freestone-quarry on the estate of Craigo, of which, however, the expense of working is so considerable that very few stones are sent out of the parish. There are two great manufacturing establishments at Logie and Craigo respectively, both situated on the banks of the North Esk, about a mile distant from each other. The Logie works belong to a company at Montrose, and comprise a bleachfield and flax-spinning mill, the former of which has existed nearly eighty years, and is at present employed in bleaching linenyarns, to be afterwards manufactured into different kinds of cloth for the home and foreign markets. Between forty and fifty persons are engaged in this branch, and the mill occupies about 130 hands. The works at Craigo comprise a flax-spinning mill of thirty-one frames, a bleachfield, some cloth-finishing machinery, and an alkali manufacture; 150 hands are constantly employed, and £100 per week are paid in wages. The rateable annual value of Logie-Pert is £6206.

Brushwood, which abounds in the parish, is frequently used by the people as fuel; but the chief article of consumption is English coal, procured at Montrose. Two fairs are held every year for the sale of cattle and horses, the one on the second Tuesday in May, and the other on the third Thursday in June. A daily post runs through the parish from Montrose to Laurencekirk; and two public coaches between Edinburgh and Aberdeen pass along the turnpike-road, the line of which is about three miles long in this parish. There are two large bridges, one of which, the North Water bridge, consists of three arches, and was built above 300 years ago; the Marykirk bridge, a handsome structure of four arches, was built by shares, in 1814, at an expense of £7000, and has proved of great benefit in facilitating the intercourse between the two counties. Craigo House, built about fifty-five years since, is a spacious and excellent mansion; and the house of Gallery, of older date, is romantically situated on the bank of the Esk. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Brechin and synod of Angus and Mearns; patrons, the Crown, and St. Mary's College, St. Andrew's, alternately. The stipend of the minister is £219, with a manse, and a glebe of nine acres, worth about £2 per acre. The present church, which is situated in the centre of the parish, was built in 1840, and is a plain substantial structure, capable of accommodating about 700 persons with seats. There is a parochial school, where the usual branches of education are taught; the master has the maximum salary, with about £15 fees, and a house and garden. Unendowed schools have been recently built at each of the mills, where the same instruction is given as at the parochial school; and there are two small parochial libraries, and two or three savings' banks. The poor have the interest of £189, left by the late David Lyall, of Gallery. The only antiquities are three tumuli, on three laws of Craigo, in which human bones of an extraordinary size have been found, with several urns and other relics. The late James Mill, Esq., author of British India, was a native of the parish: he died in the year 1836.

Logierait

LOGIERAIT, a parish, in the county of Perth, containing, with the village of Ballenluig, part of that of Aberfeldy, and part of the late quoad sacra district of Rannoch, 2959 inhabitants, of whom 168 are in the village of Logierait, 8 miles (N. N. W.) from Dunkeld. This place, frequently called Laggan by the inhabitants, derives its name from the two words Logie and Rait or Reite, the first signifying a "hollow," and the latter "arbitration" or "settlement of differences," the Court of Regality under the jurisdiction of the house of Atholl having been formerly held in this locality, where a large court-house stood, containing a justiciary hall upwards of seventy feet long, with galleries at the ends. King Robert III. is supposed to have resided occasionally at a hunting-seat, or castle, in the vicinity of the village, the ruins of which are still to be seen. The parish consists of several distinct portions, some of which are far distant from the main part. The principal lands of the main part lie between the rivers Tay and Tummel, the former running along their southern, and the latter marking their northern and eastern boundaries: the rest of the main part is east of the Tummel, and bounded by the parishes of Dunkeld, Kirkmichael, and Moulin, the first and last of which penetrate by narrow tracts to a considerable distance. On the south of the Tay, a detached portion of Logierait, stretching from the river, near Aberfeldy, for about a mile, runs between the parishes of Dull and Fortingal; and two other separate portions are situated to the westward, in the district of Rannoch, beyond the parishes of Weem, Dull, and Fortingal. On account of the very irregular boundary line of the main part, but especially on account of the detached portions, it is difficult to state the actual dimensions of the parish; but, supposing the whole compact and continuous, it has been estimated at twelve miles in length, and five in average breadth. It contains 27,411 acres, of which 5002 are under cultivation, 2899 under wood, 15,533 moor, 768 common, and the remainder other kinds of waste. The scenery between the two rivers, which in one part are about seven miles distant, is richly varied and beautiful; and a sloping hilly ridge intersecting the district commands uninterrupted and picturesque views on each side, the bold and imposing features of the rocky and mountainous eminences in the adjacent parishes supplying a fine relief to the softer scenery of the immediate locality. The portion of the parish situated in Rannoch is skirted on the north by the considerable loch of the same name; but, with this exception, there are no waters of consequence besides the two rivers, and the stream which separates part of Logierait from Dull, and is ornamented near Aberfeldy with the celebrated falls of Moness.

