Norden says, that the ancient name of this place was Ensen,
or Insen, so called from the sens with which it abounded (fn. 1) . I
have not met with any authority to support this assertion. Doomsday book calls it Enefelde. The variations in subsequent records are
very trifling—Enfeld, Enefield, and Enfield.
Market and fairs.
Edward I. by his charter, bearing date 1304, granted a licence to
Humphrey de Bohun and his wife, (Elizabeth Countess of Holland,
the King's daughter,) and their heirs, to hold a weekly market (on
Mondays) at Enfield; and two annual fairs, one on St. Andrew's
day, the vigil, and the day following; the other for three days also,
at the Assumption of the Virgin Mary (fn. 2) . James I. granted a weekly
market at Enfield, (on Saturdays,) the profits of which were appropriated to the poor of the town. His charter gives the trustees power
to build a market-house. The market has been discontinued several
years. Two fairs are still held annually; one on St. Andrew's-day,
the other on the 23d of September.
Privileges and exemptions.
King Richard II. granted the inhabitants of Enfield an exemption
from toll, and various privileges, which have been confirmed by
Henry IV. Henry VI. Edward IV. Queen Elizabeth, James I. the
late King, and his present Majesty. An exemption from toll at
Ware-bridge was granted by Elizabeth, Queen of Edward IV. These
several charters and confirmations are preserved among the parish
Situation and boundaries.
Extent, soil, &c.
The town of Enfield is situated about ten miles north of London,
and lies within the hundred of Edmonton. The parish is bounded
by Edmonton, East Barnet, Hadley, South Mims, Northaw, and
Cheshunt; and by the River Lea, which separates it from Walthamabbey in Essex. It contains about 6430 acres of land, exclusive of
the Chase; of these about 800 are marsh, 2750 common-field, about
1640 inclosed arable, and about 1240 inclosed pasture. The soil, except on the marsh, is, for the most part, a good loam. The quota
paid to the land-tax by this parish is 1292l. 14s. 2d. which, in the
year 1793, was at the rate of 2s. 11d. in the pound.
The parish is divided into three districts, each of which has its separate church-warden and overseer, viz. the town-quarter, containing the town, Baker-street, Forty-hill, Clay-hill, the houses on the
Chase-side, &c.; Green-street quarter, containing Green-street, Ponders-end, South-street, Enfield-highway, Enfield-wash, and Tuckeystreet; and Bull's-cross quarter, containing Bull's-cross, Bullsmorelane, and White-webbs.
Title of baron.
This place gives the title of Baron to the Earl of Rochford,
whose ancestor, the first Earl, married Joan, daughter of Sir Henry
Wroth of Durants (fn. 3) , and was created Baron of Enfield, &c. by King
William in 1695.
On the 3d of September 1657, a dreadful fire broke out at Enfield,
which consumed several houses; the sufferers had letters-patent for a
brief (fn. 4) .
Fuller mentions Enfield as being famous for the tanning of hides (fn. 5) ;
there is now one large tan-yard there, belonging to Mr. Vaughan,
which is the only manufacture in the parish, except that of marbledpaper, carried on by Mr. Robert Laremuth.
In the reign of Edward the Confessor the manor of Enfield belonged to Asgar, master of the horse. When the survey of Doomsday was taken, it was the property of Geoffrey de Magnaville, or
Mandeville, a powerful Norman, who had accompanied King William to England. From his family it descended to Humphrey de
Bohun, Earl of Hereford, whose mother Maud, was daughter, and
eventually heir of Geoffrey de Mandeville, alias Fitzpiers, Earl of
Essex, who died anno 1213 (fn. 6) . The last Earl of Hereford, of the
Bohun family, died in 1371. Eleanor Duchess of Gloucester, his
daughter and coheir, died seised of this manor in 1399 (fn. 7) ; when (notwithstanding she left a daughter and heir, Anne, married to two successive Earls of Stafford) it was inherited by her sister Mary, wife
of Henry Duke of Lancaster, afterwards King Henry IV. (fn. 8) The
manor being thus vested in the crown, was annexed to the duchy
of Lancaster. King Richard III. in the year 1483, granted it to the
Duke of Buckingham (fn. 9) ; but it reverted to the crown the next year
by the Duke's attainder. The manor still continues to be parcel of
the duchy of Lancaster, though the manor-house and demesne lands
have long since been granted away. The manor was leased to Lady
Bridget Winkfield in the reign of Henry VIII. (fn. 10) Edward VI.
granted it for life to the Princess Elizabeth, afterwards Queen (fn. 11) . It is
now held on lease by the Chandos family (fn. 12) .
Surveys and valuations of the manor.
The survey of Domesday-book informs us, that the manor of Enfield was taxed, in the time of William the Conqueror, at thirty
hides. The land was twenty-four carucates. In demesne were fourteen hides; and the lord had four ploughs. The villeins employed
sixteen ploughs. One villein held a hide; three others half a hide
each; the parish-priest, a virgate; seventeen villeins, a virgate
each; thirty-six others, half a virgate each; twenty bordars held
jointly a hide and a virgate; seven cottars held twenty-three acres;
and five others, seven acres. There were eighteen other cottars, and
six slaves; a mill, which produced ten shillings per annum rent; the
fish-ponds, eight shillings. There was meadow sufficient for twentyfour plough-lands; and moreover, twenty-five shillings rent; pasture
for the cattle of the town, and pannage for two thousand hogs. The
profits of the woods and pasture, forty-three shillings. There was a
park also. The manor was valued at 50l. in the time of Edward the
Confessor, and bore the same value when the survey was taken.
Within the manor were five sokemen, who held six hides, which
they had the power of aliening without the licence of the lord paramount. In the year 1303 this manor was valued at 341. 3s. Id. (fn. 13)
In a record of the year 1337, its extent and value is thus described:
A capital messuage, valued at 13s. 4d.; a garden of herbs, five shillings; the fruit, twenty-pence; a dove-house, five shillings; four
hundred and twenty acres of arable in demesne, worth sixpence
an acre; sixty-three of meadow, worth three shillings; and thirtynine other acres of meadow, one shilling only; twenty-four acres of
pasture, at three shillings; a park called the Frith, whence twenty
acres of underwood, worth three shillings an acre, might be sold annually; another called the Great-park, in which was common pasture, and no underwood; the pannage, worth fifty shillings per annum. There were fish-ponds also, whence fish might be sold every
seventh year to the amount of fifteen marks (fn. 14) . In a subsequent record, anno 1364, only three hundred acres of arable are mentioned
among the demesne lands (fn. 15) .
Site of a moated-house, called Oldbury.
Humphry Bohun's castle.
Visit of the Scuttisli prisottish Edward Prince of Wales.
A vague and unsupported tradition (fn. 16) asserts, that the ancient manor-house, in the time of the Mandevilles, was situated upon the
chase not far from the West-lodge, where is still a moat called Camletmoat. In the year 1347 Humphry de Bohun, Earl of Hereford,
had the King's licence to fortify and embattle his manor-house at
Enfield (fn. 17) . In a meadow called Oldbury, nearly half a mile to the
east of the church, and a small distance (on the right hand) from a
road called Potter's-lane, leading to Ponders-end, is the site of an
ancient mansion, surrounded by a wide and deep moat with high
embankments; the external dimensions of the moat are about one
hundred and sixty yards by one hundred and thirty-five; on the
north side it is about thirty-two yards in width. The dimensions of
the internal parallelogram are about ninety-six yards by forty; at the
north-west corner is an eminence which appears like the keep of a
castle. I think it not improbable, that this moated place, (which
was included among some demesne lands alienated in the last cen
tury,) might have been the site of Humphry de Bohun's castle, and
that when the manerial residence was removed, it acquired the name
of Oldbury. The site of the manor of Enfield was leased, anno
1526, to Roger Barker (fn. 18) ; and a short time afterwards to John Taylor (fn. 19) . The lease seems to have reverted to the crown about the
latter end of Henry VIII.'s reign, and the house to have been in
the King's own hands. In the year 1543, "on new-year's day, the
noble Scottish prisoners departed from London towards Scotland,
and roade to Enfield to see the Prince, and dined there that day,
greatly rejoicing, as by their words and countenance it seemed, to
beholde so proper and towardly an Ympe (fn. 20) ." At the time of
Henry's death, the Princess Elizabeth was residing at Enfield, and
her brother at Hertford, whence he was brought the next day to
Enfield. There he was first acquainted with the King's death, and
there he kept his court till the last day of June, when he removed
to London (fn. 21) .
Manor-house sitted up for the Princess Elizabeth.
Description of its present state.
Residence of the Princess Elizabeth at Enfield.
She keeps her court there when Queen.
Visits Elsynge-hall anno 1596.
Tenants of the manor-house.
Lord William Howard.
Sir Thomas Trevor.
It appears that the manor-house underwent very considerble repairs, or perhaps was wholly rebuilt in the reign of Edward VI.
and most probably upon occasion of the manor being granted to the
Princess Elizabeth. Notwithstanding the great alteration which this
house has lately undergone, one of the rooms still remains in its original state, with oak pannels and a richly-ornamented cieling. The
chimney-piece is supported by columns of the Ionic and Corinthian
order, and decorated with the cognizances of the rose and portcullis,
and the arms of France and England quartered, with the garter and the
royal supporters, a lion and a gryphon. Underneath is this motto:
Sola salus servire Deo, sunt cÆtera fraudes. In the
same room is preserved part of another chimney-piece, removed
from one of the upper apartments, with nearly the same ornaments;
and the following motto: Ut ros super herbam, est benevolentia regis, alluding, it is probable, to the royal grant. Among
the collection of royal letters in the British Museum (fn. 22) , is one in Latin
from the Princess Elizabeth, dated Enfield; and in the Bodleian
library there is preserved a MS. copy of a sermon, translated by
the Princess, from the Italian of Occhini. It is written on vellum,
with her own hand, and was sent as a new-year's gift to her brother, King Edward. The dedication is dated Enfield, Dec. 30;
the year is not mentioned. When the Princess Elizabeth became
Queen, she frequently visited Enfield, and kept her court there in
the early part of her reign (fn. 23) . Robert Carey, Earl of Monmouth,
speaking of events which happened anno 1596, says, the Queen
came to dinner to Enfield-house, and had toils set up in the park, to
shoot at bucks after dinner (fn. 24) . The park here meant was undoubtedly the New-park, and the house Elsynge-hall, otherwise called
Enfield-house, which was then in the hands of the crown (fn. 25) ; whereas
it appears, that the Queen had leased the manor-house, anno 1582,
to Henry Myddlemore, Esq. for fifty-one years (fn. 26) , and that it did not
revert to the crown during her reign. This will account for Camden
and Norden saying, that the Queen's palace at Enfield was built by
an Earl of Worcester. From 1600 to 1623 the manor-house seems
to have been in the tenure of Lord William Howard (fn. 27) . Charles I.
