State Papers, 1657: May (1 of 6)

Pages 246-259

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

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In this section

May (1 of 6)

Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to Ruysch.

Vol. l. p. 1.

My lord,
They do lay upon the foreigners in this kingdom, and amongst the rest the Netherlands likewise, very heavy taxes, whereof they ought to be free, as the cardinal himself did acknowledge to me on the 8th of the last month. I leave it to their H. and M. L. whether they will not be pleased to take notice hereof to the lord embassador of France.

I am told by a very good hand, that they begin here to be more moderate than formerly in their language; and the king doth not intend to break with their H. and M. L. and to begin a war, about a business, which (as is said) may be accommodated. It is a business between particular persons, and they will be able to cause right and reason to be done and given to each other, without standing in need of the help of his majesty. In regard they speak thus, I do apprehend, that many private rich persons will set forth private men of war, which they will maintain at their own charges, and will take commissions from the king and admiral after the form of reprisals, to plunder, molest, and take all manner of Netherland ships and goods, which they shall meet any where at sea; and by this means they will trouble and ruin the commerce and navigation of the Netherlanders, and so likewise deprive their H. and M. L. of that considerable strength and power, which the United Netherlands enjoy by their great navigations and commerce; which I make do doubt but their H. and M. L. in their great care and wisdom will be able to prevent. And without enlarging myself with respect any further herein, I will only add this to your lordship, that in regard for the exercising of this matter of reprisals, there will be used and employed the king's ships, which will be lent to particular persons, upon condition of a share of the booty, which they shall take. Here are companies to be erected, who are to set forth and equip the said ships at their own charges, and by this means they will in effect wage war upon the means of particular persons, to the destruction of their H. and M. L. state; unless such like contrary remedies be used by their H. and M. L. for the protection of their commerce and navigation, and preservation of their state; and the same way would likewise be serviceable to our state, and the subjects thereof, and free the state from many charges, which might be spared for more necessary occasions, but refer my self wholly to the wisdom of their H. and M. L. Since that captain Christian Elderts went away from before the Seine, to transport the lord embassador de Thou, there came in there seven Netherland ships, not having had any notice given them of the seizure, and so were presently seized upon by the French for want of advice. More likewise run into the same disaster; which may be easily prevented, by keeping two or three men of war, to tack to and again before the Seine.

In the islands of Rhee and Oleron there are yet no ships seized upon, in regard they lie without the command of the castles. At Boulogne the governour (mareschal d'Aumont) is sitting out his frigat, to send her to sea, to take what Netherland merchant-men she can meet withal.

In the harbours of Normandy and Picardy many small vessels are equipping. Some say, it is in order to some warlike design; others, that they are intended for piracy against the Netherlanders.

The duke of Vendôme desired lately of the council of the king, that all the seizures of the Netherland ships and goods should be left in his custody, and to be at his disposal; but the council would not grant it. The seizures made in the Netherlands do cause the people here to suffer very great inconveniencies, and do occasion, especially in the Seven Provinces, a general cessation of all navigation and commerce; and they do earnestly wish and desire here, that this business might be handsomely accommodated and reduced to its former freedom and condition.

Paris, 11 May 1657. [N. S.]

W. Boreel.

Embassador Boreel to Ruysch

Paris, the 11th May 1657. [N. S.]

Vol. l. p. 5.

My lord,
The seizures in the United Netherlands do very much incommodate the parliament at Rhennes.

The great violence of the king, his council, and the cardinal against their H. and M. L. is very much abated; but Servien doth still remain implacable, and doth excite the cardinal all what he can. There ought to be care had of England, whether their H. and M. L. do stand well and firm there; for here we have certain advice, that the English merchants do put their goods in Holland, Zealand, Amsterdam, and Rotterdam in other names. The embassador of England giveth no answer upon the Netherland saltships, said to be taken formerly by the English. If so be there can be no accommodation made with France, the private men of war of France and the French fleet must in time be brought under, and subdued by the Netherland men of war; for here are many French ships of war making ready.

The states-general to the states of Guelderland, &c.

Vol. xlix. p. 16.