The soil in the haughs and low grounds is partly alluvial, and partly gravelly; that of some of the slopes is deeper, and of a rich loamy quality: the portion east of the tunnel contains numerous springs, and is mostly wet, resting on a clayey impervious subsoil. The crops, which in general are fine, on account of the purity and dryness of the climate and the kindly nature of the soil, comprise wheat, barley, oats, and rye, the last, however, sown in only small quantities. Turnips and potatoes are also produced to some extent, with clover; and lint is still grown, though bearing but a small proportion to the amount formerly raised. The six-shift rotation is occasionally followed; but the five-shift prevails among the larger farmers, and the four-shift among the cottars. The breeds of horses, sheep, and cattle are much mixed, and comparatively inferior; improvements have, however, recently been made, and Leicester sheep and Ayrshire cattle are seen on some of the best farms. The husbandry on the whole is upon a good footing; but the advances made in many other districts are here impeded to a considerable extent by the minute subdivision of the land, which, falling into the hands of inferior tenants, is deprived of the advantage of an outlay of capital, and often much exhausted in cropping. The recovery of waste land, and draining and embanking, have, nevertheless, been actively carried on; and much attention has been paid to the erection of superior farm-houses and offices, which till recently were of very indifferent character. The Duke of Atholl is superior, and principal heritor: the rateable annual value of the parish is £10,290. Veins of limestone cross the district in one or two places; but the substratum consists chiefly of common stone, quarries of which are numerous. The wood comprehends larch, several varieties of fir, ash, elm, beech, oak, poplar, plane and other trees; the largest plantations are those of larch, belonging to the duke. There are several gentlemen's seats on the north of the Tay, and on each side of the Tummel, all of which are neat commodious structures. The village of Logierait is ancient, and now almost ruinous: the old prison in it belonging to the Regality Court, where many of the rebels were confined after the battle of Culloden, was taken down about twenty-five years since. About 170 persons reside here; and 300 in that portion of the village of Aberfeldy attached to this parish. Linenyarn was formerly manufactured, returning nearly £3000 annually; but this branch of trade has entirely disappeared. The parish contains, however, six distilleries, which produce yearly about 65,000 gallons of spirit from 32,500 bushels of malt, one-third of the barley employed being of native growth: there are also eight mealmills, two for flax, two saw-mills, and one for potatoestarch.

A good turnpike-road traverses Strath-Tay, and is connected with the great road to Inverness on the north, and with that to Breadalbane from Dunkeld on the south, by two ferries, the one on the Tay and the other on the Tummel; the passage on the latter being effected by a fly-bridge constructed with two boats and a platform, and adapted, by novel and ingenious machinery, to the nature of the stream. There are several other ferries; and a post every day except Tuesday. The chief trade consists in the exportation of whisky to the southern markets, and potatoes to Dundee for London; the meal obtained from the oats is sold in the surrounding districts. A fair is held on the first Tuesday after the 12th of May, for the sale of seeds, &c.; but it has nearly fallen into disuse in consequence of the farmers having discontinued the sowing of lint-seeds. A market, also, now in a declining state, is held on the 22nd of August, for the sale of horses and the hiring of shearers. The parish is ecclesiastically in the presbytery of Weem and synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the patronage of the Duke of Atholl. The minister's stipend is £232, with a manse, and a glebe of several acres, valued at £10 per annum. The church was built in 1806, and is conveniently situated within half a mile of the junction of the Tay and Tummel, and in the vicinity of the principal ferries; it contains accommodation for 1000 persons. There is an episcopal chapel; and a place of worship for Baptists has been erected. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches: the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and about £6 fees; also £5 per annum from the rents of the bishopric of Dunkeld. There is likewise a free-school at Strath-Tay, affording a good education to nearly 200 children, endowed by David Stuart, a native of the parish, with six acres of land, and the interest of £2500, for the support of a master and assistant, and the supply of stationery and prizes, besides an additional sum for the erection of school premises: the master has a salary of £40, and the assistant one of £20. The same benefactor also left funds which are soon to become available, for the endowment of an hospital at Edinburgh. There is a society called the Atholl Wrights' Brotherly Society, instituted in 1812; the Strath-Tay Farmers' Friendly Society was commenced in January 1826; and a savings' bank at Aberfeldy, instituted in 1833, is open for deposits to a small portion of this parish. The chief relic of antiquity is the ruin of the castle or hunting-seat supposed to have been occupied by King Robert; and there are several places the names of which indicate the residence of royalty, and the operations of judicial tribunals, such as "king's stables," "gallow-hill," &c. The Duke of Atholl takes his title of Lord Strath-Tay from this parish.

Logie Wester

LOGIE WESTER, counties of Nairn, and Ross and Cromarty.—See Urquhart.

Longforgan

LONGFORGAN, a parish, in the county of Perth; containing, with the villages of Balbunno and Kingoodie, 1660 inhabitants, of whom 458 are in the village of Longforgan, 2 miles (E. N. E.) from Inchture, and 5½ (W.) from Dundee. This place, the name of which, in a charter of Robert Bruce's in 1315, granting the lands and barony to Sir Andrew Gray, is written Lonforgund, appears to have obtained its prefix to distinguish it from other places called Forgan in the neighbourhood. The parish forms the eastern extremity of the Carse of Gowrie, and is about nine miles in length, and of very irregular figure, varying from a mile and a half to four miles in breadth. It is bounded on the south by the river Tay, which washes its shores for nearly five miles; and comprises 8992 acres, whereof 7200 are arable, 1003 woodland and plantations, and 189 hill-pasture and waste. The surface is greatly diversified, rising in some parts into hills of considerable elevation, of which those of Ballo and Lochton, parts of the Sidlaw range, are the principal, the former being nearly 1000, and the latter nearly 1200, feet above the level of the sea. From the banks of the Tay, also, the land rises gradually towards the north-west to the hill of Drimmie, from which is obtained a rich prospect of the luxuriant plains of the Carse of Gowrie. The lower lands form a broad, level, and fertile tract in the highest state of cultivation; and the scenery is embellished with extensive and thriving plantations, and with gentlemen's seats, round some of which is timber of ancient and stately growth. Numerous streamlets issue from copious springs of excellent water, affording an ample supply, and some are sufficiently powerful to turn several mills.