anno 1629, granted in see the reversion both of the house and demesne lands, after the expiration of Myddlemore's lease, to Edward
Ditchfield and others, trustees for the city of London (fn. 28) , who conveyed the whole soon afterwards to Sir Nicholas Raynton, Knt. (fn. 29)
Sir Nicholas let the house to Sir Thomas Trevor, one of the Barons
of the Exchequer, in whose tenure it appears to have been from the
year 1635 till his death (fn. 30) , which happened in 1656 (fn. 31) . About the
year 1670 it was taken by Mr. Robert Uvedale, (afterwards LL. D.)
master of the grammar-school (fn. 32) , who being much attached to the
study of botany (fn. 33) , had a very curious garden there, and planted,
among other trees, a cedar of Libanus, now one of the finest in
the kingdom, and measuring, at three feet from the ground, twelve
feet in girth (fn. 34) . The manor-house, with the demesne lands, de
scended from Sir Nicholas Raynton, by intermarriages, to the late
Eliab Breton, Esq. after whose death (his estates having been sold in
lots by public auction) the house was purchased by Mr. Thomas
Callaway, steward of Guy's-hospital. It has been, in a great measure, new-built, and has been divided into tenements; the part
which contains the old room, is in the occupation of Mrs. Perry.
The annexed view was taken in the month of July 1793, since
which time, th side of the house there shown, (being the only part
which then remained in its original state,) has been new-fronted.
Divided and sold in lots, anno 1652.
Disturbances which happened in consequence.
Surveys and extent of the chase.
The chase divided by act of parliament.
State of the allotments.
Enfield Manor House
Enfield-chase is mentioned by that name in a record of the reign
of Edward II. (fn. 34) before which time it was generally called the Greatpark, and parcus extrinsecus, or the Outer-park. The chase having
been seized as crown-land after the death of Charles I. it was surveyed by order of the house of commons in the year 1650, when its
extent was reported to be 7904 acres, and its value 4742l. 8s. per
annum. The deer were valued at 1501.; the oak-timber, exclusive
of 2500 trees marked for the use of the navy, at 2100l.; the hornbeam and other wood, at 12,100l. (fn. 35) In the month of November
1652, it was resolved, that Enfield-chase should be sold for ready
money (fn. 36) , pursuant to which resolution it was divided into parcels,
which were sold to various purchasers. A considerable part of it
was inclosed, and several houses built. This excited great disturbances, and a body of men, claiming right of common, assembled in
the month of July 1659, threatening to pull down the houses, and
destroy the inclosures. Four files of soldiers having been sent against
them, were so far from being able to suppress them, that the insur
gents seized nine men and took them before a justice of peace, who
committed them to Newgate (fn. 37) . In consequence of these proceedings, two petitions were presented to the house, one from the officers of the army, and others who had purchased lands on the
chase; the other from the inhabitants of Enfield, Edmonton, &c.
who claimed right of common there. Both petitions were referred
to a committee, whose resolutions were ordered to be read in the
parish-church of Enfield the next Lord's-day (fn. 38) . On the 18th of
July the soldiers were ordered to remain prisoners in the custody of
the marshal of the army, and the riots being likely to continue, the
sheriffs of Middlesex were ordered to suppress them with the assistance of the military (fn. 39) . The survey of the manor of Enfield, taken
in 1686 (fn. 40) , says, that on a former perambulation, the chase had
been found to contain 7600 acres, of which 500 had been since inclosed in Theobald's-park. In the year 1777 an act of parliament
passed for dividing Enfield-chase, and assigning allotments to such
parishes and individuals as claimed a right of common (fn. 41) . Upon
this occasion, an accurate survey was made by Mr. Richardson, and
it was found that, including the roads, lodges, and incroachments,
the chase contained 8349A. 1 R. 30P. which were thus allotted:
|To the King
|To the lodges
|To be enfranchised
|To the tithe owners
|To the manor of Oldfold
|To the proprietor of the Old-park
|To the parish of South-Mims
|To the parish of Hadley
|To the parish of Edmonton
|To the parish of Enfield
The allotments to Hadley, South-Mims, (to which the manor of
Oldfold belongs,) and Edmonton, are annexed by the act to those
parishes, which leaves 5824 acres in the parish of Enfield, and makes
the whole extent of the parish to be about 12,250 acres.
Soil and improvement of the chase.
The first attempts to improve the chase, after it had been divided
by act of parliament, as before mentioned, were in general unsuccessful; and it was not till within the last four or five years that any great
progress was made in its cultivation. The obstacles, at first, were the
difficulty of clearing away the wood, which at the time of the inclosure, bore (the oak excepted) a very low price; and the poverty
of the soil, which was for the most part a thin gravel intermixed
with clay. The methods made use of to enrich it, have been draining, paring and burning, and manuring with marle, which, within
a few years, has been found in great abundance, and of a very fine
quality, upon the chase. The use of this manure has been attended
with surprising success (fn. 42) .
Rangers, foresters, &c.
The joint offices of ranger, forester, keeper of the lodges, master
of the game, and chief steward of the manor, having been vested,
successively, in the persons of John Dudley Earl of Warwick, Sir
Thomas Wroth, John Astley, Esq. Robert Lord Cecil, William
Earl of Salisbury, Charles Viscount Cranbourne, Charles Lord Gerrard of Brandon, George Villiers (the younger) Duke of Buckingham, the Right Hon. Henry Coventry, and Adam Loftus Vis
count Lisburne, were granted, anno 1694, for fifty-six years, to
Sir Robert Howard (fn. 43) , who, the same year, assigned all his right in
the grant to Sir William Scawen of Carshalton. In the year 1714
James Brydges, Esq. afterwards Duke of Chandos, purchased the
above-mentioned offices for the unexpired term, and they are now,
under a renewed grant, vested in the Chandos family.
When the chase was sold by parliament, during the interregnum,
the sum of 1052l. 1s. 8d. was ordered to be paid to the Earl of
Salisbury, who then held the offices above mentioned, for his interest therein, and in the custody of the parks (fn. *) .
King Charles's hunting-feat.
Lord Chatham at the South-bailey lodge.
Lord Loughborough at the East-bailey.
Upon the chase are three lodges, distinguished by the names of
the East-bailey, the West-bailey, and the South-bailey. In the furvey of 1650, the two former are called Potter's and Dighton's
lodges, from the names of the under-keepers by whom they had
been inhabited in 1635; the other was called Norris-lodge, I suppose from a similar reason. Potter's-lodge was a brick building covered with tiles, occasionally used by King Charles as a hunting-seat,
as appears from the survey, which describes the King's lodging
chamber. Norris-lodge was sold, soon after the survey was taken,
to Arthur Evelyn; Dighton's-lodge to Charles Whitehead; and Potter's-lodge to John Nelthorpe. The Right Hon. Henry Coventry,
who was secretary of state to Charles II. being in possession of the
offices above-mentioned, kept the West-bailey lodge in his own
hands; and having retired from public business in 1680, resided
there several years (fn. 44) . In 1676 he assigned the lease of the Southbailey lodge to Joshua Galliàrd, Esq. who made it over in 1697, to Sir
Henry Bellasys. In 1699 Sir Henry procured a long lease from the
crown, which was assigned to Charles Firebrace, Esq. anno 1702 (fn. 45) .
The lease of the East-bailey lodge was assigned by Mr. Coventry to
Sir James Parsons; by him to James Whitchurch; and by the latter, anno 1685, to Henry Cornwall, Esq. Mr. Cornwall, in 1693,
made it over to Christopher Lister, Esq. who the next year procured
a long lease from the crown (fn. 46) . All these leases afterwards came into
the possession of the Chandos family, to whom they still belong; and
the lodges have been let by them to under-tenants. The Southbailey lodge was for some years the occasional residence of the Right
Hon. William Pitt, (afterwards Earl of Chatham,) by whom the
pleasure-grounds were laid out at a considerable expence. It was
afterwards for several years in the tenure of Fane William Sharpe,
Esq. and is now occupied by Thomas Skinner, Esq. Alderman of
London. The East-bailey, with an adjoining house called the
White-lodge, or New East-bailey, was for some time in the occupation of Alexander Wedderburne, Esq. now Lord Loughborough and
Lord High Chancellor; both these and the West-bailey lodge are at
present unoccupied. In the survey of 1686, the inclosure annexed
to the East-bailey lodge is stated at thirty-eight acres; that belonging
to the South-lodge at sixty-five; and that belonging to the Westlodge at eighty-eight. Upon the division of the chase in 1777,
three hundred and thirteen acres were allotted to the lodges collectively.
Trent-place, late Sir Richard Jebb's.
Sir Richard Jebb, the late celebrated physician, having procured
a lease from the crown of a piece of land, containing about two
hundred acres, on Enfield-chase, surrounded it with a pale, stocked
it with deer, and built a villa after the Italian model, which he
called Trent-place. After Sir Richard Jebb's death the lease of these
premises was sold to Lord Cholmondeley, and is now the property
of John Wigston, Esq. Camlet-moat, before-mentioned, is within
The Old-park (fn. 47) , in the early surveys of the manor, is sometimes
called the Fritb, and sometimes parcus intrinsecus, or the home-park,
to distinguish it from the chase, which was called parcus extrinsecus,
and sometimes the great-park. The Old-park, in the survey of
1650, is said to contain five hundred and fifty-three acres, valued
at 311l. 10s. per annum; a hundred acres of the best land being
valued at seventeen shillings per acre. Seventy-four acres of this
park lay within the parish of Edmonton. The lodge occupied by
Mr. Crosby, was valued at 81. per annum; the oaks at 1246l.; the
hornbeam and other trees at 508l. 19s. 6d.; three hundred and
ninety-seven trees were marked for the navy. The park was tithefree. The Earl of Salisbury was master of the game. This park,
with the hop-garden, was granted to George Duke of Albemarle in
1660 (fn. 48) . After the death of Christopher, the second Duke, it escheated to the crown, and was granted by King William in the first
year of his reign, (having been before that time disparked, and con
verted into meadow and tillage (fn. 48) ,) to the Earl of Portland (fn. 49) . It is
now the property of Samuel Clayton, Esq.