Noble mighty lords,
For what reasons and considerations in the last year some militia of the state, sent with the fleet under the command of the lord of Wassenaer, lieutenant-admiral in the East-sea, was set on land at Dantzick, and is still kept there, cannot be unknown to your noble great lordships. In our mind, the chiefest design thereof was the preservation of the said city against the threatned and imminent oppression and Swedish power, upon whose preservation is wholly depending the subsistance and maintenance of the free commerce in the said sea; a business so considerable and necessary to the United Netherlands, that a good part of their welfare may be rightly said to depend upon the same, since the whole easterly trade, without the free Easter-sea commerce, cannot well subsist, and much less flourish; which is better learned by experience, and sensibly found by the interessed, than can be demonstrated to others with words; at least, that these were in our judgments, amongst the rest, the motives, which disposed your H. and M. L. and the lords states of other provinces to such a considerable expedition to the East-sea. And in regard the same reasons do still continue, we do very much admire, that some provinces do seem to be changed in their opinions, causing earnest instance to be made by their commissioners in the generality, to the end the said militia might be sent for home; whereby the said city being deprived of it's necessary defence, they would demonstrate to the world, that this state is very much concerned in the preservation of the said city, as was well formerly given out in the treaty with the king of Sweden, and whereof the contrary is declared now in effect. Which on the one side would also animate the said king to prosecute his design against the said city, and on the other side discouraging the governors thereof; and it may be would easily move them to seek their own preservation by other ways and means than they have done hitherto; and by this means the good and salutary design, scope and intention of this state would be frustrated, and thereby the necessary freedom of the commerce and navigation prejudiced and ruined. We know very well, that to maintain the opinion of those, who are for the said revocation, they do give out, that the city of Dantzick can find their security and peace, and consequenly their commerce and liberty by the treaty made between the king of Sweden and this state, in regard the said city is therein concluded; but your noble great lordships may be pleased to consider on the other hand, that the said treaty hath not yet received its full perfection, and therefore is not obligatory and binding neither in regard of his majesty nor of this state; for although his said majesty hath ratified it on his part, and that likewise some provinces of this state do think fit to do the same on their parts, yet the same is not yet ratified, and therefore there can be no reciprocal obligation had for it, as long as the said ratification is not compleated on both sides: and the said city cannot find any security as yet in the said inclusion against the attempts of the king of Sweden; but that the king of Sweden may and can pursue his designs against the same as formerly, as opportunity of time and affairs shall present themselves. Wherefore we are of opinion, for reasons above mentioned, there ought to be provided against it with all imaginable reasons, that so the effect of the said desired elucidation may be obtained, and consequently the treaty perfected, the city of Dantzick secured, and the commerce upon the East sea may be restored to its antient liberty. Towards the accomplishing of all which, the keeping of the said forces in Dantzick will undoubtedly avail much, and be a mark and sign of the continued affection of this state for the preservation thereof, wherein the state of the United Netherlands in common, and our province in particular, is highly concerned and interessed. Wherefore we could not obmit to represent to your noble mighty lordships the said reasons and considerations, most friendly and no less seriously desiring and recommending the same unto you, to the end your noble mighty lordships may be pleased to consider the said whole business to its worth and importance; to the end you may be thereby disposed to order the lords your commissioners at the generality, to give their consent for the continuing of the said militia as yet within the city of Dantzick, and thereby the good and salutary intention for the service of the state herein may be seconded by your mighty lordships; which we expecting from their wisdom and discretion, &c.

Hague, 11 May 1657. [N.S.]

The States.

To the lords states of Guelderland, of Zealand, of Friesland, Overyssel, and of Groningen.

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.

Samedy le 5e May 1657. [N. S.]

Vol. l. p. 20.

Les cinq provinces sont & demeurent assés d'accord pour faire la declaration & response à donner à l'ambassadeur de France, selon l'avis de Hollande du 26 Avril (car ces sont les vrays ingredients de ladire declaration); mais la Zeelande ne fait que delayer, disant qu'elle attend de heure à autre ordre, ou bien des deputés extraordinaires. Et cependant la semaine du presidentiat de Hollande s'en est allée, & la semaine suivante la Zeelande presidera, qui apparement aussy ne voudra rien conclure; & seulement on parle d'envoyer un ambassadeur extraordinaire en France, puis qu'aussy bien le sieur Boreel s'est rendu haï en France.

Le deputé de Frise de mesme ne veut rien faire devant qu'avoir ordre de ses principaux; mais la Hollande a bien souvant conclu de plus grandes choses avec moins de pluralité. Et toutefois la Hollande fait la mine d'estre sort serieuse & rigide, n'estant pas un membre discrepante.

Les admirautés ont advisé, qu'il sera fort à propos de faire le placcard d'interdiction du commerce, des manufactures, & fruits de France; item, le suppliment de l'equipage jusques à 48 navires; mais sans effect, si que ceux d'Amsterdam sont partis.

Le sieur Wylich s'est sort opposé à l'audience des deputés de Munster, si qu'elle est encore disserée.

Ceux de Hollande, sur un advis secret (que la France a envoyé des emissaires en Zeelande & Frise, avec force argent, &c.) a proposé à ce matin, que l'assemblée se doive purger par serment, qu'aux deputés ne soit donné ny offert des presents, pour les disposer contre la Hollande.

Lundy le 7e ditto.

Hier l'ambassadeur de France, par le secretaire Courtin, avoit fait semondre le president, pour avoir une response; representant le commun interest de l'un & de l'autre, à ce qu'une fois fust faite; au moins à sin qu'il en devoit avoir une response; & la requeroit pour mardy au plus tard, en egard aux ordres continués & precis, qu'il en avoit de la cour.

Sur cela hier on a entreprins; & quoyque ny de Zeelande ny de Frise ne fust pas venu encore aucune resolution, si est ce que ces provinces ont agrées (sous le bon plaisir de leurs principaux) que response sera donnée ce jourd'huy à l'ambassadeur, dont la substance sera, que l'estat ne sauroit pas bien entendre à la restitution des navires desirées, comme croyant avoir raison de demander de la France satisfaction préallable; mais qu'on offroit de venir en conference avec l'ambassadeur: or se verra, si l'ambassadeur incontinent viendra sur cela en conference, ou bien s'il enyoyera la response en poste en France (comme il aura discouru) ou s'il sera l'un & l'autre.

Lundy le 7e ditto, aprés dîner.

Voicy la response qu'on a porté a ce matin à l'ambassadeur de France; tant le sieur Gent, que le raet-pensionaire, ont tasché par leur sacundie à induire l'ambassadeur d'entrer avec eux en conference, &c. mais il a dit d'avoir des ordres precis, à ne demander que la restitution. Et ainsy après beaucoup de discours, dont la substance est dans la response, se sont separés. L'ambassadeur neantmoins a accepté la response, promettant de l'envoyer. Il a fait pleinte, que dans la response il y a des termes for choquants & aigres.

La Zeelande & Frise y ont consenty sous le bon plaisir de leur principaux.

Mardy le 8e ditto.

L'ambassadeur de France aura dit à plusieurs, qu'il attendoit aujourd'huy beaucoup de changements & de corrections dans la response à luy donnée, ayant fait plainte, qu'elle contient des termes chocquantes. Mais on m'a assuré, que rien en a esté changé; aussy il n'en a pas fait aujourd'huy aucune requisition, ains hier il aura parlé aux deputés.

