Liberties of the Dutchie of Lancaster
Liberties of the Dutchie without temple barre, the bounds thereof.; Strand street Rotum cartar.; Petri de Sabaud.
Next without the Barre, the new temple, and Liberties of
the Citty of London, in the Suburbes, is a libertie pertayning
to the Dutchie of Lancaster, which beginneth in the east, on
the south side or left hand by the riuer Thames, and stretcheth
west to Iuie bridge where it endeth, and againe on the north
side or right hand, some small distance without Temple barre
in the high streete from a payre of stockes there standing,
stretcheth one large middle row or troupe of small tenementes,
partly opening to the south, partly towardes the north, vp west
to a stone crosse, now headles, ouer against the Strand, and
this is the boundes of that libertie, which sometime belonged
to Briane Lisle, since to Peter of Sauoy, and then to the
house of Lancaster, as shall be shewed: Henry the third in
the 30. yeare of his raigne did graunt to his vnckle Peter of
Sauoy all those houses vpon the Thames, which sometimes
pertayned to Briane de Insula, or Lisle, without the Walles
of his Cittie of London, in the way or streete called the
Strand, to hold to him and to his heyres, yeelding yearely
in the Exchequer at the feast of S. Michaell Tharchangell,
three barbed arrowes for all seruices. Dated at Reding, &c.
This Peter of Sauoy builded the Sauoy.
Monuments of Strand street.; Excester house since Paget house, Lester house, and Essex house.
But first amongst other buildinges memorable for greatnes
on the riuer of Thames, Excester house, so called for that the
same belonged to the Bishoppes of Excester, and was their
Inne or London lodging: who was first builder thereof I haue
not read, but that Walter Stapleton was a greate Builder there
in the raigne of Edward the second is manifest, for the
Citizens of London when they had beheaded him in Cheape
neare vnto the cathedrall Church of S. Paule, they buried him
in a heape of Sand of rubbish in his owne house without
Temple barre, where he had made great building. Edmond
Lacie Bishoppe of Excester builded the great hall in the raigne
of Henry the 6, &c. The same hath since beene called Paget
house, because William Lord Paget enlarged and possessed
it. Then Leycester house, because Robert Dudley Earle of
Leycester of late new builded there, & now Essex house of
the Earle of Essex lodging there.
Chaple of the Holy Ghost.
Then west was a Chapple dedicated to the Holy Ghost,
called saint Spirite, vppon what occasion founded I haue not
Next is Milford lane downe to the Thames, but why so
called I haue not read as yet.
Bishoppe of Bathes Inne, or Arundell house.
Then was the Bishop of Bathes Inne, lately new builded,
for a great part thereof, by the Lord Thomas Seamer
Admirall, which house came sithens to bee possessed by the
Earle of Arundel, and thereof called Arundell house.
Parrish church of S. Mary at the Strand.
Next beyond the which on the street side was sometime
a faire cemitorie or churchyeard, and in the same a parrish
Church called of the Natiuity of our Lady and the Innocents
of the Strand, & of some by meane of a Brotherhood kept
there, called of S.Vrsula at the Strand.
Chesters Inne, or Strand Inne, an Inne of Chancery.
And neare adioyning to the sayd church betwixt it and the
riuer of Thames, was an Inne of Chancery commonly called
Chesters Inne, (because it belonged to the Bishop of Chester,)
by others named of the scituation Strand Inne.
The Bishop of Landalph his Inne.
Then was there an house belonging to the Bishop of
Landaffe, for I find in record the 4. of Edwarde the 2. that
a vacant place lying neare the church of our Lady at Strand,
the sayde Bishop procured it of Thomas Earle of Lancaster
for the enlarging of this house.
Then had yee in the high streete a fayre bridge called
Strand bridge, and vnder it a lane or way down to the landing
place on the banke of Thames.
Bishop of Chester his Inne.
Then was the Bishoppe of Chester (commonly called of
Lichfield and Couentrie) his Inne or London lodging: this house
was first builded by Walter Langton Bishoppe of Chester,
treasurer of England in the raigne of Edward the first.
And next vnto it adioyning was the Bishop of Worcesters
Inne: all which, to wit the parrish of Saint Mary at Strande,
Strand Inne, Strand Bridge with the lane vnder it, the Bishop
of Chesters Inne, the Bishoppe of Worcesters Inne, with all
the tenementes adioyning, were by commandement of Edward
Duke of Sommerset vncle to Edward the sixt, and Lord
Protector pulled downe, and made leuell ground, in the yeare
1549. In place whereof he builded that large and goodly house,
now called Somerset house.
Stone crosse at Strand.
In the high street neare vnto the Strande, sometime stoode
a crosse of stone against the Bishoppe of Couentrie or Chester
his house, whereof I read that in the yeare 1294. and diuers
other times, the Iustices Itenerantes sate without London, at the
stone Crosse ouer against the Bishop of Couentries house, &
sometime they sate in the Bishop house, which was hard by
the strand as is afore sayd.