The soil in the lower grounds is chiefly clay with a rich black loam, but in some parts of them clay intermixed with gravel of a reddish colour, which by good management is rendered very fertile. In the upper districts of the parish, the soil, though inferior in quality to that of the carse land, is dry, and well adapted for turnips, with the exception of some small portions which, resting on a more compact clay, are moist and less productive. The crops are, wheat, barley, oats, peas, beans, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture attained a highly-advanced state under the auspices of the Carse of Gowrie Agricultural Society, which held its meetings for the promotion of improvements in husbandry in the village of Longforgan, but which has now merged into the Perthshire Agricultural Association. The lands are inclosed partly with stone dykes, and partly with hedges; considerable benefit has been effected by draining, and the landowners have introduced the plan of embankments, for reclaiming a large portion of land on the shores of the parish. The farm-buildings are substantial and commodious; and on most of the farms are threshing-mills, of which one is driven by steam. The cattle are chiefly a cross of the short-horned breed, but not many are reared, and very few sheep, the lands not being adapted for the pasture of live stock; some horses are bred, but the greater number are brought from other places. The woods consist of oak, ash, elm, Spanish chesnut, beech, lime, and plane trees, of which many fine specimens are found on the lands of Castle-Huntly, Drimmie, Mylnefield, and Longforgan. There are quarries of freestone at Kingoodie, and in the higher district of the parish. The former, the property of Mr. Henderson, are near the Tay, and have been wrought from a remote period; the stone is of a blueish hue, very compact and durable, and susceptible of the finest polish. Great quantities of it are raised, and sent to Aberdeen, Perth, Dundee, and other places, about sixty persons being continually employed; and the lessees of the quarries have constructed docks, and provided other facilities for shipping the produce, in which three boats are always engaged. The stone of the other quarry, which is the property of Lord Kinnaird, is of similar quality to that of Kingoodie, though of a whiter colour. This quarry, however, from which the stone was raised for the erection of Rossie Priory, is not wrought to any very great extent, its situation precluding the facility for shipping off the produce. The salmon-fishery in the Tay, which was formerly very considerable, and afforded an abundant supply for the inhabitants and also for distant markets, has since the prohibition of the use of the stakenet been wholly discontinued. The rateable annual value of the parish is £13,588.

Drimmie House, the seat of the Kinnaird family, was destroyed by fire at the commencement of the last century; and Rossie Priory, the present residence of Lord Kinnaird, was erected in its stead, at some distance from the site of the old mansion, within the parish of Inchture, under which head it is described. Castle-Huntly, the seat of George Paterson, Esq., to whose ancestor it was sold in 1777, is an ancient and stately mansion, built of stone from the quarries of Kingoodie by the second lord Gray, of Foulis; the walls are ten feet in thickness, and exhibit no marks of decay, though the building has stood for nearly five centuries. The round tower, which is nearly 120 feet high, commands a most extensive and rich view, comprising the entire Carse lands strewed with handsome residences, the river Tay for nearly the whole of its course till it falls into the German Ocean, the opposite coast of Fife with the Lomonds, part of the vale of Strathearn, the Ochils, and the lofty range of Sidlaw. Considerable additions have been made to the castle; but uniformity of character has been preserved, and the whole forms one of the most magnificent seats in the country. Mylnefield, the seat of Mr. Henderson, is a handsome mansion sheltered with stately timber; and Lochton is also a handsome house, pleasantly situated. The village is neatly built and well inhabited: about 150 of its people are employed in the manufacture of coarse-linen, and a considerable number of women and children are engaged in spinning and winding the yarn. The nearest market-town is Dundee, with which, and with other towns, a facility of intercourse is maintained by good roads; that from Aberdeen passes through the parish, and from this principal road branch off two others, the one leading to the quarries at Kingoodie, and the other to Cupar. A small harbour has been constructed at Kingoodie, where lime from Sunderland, and coal from Dundee, are landed. The post-town is Inchture. Fairs are held on the first Wednesday in June, the first Wednesday in October, O. S., and the last Monday in April, for the sale of cattle, agricultural produce, and other merchandize. The parish is in the presbytery of Dundee and synod of Angus and Mearns, and patronage of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £268. 3. 4., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £13 per annum. The church is a spacious and substantial edifice, well situated for the convenience of the parishioners, and adapted for a congregation of 1000 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial schoolmaster has a salary of £34, with £16 fees, and a house and garden; he has also £6. 6. from Mr. Paterson, and £2. 10. from Lord Kinnaird, for the gratuitous instruction of poor children on their respective estates: an excellent schoolroom has been lately erected. A small library has been established, which consists chiefly of religious works; and a savings' bank was opened in 1824, but it has not been much encouraged. At Dron are the ruins of a chapel belonging formerly to the abbey of Cupar-Angus founded by Malcolm IV., in 1164, for monks of the Cistercian order; the remains consist chiefly of the east and west gables of the building, in the latter of which is a large window of elegant design, and are situated in a deep dell, on a rocky eminence, at the base of which is a small rivulet of beautifully limpid water. A silver coin of the reign of Robert II. or III. was found on a farm here in the year 1826; the legend, Robertus, Dei Gratia Scotorum Rex, is still legible, but every other part is completely obliterated.