Manor of Worcesters, formerly Wroth's place.
John TiptoiuEarI of Wor-cester.
Visit of Margaret Queen of Scots to Sir Thomas Lovell.
John de Enefelde, in the year 1350, died seised of a manor in this
parish (fn. 50) . His widow, Margaret, married John Wroth, to whom,
anno 1374, Francis de Enefelde, son and heir of John, fold the manor (fn. 51) . John Wroth's great-grandson of the same name, and son of
Sir John Wroth, died anno 1412, seised of this manor, then called
Wroth's-place (fn. 52) . His widow, who afterwards married Sir Hugh
Halsham, held a third of it in dower at the time of her death, which
happened anno 1423 (fn. 53) . John Wroth left issue a son, who died in
his infancy; and one daughter, Elizabeth, who married Sir William
Palton, and died anno 1413, without issue (fn. 54) ; when two-thirds of
the manor were inherited by her cousin, Sir John Tiptost, being the
son of her great-aunt Agnes, by Sir Pain Tiptost. John Tiptost,
who became Lord of Powys in right of his wife, died anno 1443. (fn. 55)
His son, the learned Earl of Worcester (fn. 56) , became lord high-treasurer of England, and lost his head upon the scaffold, anno 1471, for
his adherence to the house of York (fn. 57) . Edward, his son, who was
restored in blood, dying without issue, anno 1485, this manor became the property of Thomas Lord Roos of Hamlake, who married
his aunt Philippa (fn. 58) . Upon the death of Edmund Lord Roos without issue, anno 1508, the manor of Worcesters came to Sir Thomas
Lovell, who married Isabel, his sister and coheir (fn. 59) . Sir Thomas
Lovell, who was knight of the garter, and treasurer of the household,
lived many years at Enfield. In the year 1516 he was honoured
with a visit by Margaret Queen Dowager of Scots, (sister of Henry VIII.) as we find by the following passage in a letter from Thomas
Allen to the Earl of Shrewsbury: " On Ascension-day the Queen of
"Scots came to Enfyld to Maister Treasurer's, and there tarryd
"Thursday, Friday; and upon Saturday the Kyng's Grace met with
"her, besids Totnam, at Maister Compton's house (fn. 60) ." Sir Thomas Lovell died at his house at Enfield May 25, 1524, and was
buried in the priory of Holywell, within a chapel which he himself
had founded (fn. 61) . Upon his death the manor of Worcesters descended
to Thomas Earl of Rutland, grandson of Eleanor, another of the
coheirs of Lord Roos above-mentioned (fn. 62) . In the year 1540 it was
given by the Earl of Rutland (together with a capital mansion called
Elsynge-hall) to Henry VIII. (fn. 63) This manor, together with that of
Enfield, was settled upon the Princess Elizabeth for life, by Edward VI. (fn. 64) It was granted, either by Elizabeth or James, to Sir Robert Cecil, the first Earl of Salisbury, who died seised of it anno
1612 (fn. 65) . I have not been able to find at what time it was aliened by
the Cecils; but it is certain, that in 1635 it was the property of
Sir Nicholas Raynton, Knight (fn. 66) , whose grandson Nicholas dying
without male issue, it descended to his daughter and sole heir Mary,
wife of John Wolstonholme, Esq. afterwards Sir John Wolstonholme,
Bart. His sons, Nicholas and William, successively inherited his title
and estates, and both died without male issue. Elizabeth, daughter of
Sir William Wolstonholme, Bart. married Eliab Breton, Esq. who,
in her right, became possessed of the manor of Worcesters, and other
large estates in this parish, which were all sold after his death, which
happened in 1785. The manor of Worcesters (for which a courtbaron is held) was purchased by Edmund Armstrong, Esq. who is
the present proprietor.
Elsynge-hall, alias Enfield-house.
The New-park, or Little-park, inclosed.
Sold to the Earl of Pembroke.
In the Earl of Rutland's grant to Henry VIII. no manor-house is
mentioned; but the manor of Worcesters is granted, with the capital mansion of Elsynge-hall, which took its name from one of the
family of Elsynge who had a manor adjoining to that of Worcesters.
It is probable, that the house was built originally by the Elsynges,
purchased either by the Wroths or Tiptofts, and rebuilt by the Earl
of Worcester. The New-park, alias the Little-park, which adjoined
to this house, must have been taken out of the chase, and inclosed
subsequent to the Earl of Rutland's grant to Henry VIII. (fn. 67) When
the manor of Worcesters was granted to the Cecil family, the mansion of Elsynge-hall was reserved, and the custody, both of that house
and the adjoining park, by the name of the manor of Elsinge (fn. 68) , was
granted, in the year 1624, to Philip Earl of Montgomery (fn. 69) . King
Charles, in the year 1641, sold these premises by the name of Enfield-house (fn. 70) , with an inclosure called the Warren, and the Newpark, or Little-park, adjoining, (parcel of the duchy of Lancaster,)
to the same Earl, (then Earl of Pembroke) for the sum of 53001. (fn. 71)
The park, which was described as containing three hundred and seventy-five acres, entitled the owner to the right of free-warren, and
all royalties, &c. within its bounds. It was granted subject to a seefarm rent of 5l. per annum. The Enfield-house, thus conveyed by
King Charles to the Earl of Pembroke, is that which Camden and
Norden speak of as being Queen Elizabeth's, and as having been
built by an Earl of Worcester (fn. 72) . In Norden's map it is described
with a park-pale, not far from White Webbs, and at a considerable
distance from the town of Enfield (fn. 73) , where he places another inclosure for the Old-park, which adjoined to the manor-house. Enfieldhouse, or Elsynge-hall, has been long since pulled down; its site is
not now known; but it seems probable, that it stood at the distance
of about a quarter of a mile from Mr. Armstrong's house at Fortyhill, near the stream of water which runs to Enfield-wash. At this
place are remains of fish-ponds; and the inequalities of the ground
show that it has been the site of buildings. Tradition says, that
Queen Mary had a palace there. The New, or Little-park, has been
so long converted into meadow and tillage, and divided into small
parcels, that all remembrance of it is lost, and I have not been able
exactly to ascertain its site (fn. 74) .
Portrait of Sir Nicholas Raynton.
Sir Nicholas Raynton (about the same time, it is probable, that he
purchased the manor of Worcesters) became possessed of a copyholdhouse, described as some time Hugh Fortee's, and late Sir Thomas
Gourney's (fn. 75) . This house (which has been since enfranchised) he
rebuilt between the years 1629 and 1632. Inigo Jones is said to have
been the architect. It is still standing, goes by the name of Fortyhall, and, since its union with the manor of Worcesters, has been
considered as the manor-house. It was repaired and modernised by
the Wolstonholmes in the year 1700. Over the chimney-piece in
one of the rooms, is a fine picture of Sir Nicholas Raynton, in his
lord mayor's robes. It is dated 1643, is much in Vandyke's manner, and was painted, probably, by his pupil Dobson (fn. 76) . Forty-hall
stands on high ground (fn. 77) , and commands a pleasant prospect towards
Waltham-abbey, and that part of Essex.
Manor of Durants and Gartons.
The manor of Durance (or, more properly, Durants) and Gartons, sometimes called also the manor of Stonehouse (fn. 78) , belonged in
the reign of Edward I. to Richard de Plessitis, who held lands, valued at 161. 16s. 0½d. of the Earl of Hereford, and other lands,
valued at 4l. 5s. 11d. per annum, under the abbey of Walden; dying without issue, anno 1290, his estate was divided between his three
sisters, Sabina wife of Nicholas Peche, Aveline wife of Richard Durant, and Emma wife of John Heyron (fn. 79) . It is probable that Sabina
died without issue, as the manor does not appear to have been divided
into more than two parts, one of which descended to John Heyron,
(son of John above-mentioned,) who died anno 1336, leaving his
sister Margaret, aged forty, and John Garton, (his nephew, I suppose, by another sister,) aged twenty-fix, his heirs (fn. 79) . The other
moiety was inherited by Thomas Durant, (grandson of Aveline (fn. 80) ,)
who dying anno 1350, left issue an only daughter Maud (fn. 81) , then a
minor, afterwards married to John Wroth (fn. 82) , and secondly to Sir
Baldwin de Radyngton, who died anno 1403, seised of the manor
of Durantys for life, with remainder to his wife's son William
Wroth (fn. 83) . The manor of Durants, to which that of Gartons was, at
an early period, annexed (fn. 84) , continued in the Wroth family for many
generations (fn. 85) . John Wroth, Esq. who died anno 1519, had three
sons, among whom the manor of Durants, &c. seems to have been
equally divided (fn. 86) . Thomas Ashby, Esq. died anno 1559, seised of
an estate in Enfield, (being a third of the manor of Durants,) in right
of his wife Anne, daughter and sole heir of Edward, eldest son of
John Wroth above-mentioned (fn. 87) . This third part, which descended
to Sir Robert Ashby (fn. 88) , was, anno 1635, the property of William
Bowyer, Esq. and anno 1686, of Joseph Dawson and others. The
two other shares became again united (fn. 89) , and continued in the Wroth
family till the year 1673, when the manor (fn. 90) of Durants and Gartons was sold by William Lord Maynard and William Maynard,
Esq. executors of Sir Henry Wroth, who died in 1671, to Sir Thomas Stringer, Knt. for the sum of 8900l. (fn. 91) William Stringer, Esq.
son of Sir Thomas, died in 1723, having bequeathed this estate,
which he inherited from his father, to his wife Margaret, daughter
of Lord Chancellor Jeffreys. She died in 1727, having settled the
reversion of this manor upon Richard Darby, Esq. who, anno 1735,
bequeathed it to his wife, afterwards married to William Underwood,
Esq. (fn. 92) Mr. Underwood, anno 1744, sold the manor to Samuel
Child, Esq. from whom it descended to his eldest son Francis; and
upon his death, without issue, to the late Robert Child, Esq. of Osterley. Mr. Child, anno 1774, conveyed the manor to Robert Dent,
and the latter, the same year, to John Dawes, Esq. It was aliened by
Mr. Dawes to Sands Chapman, Esq. anno 1787; and by the latter,
anno 1793, to Newell Connop, Esq. the present proprietor.
Extent and valuations of the manors of Durants and Gartons.