Les François disent, que l'ambassadeur n'a garde d'envoyer cette response comme elle est: item, qu'aujourd huy il ne l'avoit pas encore envoyé.

Quant à l'audience des deputés de Munster, aujourd'huy est finalement resolu, qu'its seront demain receus par l'agent de Heyde, dans un carosse à deux chevaux.

Aujourd'huy derechef a esté proposé de rappeller la milice de Dantsigk. L'Overyssel estoit partagée; le sieur Ripperda seul maintenoit encore la milice.

Le sieur de Sterrenborgh demande ordres, pour avoir puissance de casser les soldats, & en prendre d'autres.

2. Pour avoir un auditeur & un prévost.

3. Comment il sera pour la justice militaire.

4. Quel serment il sera à la ville de Dansigk.

5. Jusques où il pourra se servir de la milice dans la ville, aux dehors, & hors de la ville.

Mercredy le 9e ditto.

L'ambassadeur de France aura dit aujourd'huy, de n'avoir pas encore envoyé la response reçë; mais le raet-pensionaire a rapporté (l'ayant veu ce matin) qu'il croyoit qu'il l'avoit envoyé. Beaucoup de François (s'y fourant pour estre du conseil de l'ambassadeur) sont d'opinion, que l'ambassadeur a mal fait d'avoir tant pressé la response. Il est certain, que la seule Frise a fait annoter, qu'il consent en cette response, sur le bon plaisir de ses principaux: toutes les autres six provinces ont absolument consenty en la response. L'ambassadeur a attendu quelque correction dans la response, mais nulle n'y est faite.

La Zeelande tarde encore à publier l'arrest des navires & danrées Françoises; item, toutes les provinces difficultent à faire le placcard d'interdiction de manufactures de France.

En France les affaires s'enaigrissent: ceux de Bourdeaux ont derechef voulu remonstrer leur grief contre la saifie; mais on ne les a pas voulu ouïr: à Paris jusques à present n'estoit pas fait l'arrest; maintenant on le fait. Le roy feroit acheter 40 vaisseiux en Angleterre.

Les deputés de Munster ont fait leur proposition, ayants eu la reception ordinaire. Du sieur colonel Wylich, ministre de l'evesque, il y a eu un memoire antidotal; l'un & l'autre a esté mis en mains des commissaires.

Vendredy le 11e ditto.

Ce matin ensin la Zeelande s'est aussy accommodée à la Hollande, ayant consenty qu'interdiction sera faite de manufactures & fruits de France; comme aussy, qu'ordre & permission sera donnée de faisir en mer toutes navires & denrées Françoises: ce qui sera ouvrir la porte non seulement à toute caperie, mais aussy à toute licentieuse visitation de navires en mer; chose, qui donnera grande incommodité aux navires Hanseatiques, comme aussy aux Anglois, s'ils le veulent patir.

L'ambassadeur de France fit hier demander une fregatte de guerre, pour le transport du secretaire Courtin; sur quoy à lui est donné lettre aux admirautès de Rotterdam & de Middelborgh, pour l'en accommoder, s'ils peuvent.

Par l'agent de Heyden fust fait à l'ambassadeur compliment, pour s'enquerir de sa santé sur quoy il se mit en discours sur les affaires, disant que les estats generaux devroient resumer leur deliberation, & addoucir la response. L'on tient, que cela a tant plus enaigry cet estat.

La Frise seul tient encore le contraire.

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.

Vol. l. p. 24.

De cette lettre, que la Hollande a procuré estre escrite à ceux de Zeelande, au nom des estats generaux, se voit comment desja la Hollande est jalouse de ce qu'aux Anglois & Hanseatiques n'accreust aucun commerce ou navigation; ce qui ne sera qu'un pretexte asin de visiter toutes navires: & desja se discourt, comme durant la guerre avec l'Angleterre se pratiquoir, de ne laisser passer pas une navire neutral par la mer, de peur de diversion dans le negoce & commerce. Mais n'est cela pas justifier les actions (qu'ils appellent rapines & pirateries) des François? Car quel droit ont les Hollandois plus que les François, de prendre tout ce qu'ils rencontrent en mer? Estant fort ridiculeux, que dans la response donnée à l'ambassadeur de France ils disent, Que les estats generaux ne sont jamais convaincus de tort fait à la France. Là, en l'an 1639, tant la Hollande que specialement Amsterdam, surent comme publiquement convaincus par les estats generaux ou toutes les provinces, d'avoir colludé avec les Espagnols; avoir transporté à l'Espagnol des contrebandes, voir des navires de guerre avec voile, canon, & matelots; sur quoy alors les estats generaux envoyerent une deputation fort esclatante à la ville d'Amsterdam, de laquelle deputation le conte de Culenborg fust ches. La ville d'Amsterdam renvoya les deputés à l'assemblée de Hollande, en laquelle fust alors faite une proposition sort longue & prolixe, qui entre autres parloit des collusions, que la ville d'Amsterdam avoit avec les Espagnols de telle saçon & avec tel avantages des François, que les François n'en auroient sçeu parler autrement. Et c'est estrange, que messieurs de Hollande ont oublié cela, & semble, d'oresnavant que la politique ne soit qu'une pure sophisterie, & qu'il soit permis egalement de faire & de dire ce qu'on veut. Comme encore à present la ville d'Amsterdam fournit trois de leur propres navires de guerre, & cinq ou six autres pour le service de Dennemark, & en mesme temps ayant un traité fait avec la Suede, sont à la Suede une mine, comme s'ils fussent leur sincers amis; & cependant se mocquant des Suedois & du traité. Et estant à present sur le point de se brouiller avec la France, je ne pense pas qu'ils urgerent beaucoup en Angleterre pour le traitté de la marine; & s'ils le urgent, ce ne sera nullement pour l'observer; car au contraire, s'ils entrent en guerre avec la France, ils ne laisseront pas passer une navire sans la visiter en mer. Je suis,
Ce 1/11 May 1657.