Longformacus and Ellim

LONGFORMACUS and ELLIM, a parish, in the county of Berwick, 7 miles (W. N. W.) from Dunse; containing 390 inhabitants. The name of this place has been variously written at different periods, and its derivation is involved in much obscurity. In 1384, it is called Longfordmakehouse in a charter by the Earl of Orkney to his cousin "James de Santæ Clairo;" while, in a charter of 1395, the lands of Lochirmackehous are conveyed by the Earl of March to James Sinclair. In 1505, the spelling had changed to Lochirmacus, which form it kept till about 1556, when it assumed its present form of Longformacus. The name of Ellim has also been spelt differently, sometimes being written Ellim, and at other times Elm and Ellem: its derivation, too, is uncertain, like that of Longformacus. These two parishes, on account of their proximity, were united on the 18th of February 1712, when the population of Longformacus was 200, and that of Ellim 100. There are no striking historical events; but notices of many severe conflicts are handed down by tradition as having taken place in this district, which, on account of its situation, was involved in the border warfare. The name of Main, or Man-slaughter, Law is given to a hill in the neighbourhood, where a bloody battle is said to have been fought in 1402, between the Earl of Dunbar and Hepburn of Hailes; and a large heap of stones at Byrecleugh, called the "Mutiny Stones," about 240 feet long, mark the spot or vicinity of some severe encounter the particulars of which are unknown. There being a place here of the name of Otterburn, the supposition has been hazarded that this parish was the scene of the contest between Douglas and Hotspur, fought in the year 1388.

The parish is about twelve miles in length, from east to west, and eight miles in breadth, and contains 21,350 acres, of which 2200 are cultivated, 18,800 uncultivated, and 350 under plantation. It lies at the extremity of the county, and is bounded on the north by the Lammermoor hills, which separate it from the parish of Whittingham, in Haddingtonshire: it has on the south the parishes of Langton, Greenlaw, and Westruther; on the east, Dunse and Abbey St. Bathan's; and on the west, the parish of Lauder. A part of the parish, about two miles long and one and a half broad, called Blackerstone, which belonged to the old parish of Ellim, is locally situated in, and insulated by, the parish of Abbey St. Bathan's: this portion is eight miles distant from the church. The surface of the parish, in its general appearance, is hilly, being situated near the great Lammermoor ridge; and is mostly covered with heath, and traversed by large flocks of sheep. But, though the hills are uncultivated, some of them, such as the two Dirrington Laws, which are conical in form, are of great beauty; and one of the two rises 1145 feet in height. The most elevated part of the parish, however, is Meikle Cese, or Sayrs Law, in the line of division between Berwickshire and East Lothian, and which is nearly 1500 feet high. The climate, on account of the peculiar situation, and in many parts lofty site, of the district, is cold and piercing, but by no means unhealthy. The lands are watered by the rivers Whiteadder and Dye, the former of which cuts the northern boundary of the parish at Duddy Law: the Dye is a tributary to the Whiteadder, and the Whiteadder to the Tweed; and both are good trouting streams.

Though the farm-houses are generally in indifferent repair, the system of husbandry is tolerably advanced; and the crops usually produced are, barley, oats, turnips, potatoes, rye-grass, and clover. Some of the grain and of the potatoes is sent to the markets of Haddington, Dunbar, and Berwick. Near the village of Longformacus, plantations have been made to a considerable extent, especially in the immediate neighbourhood of the Mansion House, the seat of the principal heritor, John Home Home, Esq., where are some elm and ash trees of very striking appearance. On the lands of Blackerstone, also, at the Retreat, planting has been extensively carried on. The sheep pastured amount to about 9000 or 10,000, two-thirds of which are of the Cheviot breed; 100 scores are the black-faced, and fifty scores half Leicesters. The cattle are the common breed of the county, but not of so fine a quality as those in the southern districts. There is a vein of copper-ore in the place where the old church of Ellim stood; it has at different times been partially worked, but without success. An English company, not many years ago, renewed the attempt upon a larger scale; but it was shortly abandoned, the ore not being sufficiently rich and plentiful to cover the expenses. A vein of superior quality, however, is supposed to exist in the same neighbourhood. The rateable annual value of the parish is returned at £3788.

The only village is Longformacus: there are two main roads running through the parish, one from Haddington to Coldstream, and the other from East Lothian to Dunse; but both are very indifferent. The cross-roads, also, are in a bad state, the money for their repair, which is levied upon twenty ploughs, the estimated number kept, being found altogether insufficient for the purpose. The Duke of Roxburghe has a shooting or fishing cottage here; as have Lord Somerville, on the Dye water; the Earl of Wemyss, at the Retreat; and Mr. Smith, at Rigfoot. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Dunse and synod of Merse and Teviotdale; patron, Mr. Home Home. The stipend of the minister is £222, with a manse, which stands about three-quarters of a mile from the church, and was built about twenty-seven years ago. The glebe consists of twelve acres of excellent land, and there is a right of pasturage for forty sheep on the farm adjoining the old church of Ellim, which privilege is in lieu of a glebe for that parish; the minister has, however, commuted this privilege for £11 per annum. The church, a plain, long, narrow structure, was built above a century and a half ago; it has lately been repaired, and is in good order. It accommodates 200 persons with seats, and is conveniently situated, although, from the angles and curvatures of the boundaries of the parishes in this portion of the county, which in many parts shoot into and intersect each other, the congregations of this and neighbouring churches are frequently composed of persons belonging to several different parishes. There is a parochial school, in which the usual branches of education are taught; the master has the maximum salary, with about £10 fees, and the legal allowance of house and garden. The poor have the interest of £100. In the Lammermoor district are several heaps of stones, or cairns, the evidences of ancient conflicts; and on the sheep-farm of Byrecleugh, belonging to the Duke of Roxburghe, is one, already referred to, 240 feet long, of irregular breadth and height, but where broadest seventy-five feet, and where highest eighteen feet. The stones of this must have been brought from a crag at least half a mile distant.