The manor of Durants was valued at ten marks anno 1403 (fn. 93) . The
manor of Gartons, anno 1336 (fn. 94) , consisted of an hundred and ten
acres of arable, valued at four-pence an acre; twelve of meadow;
and fourteen of pasture. By the inquisition taken after the death of
John Wroth, Esq. anno 1519, it appears, that he was seised of the
manor of Durants, and twenty houses, twenty tofts, two mills, ten
gardens, three hundred acres of arable, two hundred of meadow,
forty of pasture, and ten of wood (fn. 95) .
Manor of Elsynge, or Norris-farm.
Jordan de Elfynge, in the reign of Edward III. held a fifth part
of a knight's-fee, (which had formerly belonged to John de Rana,)
and another fifth part, (formerly Thomas Fescampe's,) of the Earl of
Hereford (fn. 94) . These lands, anno 1455, were the property of John
Norrys (fn. 95) ; and in the year 1526, belonged to John Wilford, Esq. (fn. 96)
Stephen Wilford died seised of them in the year 1547. They were
then described as the manor of Elsynge, alias Norris-farm, two-thirds
of which lay in the parish of Enfield, and were held of the King in
capite; the remainder was in the parish, and held of the manor of
Hadley (fn. 97) . This part, which must have been very far detached from
the rest of the estate, was aliened from the Wilfords at an early period, and was, anno 1635, the property of Henry Hunsdon (fn. 98) . The
two other severalties, which appear to be situated near Ponder'send, and the marshes, were the property of the Wilford family, anno
1686. Freehold lands were aliened, anno 1708, by Richard Wilford
to John Cotton. I have not been able to learn any thing farther
relating to this estate, except that a farm-house, called Norris-farm,
being a moated site, and most probably the ancient manor-house, is
rated in the parish books as the property of Messrs. Pinnock and
Manor of Suffolks.
Joan, relict of Sir William Parr, comptroller of the household, and
wife of Thomas Colt, died anno 1476, seised of a manor in Enfield,
called Suffolks, held under the Queen. It was inherited by her son,
John Colt (fn. 99) John Wroth died seised of this manor anno 1644 (fn. 100) .
In 1686 it was the property of Joshua Galliard (fn. 101) , Esq. from whom
it descended to the late Pierce Galliard, Esq. and was lately (anno
1792) sold by Charles Bowles, Esq. of East-Sheen, who married his
daughter, to Newell Connop, Esq. the present proprietor. It is situated near Ponder's-end.
Manors of Honylands and Pentriches, alias Capels.
The joint manors of Honylands and Pentriches, (called also the
manor of Capels,) partly in this parish, and partly in that of Cheshunt, were parcel of the possessions of Sir Giles Capel, who granted
them to the crown in exchange for other lands, anno 1547 (fn. 102) . They
were sold by Queen Elizabeth, anno 1562, for thirty years purchase,
to William Horne, merchant, being then valued at 31l. 7s. per annum, with the profits of court and rents of assize (fn. 103) . Horne sold
them the same year to John Tamworth, Esq. one of her Majesty's
privy-council (fn. 104) , who died in 1569 (fn. 105) . In the year 1575 they were
aliened by Thomas Sydney to Sir Thomas Knolles (fn. 106) . In 1627
they belonged to William Pennyfather, Esq. (fn. 107) who aliened them to
William Avery, anno 1638 (fn. 108) . They continued in that family till
the year 1724, when they were sold to Charles Eyre, Esq. from whom
they were inherited by Robert Jacomb, Esq. The latter sold them,
anno 1783, to William Hart, Esq.; and they were again sold, anno
1793, to the present proprietor Rawson Hart Boddam, Esq. late governor of Bombay. A court-baron, court-leet, and view of frankpledge, are held, jointly, for these manors, which lie near Bull'scross, where Mr. Boddam has a handsome villa, not far from the manor-house of Capels, which is about to be pulled down.
Manor of Goldbeaters.
When Mr. Breton's estates were sold in 1786, a lot, called in the
particulars of sale Bull's-cross farm, with the site of the manor of
Goldbeaters, was purchased by Joseph Mellish, Esq. Of this manor
I have seen no other mention. Lands called Goldbeaters, which paid
a quit-rent of 7s. 7d. to the Queen, are described in an abstract of
a survey of Enfield taken in 1572. They were then the property of
Robert Huicke, Esq. physician in ordinary, to whom, in the year
1570, her Majesty granted a mansion called White-Webbs-house, with
a conduit head, vaults, pipes, &c. (fn. 109) This house was, in 1653, the
property of Dr. Bockenham; and came, by several mesne conveyances, to the Garnault family. It has been lately pulled down. A
tradition, which perhaps is not much to be depended on, says, that
White-Webbs-house was hired by the conspirators of the powderplot, for the purpose of watching for the signal of their success.
Abbot of Thorney's lands.
The Abbot of Thorney had lands in this parish, valued, in the
reign of Henry VI. at seven marks per annum (fn. 110) . These lands, by
the name of Cranes, came to the Wroths; and were, in 1686, the
property of Sir Thomas Stringer (fn. 111) . They are now held, with the
manor of Durants, by Newell Connop, Esq.
Arms in the windows.
At Ponder's-end is an ancient mansion, called Lincoln-house, which
appears to have taken its name from the Fiennes's, Earls of Lincoln,
of whom Henry and Thomas, the second and third Earls, resided
there from 1600 till 1612. If we may judge from the arms, which
are still to be seen in the windows (fn. 112) , it was before that time the resi
dence, or property of Henry Howard Viscount Bindon, and afterwards of Sir Thomas Coventry, lord-keeper, and of George Villiers,
the first Duke of Buckingham; it is now a school.
Rowland Watson, clerk of the crown, had a house at White Webbs
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and lands, valued at 60l. per annum. (fn. 113) . Sir Samuel Starling, in the beginning of the last century,
had a capital messuage at Forty-hill, called Garret's-place, which came
afterwards to the Wilfords (fn. 114) . Sir Robert Jason, anno 1686, had a
mansion at Enfield-green.
Mill River, &c.
The stream which forms Enfield-wash, and falls into the Lea,
takes its rise on the Chase. The New River takes a very circuitous
course through this parish, from the extremity towards Cheshunt to the
boundaries of Edmonton. Sir Thomas Wroth, anno 1572, farmed
a water-course, called the Mill-river, which was connected with the
Lea, and was wider than that river (fn. 115) . Sir Thomas Wroth had two
mills upon this water. In 1635, John Wroth, Esq. held the Millriver, under a see-farm rent of 6l. per annum (fn. 116) . In 1686 it was
held on the same tenure by the Hon. George Howard, in right of
his wife Ann, widow of James Cooper, and daughter of John
Wroth, Esq. (fn. 117)
The parish church consists of a nave, chancel, and two aisles, separated by clustered columns and pointed arches. The windows are
of the architecture which prevailed during the fourteenth, and till
the middle of the fifteenth century. The device of a rose and wing,
which occurs over the arches of the nave, which device is to be seen
also upon the tower of Hadley-church, with the date 1444, supposing it to have been, as is very probable, a punning cognizance
adopted by one of the priors of Walden, to which monastery both
churches belonged, will fix the building of the present structure at
Enfield to the early part of the fifteenth century. At the west end
of the church is a square embattled tower.
On the south wall of the chancel are the monuments of Francis
Evington, alderman of London (fn. 116) (1614), and John Watt, merchant (1701). On the north side those of Joseph Gascoigne, S. T. P.
forty years vicar (1721); and Martha, wife of James Palmer, Esq.
(daughter of William Garrard of Dorney, Bucks (fn. 117) (1617). On the
floor are the tombs of Ann, daughter of Richard Gery, Esq. of
Bushmead in the county of Bedford (fn. 118) (1643); William Sheffard,
professor of physic, in London (1646); Sir Charles Rich, Bart. fourth
son of Sir Edward Rich, Knight Banneret, nephew of Robert Lord
Rich (1677); Edward Shaller, Gent. (1708); Richard Fountaine,
Esq. (1721); and Daniel Brattell, Esq. (1741).
In the windows, over the arches of the nave, are the arms of King
Henry VIII. impaling Arragon, and those of Lovell and Muswell
quarterly, quartering Paston (fn. 119) . On the floor are the tombs of Joseph Ducasse, Esq. (1737); Daniel Parker, Esq. (1738); Mr. John
Crevillier (1755); Israel Jalabert, Esq. (1768); and Miss Sarah
Sir Nicholas Raynton's.
Edmund Lord Roos.
In the east window of the north aisle are two escutcheons, with the
arms and quarterings of Thomas Earl of Rutland (fn. 120) , dated 1530;
one of them is surrounded with the garter. Against the north wall,
at the east end, (within a small space, now inclosed, and forming a
vestry,) is a handsome monument, supported by columns of the Corinthian order, to the memory of Sir Nicholas Raynton, Knight (fn. 121) ,
some time lord mayor of London. It is ornamented with wholelength figures of Sir Nicholas and his lady. He is represented in armour; over which is the lord mayor's robe and chain. She is habited as lady mayoress. There are figures also of their son Nicholas,
and his wife, with some children in kneeling attitudes. Sir Nicholas
died in 1646; his son in 1641. Opposite to this monument, between the north aisle and the chancel, stands a large table tomb,
erected to the memory of Joyce Lady Tiptost, mother of the learned
Earl of Worcester. The sides are ornamented with plain shields,
tresoils, and quatresoils. On the slab which covers the tomb, is a
figure in brass of the deceased, habited in a surcoat faced with ermine, over which is a mantle embroidered with the arms of Charlton (Lord Powis) and Holland. Her head-dress is a net-work cap
and a short veil, over which is the coronet. The figure stands under
a rich Gothic canopy, on the pillars of which are the arms of Tiptost and Charlton. The whole is surrounded with a border, on which
is the following inscription: " . . . . . . . . . . . .a Jocosa quondam
silia et hered. Caroli (fn. 121) Dni Powes ac eciam silia et una hered. honorabilissime Dne Marchie (fn. 122) et uxor samosissimo militi, (Johanni
Tiptost que obiit XX (fn. 123) ) II die Septebr. a Dni M,CCCC,XLVI
cujus anime et omniu sideliu desunctor. I hs pro suâ sacratissimâ
passione misereat." At the four corners of the border are the
symbols of the Evangelists; and between each word, representations
of birds, sishes, and various other devices. Over this tomb is raised
an open obtuse arch, with Gothic ornaments, and a border of soliage,
to the memory of Edmund Lord Roos, who died in the year 1508,
and was buried at Enfield. The pillars of this arch conceal part of the
inscription on Lady Tiptost's tomb. Lord Roos's monument has no
inscription. Over the centre of the arch, and on the sinister spandril,
are his arms and quarterings (fn. 124) ; and on the other spandril, those of
Sir Thomas Lovell (fn. 125) , who married his sister, and, it is probable,
erected the monument.