Sauoyhouse, first builded by Peter earle of Sauoy and Richmond.
Then next is the Sauoy, so called of Peter Earle of Sauoy
and Richmond, sonne to Thomas Earle of Sauoy, brother to
Boniface Archbishop of Canterbury, and vncle vnto Heleanor
wife to king H. the third.
Thomas Earle of Sauoy his pedegree by occasion.; Beatrix sister to peter earle of Sanoy mother to five Queenes.
He first builded this house in the yeare 1245. And here is
occasion offered mee, for satisfying of some Denyers thereof,
to proue that this Peter of Sauoy was also Earle of Sauoy.
Wherefore out of a booke of the Genealogies of all the whole
house of Sauoy, compiled of Phillebert Pingonio, Baron of
Suzani, remayning in the handes of W. Smith, alias Rougedragon, officer of Armes, I haue gathered this. Thomas Earle
of Sauoy had issue by Beatrix, daughter to Aimon Earle of
Geneva, 9. sons & 3. daughters: Amadis his first son succeeded Earle of Sauoy in the yeare 1253. Peter his second
son, Earle of Sauoy & of Richmond, in 1268. Philip his third
sonne, Earle of Sauoy and Burgundie, 1284. Thomas the 4.
Earle of Flaunders and prince of Piemont, Boniface the eight,
Archbishop of Canterbury, Beatrix his daughter maried to
Reymond Beringarius of Aragon, Earle of Prouince and Narbone, had issue & was mother to fiue Queenes: The first,
Margaret, wife to Lewes king of Fraunce, 2. Elianor wife to
Henry the 3. king of England, 3. Sanctia, wife to Richard
king of Romaines, 4. Beatrix wife to Charles king of Naples,
5. Iohanna wife to Philip king of Nauarre.
Fratres de monte Iouis or priory de Cornuto by Hauering at the Bowre.; H. Knighton.
To return again to the house of Sauoy, Queene Eleanor,
wife to king Henry the third, purchased this place afterwards
of the Fraternitie or Brethren of Montioy, vnto whome
Peter of Sauoy, as it seemeth, had giuen it, for her sonne
Edmonde Earle of Lancaster, (as M. Camden hath noted out
of a Register booke of the Dukes of Lancaster). Henry Duke
of Lancaster repayred or rather new builded it with the
charges of 52,000. Markes, which money he had gathered
together at the Town of Bridgerike. (fn. 1)
Iohn the French king was lodged there, in the yeare 1357.
and also in the yeare 1363. for it was at that time the fayrest
Mannor in England.
H. Knighton.; Sauoy brent, blown vp with Gunpowder. Rebels, more malitious then couetous, spoyle all before them.
In the yeare 1381. the rebelles of Kent and Essex burnt
this house, vnto the which there was none in the realme to bee
compared in beauty and statelines, (sayth mine Author).
They set fire on it round about, and made proclamation that
none, on payne to loose his head, should conuert to his own
vse any thing that there was, but that they should breake
such plate and vessell of Gold and siluer as was founde in
that house (which was in great plentie) into small peeces, and
throw the same into the riuer of Thames: Precious stones they
should bruse in mortars, that the same might bee to no vse,
and so it was done by them: One of their companions they
burned in the fire, because he minded to haue reserued one
goodly peece of plate.
Liber manuscript. French.
They found there certaine barrels of Gunpowder, which they
thought had beene golde or siluer, and throwing them into
the fire, more suddenly then they thought, the Hall was
blowne vppe, the houses destroyed, and themselues very
hardly escaped away.
Sauoy builded for an hospital.; Hospitall of Savoy suppressed.
This house being thus defaced, and almost ouerthrown by
these rebelles for malice they bare to Iohn of Gaunt Duke of
Lancaster, of latter time came to the kings hands, and was
again raysed and beautifully builded, for an Hospitall of S.
Iohn Baptist, by king Henry the seuenth, about the yeare
1509. for the which Hospitall, retayning still the old name of
Sauoy, he purchased lands to be imployed vpon the releeuing
of an hundred poor people. This Hospitall being valued to
dispend 529 pound, fifteene shillings, &c. by yeare, was suppressed the tenth of Iune, the seuenth of Edward the sixt,
the beddes, bedding and other furniture belonging thereunto
with seuen hundred markes of the said landes by yeare, hee
gaue to the Citizens of London, with his house of Bridewell,
to the furnishing thereof to be a workehouse for the poore
and idle persons, and towards the furnishing of the Hospital
of S. Thomas in Southwarke lately suppressed.
Hospitall of Sauoy: a new foundation thereof.