Long Island.

LONG ISLAND. This name is given to that district of the Hebrides which extends from the island of Lewis, on the north, to Barra, on the south, and which comprehends Lewis, Harris, Benbecula, North and South Uist, Barra, and several smaller isles, being a space about 166 miles in length, and in average breadth eight, and containing 1202 square miles. The reason for so many islands being included under this appellation is, that the sounds between them are so shallow, the whole appear as if they had once been a continuous ridge of land; and several of them are, indeed, separated only by a channel which is dry at low water. The principal passage from the east to the west side of the Long Island is by the sound of Harris, in which there is a remarkable variation of the currents.—See Lewis, Harris, &c.

Longleys

LONGLEYS, a hamlet, in the parish of CuparAngus, county of Perth, 3 miles (N. E. by E.) from Cupar-Angus; containing 56 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Cupar-Angus to Meigle, from which latter place it is about a mile and a half distant.

Longniddry

LONGNIDDRY, a village, in the parish of Gladsmuir, county of Haddington, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Haddington; containing 216 inhabitants. This village, which is situated within half a mile of the Frith of Forth, is irregularly built. It appears to have been once of much greater extent than at present; a considerable portion of the site of ancient buildings is now in a state of cultivation; and in the memory of persons yet living there were several ranges of houses, the foundations of which have been obliterated by the plough. Part of the old mansion of the Douglases, here, is still occupied by a tenant; and near it are the remains of the ancient chapel, called, from his having preached in it, John Knox's Kirk. A school, where about sixty children are instructed, has been long maintained in the village; the master has a house and garden rent free, with a payment of £4 per annum from the Earl of Wemyss and the proprietor, in addition to the fees.

Longo

LONGO, an island, in the parish of Gairloch, county of Ross and Cromarty; containing 35 inhabitants. This is a small island of very irregular form, and having considerable indentations, lying at the mouth of Loch Gairloch, a short distance from the main land.

Longside

LONGSIDE, a parish, in the district of Deer, county of Aberdeen, 6 miles (W. by N.) from Peterhead; containing 2612 inhabitants. This place was disjoined from Peterhead, and received a separate erection, in the year 1620, when a church was built on an estate called Longside, and from this the parish was named. It is of an irregular four-sided figure, and covers between thirty and forty square miles, the length and breadth being each nearly six miles; it comprises 16,370 acres, of which 12,550 are cultivated, 370 planted, and the remainder pasture and waste, though mostly capable of improvement. The surface is either level, or rises in very gentle undulations, so that, during the overflowings of the river Ugie, which runs through the parish from west to east, large portions of the lands are under water. This stream affords good trout-angling; and, after the union of its two branches here, which have flowed separately for ten or twelve miles from the west, it falls into the sea near Peterhead, about four miles from the junction. The soil is in general light and shallow, and is incumbent upon a ferruginous stratum here called pan, of hard consistence, and detrimental, when mixed at breaking up, to the superior soil. The peat-moss, of which only five tracts now remain, is disappearing by degrees through the progress of agricultural improvement. The usual kinds of grain, with the exception of wheat, are raised, as well as the ordinary green crops, the whole amounting in annual value to £56,100, of which the oats return £31,200, and the turnips £10,500. The climate is humid, cold, and variable, and unsuited to the more delicate grain and vegetables; but the farming is good, and is carried on chiefly according to the five-shift course, though the seven-shift is sometimes followed. Bone-dust manure, bottomed with dung and light mould, is plentifully applied to the turnip soils; and among the improvements, extensive draining, subsoil and trench ploughing, and the formation of inclosures of stone dykes, are conspicuous. Great attention is also paid to the rearing of cattle, consisting of the native Buchan breed, with occasional crosses with the Teeswater; and most of the farmers belong to the Buchan Agricultural Association, the premiums of which, for superiority in every branch of husbandry, have excited a laudable spirit of emulation, and proved highly beneficial. The farm-buildings are in good condition, and each of them has generally a threshing-mill attached.

Fragments of quartz and felspar are abundant; but the prevailing rock is a fine grey-coloured granite, of firm texture, capable of a high polish, and several quarries of which are worked, supplying a material extensively used for the more ornamental, as well as the substantial, parts of buildings. Of this stone, portions of the Duke of York's monument, in London, have been constructed, and also portions of Covent-Garden market, and the walls of the new houses of parliament. The land being chiefly under tillage, plantations are comparatively rare; the trees principally seen are, Scotch fir, spruce, and larch, which, though inconsiderable in extent, contribute much to improve the scenery. The landowners are numerous; but two only are resident, occupying the mansions of Cairngall and Innerquhomry, both of which are modern edifices. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5443. It contains the two villages of Longside and Mintlaw, two and a half miles distant from each other, and both founded in the early part of the present century; in the former are 384 persons, and in the latter 240. A flourishing manufactory of woollencloth was carried on for some time; but it was discontinued in the year 1828, and the population are now almost entirely occupied in agricultural pursuits. A distillery, however, has been at work nearly twenty years; six meal-mills are in operation in different places; and the parish is well supplied with the usual handicraft trades. There is a general post-office at Mintlaw; and the parish is intersected by the high road from Aberdeen to Fraserburgh, which passes through Mintlaw, and on which the mail travels, and by that from Peterhead to Banff, running from east to west, and crossing the other road at Mintlaw. The farmers dispose of their dairy produce, grain, and cattle chiefly at Peterhead and Aberdeen, for exportation to London; the potatoes are mostly sent to Hull. Coal is obtained from Peterhead, and is now used to a considerable extent for fuel, the chief peat-mosses having been reclaimed by the operations of the plough. Eleven fairs are held yearly for cattle, sheep, and horses, as follows: viz., two at Longside on the Wednesday after the 12th of May, and the Tuesday after the 7th of November; three at Lenabo on the Wednesdays after the 25th of March, the 26th of June, and the 26th of November; and six at Mintlaw on the Tuesdays after the 25th of February, the 14th of April, the 14th of June, the 25th of August, the 7th of October, and the 14th of December.