Vostre très-humble serviteur.

Draught of a letter to general Fleetwood.

Vol. lii. p. 45.

Honoured Sir,
For so your late condescension prompts me and no otherwise, since your desire is our wonted freedom and familiarity, Nat. Rich and lieutenant-generall. That you found me yesterday surprized by you, was no wonder; for indeed I was so to my self, being the first day I have had a cloke upon my back for more than these six months, or walk ed so far abroad; which, as I told you, was with the serjeant, to seeke a better lodging. But touching the discourse, which upon parting you did desire to reserve 'till this day, viz. how far I was free to meet those inclinations, which were not only in your selfe, but the person in chiese, to acquit me of bonds. As I began then, so upon second thoughts I cannot but persist, to perswade your desisting in that matter, even upon the wound I mentioned, which is it's improbability of accomplishment, without receding from declared principles on the one hand or the other, the endeavour of which will appear not only difficult, but I fear too disingenuous for your attempt. The supreme magistracy is avowed, and in that respect, freedom to exercise an arbitrary jealousy: as to personal things, the former is without a consent, and the other must want a concession. But de bene esse the throne is possessed, and cavilling at the meanes and manner is not allowed so proper a duty as submission; therefore a promise must be given to live quietly, and be confined within a certain compasse, or prison is determined to secure the power from the suspected; which kind of management seems as quick as the assumption, it not being usuall to bind to the peace before its breach be attested. But the imprisoned are so far from knowing either accuser or accusation, that the chief ruler himself clears them; nay more than that, their own consciences tell them, that they have done nothing that is worthy either of death or bonds. All which premised, I refer it to your self, at whose door to lay the wrong; and whether the injured or the injurious are to aske forgiveness, or give inlargement without asking. But if, for authority sake, the wronged must both stoope, and cover the slip of the Christian magistrate, because below even an Heathen, who thought it much to send a prisoner without signification of crimes; then what way is lest so proper for the governed to rectisfy the miscarriage of the governour, as through a patient and quiet and silent suffering of an unrighteous measure, 'till conviction of the error be actually acknowledged, by loosing bonds without any other cry or petition but their owne injustice; to the end, that the one may not be more fearfull to become nocent, then the other to hurt or punish the innocent. Besides, the true protector is not to be more indulgent to his owne prerogative, then tender of the people's priviledge, least he seem to bear both title and power for himself rather than those, for whom he professed to take it up again. Do we live under beasts, men, or Christians ? The first push with the horne, kick with the hoof, not for preservation so much as mastery. The second admits no wrong to be given or taken, without recompence and restitution, least loosness of that kind became destructive to the very being of civill society, and persons in power derogate much from the hand that made them: so when they occasion the degenerating, and not the melioration of humanity in principle and practice. But the third, viz. Christians, are so far from scrupling a single recompence, much less an acknowledgment, that they do it sevenfold; and the rich in pomp and power is not to be troubled, but to rejoyce when he is made low, yea shuns not but embraces all opportunity of self-abasement; and no sooner do their own wills and boundless desires put them upon actions, which render them obnoxious, but very readily take shame to themselves or others, with the least respect of persons. Now if of the third and last, which is the highest, be our prosession, let us at least so far appear in actions that become moral men, that we come not within the rank of beasts, which is the first and lowest; but if after all those labours in the fire, the wearyed man hath of late gone thorough, there seems no way so plain to satisfy him, that government in this latter age of the world is too heavy for any other shoulder, than of one that is mighty, but by his being lest to reap the fruit of his own doings. I submitt it as a caution against any interposition, even on his account, for whose relation's sake you are bound to be sollicitous; and the rather, because I fear the businese is of too ancient a date to be receded from, either by doer or sufferer of wrong, the issue being long since joyned who those are, and the appeal lodged in a safe, because an almighty hand; whence I am fully satisfyed, before this alteration passeth, judgment will be given; all which is best attended in the deepest stillness and silence. But further, that I might, if possible, anticipate your endless, though friendly, favour, have not you a daughter every night in your bosom, who sprang from the loynes of this great man, who when he answers your request with this objection, Can you desire a release of those, who will not so much as promise the throat of my person and government shall not be cut by their hand or influence ? What reply can your good nature make? will it not argue your too much love to your friends, and too little for your father, and a question of his integrity in this undertaking? or that his fight and judgment is changed with the complexion of his affairs ? As the one will be too harsh for your owning, so the other too much to be received without more visibility, than freeing the prisoner for less than righteousness sake does import; and is that were all, private feeling of pulses by mr. Cradock at the Isle of Wight, or by your self of me here, would be quickly reckoned superfluous.

To the Venetian Agent.

Antwerp 12th May 1657. [N. S.]

Vol. 1. p. 26.

The Spanish army is entring into the field; and this province is agreed about the contributions for the army this campaign.

There is certain news of the arrival of the Spanish fleet in the Canaries, worth five millions. This will very much advance the design of conquering Portugal. It is verily believed, that those of Spain have some intelligence with some great ones of that kingdom.

The business between Holland and France is not yet decided. Here it is desired, for reason of state, that there may be a breach between them; but the merchants are for peace.

This day arrived here don Stephano de Gamarra, embassador for the king of Spain in Holland; his stay will not be long in these parts. To morrow, or the next day, don John goes from hence to Brussels.

A letter of intelligence.

Antwerp, 12th May 1657. [N. S.]

Vol. 1. p. 28.