On the wall of the north aisle are the monuments of Robert Delcrowe (fn. 126) , citizen of London (1580); Elizabeth, wife of John Green (fn. 127) ,
(daughter of Sir William Middelton, and grand-daughter of Sir
Hugh)—(1673); and Stephen Riou (fn. 128) , merchant (1740). On the
floor are the tombs of Lieutenant General Richard Francks, (who
came over with William III.) (1745); Michael Garnault, Esq.
(1746); Aime Garnault, Esq. (1782); and Thomas Mills, Esq.
At the east end of the south aisle, on the north wall, is the monument of Thomas Stringer, Esq. (fn. 129) a half-length bust of whom (of
white marble, and in armour,) stands under the canopy of a tent.
He was son of Sir Thomas Stringer of Durants, a colonel in the
army, and M. P. He died at Bruges, anno 1706. The monument
was erected by Katherine, wife of Thomas Earl of Westmorland. In
the same aisle, against the north wall, are tablets to the memory of
the families of Benjamin and Thomas Boddington, Esqrs. and the
monuments of Dorothy, wife of Robert Middlemore, Esq. (fn. 130) (1610);
and Mr. Henry Dixon, who died anno 1696, aged ninety-one. On
the floor are the tombs of William Smith, and Jane his wife (with
brass plates). He served Henry VIII. Edward VI. Queen Mary, and
Queen Elizabeth, and died anno 1592; Richard Middlemore, Esq.
(1744); John Burges, Esq. (1767); Ann, widow of John Adolphus Schroder, Esq. (1788); Mrs. Catherine Hotchkis (1789); and
Mrs. Ann Hotchkis (1790).
Tombs in the church yard.
In the church-yard are the tombs of John Aston, merchant (1739);
John White, surveyor to the New River Company (fn. 131) (1741); William Barwell, merchant (1743); Theodore Hay, Gent. (1743); David Lewis, Gent. of Penvolecary, in the county of Carmarthen
(1746); Thomas Horne, Esq. (1747); Mr. Edward Paulin (1747);
John Hamilton, Esq. of Bull's-cross (1747); Joseph Dobbins, Esq.
of Clay-hill (1753); Edward Bowles, Gent. (1753); Anthony Clerembault, merchant (1758); Elizabeth, wife of John Hiens, and
daughter of Thomas Jenkinson, Esq. (1765); Mrs. Elizabeth Appleford (1765); William Morris, Esq. captain in the 48th regiment
of foot (1769); Joseph Hurlock, surgeon (1769); Elizabeth, wife
of John Powell, Esq. and relict of John Aston (1771); Samuel
White, Esq. (1771); Thomas Brown, Gent. of Gray's-inn (1772);
George Riddell, A. B. of Trinity-college, Cambridge (1774); Thomas Redhead, Esq. (1775); Thomas Price, Esq. (1776); Mary, wife
of Robert Jacomb, Esq. (1776); Rev. William Bush, minister of the
Presbyterian congregation for the space of fifty years (1777); John
Saville, Esq. of Clay-hill (1778); Mary, wife of Charles Staples,
merchant (1779); Ralph Cooper, apothecary (1781); John Loving,
Esq. captain in the navy (1782); Captain Samuel Barnes (1784);
George Powell, Esq. (1785); Robert Thorne, Esq. (1785); Hugh
James, Esq. of Enfield-chase (1786); Rev. Andrew Kinross (1786);
Robert Barnevelt, citizen of London (1786); Mr. Nicholas Gautier
(1788); Mr. John Rainforth (1790); William Belshaw, Esq. aged
ninety (1790); John Tilly, Esq. (1790); Capt. Robert Richmond
(1791); and Richard Price, Esq. (1793).
Manor of Surlowes, or the parsonage ward.
Valuation, and lessees of the rectory.
Geoffrey de Mandeville, the first Earl of Essex, gave a rent of an
hundred shillings per annum to the monks of Hurley in exchange
for the tithes of Enfield and Edmonton, both which he granted to
the abbey of Walden, which was founded by himself (fn. 132) . The grant
was confirmed by King Stephen, and by Henry II. (fn. 133) . The monks
of Hurley retained, nevertheless, the tithes of the Chase, which had
been given them by William de Mandeville (fn. 134) , and confirmed to
them by William de S. Maria, Bishop of London, anno 1219. Godfrey, prior of Hurley, in the year 1258, exchanged those tithes with
the abbot of Walden for the church of Stratley (fn. 135) . In a survey of
the churches belonging to the abbey of Walden, which must have
been drawn up subsequent to this exchange, Enfield is said to have
been appropriated to the use of the monks of that convent, with all
the tithes, both of the demesne lands and others. The monks received half a mark out of the vicarage; three marks from a mill;
twenty shillings from the tenants of the glebe; and kept fix acres of
meadow in their own hands (fn. 136) . After the dissolution of monasteries,
this rectory was granted, anno 1540, to Thomas Lord Audley (fn. 137) ,
who, four years afterwards, surrendered it again to the King (fn. 138) . It
was granted, anno 1548, to Trinity-college in Cambridge (fn. 139) , to which
society it still belongs. The rectory is a manor, holds a court-leet,
and is entitled to all royalties within its own precincts. It was formerly called the manor of Surlowes (fn. 140) , but now the rectory, or manor of the Parsonage-ward. In the year 1327 the rectory was rated
at sixty marks (fn. 141) . In 1650 the glebe, and great tithes, were valued
at 260l. per annum, and were then on lease to Sir William Langlye,
Knt. at the reserved rent of 181. 13s. 4d. besides a corn-rent of fourteen quarters of wheat, and eighteen quarters and a half, a bushel,
and a peck of malt (fn. 142) . The present lessee is the Right Hon. Wilmot
Earl of Lisburne, who became possessed of the lease in right of his
first wife, who was daughter, and eventually heir, of Joseph Gas
coigne Nightingale, Esq. (fn. 143) The rectorial house is situated on the
north side of Parsonage-lane, and has been let for some years past to
Vicarage house, &c.
Augmentation of the vicarage.
Godfrey de Beston, in the reign of Edward I. granted a house,
(adjoining to the church-yard,) which he had purchased of Richard
de Plessitis, to Bartholomew, vicar of Enfield, and his successors.
The said Richard added to it a piece of ground for a garden, lying
between the church-yard and the highway, called Ernygstrate
(fn. 144) .
The present vicarage-house has the appearance of considerable antiquity, and seems to have been built about the time of Henry VIII.
In 1327 the vicarage was rated at nine marks; in the King's books
it is valued at 261. per annum (fn. 145) . In the year 1650 the vicaragehouse, with a close, two acres of land in the common fields, and
the small tithes, were valued at 581. per annum (fn. 146) . When the division of Enfield chase took place as before mentioned, an allotment
of five hundred and nineteen acres and thirty-two perches was appropriated to the tithe-owners, in lieu of the tithes of the King's allotment; those of the parish of South-mims; the proprietors of the
Old-park and the manor of Oldfold, and the inclosures belonging to
the parish of Enfield. The remainder of the Enfield allotment,
with those belonging to Edmonton and Hadley, were left subject to
tithes, with a power nevertheless reserved to the parishes, of compounding for them at any future time. Out of the above-mentioned
allotment, in lieu of tithes, ninety acres were appropriated to the
vicar for his share. The vicarage of Enfield having been always
annexed to a fellowship of Trinity-college, power is given by the act
to augment it by a farther endowment of one hundred and sixty acres,
parcel of the tithe allotment over and above the ninety acres already
mentioned, as the vicar's share, an agreement being previously made
with the lessee of the rectory for that purpose. Whenever this augmentation shall have taken place, the acceptance of the vicarage of
Enfield by one of the fellows of Trinity-college will vacate his fellowship. The vicar of Enfield has a power under the act of making
leases not to exceed twenty-one years.
Walter Bridges, "an able and painful preacher," is mentioned as
vicar of Enfield in the survey of that benefice anno 1650 (fn. 147) . To
him succeeded Daniel Manning, who was deprived at the restoration (fn. 148) . The present vicar is the Rev. Richard Newbon, B. D. who
was instituted in 1767.
Henry Loft of Enfield, in the year 1631, founded a lectureship
in this parish, and endowed it with 4l. per annum. The present
lecturer is the Rev. John Milne, who succeeded the late Samuel
Hardy, M. A. (fn. 149) in 1793.
Baldwin de Radyngton, in the year 1398, obtained the King's
licence (fn. 150) to found a chantry in the parish-church of Enfield, and to
endow it with lands of the value of 10l. per annum. A part of this
endowment consisted of Radington-bridge and lands adjoining in Enfield (fn. 151) . Edward Causton, vicar of Enfield, and others, had a licence from Edward IV. to found a chantry at the altar of St. Mary,
for the souls of Robert Blossom and Agnes his wife, to be called
Blossom's-chantry, and to be endowed with ten marks per annum (fn. 152) .
Robert Blossom died anno 1418, and left an estate in Essex (situated
in South-Benslete and some adjoining parishes) to his wife Agnes,
who afterwards purchased a manor called Poynants, (or Poynetts,)
in Benslete (fn. 152) . The endowment of Blossom's-chantry was either
a part of or a rent-charge upon these lands, which, on the dissolution of monasteries and chantries, became vested in the crown;
and having been granted by James I. to Edmund Dussield and John
Babbington (fn. 153) , was, after some mesne assignments, sold by Thomas
Kennithorp to Sir Nicholas Salter, Nicholas Raynton, and Benjamin
Decrowe, who conveyed it to the seossees of the grammar-school at
Enfield, which had been endowed before with the manor of Poynants (fn. 154) . It appears by the chantry-roll in the Augmentation-office,
that John Ford gave a close and three acres of land at Enfield for
the maintenance of a brotherhood priest; and that Maud Hamond
gave to the same priest, and for her obit, a tenement, valued at
eight shillings per ann. Walter Ford, Hugh Ford, —Rotheram,
and Thomas Aylworth, gave lands and tenements for obits; and
Walter Baldwin three acres and an half of land for a light before
the Virgin Mary. John de Banbury, anno 1339, gave some lands
at Enfield for a chantry in Bishopsgate-hospital (fn. 155) . Chantry-lands
at Enfield were sold, after the reformation, to John Hulson and Bartholomew Broxey; the lands and tenements for obits to John Hulson and William Pendrede (fn. 156) .