The parish is in the presbytery of Deer and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £217, with a manse, and a glebe of several acres, valued at £17 per annum. The old church having been found insufficient for the accommodation of the parishioners, the present edifice, a plain and commodious building, situated in the village of Longside, was erected in 1836; it contains sittings for 1000 persons, which are apportioned among the heritors, and used by the tenants rent-free. There is also an episcopal chapel, containing 551 sittings, erected in 1800, by subscription, at a cost of £429, for a congregation formed at the time of the Revolution, of which the Rev. John Skinner, well known as the author of some theological works and several popular Scottish songs, was minister for sixty-four years. The parochial school is in the village of Longside, and affords instruction in Latin and mathematics, in addition to the ordinary branches; the master has a salary of £31. 6., with a house, and £30 fees. There is also a school at Mintlaw, and another at Rora, both endowed in 1829 by the heritors, from whom the master of each receives £10 per annum; and the fees are about £16. The master at Mintlaw has likewise a free house, given by the late Mr. James Mitchell, who left funds for the support of a female school at Mintlaw, and of another at Rora, and for the endowment of others in different parishes.

Longstone

LONGSTONE, a village, in the parish of Colinton, county of Edinburgh, 1¼ mile (N. N. W.) from the village of Colinton; containing 86 inhabitants. This is a small place, situated in the extreme north of the parish, and a short distance south of the high road from Edinburgh to East Calder. The Water of Leith passes close by the village, and very shortly enters the suburban parish of St. Cuthbert.

Lonmay

LONMAY, a parish, in the district of Deer, county of Aberdeen, 6 miles (S. E. by S.) from Fraserburgh; containing, with the village of St. Combs, 1919 inhabitants. The name of this place is supposed to have been derived from a word in the Celtic language descriptive of the nature of the ground, especially of that part of Lonmay where the church stands. The parish is about nine and a half miles long, and varies in breadth from half a mile to three miles and a half, containing 8766 Scotch acres. It is bounded on the north-east by the German Ocean; on the north-west by the parish of Rathen; on the west by Strichen; on the south by the parishes of Deer and Longside; and on the east by Crimond. The sea-shore is flat and sandy, without bay or headland; and the interior of the parish consists, with the exception of two or three moderate ridges, of two extensive plains, of which the northern contains the estates of Cairness, Craigellie, Lonmay, Blairmormond, and part of Inveralochy and Crimonmogate. The chief portion of this division is well cultivated, and ornamented with flourishing plantations of various kinds of trees, extending over upwards of 200 acres: the waters of Strathbeg loch cover about 500 acres in the division. The southern plain, the surface of which is higher and more unequal, comprehends part of Crimonmogate, and the estates of Park and Kinninmonth. Two very extensive peat-mosses are situated in this district, belonging to the properties of Kinninmonth and Crimonmogate, and connected with other large mosses in Strichen and Crimond.

A branch of the river Ugie runs between Lonmay and the parishes of Deer and Longside; and the estuary of the Moray Frith is considered as commencing at the north-eastern boundary of the parish. The lake of Strathbeg, covering about 550 acres, has nine-tenths of its extent, as already observed, within Lonmay, and the other tenth stands in the parish of Crimond; its average depth is three and a half feet, and its greatest depth about six and a half. The waters have sunk considerably during the last thirty years, having been in 1817 four feet higher than at the present time. Upwards of forty years ago, an attempt was made to drain the loch; but, after great expense had been incurred, it was rendered abortive by the open canals cut for the purpose being blocked up by drifting sand. There are a few small islands in the loch; but its scenery is in general barren and uninteresting. It contains, however, numerous kinds of fish, among which are, red and yellow trout, perch, flounders, and very fine eels. In the neighbouring sea are found red and white cod, ling, haddock, soles, John-dories, turbot, dog-fish, and coal-fish; the whales named Finners are also occasional visiters, and there are large quantities of herrings during the season.