We begin now to hope, that the storm we so much feared like to fall upon trading, by reason of the quarrel between France and Holland, will shortly vanish. The French embassador, now at the Hague, beginneth to speak lower than he did; and our Holland merchants doubt not of a plenary restitution. The armies of France and Spain begin now to draw into the field; and this city of Antwerp (where don John and Caracena now are) is cajol'd to lay down present money. The arrival of the Spanish fleet in the Canaries hath somewhat enlarged their hearts. The death of the emperor is still lamented here.

The plenipotentiary from his majesty the king of Sweden, for his treaty,

is sorry to hear, that although he hath contributed all what could be conducing unto the furtherance and conclusion of the same; yet whereas the Danish commissioners, in their last. and categorical answer of the 2d of this instant, do persist in some things in their demands propounded on the Danish side, which do not stand with reason, nor can be with reputation accepted on the Swedish side, he cannot but reply as followeth.

Vol. 1. p. 32.

His majesty the king of Sweden hath, a little while before the beginning of the Polonish war, friendly and neighbourly disclosed his desire, and manisested the reasons and motives thereunto unto his majesty the king of Denmark; assuring his majesty of neighbourly friendship, which was entertained on both sides, and propounding a nearer alliance, whereby his majesty the king of Denmark might perceive and understand, that it would tend to the advantage and profit of both kingdoms. And also his majesty the king of Sweden, without any scruple, and out of an upright and neighbourly confidence, hathbeen the first, who hath made this project and proposition thereof, which by frequent and diligent conferences had on both sides being advanced so far, as that there wanted no thing else for the perfecting of the said alliance, but the full power, which the Swedish minister obtained with the first; yet, nevertheless, the whole treaty being thus far here in loco advanced, was quite broken off on the Danish side, out of many incident considerations, and transferred to his majesty the king of Sweden, being at that time in Prussia, where the said treaty was to be reassumed and promoted by the Danish resident there. And although the said resident did not urge it, yet he hath been herein spoken to from his majesty the king of Sweden, making his excuse ex desectu instructionis & mandati. His electoral highness of Brandenburgh, out of a well-meaning affection having sent to both potentates his embassadors, to reassume the treaty laid aside, hath obtained from his majesty the king of Sweden, that, according to his majesty the king of Denmark's own desire, the treaty should be here in loco begun again; which was not suitable to the tenor of the pacta and the custom, but should have been upon the borders, or some other convenient place. His majesty the king of Sweden impowered his minister here in the court of his majesty of Denmark to that effect, and furnished him with a requisite full power. And although it was proved, that the same was in omnibus & per omnia compleat and sufficient, yet, notwithstanding, another yet was required, which not long after was also sent to the Swedish minister. Now although the Swedish plenipotentiary, upon the due exchanging of the full powers on both sides, was very desirous, that the treaty might be presently taken in hand; yet he made no difficulty to wait with patience for the issue and determination of the affairs of the kingdom, that were then in agitation. Whereupon at length the treaty begun, and the projects were mutually exchanged. And although it was required on the Danish side from the Swedish commissioners, contra morem tractandi, to answer by parcels, and upon each article separately, upon that which the Danish commissioners should each time for satisfaction desire; yet, nevertheless, upon manifest instances, and by the interposition and endeavours of the mediators, things were at length brought so far, that on the Danish side all gravamina, which were a part of this treaty, were delivered up at once. And in regard, that upon this ground it was required on the Danish side, that first there should be an alteration in pactis, concluded at Bromsbroo, 1645: Secondly, a reparation made for the damages his majesty of Denmark received in the Sound, by the Swedish subjects: And thirdly, that there may be security given him upon the treaty: 1. The Swedish plenipotentiary hath thereupon circumstantially and with great reasons remonstated, how that the pacta conventa must be the basis and foundation of his negotiation; and that it would be as little profitable for one as for the other, to make any alteration therein; but that such a thing would cause and produce infinite absurdities. 2. That no reparation of damages can be required from those, who have rather suffered greater damages than occasioned any at all. And, 3. that no security can be pretended in a treaty of alliance, especially from them, who have not violated the pacta, but have seen, that the pacta have been violated on the other side, to their great and unrecoverable damage and prejudice. His majesty of Sweden, notwithstanding all this, hath persevered therein, to establish with his majesty the king of Denmark a real friendship and alliance, and to that end caused it to be propounded by his plenipotentiaries, to forget and abolish omnia praterita, of what sort and nature soever, if his majesty of Denmark would likewise concur herein. And then also, in case there were some reasonable gravamina on either side, to remove them, and apply remedies thereunto, to the reciprocal contentment and profit of both potentates, like as his majesty of Sweden hath done already on his side, to condescend in all things unto his majesty the king of Denmark, which were not repugnant, and contrary to his reputation, interest, and pacta. But whereas on the Danish side it is as much as inforced, that the pacta have been broken, and that they have been damnisied, and that also it is earnestly insisted upon the above-mentioned postulata, without the removing whereof the treaty, according to the sense and meaning of both sides, may not be carried on, will prove inessectual; the Swedish plenipotentiaries therefore would have been glad, that so many and good overtures made on the Swedish side for amity and friendship might have been accepted of the Danes; and that the good offices of his electoral highness of Brandenburg had attained unto the well-meaning intention. Protesting therefore, that no occasion hath been given on the Swedish side, to dissolve and break off this treaty, referring a further negotiation and accomplishment thereof to a commission and meeting, according to the pacta, to be appointed upon the borders, which can change all things.

Copenhagen, 13th May 1657. [N. S.]

His majesty the king of Sweden his plenipotentiary for the treaty,
Magnus Dureel.

The Dutch embassadors in Denmark to Ruysch.

Vol. l. p. 34.