This Hospitall of Sauoy was againe new founded, erected,
corporated and endowed with landes by Queene Mary, the
thirde of Nouember: in the fourth of her raigne one Iackson
tooke possession, and was made maister thereof in the same
moneth of Nouember. The Ladies of the Court, and Maydens
of honour (a thing not to be forgotten) stored the same of
new with beddes, bedding and other furniture, in very ample
manner, &c. and it was by patent so confirmed at Westminster,
the 9. of May, the 4. and 5. of Philip and Mary.
Parrish church of S. Iohn in the Sauoy. Bishop of Carlile his Inne, or Bedford house.
The Chappell of this Hospitall serueth now as a Parish
church to the Tenements thereof neare adioyning and others.
The next was sometime the Bishoppe of Carliles Inne,
which now belongeth to the Earle of Bedford, and is called
Russell or Bedford house. It stretcheth from the Hospitall
of Sauoy, west to Iuie bridge, where sir Robert Cecill, principall
Secretary to her Maiestie, hath lately raysed a large and
stately house of brick and timber, as also leuiled and paued
the high way neare adioining, to the great beautifying of that
street, and commoditie of passengers. Richard the 2. in the
8. of his raigne, granted licence to paue with stone the high
way called Strand street from Temple barre to the Sauoy,
and tole to be taken towards the charges, and again the like
was granted in the 24. of H. the 6.
Iuie bridge in the high street which had a way vnder it,
leading downe to the Thames, the like as sometime had the
Strand bridge, is now taken downe, but the lane remayneth as
afore, or better, & parteth the Liberty of the Dutchie, and the
Citty of Westminster on that south side.
Parish church of S. Clement Danes.; Liber Chartsey.; W. Malmes.; Danes slaine at S. Clement Dane.
Now to beginne againe at Temple Barre ouer against it.
In the high streete as is afore shewed, is one large Middle
Rowe of houses and small Tenementes builded, partly
opening to the South, partlie towardes the north. Amongst
the which standeth the parrish Church of saint Clement Danes,
so called because Harolde a Danish king and other Danes
were buried there. This Harolde whome king Canutus had
by a Concubine, raigned three yeares, and was buried at
Westminster, but afterwarde Hardicanutus the lawfull sonne
of Canutus, in revenge of a displeasure done to his mother, by
expelling her out of the Realme, and the murder of his brother
Allured, commaunded the body of Harolde to bee digged out
of the earth, and to bee throwne into the Thames, where it
was by a Fisherman taken vppe and buried in this Churchyeard: but out of a fayre leager Booke, sometime belonging
to the Abbey of Chartsey, in the Countie of Surrey, is noted
as in Francis Thin, after this sorte. In the raigne of king
Etheldred, the Monastery of Chartsey was destroyed. 90.
Monkes of that house were slayne by the Danes, whose bodyes
were buried in a place next to the Olde Monastery. William
Malmseberie sayeth, they burnt the Church together with the
Monkes and Abbot. But the Danes continuing in their fury
(throughout the whole lande) desirous at the length to returne
home in to Denmarke, were by the iust iudgement of God all
slayne at London in a place which is called the Church of the
Headles crosse by the Strand.
This sayde middle row of houses stretching west to a Stone
Crosse, now headles, by or against the Strand, including the
sayd parrish Church of S. Clement, is also wholy of the libertie and Dutchie of Lancaster.
Chancelor of the dutchie of Lancaster.
Thus much for the Boundes and antiquities of this libertie,
wherein I haue noted Parrish Churches twaine, sometime 3.
houses of name 6. to wit, the Sauoy, or Lancaster house, now
an Hospitall, Somerset house, Essex house, Arundell house,
Bedford or Russell house, and sir Robert Cecils house, besides
Chesters Inne or Strand Inne, sometime an Inne of Chancerie, &c. This liberty is gouerned by the Chanceler of that
Dutchie, at this present Sir Robert Cecil knight, principall
Secretary to her Maiestie, & one of her Maiesties most
honorable priuie Councellers. There is vnder him a Steward
that keepeth court and Leete for the Queene, giueth the
charge and taketh the oathes of euerie vnder Officer: then is
there 4. Burgesses, and 4. assistants to take vp controuersies,
a Bayliffe which hath 2. or 3. vnder Bailiffes, that make
arrests within that libertie, 4. Constables, 4. Wardens that
keepe the lands and Stocke for the poore, 4. wardens for high
wayes, a Iury or Inquest of 14. or 16. to present defaults, 4.
Alecunners, which looke to Assisse of weightes & measures &c.
4. Scauengers and a Beadle, and their common Prison is
Newgate. There is in this liberty 50. men which is alwayes
to be at an howers warning, with all necessary furniture to
serue the Queene, as occasion shall require. Their charge at
a Fifteene is 13.s. 4.d. Thus much for the Suburbe in the
libertie of the Dutchie of Lancaster.