There was a congregation of Presbyterian dissenters at this
place as early as the year 1686 (fn. 157) , which still continues; the meeting-house is in Baker-street. Edmund Calamy, a celebrated divine
of that persuasion, died at his house here in November 1666 (fn. 158) .
Meeting houses of the Methodists, Quakers, and Anabaptists.
There are also at Enfield two meeting-houses belonging to the
Methodists, nearly adjoining to each other, on the chase-side; one
of which was built in the year 1784; the other some years afterwards, in consequence of a schism among the brethren. In the
town is a meeting-house belonging to the Quakers, and at Ponder'send one belonging to the Anabaptists.
The earliest date of the parish register at this place is 1551.
Comparative state of population.
||Average of baptisms.
||Average of burials.
Number of bouselyng people at the Reformation.
I had formed hopes of being able to deduce some satisfactory conclusions, relating to the comparative state of population in the several parishes of Middlesex, about the middle of the sixteenth century,
from the chantry-roll of that county at the Augmentation-office, in
which is specified the number of bouselyng people or communicants
in each parish at the time of the reformation. The event of comparing the two parishes of Edmonton and Enfield shows, however,
that nothing satisfactory can be concluded from it. In Edmonton
there were, as it appears, six hundred communicants; in Enfield,
which (as the registers of both parishes, during the sixteenth century,
are extant) we know to have been, at that time, almost twice as
populous, there were only one hundred.
Increase of population.
The increase of population in this parish has been considerable though gradual. The survey of the manor, anno 1635, says,
that forty-three new cottages had been erected on the waste within
the twenty years then preceding; between 1635 and 1686, sixtyone cottages were built (fn. 158) . The present number of houses is about
nine hundred and twenty (fn. 159) . Nursed children and strangers contribute much to swell the list of burials at this place.
In 1603, two hundred and fifty-three persons were interred, one
hundred and twenty-nine of whom were said to die of the plague:
in 1625, two hundred and two, of whom sixty-seven are marked
plague. In 1665, the number of burials was one hundred and
seventy-six. Those who were reported by the searchers to have
died of the sickness, were buried some in the church-yard, and some
in other places within the parish.
Extracts from the Register.
Family of Wroth.
Sir Thomas Wroth.
Lady Mary wroth, author of the Countess of Montgomery's Urania.
Sir Henry worth.
"John Wroth and Mistress Elizabeth Hayles married Feb. 2,
1550–1. Mr. Thomas Shyrley and Mrs. Anna Wroth nup. Dec.
12, 1575. John Wroth, fil. Roberti Wroth, baptiz. June 11, 1577.
Sr Robert Wroth buried Jan. 28, 1605–6.—Sr Robert Wroth his
funeral Mar. 3." He was son of Sir Thomas Wroth, who fled
into Germany during the reign of Queen Mary. Fuller remarks,
that it was observable, that the family of this man, who thus went
away for his conscience, was the only one, out of all those mentioned by Norden, which were not extinct in his time (anno
1660) (fn. 160) . Sir Thomas Wroth (fn. 161) married Mary, daughter of Richard
Lord Rich. "Mar. 15, 1613–4, Sir Robert Wroth buried." Son
of the last Sir Robert, by Susan Stonard. He married Mary,
daughter of Robert Earl of Leicester, and niece of Sir Philip Sidney, a lady of a literary turn, and author of a romance called the
Countess of Montgomery's Urania (fn. 162) . James, son of Sir Robert
Wroth, was buried July 16, 1616; Thomas, Jan. 23, 1616–7;
Robert, son of Henry Wroth, Esq. Jan. 16, 1614–15. "The wife
of Henry Wroth, Esq. was here interred in the vault belonging
to that noble family, Dec. 19, 1653." Several children of Sir
Henry Wroth, and Anne his wife, were baptized as follows: Anne,
Jan. 4, 1654–5; Jane, March 29, 1659; (she married William
Henry, the first Earl of Rochford;) Robert, Aug. 27, 1660; another, Anne, Nov. 30, 1662; Elizabeth, Dec. 31, 1665. The Lady
Anne, wife of Sir Henry Wroth, was buried Nov. 9, 1667; Sir
Henry, Sept. 26, 1671. Sir Henry Wroth's name is to be found
in the list of persons who were to have been made Knights of the
Royal Oak after the restoration. His estates, which lay principally
in Hertfordshire, were valued at 2000l. per annum (fn. 163) . Henry
Wroth, Esq. (from London,) son of Sir Henry, was buried in the
Durants vault, (then Sir Thomas Stringer's,) June 10, 1679.
"John, son of John Wroth, and Elizabeth his wife, (daughter of
William Lord Maynard (fn. 164) ,) baptized Aug. 19, 1667." Anne,
daughter of this John Wroth, married, to her second husband,
George Howard, afterwards Earl of Suffolk, and was buried at
Enfield July 28, 1710, being the last of the family there interred (fn. 165) .
Family of Gray.
"July 30, 1606. Mary Gray, silia Domini Johannis Gray Militis sepult." Sir John Gray was eldest son of Henry, Baron
Gray of Groby. He died before his father, leaving issue two sons.
I find, that Ambrose Gray, son of the said Lord Gray, and only
brother of Sir John, died at Enfield anno 1636, and was there interred (fn. 164) . His burial is not inserted in the register.
Nicholas Brett, servant to Sir George Villiers, was killed in the
chase with a buck, in hunting with King James. Sepult Sept. 23,
Family of Herbert Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery.
Charles Lord Herbert.
Philip Earl of Pembroke the younger.
Philip Earl of Pembroke the elder.
"Da Maria, silia Philipti Herbert Comitis de Monte Gomara, sepulta 12 die Julii 1616. James Herbert, filius Philipti Herbert Earle
of Mount Gomora, sepult. 29 Aug. 1617. My Lord of Mountgomerye's younge sonne was buryed the fifte of April 1618.
Charles Harbert, filius Philippi Earle of Mountgomery, baptizatus
erat. Sept. 19, 1619." At the age of fifteen, being then Lord
Herbert, he married Mary, daughter of George Duke of Buckingham, and died during the life-time of his father, anno 1636.
Philip Harbert, filius M. William Harbert, sepultus Nov. 25, 1620.
Philip Harbert, filius Philippi Earle of Mountgomery, baptized
Feb. 21, 1620-1." He succeeded his father as Earl of Pembroke
and Montgomery, anno 1650, and died anno 1669. "William
Hertberd, filius de Philippi Herbert Earle of Mountgomery, baptizatus erat. May 28, 1622." He died unmarried. "James Harbert, filius to the Right Honorable Philip Earle of Mountgomery,
baptized Nov. 12, 1623." Ancestor to the Herberts of Oxfordshire. "Mr. John Harberd, filius Philippi Harbert Earle of Mountgomery, baptized May 2, 1625." Philip Earl of Montgomery,
(afterwards of Pembroke,) father of the children whose baptisms are
here registered, lived many years at Elsynge-hall, or Enfield-house,
of which he was appointed keeper by King James. He afterwards
purchased it of the crown. This Earl was a man of considerable
note, and for some time Chancellor of the University of Oxford.
During the civil war he attached himself to the parliamentary party,
and so far yielded to the spirit of the times, as to accept of a seat in
the House of Commons after Cromwell had put down the lords.
The following account of his admission into the lower house, April
13, 1649, is taken from a newspaper of that date. "This day the
Earl of Pembroke was admitted into the house according to his
election. Many members of the house came out, and did attend
his honour into the house with much respect (fn. 165) ."
Family of Fynes.
"Mary Fines, fil. Sir Edward, sepult. April 14, 1617. Henry
Fines, fil. Sir Edward, baptiz. Oct. 30, 1617." Sir Edward Fienes,
or Fynes, was second son of Henry Earl of Lincoln.
"Grissell, silius Sr Arthur Ingram, sepult. Aug. 27, 1617."
James, son of Sr James Palmer, Knt. sepult. Sept. 21, 1630."
"The Lady Throgmorton sepult. Aug. 30, 1636."
"John Browne, a sawyer, who was pressed into the King's
work at Theobodes, was buried Nov. 21, 1636."
Chief Justice St. John's daughter married by her father.
"The truelie worthy John Bernard of Huntingdon, within the
county of Huntingdon, Esq. single man, and Mrs. Elizabeth St.
John, daughter to the Right Honble Oliver St. John, Chief Justice
of the Common Pleas (fn. 166) , were married before her said father, and
by him declared man and wife, Feb. 26, 1655–6,coram testibus
non paucis, venerabilibus et fide dignis."
"Rebecca, daughter of Sr John Pye, a stranger, buried Aug. 16,
Sir George Wharton.
"Dorothy, daughter of Mr. George Wharton, baptized July 7,
1668." George Wharton, the celebrated astrologer, resided many
years at Enfield. During the civil war he attached himself to the
King, entered into the army, and acquitted himself with great bravery. Charles II. created him a baronet anno 1677. He died in
the month of August 1681, at his house in Enfield, and was removed to St. Peter's chapel in the Tower. Besides his astrological
works, which are very numerous, he published some select poems,
and was editor of the Mercurius Elenchicus. Wood calls him "a
constant and thorough-paced royalist, a good companion, a witty
droll, and a waggish poet (fn. 167) ."
"The Lady Elizabeth Stone, being a stranger, was buried in the
chancel near the communion-table, March 8, 1668–9."
Families of Stringer and Platt.
"John Platt, Esq. of Westbrook-place near Godalming, married
June 20, 1672, to Rebecca, daughter of Sir Thomas Stringer,
Knt. Thomas, son of Sir John Platt, Knt. and the Lady Rebecca
his wife, baptized Oct. 11, 1680." Sir John was great grandson
of Sir Hugh Platt, author of the Garden of Eden, the Jewell-house
of Art and Nature, and other works. His father was a nonconformist divine, and rector of West Horsley in Surrey. His mother
was daughter of Sir Humphry Lynde of Cobham, author of Via
Tuta, and other tracts against the Papists. Sir John had several children, most of whom died in their infancy (fn. 168) .
Sir Thomas Stringer.