My Lord,
Our last to your lordship was of the 6th instant. We have received their H. and M. L. orders for the skippers, to divert them from their intended voyages from hence to France; which were presently executed by us, in giving them notice thereof. The envoy of Sweden went from hence this week, with an answer to the letter of the lords rychs-raden of Sweden, which he brought to his majesty; by which (as we are certainly informed) his majesty hath answered the Swedish complaints about the proceedings of this crown; and he also complaineth of the disaffection, which is shewn on the side of Sweden, to satisfy this kingdom in its just gravamina, produced in this present treaty with the Swedish resident, with protestation, that the mischiefs, which shall ensue from thence, shall lie upon those to answer, who would not hearken to reason. The said resident of Sweden hath also had an answer given him in writing to his last memorandum; which is, how that on the side of his majesty of Denmark no cause is found to desist from the demand made of security, reparation, and satisfaction. Whether the resident will depart upon this, as he declared lately to the lord rycks-hosmaster he had letters from his Swedish majesty so to do, a few days will manifest. There will be no means used on this side to stay him.

The militia here seemeth to be advanced with great diligence.


Copenhagen, 13th May 1657. [N. S.]

An intercepted letter.

Brussels, 13/3 May 1657.

Vol. 1. p. 30.

Dear two shoes, I conceive it will be whitson-eve before we return to our old place. We are all preparing for the field; and what then, God alone knows. We are still confident, and if God gives me lise and health, shall soon in person visit you.

Certainly the plate-fleet is arrived at the Canaries; all merchants are joyful of its being there, though general Blake be disappointed of it. It is necessary our she-friend should understand this news, she being concerned in it.

Captain Roger Manley to mr. Jacob Jacobson from Denmark.

Vol. 1. p. 39.

Nous n'avons point de nouvelles de tout pour le present; seulement que les Suedois ont rompus les digues de la Wyssel, & inondé l'isle de Dantzick, au grand dommage de cette ville là.

Le bruit de la mort du roy de Pologne ne continue pas. J'espere de vous voir bientost; cependant adieu, & amez,

Vostre très-humble serviteur,
Jaques le Bar.

14 de May [1657. N. S.]

De Dennemark l'on me mande de bonne part, que ce roy la aura 50000 en campagne bientost.

Mr. John Lordell to secretary Thurloe.

Mecklebourk, this 14th of May 1657. [N. S.]

Vol. 1. p. 36.

Mr. Thurloe,
After my humble salutes, the present is for couvert unto yourselfe, whereby you may understand of what is in agitation. What I have heard of late, that you would be pleased to take notice of, I hearing of these discourses, could not but wryght of itt, did nott knoe well to whome to advise but to yourselfe, that it may come the sooner to your knowledge, for as long as I ame in these parts, shal be redy to advise you, when I shall heare of any thinge that may be prejudice to our country. There is since advise, that the emperor is deceased; which may give some alteration in the Germany; for it is not knowne who shal be emperor, for his sonn is to young to be elected emperor, according to the lawes of this nation, must be above twenty and one, and he is but 16 or 17 years, as I am informed; that the palsgrave is instead of emperor, by his place he is next to him, and is administrator when any are deceased, and as long as they cannott agree amongst the princes whoe shall be emperor, he is; and that yf they cannott agree, then there is one of the princes of Germany, that raizes up a good army att his owne charge, I beleeve is about twenty thouzand men, and goes to the emperor's seat, and there to remayne a yeare and a day att his own charge; and ys there be nott any other prince in that tyme comes, and beat him from thence in that tyme, then he remaynes emperor, the strongest carries it. Itt is reported, that it goes very hard with the Swead; that he hath many potent enemys since he hath made warr with the Polles; for this warr beinge without the conscent of the princes, that the king of Sweden hath litle or noe assistance from any, exsept itt be from the duke of Brandenburgh and the Ragotzy, that have undertaken the warr in Polland: the Swede hath the Muscoviters and Thartars, that doeth him great mischief; hath almost all ruined the land of Preussen, and other places belongin to the crown of Swead. The Swead whants money and menn; for in Pollen they have lost most of there menn and best commanders. Sir, I shall desire you would be pleased to doe me that honner, to lett me heare, that this is safe come to your hands, for many doe seeke to doe mee all the hindrance they can, being in the ill condition I am, for I have lost all I have by these warrs with Spayne. At present I will nott farther trouble you, but desire, that my hand may be concealed, by reason of my condition and the nation where I am. I conclude, committing you and yours to the protection of divine providence, and remayne

Your ever faithfull and humble servant,
John Lordell.

Nowe the advise informs us, that the king of Hungary is elected emperor; but I heare is nott fully agreed. Now I understand, that the Danes fleett is att sea, and they take all goods that come out of Sweaden.

Mr. J. Lordell to secretary Thurloe.

Mecklebourk, 14 May 1657. [N. S.]

Vol. l. p. 36.

Mr. Thurloe, secretary,
After my humble servith. Formerly I have had the honner to be in company with you and your frend in the house of sir Wm. Midleton. Since it hath pleased God to afflict me with many losses and crosses, that I have bin constrained to travell in severall parts, and have heard severall discourses that I thought good; and conscience byndes me, for the good of my countrey, and preservation of the people of God, to advize you what I have heard and understood by severall in Germany, that there is severall praktises in hand to cut off his hyghness, and to make a divertion in the commonwealth of England; that you need to be very carefull, that when his hyghness should goe forth to take the ayre, that there be a spesiall care had of the followers, that there be noe strangers in company, butt those whoe are knowne to be faitfull; nor that his hyghness should att any tyme goe from his attendance, for the adversary is very wachefull and desperatte, will leave no meanes unattempted to work there wickett designe; alsoe to take a spesiall notice of what houses, that should be taken by any that are nott well knowne, that lyes in the wayes to Hampton-court, or any other places where his hyghness use to goe to take the ayre.