The soil is generally light and sandy, of dark hue, and resting upon a hard bed of red sand with a large admixture of iron-ore; in some parts, however, the land is clayey, and in a few places partakes of the nature of loam. The number of acres cultivated or in pasture is 6488; in wood 222; and waste, moss, moor, and stony land, 2056; making the total of 8766, of which nearly 700 acres of those now waste are considered capable of cultivation. Grain is raised to a great extent, though the soil is most suited to grasses and turnips. A regular rotation of cropping has long prevailed; that which is most approved of is the seven-years' shift. Much benefit has also been derived from the extensive use of bonedust manure, which answers for surface-dressing the pasture and for sown grasses, but chiefly for green crops. Near the coast, compost is mixed with sea-weed, and employed for fallow ground. Very large quantities of land have been reclaimed from waste; good stone inclosures have been raised, and roads have been constructed for local convenience; but the most prominent feature in the improvements is the introduction of trenchploughing. The farm-steadings, also, once very indifferent, have to a considerable extent been placed on a much better footing. The cattle of the parish were originally the celebrated Buchan breed, with a kind produced by crossing the Highland small-horned bull with the larger native cow. These, however, were displaced by a preference given to the polled-cattle, which prevailed during the present century till within the last fifteen years, and always fetched the first price in the London market. Crosses of the short-horned are now preferred; they obtain an excellent price, and vast numbers of them are sent from the parish and the rest of Buchan to London, either by steamers from the city of Aberdeen, or by sailing vessels from the ports of Peterhead and Fraserburgh. The sheep, which are a mixed breed, have a coat of fine and heavy wool, and the flesh is well flavoured, but not equal to that of the black or white faced Highland sheep, many of which are annually imported, and fattened for the market. On the estate of Crimonmogate are some South-Downs and Lincolns, and a number of half-bred English sheep. The small draught-horses formerly in use, six or eight of which were joined to the plough, have yielded to a very superior race, distinguished by bulk and symmetry, and a pair of which are sufficient for turning the soil. The horses for the saddle are also very much improved in their character, great pains having been taken by some of the resident gentry to effect this object. Considerable numbers of pigs are reared, some of which are a cross of the Bedford and Westphalia, and the Orkney and Chinese. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5443.

Among the mansion-houses, that on the estate of Cairness holds a prominent place. The porch, supported by four Ionic pillars, and the carved cornices, are of granite obtained from the parish of Longside: the body of the fabric is built of greenstone dug on the estate. It was finished in 1799, at an expense of about £25,000. Another extensive and elegant mansion, on the Crimonmogate property, was erected a few years ago at a cost of upwards of £10,000. The only village is St. Combs, situated at the north-eastern extremity of Lonmay, by the sea-side, and principally inhabited by fishermen: the main part of the population are scattered over the parish. The manufacture of kelp, formerly carried on to a considerable extent, is now at a very low ebb, in consequence of the free importation of barilla; about twenty tons were annually made, and the rent of the kelp-shore averaged £50 per annum. There are two annual fairs, one in spring, and the other in autumn, for cattle and sheep and for hiring farm-servants. Thirteen boats are employed in the herring-fishery, and about the same number for ordinary white-fishing. The turnpike-road from Peterhead to Banff, by Fraserburgh, traverses Lonmay for about a mile and a half; and another, from Fraserburgh to Aberdeen, by Mintlaw, runs from north to south for nearly six miles through the parish. A mail-coach passes daily to the south; and there are two stage-coaches, one from Peterhead to Banff, by Mintlaw, and the other between Peterhead and Fraserburgh.

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Deer and synod of Aberdeen; patron, Gordon, of Buthlaw. The stipend of the minister is averaged at £226, with a manse, erected in 1824, and a glebe of thirteen acres, valued at £18. 15. per annum. The church, which was built in 1787 upon a new site, is pretty conveniently situated, though more than seven miles from the southern boundary of the parish; it contains 680 sittings, and is in good repair. Originally the church stood by the sea-side, near the village of St. Combs; in 1607 it was removed to the spot which is now occupied as a burial-ground, where it remained till the present edifice was erected. There is an additional parochial church at Kinninmonth built by voluntary contributions, and through the aid afforded by the Church-extension committee of the General Assembly, in consequence of an application made in March, 1836, to the presbytery of Deer for another place of worship on account of the great distance of many parishioners from the parish church. It accommodates about 400 persons, and a preacher is appointed, who has a cottage near the church; divine worship is regularly performed, and the services are well attended. There is also an episcopal chapel, built in 1797, the minister of which is paid from the seat-rents; it contains 342 sittings. Three parochial schools are maintained, in all of which the usual branches of education are taught; and in the chief school, in addition to these, instruction is given in mathematics, navigation, and Latin. The salaries are £28, £13, and £10, a year respectively; each of the masters has in addition his fees, respectively £23, £21, and £15; and the three together have £25 annually from the Dick bequest. The only antiquities are, a Druidical circle at Crimonmogate, and the site of an old castle called the Castle of Lonmay, near the sea, the materials of which have been used in building farm-houses. There are several chalybeate springs.

Lossiemouth

LOSSIEMOUTH, a village and sea-port, in the parish of Drainie, county of Elgin, 3 miles (N. N. E.) from Elgin; containing 902 inhabitants. This place is situated at the mouth of the river Lossie, which, after a course of about twenty-six miles from its source in the hills of Dallas, empties itself into the Moray Frith, and gives the name to this thriving little village. There has been a large increase in the traffic and the population since the introduction of steam-navigation. The portion adjoining the sea is called Seatown or Fishertown of Lossiemouth, and is peopled principally by fishermen and eafaring persons, the former of whom, in connexion with the fishermen of the adjacent village of Stotfield, consisting together of about seventy men and twenty-five boys, carry on the herring and white fisheries, employing in both forty-five boats. The exports in a recent year were, 4243 quarters of grain, 2000 barrels of herrings, 200 barrels of cod-fish, and three cargoes of plantation timber; and the imports, 4500 tons of English coal, 1000 tons of Scotch coal, 400 tons of bones and bone-dust, 140 tons of bark, and 150 tons of salt, besides various other articles. The number of vessels that entered in the same period was 106, registering 4816 tons; and the number outward-bound was forty-four, registering 1918 tons. Steam-vessels, running between London and the Moray Frith, regularly call here in summer for the conveyance of passengers, and for general traffic, bringing various articles of merchandize, but chiefly foreign and colonial produce, and taking away live stock, agricultural produce, fresh provisions, salmon, and pickled cod and herrings. The English coal imported is carried to Elgin and the neighbouring country, chiefly for family use; the Scotch coal is for breweries, distilleries, and other public works. The grain exported is sent to different ports in the kingdom; and the herrings to the London, Liverpool, and Irish markets, and occasionally to Hamburgh and Stettin. The vessels frequenting this port, which is within the jurisdiction of the custom-house of Inverness, are of the smaller class, seldom amounting to above seventy tons' register, on account of the shallowness of the water, which rises only to about nine feet at stream tides. A new and more commodious harbour has, however, just been constructed at Stotfield, with outer and inner basins excavated from the solid rock; and this, at ordinary tides, will admit vessels drawing fifteen feet of water. An excellent turnpike-road, on which there is a daily post, runs from the village southwards to Elgin, and another in a western course, through Duffus and Kinloss, to Forres. A place of worship has recently been erected belonging to the United Associate Synod; and there is a school supported by the General Assembly.