"Mr. John Stringer, the brother of Sir Thomas Stringer, was
buried in the vault belonging to Durance, Jan. 17, 1676–7. Sir
Thomas Stringer buried Oct. 9, 1689.". Sir Thomas Stringer
was descended from the Stringers of Sharleston in Yorkshire; at an
early age he was made steward of the ancient court of record in the
Tower of London; he was appointed King's serjeant in 1679; and
justice of the Common Pleas in October 1688, in the room of Sir
Richard Allibon, a Roman Catholic. In the Michaelmas vacation
following, the new justice continued to act in his judicial capacity,
notwithstanding the King's departure beyond sea, in opposition to the
opinion of several eminent lawyers; and was about to hold the
essoigns for the Hilary term following, had he not been forbidden by
the powers who assumed the government of the kingdom in his Majesty's absence (fn. 169) . Sir Thomas Stringer married Anne, daughter of
Sir John Melton, secretary to the council at York. The Lady
Stringer, from London, was buried Feb. 28, 1714–15. William
Stringer, Esq. Aug. 18, 1723. The Hon. Margaret Stringer, who
was daughter of the famous Judge Jeffreys, May 11, 1727.
Family of Wolstonholme.
"Nicholas, son of John Wolstonholme, Esq. and Mrs. Mary, his
"wife, baptized March 6, 1675–6." John Wolstonholme, who
married Mary, daughter of Nicholas Raynton, Esq. was grandson
of Sir John Wolstonholme, who was created a baronet in 1665. He
died in the month of February, 1708–9, (being then Sir John Wolstonholme, Bart.) and was buried at Enfield on the 16th. Nicholas,
his eldest son, whose baptism is here entered, succeeded him in the
title, and dying without issue, was buried at Enfield Feb. 28, 1716–7.
His widow, Grace, daughter of Sir Edward Waldo, Knt. married
William Ferdinando Carey, Lord Hunsdon, who, for a few years,
had Forty-hall in right of his wife. Lady Hunsdon died without issue
anno 1729. Sir William Wolstonholme, Bart. who succeeded his
brother Nicholas, was buried at Enfield Feb. 7, 1723–4; and Dame
Elizabeth, his wife, May 18, 1739. Sir William leaving no male
issue, the title went to another branch of the family.
First verdict on the Coventry act.
"Be it remembered, that William Deanes, Robert and Margaret
"Deanes, were all three brought down dead from London, and were
buried all three in one ground, upon the 6th of May, 1677;–the
first examples of the Coventry act." A pamphlet relating to this
affair was published at the time, entitled, "Cruelty punished; or a
full and perfect Relation of the unparalleled Inhumanity of William Deane, Robert Deane, and Margaret Deane, practised upon
the Body of Jane King, a young beautiful Maiden living at Clayhill, at Enfield; together with their Trial at the Old Bayley on
Thursday, April 26, 1677, and the Judges' Speeches, and their
Charge given to the Jury. Also, an Account of their Speeches,
and Carriage at Tybourn, at their Execution, Friday, May 4,
Family of Fielding Earl of Denbigh.
"The Lady Bridget Fielding, daughter to the Right Hon. Basil
Earl of Desmond, and the Lady Hester his wife, was borne Sep.
ye 14th, and baptized the 22, 1698." She married James Otway,
Esq. Basil, son of the Earl of Denbigh and Desmond, was baptized Oct. 1, and buried Oct. 22, 1699. Elizabeth, his daughter,
was baptized Aug. 25, 1700; she died unmarried. Basil Earl of
Denbigh, married Hester, daughter of Sir Basil Firebrace, whose family seem to have had some connection with the manor and lodges
at Enfield (fn. 168) .
"The Right Honourable Viscount Kilmurry, buried April 20,
1717." Robert Viscount Killmorey, (son of Robert the seventh
Viscount,) succeeded to the title anno 1710. He died in his minority, being a pupil of Dr. Uvedale at Enfield. John, his younger
brother, is the present Viscount.
Sir Robert Nightingale.
"Sir Robert Nightingale, Bart. buried July 24, 1722." His ancestor, Thomas Nightingale, was created a Baronet anno 1628. The
title is now extinct.
"Honble Mrs. Anne Rumbald, buried Jan. 15, 1729–30."
Family of Parker.
"John, son of Sr Henry Parker, Bart, and Dame Catherine his
wife, baptized July 8, 1744." Only son of Sir Henry. He died
in his father's lifetime, anno 1769. The present Baronet is son of
Sir Hyde, and nephew of Sir Henry here mentioned.
Family of Vaughan, Earl of Lisburne.
"The Hon. Elizabeth Vaughan, buried May 24, 1755." First
wife of the present Earl of Lisburne, and daughter of Joseph Gascoigne Nightingale, Esq. "Theodosia Charlotta Vaughan, (daughter of Lord Lisburne,) buried April 30, 1773."
Story of Elizabeth Canning and the giptsey.
"Susanna Wells, buried Oct. 5, 1763." The woman at whose
house Elizabeth Canning, of famous memory, was said to have been
confined. The strange and mysterious affair of Canning and the
gipsey engaged a very considerable share of the public attention during the years 1753 and 1754. To those who do not remember that
period, and by accident have never heard of this extraordinary affair, it may be necessary to mention briefly, that Elizabeth Canning,
a servant girl, having been to visit a relation on New-year's day
1753, did not return to her master's house that night, nor was she
heard of for a month afterwards; when she came to her mother's, in
a very emaciated and deplorable condition, and affirmed, that on the
night she disappeared, she had been attacked in Moor-fields by two
men, who robbed her, and, carried her by force to the house of one
Mother Wells at Enfield-wash (fn. 169) , where she had been confined till the
day of her return, when she effected her escape by jumping out of a
window. During the whole time of her confinement, she declared,
that she had existed upon a few crusts of bread and a pitcher of water. She accused, at the same time, an old woman, of cutting off
her stays; and some days afterwards, being taken to the house at
Enfield-wash, fixed the charge upon one Mary Squires, a travelling
gipsey, then at Wells's. In consequence of these charges, both Squires
and Wells were apprehended, and tried at the Old Bailey; the former
was condemned to be hanged, and the latter was burned in the
hand and imprisoned. Canning's story, nevertheless, was so extraordinary, and in some of its leading circumstances so improbable and
inconsistent, that many people were induced to suspect an imposture.
After the trial of Squires and Wells, new matter of suspicion arose;
and in the course of some inquiries, which were very laudably set
on foot by Sir Crisp Gascoyne, the Lord Mayor, very ample evidence was obtained of the innocence of Mary Squires, and the guilt
of Canning. The result of these inquiries was laid before the King,
who referred the whole matter to the Attorney and Solicitor General,
(Sir Dudley Ryder, and the late Earl Mansfield, then William Murray, Esq.) and in consequence of their declaration, that the weight
of evidence was in favour of the gipsey, she received his Majesty's
pardon, and Wells was discharged from her confinement. It was
now Canning's turn to be prosecuted, and she was brought to the bar
at the Old Bailey, May 1, 1754, being charged with wilful and corrupt perjury. The trial lasted seven days, when, after a patient and
impartial hearing, the alibi of Mary Squires having been proved, by
one of the most extraordinary chains of evidence which ever was
brought before a court of justice, Canning was found guilty, and
sentenced to seven years transportation.—Such is the summary of a
story, which occupied, in a most uncommon degree, the attention of
the public, who were divided into two parties, not unaptly called the
Egyptians and the Canningites; and with such zeal did the partisans on
each side support their favourite cause, that it was not unfrequent for
the best friends to quarrel when they failed of convincing each other
upon this mysterious and complicated affair. Canning's was the popular party; the mob were so zealously attached to her interest, that
they proceeded to the most violent outrages, grossly insulting the Lord
Mayor, breaking his coach windows, and even threatening his life (fn. 170) .
Henley entertained the audience, at his oratory, with eulogiums upon
ber, and invectives against her adversaries; nor were there wanting
persons of the most respectable character, who gave her their countenance and support, and contributed largely to the subscriptions,
which, in every stage of the business, and even after the event of her
trial, were solicited and obtained for her (fn. 171) . Perhaps, it is not to be
wondered at, that they who had originally espoused the girl's cause,
from a conviction of her innocence and sufferings, should, while their
minds were still under the influence of prejudice, continue to maintain the same opinion even after her trial (fn. 172) , since an unprejudiced
reader, even at this distance of time, must bestow some attention
upon the weight and credibility of contradictory evidence, before he
can decide upon what is now generally allowed the perjury of Canning, and the innocence of Squires. Dr. Hill was the first who wrote
in favour of the gipsey; Allan Ramsay, under a fictitious character,
took the same side. The anonymous pamphlets upon the subject,
and the prints, were very numerous (fn. 173) .
Sir Samuel Bicley.
"Sir Samuel Bickley, Bart. buried July 29, 1773." His ancestor,
Francis Bickley of Attleborough in Norfolk, was created a baronet by
Charles II. anno 1661. This man, with whom the title became extinct, dishonoured a respectable family from which he was descended,
by crimes which involved him in distress and infamy. Having undergone a disgraceful punishment some years before at Lincoln, he
ended his days at the King's Head in Enfield, in extreme want.
Thomas Hills Everitt, the gigantic child.
"Thomas Hills, son of Thomas and Susanna Everitt, baptized
"Feb. 16, 1779." This child, though not remarkably large at its
birth, began, when six weeks old, to grow to a very extraordinary
size. His dimensions were taken when at the age of nine months and
two weeks, by Mr. Sherwen, an ingenious surgeon at Enfield, and
compared with those of a lusty boy seven years old. The result was
||Dimensions of the child.
|Of the boy.
|Girth round the wrist
|—above the elbow
|—of the leg, near the ancle
|—calf of the leg
|—round the thigh
|—round the small of the back
|—under the arm-pits and across the breast
Other instances of gigantic children.
Isaac Butter field.
The child's height was 3 feet 1¾ inch (fn. 174) . His extraordinary size
tempted the parents to carry him to London, and exhibit him to the
public. I saw him myself in April 1780; and recollect hearing that
he died soon after. The dimensions of the child, as given in the
hand-bills distributed at the place of exhibition, and under a print of
Mrs. Everitt and her son, published in January 1780, were taken
when he was eleven months old; his height was then 3 feet 3 inches;
his girth round the breast, 2 feet 6 inches; the loins, 3 feet 1 inch;
the thigh, 1 foot 10 inches; the leg, 1 foot 2 inches; the arm, 11½
inches; the wrist, 9 inches. Children of remarkably large growth
have frequently been exhibited to the public, but generally at the age
of five or six years. In the Philosophical Transactions is an account
of Thomas Hall, born at Willingham in Cambridgeshire, who, at the
age of two years and ten months, had attained to a very extraordinary size, though it appears, by his dimensions there given, that he
was not so large as Everitt at the age of eleven months (fn. 175) . In 1782,
a gigantic child, whose name was Isaac Butterfield, born at Keighley
near Leeds, Feb. 20, 1781, was exhibited at the cane-shop in Springgardens. In November 1782, he measured (according to the advertisement in the public papers (fn. 176) 3 feet in height, 13 inches round
his arm, 2 feet 2 inches round his thigh, 16 inches across his shoulders, and weighed near a hundred weight. These dimensions, if
they may be depended on, exceed those of Everitt. The child died
in Spring-gardens Feb. 1, 1783 (fn. 177) .