As I have bine informed, that there is one designe on foott, that I conseave wil be suddenly putt in execution, is, that being in company with a Germayne gentleman, one that I had severall tymes bin with in the ordinairey, that he did demande of me, yf there where noe meanes to land an army in England ? That my answer was, I thought noe; the reason I gave him was, that our coaste was naturally strong, and dangerous for any shipping, that should aproche it where in the harbors; and they were soe strongly fortesyed, that there were noe cominge neare. To that he replied, that they had in a readinesse on the coaste of Flanders twenty good ships, that they did intend with souldiers and all amunission for warr, for a good army to sett footinge in England; yf nott there then, on the coast of Ireland or Scotland. To which I answered, that itt would be very difficult and hazardus; for I knew the nature of the English was, that yf any strange army should sett footting in any part of the dominions of the English, that they will be as one man; and will rather loose lyse and goods, then that any strange army should remayne in any part of their dominions: yf they should have footting in any part, I thought they could never hould itt; soe that you had need to be very carefull, and to have those that are faitful and trusty in all your sea-coasts, and that they may be well fortifyed; for this fomer there stil be many plotts and attempts to make a diversion in England, for the Spanish facktion will use all meanes they can to take you off from pursuing them so close on their coast. In giving you what to do in England, having nott ells at present to troble you, I committ you and yours to the protection of divine providence, and remayne

Your humble and faithfull servant,
John Lordell.

The protector to major-general Kelsey and captain Henry Hatsell.

Vol. 1. p. 38.

Whereas we have appointed 5000 l. to be paid to you at Dover by mr. Jessop, for the use of the forces under command of sir John Reynolds, knt. you are hereby impowered and required to receive the same into your charge, from such person as shall be sent by mr. Jessop for that purpose.

You are to call for the several muster-rolls of the six regiments of foot engaged in this present expedition, under command of the said sir John Reynolds, the first of them being dated the 27th of April last, though not actually taken till friday the 1st of May instant; and to cause the said muster-rolls to be carefully examined; and to pay each regiment so much money, as with 400 l. already paid to each of the said regiments, and with 50 l. more, which we have this day ordered to be paid for each of the said regiments, for pay of their quarters in their march to the water-side, shall amount unto one month's pay, to commence from the said 27th of April last inclusive, according to the said muster of that day, and the successive musters, that shall be taken before their going on shipboard, and according to the allowance of pay mentioned in the establishment hereunto annexed.

If you shall find the money so sent short of what the whole month's pay shall amount unto as aforesaid, you are to take up the remainder at Dover, and to draw a bill of exchange upon which shall be paid according to the time you shall agree.

You are to return to our council a particular of what shall be paid by vertue hereof.

Dated at Whitehall, this 4th of May 1657.

To major-general Thomas Kelsey and captain Henry Hatsell at Dover, or either of them.

Sir Thomas Bendyshe, embassador at Constantinople, to the protector.

Vol. l. p. 41.

May it please your highnes,
Since my last addresses of the 25th of October, sent by my son, till this time, I have either wanted a sayre opportunity or a cleare subject to write on, which might be worth your highnes notice.

When Hassan, aga, the rebell (of whom I spake in my last) understood, that SideeAchmet, bassa, was denyed entrance into the Bassalecke of Aleppo by the inhabitants of that citty, for the crueltie and tyrany he had shewed in governing other places, and that they had appealed to the grand signior for what they had done, he forthwith raysed his army, before the grand signior's hatshereisse and messengers could arrive him, and moved towards Aleppo in great hast, to assist his old consederate in making an assault upon the citty, and by force to settle him there, which by sayre means could not be.

The gran signior in the meane time accepts of their appeale and reasons from Aleppo; grants, that their old bassa should governe them still; and commends them for their refusall and resolution; and on the other side commands Sidee and his accomplices to depart from thence, and take the Bassalecke of Siuas in liew thereof; neverthelesse, he made no hast to be gon, but continued assaulting and undermining the towne 47 days; during which time not finding any hopes to prevaile upon it, and hearing that the gran signior had commanded the lords of Asia to rise against him, he tooke 7000 dollars, which they had proffered him to be gon, and accepted of Siuas, the place appointed for him, the Turks still keeping themselves close to their old maxime, by yeilding all which they cannot conveniently hold, and promising any conditions to effect their owne ends, (especially in allaying of tumults) which no longer is kept by them, then the ringleaders can keepe themselves out of the trapps, which are layd for them; neither hold they it sit to put too high an esteem upon the author of any obliging action; and therefore least this bassa should grow too popular in Aleppo, for desending the city so resolutely, he was imediately called home, and another established in his place, to whom I procured such letters of commendations to be sent in behalf of our nation there, as to this time they have passed very well and quietly.

Morat bassa, the man designed to quell this rebell Hassan aga, through the excessive heat of the season, contracted such a strong fever in his passage to Damascus, as he passed out of the world before he could arrive that place, much lamented by the gran signior and all his councell. Sulaman bassa, his successor in the viziership, after the space of six months and ten days was displaced, and Delee Usine, general in Candia, made vizier in his room, and Zurnazan, the then captain-bassa, made his kemycam or deputy to execute the office till he should come in. This was done first, to the end, that what number of janizaries or spahees the gran signior pleased to send to Candy, he might do it without clamour or trouble (as was usual;) if they resolved to go, they loose their pay; for by the old canon, where the seal is, there must the pay be received. 2dly, He making Candy the place of rendezvous for such souldiers; the worke he had there to do, would not only be much forwarded, but a considerable part of the militia being drawn more remote from his imperial seat, he might be freed from mutinies and risings, and they reduced to better order and obedience with less difficulties and more safety then when they were together.