Loth

LOTH, a parish, in the county of Sutherland, 11 miles (N. E. by N.) from Golspie; containing, with the villages of Helmsdale and Port-Gower, 2526 inhabitants, of whom 1764 are in the rural districts. This place, the name of which is supposed to be a Gaelic modification of "Loch," appears to have derived that appellation from some lakes here which, early in the 17th century, were drained by the opening of a new channel for the river Loth through a chain of solid rocks parallel with the seashore, by order of the Countess of Sutherland. In 1198, King William the Lion, on his march into Caithness to retaliate upon Harold, Earl of Orkney, the cruel death he had inflicted upon the Bishop of Caithness, passed through this parish, which afterwards, from its situation on the border of the county, participated largely in the frequent hostilities that took place between the inhabitants of the adjacent districts. During the turbulent period that preceded the final establishment of legitimate government, the place also suffered much from the depredations of lawless fugitives, for whose concealment it afforded ample facilities in the solitary recesses of the Ord of Caithness, which here separates the counties of Sutherland and Caithness. In 1513, the Earl of Caithness marched through the parish, with a band of his retainers, to the battle of Flodden-Field; and in 1679, a body of Highland troops passed on their route to Caithness, to support the claims of Campbell of Glenorchy to the earldom. During the rebellions of 1715 and 1745, the inhabitants took up arms in support of the government; and in 1746, the Earl of Cromarty, with a considerable force, advancing to Caithness for the purpose of raising recruits for the rebel army, burnt the mansionhouses of Kintradwell and Crakaig, in this parish.

The parish is bounded on the south by the Moray Frith, which is here forty miles in width, and on the north by a ridge of hills; it is about eleven miles in length, and varies from three-quarters of a mile to nearly three miles in breadth. The surface towards the coast is level, but rises by a gradual acclivity towards the hills which form its northern boundary, and of which the highest, Ben-Veallich, has an elevation of 1888 feet above the level of the Frith. The principal rivers are, the Helmsdale, which runs through the eastern portion of the parish into the Frith at the village of Helmsdale; and the Loth, a rapid stream flowing through Glen Loth into the Frith near the western boundary of the parish. Both these rivers are subject to sudden swells; but no danger can now arise, as bridges have been thrown across. The Helmsdale abounds with salmon of a supe rior description; and near its influx into the Frith is a very lucrative herring-fishery. The coast, from the western extremity of the parish to Port-Gower, is a level sandy beach, merely interrupted occasionally by low rocks which are covered with the tide; but from that point to the Ord, at the eastern extremity, is one continued chain of rugged limestone rocks. Of the lands in the parish, about 1200 acres are arable; and there are extensive tracts of meadow and pasture of excellent quality, and also of hill-pasture. The soil on the arable lands is luxuriantly fertile, producing abundant crops of wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, and turnips; the system of husbandry is improved. The farms are conveniently divided, and under excellent management, and the smaller holdings are also cultivated with industry and skill; the farm-houses and cottages are substantial and commodious, and much of the waste land has been reclaimed. The horses, cattle, and sheep reared are very superior, and frequently obtain the highest prizes when exhibited at the cattle-shows. Limestone is found in abundance, but the distance of fuel renders the working of it more expensive than the importation of lime from England. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2380.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dornoch and synod of Sutherland and Caithness: the minister's stipend is £162. 8. 7., with a manse, and a glebe of moderate extent; patron, the Duke of Sutherland. The church, recently erected, is a very handsome structure, situated nearly in the centre of the parish; and a church has subsequently been built in the village of Helmsdale by the family of Sutherland, in which divine service is regularly performed by a minister of the Establishment. The parochial school, situated at Port-Gower, is tolerably attended; the master has a salary of £34, with a house, and an allowance of £2. 2. in lieu of garden, and the fees average about £10 per annum. There are some remains of the ancient castle of Helmsdale, once a hunting-seat of the Sutherland family; it is apparently of the time of the 14th century, and is memorable for the death of John, the 11th earl of Sutherland, and his countess, who were poisoned in 1567. The remains of several Pictish towers have disappeared within the last century; and there were also formerly chapels dedicated respectively to St. Ninian, St. John the Baptist, and others, of which only the sites are left. There are numerous barrows and cairns, in some of which latter have been found battleaxes of stone, and other military weapons.—See Helmsdale, &c.

Lothian, East

LOTHIAN, EAST.—See Haddingtonshire.

Lothian, Mid

LOTHIAN, MID.—See Edinburghshire.

Lothian, West

LOTHIAN, WEST.—See Linlithgowshire.



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