Sir Thomas Halifax.
"Sr Thomas Halifax, Knt. buried Feb. 17, 1789." Alderman of
the city of London, and lord mayor in 1776. He lived in a house
on the chase-side, which formerly belonged to the Pettiward family,
and was sold by the late Roger Pettiward, D. D. to William Cosmo,
Duke of Gordon.
Remarkable instances of longevity.
"John Truss, buried Aug. 27, 1723." In the account of this
man's death, in the Historical Register, it is said, that he was 112
years of age, and had been a soldier in Oliver Cromwell's army.
"Mary Ricketts, aged 98, buried Dec. 3, 1747."
"John Curtis, aged 97, buried Aug. 18, 1754."
Jasper Jenkins, Esq. is said to have died at Enfield, May 25, 1772,
aged 106; and Mr. Long, a farmer at Forty-hill, July 14, 1773,
aged 102 (fn. 178) . The latter is well ascertained.
William Wickham, the second Bishop of Winchester of that name.
William Wickham, son of John Wickham of Enfield, (by Barbara, only daughter of William Parker, a collateral ancestor of the
Macclesfield family, who married Margaret, daughter of John
Wroth, Esq. of Durants,) was born in that parish, in the manorhouse of Honylands, or Pentriches, (as I suppose,) of which his father occurs as lessee in the reign of Henry VIII. (fn. 179) He became a
member of King's–college in Cambridge about 1556, was made Dean
of Lincoln in 1577, Bishop of that diocese anno 1584, and translated thence to Winchester in 1595. Fuller says, he was equal to
any of his order in piety and painfulness, though little of him is extant in print (fn. 180) . He preached the funeral sermon for the Queen of
Scots, at Peterborough, anno 1587. Bishop Wickham died at his
house in Southwark anno 1596 (fn. 181) .
In the year 1507, John Carew, als. Crowe, Esq. son of Roger
Carew, Esq. being seised of a messuage or tenement, called Poynetts,
and divers lands and tenements in the parishes of South Bensleet,
Hadley, and Thundersley in Essex, enseossed certain persons thereof,
for the uses and purposes specified in an annexed schedule (fn. 182) , viz.
"to teach children within the towne of Enfelde to know and reade
"their alphabet letters, to read Latin and English, and to understande
grammar, and to wright their lateines accordinge to the use
and trade of grammar scholes; towardes the sindinge of a scholemaister the somme of 6 powndes thirtene shillings and sourpence;
the remainder, after the necessary reductions for repairs, &c. to be
distributed unto the poor impotent people inhabiting in the said
parish, and such other good and godlie dedes, intents, and purposes as the seossees, or the more part of them shold think mete."
This schedule is recited in a declaration of uses, dated 1558–9. By
a later declaration of uses, dated 1621, the school-master's salary is
raised to 20l. (fn. 183) The sum of 261. is now added to his salary as lecturer, and 401. is given to the parish, out of their unappropriated
stock, to the assistant school-master. Roger Grave left 2l. per ann.
to the school-master. The present school-house, adjoining to the
church-yard, was purchased, and rebuilt by the parishioners at their
own charge. In the declaration of uses, dated 1621, it is called the
new-built school. William Garratt, citizen of London, who died in
1586, left the sum of 50l. towards building a school-house at Enfield,
where he was born (fn. 184) . The Bensleet estate, which consists of two hundred and seventy acres of land, is now let at 80l. per annum (fn. 185) .
In 1599, it produced only 36l. per annum; and in 1616, and
The sum of 17l. 6s. 4d. is distributed annually in bread in this
parish. It arises from a part of the interest of 400l. 3 per cent. consol. Bank annuities accruing from the sale of timber on the Benfleet
estate, and from the following benefactions, viz. 1l. 14s. the neat
receipt of forty shillings per ann. left by Robert Bannister in 1585;
2l. 11s. 4d. the produce of a close and tenement purchased with
30l. bequeathed for that purpose by George Cock, anno 1635;
2l. 12s. by the will of Jasper Nichols, being a part of the produce
of a house and lands in Enfield; 1l. 7s. 10d. the interest of 50l.
left by Mary Nichols anno 1751, to be distributed in bread on the
anniversary of her burial; and 1l. 14s. 6d. the interest of 50l. left
anno 1772, by Frederick Maurer, Esq. to be distributed at the discretion of the minister and church-wardens. A benefaction of 10s.
per annum, left anno 1681, by Thomas Piggott, for bread, has been
Sir Nicholas Raynton, anno 1646, left 10l. per annum, producing
only 81. clear of deductions, to put out three children apprentice,
paid by the Company of Haberdashers out of houses in London.
Henry Dixon, citizen and draper of London, by his will anno
1693, left all his estates in the parishes of Benington and Munden in
Hertfordshire, Enfield in Middlesex, and St. Mildred in the Poultry,
London, to the Drapers' Company, for the purpose of apprenticing
poor boys above the age of fifteen; such as bear his christian and
surname, wheresoever born, are to be preferred in the first instance,
and to receive 5l. as an apprentice see, and 5l. at the expiration of
their apprenticeship; secondly, such as bear his surname only, to
whom 4l. is allotted in like manner; thirdly, poor boys born, and
resident in either of the parishes above-mentioned, to receive the
same as the last; fourthly, the sons of tenants of any of his lands
devised, wheresoever born, to receive 3l. only in like manner; and
lastly, any poor boys whom the Court of Assistants belonging to the
Drapers' Company shall nominate; these to receive 4l.
Education of children.
Anne Osbourn, anno 1666, left part of the profits of lands (to
be purchased pursuant to her will, with the sum of 100l.) for the
purpose of educating one fatherless or motherless child, or more if
the rents would allow of it. Mary Turpin, anno 1775, left the interest of 200l. (laid out in the purchase of 240l. 3 per cent. consol.
Bank annuities) for the purpose of educating three girls.
Henry Lost, anno 1631, left 4l. per annum for clothing for the
poor. William Billings, anno 1659, gave twenty shillings per ann.
to clothe poor children.
The following annual pensions are paid to the poor from donations, viz. 12l. 12s. each to six poor men, out of the rents of houses
left for that purpose by Thomas Wilson, anno 1590, and now producing, clear of all deductions, 75l. 12s. per ann. (N. B. This will
be farther increased after Midsummer 1795); to one poor woman,
3l. 13s. 4d. being a benefaction of William Smith, anno 1592; to four
poor women, 10l. each, being the rent of a house (now the Greyhound inn) left by John David anno 1620; to two poor women, 2l.
each, the benefaction of John Deycrowe, anno 1627, being a rentcharge upon a farm in Enfield; to six poor women, 2l. each, bequeathed by Henry Lost anno 1631; to four poor widows, 1l. 10s.
each, paid out of Anne Osbourn's benefaction, anno 1666; to four
poor persons of Ponder's-end-quarter, 2l. 10s. each, being the interest of 333l. 6s. 8d. 3 per cent. consol. Bank annuities, purchased
with the principal and accumulated interest of 100l. left in 1735 to
the poor of that division by Richard Darby, Esq. the payment of
which had been withheld till 1776, when the court of Chancery ordered both the principal and interest to be paid. Annual pensions of
forty shillings each are given also by the parish to three poor persons,
being the interest of a part of the Benfleet timber-money, and the
surplus of Jasper Nichols's gift.
Mr. Robert Barnevelt, by his will, bearing date 1785, left an annuity
of 100l. expiring in the year 1808, to be divided between ten poor
persons of Enfield, being of the age of 65 years, not receiving alms,
and residing in the town-quarter; five of them to be men, and five
women, to be appointed by the vicar, with the concurrence of the
churchwarden and overseer, and six reputable inhabitants of the
town-quarter. Mr. Barnevelt died in 1786.
The organ, &c.
Mary Nichols, above-mentioned, gave the sum of 900l. to purchase an organ; the overplus to be appropriated towards a salary for
the organist. The interest of this sum (being 319l. 8s. 10½d. 3 per
cent. consol. Bank annuities,) is 9l. 11s. 8d. The parish adds
14l. 11s. 8d.
Lands and rents given as compensations for inclosures.
Sir Henry Wroth, in consideration of being permitted to inclose
a part of Stonard's-field, agreed to settle on the parish a rent-charge
of 1l. 7s. 6d. This is distributed among the poor of Ponder's-endquarter.
King James I. as a compensation for having taken part of the
chase into Theobalds-park, gave the parish of Enfield a sum of money, with which was purchased an estate at North Mims, producing
a clear rent of 16l. 9s.; this is at the disposal of the vestry. The
site of the market-place, given to the parish also by King James, with
the prosits of the market, (now discontinued,) produce 37l. per annum. Out of this, and the last-mentioned sum, the taxes for the
school-house are paid, and 40l. given to the usher. But this is at
the discretion of the vestry.
A messuage, with the garden and appurtenances on the chase-side,
were purchased by the parish anno 1740, and are now used as a
Allotment of the chase.
The greater part of the chase allotment, belonging to this parish,
(viz. 1530 acres) remains as waste land, on which the inhabitants
have right of common. Two hundred acres are cultivated, and on
an average worth thirty shillings an acre. One-half of the produce
is appropriated to the reduction of the land-tax; the other to the
reduction of the poor rates. This part of the allotment is tithefree.
Singular entry in an old account-book.
In an old book of accounts, relating to the disposal of the gifts, is
the following memorandum, dated 1643: "Delivered to Mr. John
Wilford out of the storehouse, for the buyinge and providinge of
8 horse and furniture, charged upon this towne, the 21 of August, 50l."
Manor of Elsinge, or Norris-farm.
Since the former part of Enfield was printed off, I have learned,
(through the favour of Mr. J'Anson, agent of that estate,) that the
manor of Elsinge, or Norris-farm, was aliened by Richard Wilford,
Esq. anno 1707, to John Cotton, Esq. who sold it, anno 1734, to
Robert Mackeris, Esq. Mr. Mackeris devised it to his widow, under whom the present proprietors (Sarah, wife of Richard Pinnock,
Esq.—Fenwick, Esq. and James Handley, Esq.) claim.