The seal was not many hours gone towards Candia, before the soldiers grew sensible of the design, which caused a general grumbling through the city, which continued no longer than they could find a handsome oppertunitie to breath out what kept them in would stisle them, which happened three days after, by 80 janizaries and one spahee, who coming newly from Candia, and here demanding their pay, were denied by the janizary-aga. This they declared to their general chambers, and to the spahees, who being all included in one and the same condition, rose together, and went imediately to the seraglio gates, where they demanded speech with the king. The eunuchs within disswaded the king from granting it, and wrought what possibly they could by other means to pacisie the people without; but nothing would satisfie but a personal appearance, which was with some reluctancie granted them from a window in the banquetting-house on the top of the wall, where, by Hassan aga, one whom they had chosen for their speaker, (of mean condition, but exceeding bold) they declared 4 grievances before the king: 1st, That the spahees and janizaries, which are absent in the gran signior's service in Candy, when they return, they find that both their places and pay are bestowed on the servants of great men in the port: 2dly, That the favourites near the gran signior are trayters, and will ruin the empire by letting out at racked rents many citties and villages, to the utter undoing of the poor subject, and by their power they ingross the whole entrade of the crown, and spoil the gran signior's treasure: 3dly, Besides this great abuse to the people and militia, the money of the empire is become both scarce and bad, by reason these people having ingrossed great sums of money, not only keep it by them, but privately stamp false aspers, which mingling with a few good, they therewith pay the soldiers: 4thly, That according to the antient canon the gran signior should lodge among the men, and not in the chambers of the eunuchs and women. To these the gran signior promised redress, and with as good words, as the mustee, who stood behind him, could prompt, he laboured to dismiss them, but could not; for when they had finished their complaints, they called for justice to be executed upon the offenders, and demanded the kisler-aga, or chief eunuch, and the eunuch that keeps the gate, to be delivered to them. The king desired them to spare blood, and present him their lives at his request; but they refused, and began to grow impetuous. Which when the gran signior saw, and that there was no remedy, he caused them both to be strangled, and let down to them over the wall; who when they had them, they dragged them through the streets, and hanged them by the heels on a tree in the midst of the city. The day following they demanded 4 eunuchs more, 3 blacks, one white, viz. Odabasi, Jsaya, Musahib and Bilalaga, all which were strangled and thrown out to them, and hanged by the other, together with Mulchicadin, the queen-mother's favourite, great with child, and her husband Saban Colsa. Besides these in the seraglio, the soldiers cut off several officers and great men without, as the chief treasurer, the janizary-aga, the chief customer, the chous-bassa, the treasurer of the arsenall, and many others of quality: besides they displaced the mustee, and both the chief-justices; but about the making of new officers their was such difference in opinion amongst the multitude, as they were twice, some thrice shifted before they could settle, for they knew not what they would have. Delee of Candia was forthwith displaced, and his kemycam or deputy made vizier, which he held not above an hour, but was turned out again and confined, and after that made captain-bassa again, and Sious bassa, at the instance of the spahees, was established vizier-azem. This done, and the chief heads of that tumult being vested by the new kemycam they then chose, they all departed to their own homes. This insurrection continued from friday the 22d of February to tuesday night following, in which time there was no manner of outrage committed by the soldiers upon any house or person whatsoever; they holding it a point of policie not to move the comonaltie, least like bees they should fly too fast about their ears, being more numerous than they, and of whom oft-times they have no small need. The death of these men both without and within the seraglio hath brought the gran signior at least 4 or 5 millions of dollers, which he hath caused not to be put into his treasury, (as accustomary) but to remaine in the treasurer's hands, to disburse to the militia as their pay becomes due.

This new vizier, Sious bassa, (hasting what he could) arrived here the 9th of March, with little pomp, it being no time then to summon the soldiers as hath been usual. This man was very resolute and politick, yet had enough to do to carry himself so, as to go through with the gran signior's business, in which he proceeded very successfully, to the satisfaction of the king, and applause of many. I gave him a seasonable visit, which he took in good part, and inquired of your highness's health and successes over your enemies, delighting in nothing more than to hear of your great preparations against the Spaniard. He very honourably vested me, when I parted from him, but himself bringing a quartan ague along with him, which through his excessive pains and labour in his office turning to a malignant fever, he died thereof the 16th of April, after he had been vizier 40 days.

This man was the likelyest person, both as a soldier and statesman, to have composed the distractions of this tottering state, whose strength and policie is such, as I cannot see any more probable means of its fall than their own civill discords: for no sooner was the vizier dead, but Sidee Achmet bassa, with his accomplices, comes abroad again in Asia, raising forces, assaulting caravans, and doing some mischief, but not considerable; neither is his force so great as to trouble the gran signior much to quell it when he pleases; yet the gran signior being highly incensed at this late affront (which so boyled in his breast, as it took both sleep and quiet away from him,) and being informed of the insusserable pride and haughty carriage of this Hasan the speaker, and several heads of that tumult, made such use of this report in Asia, as to call a general council into his seraglio of all the commanders and officers in Constantinople; and the day before, to amuse the world, sent his standard over to Scutary, pretending to send forth a vast army against this rebell. Being all met, the mustee made a speech to this effect; That he did believe, that none were present but well knew of the robberies and murthers committed upon the gran signior's subjects in Asia; as likewise, that many rapes have been made upon the wives and children of many of the inhabitants of those places, where that rebell Sidee Achmet, and his accomplices do come; which wickedness was not to be endured; therefore the gran signior was resolved immediately to send forth of the janizaries and spahees a great army; to which purpose he had sent his standard to Scutary, and had called them to council. Having said this, Hasan the speaker replied, And is this all ? The will (said he) of the people is in my breast. In your breast, sayd the mustee, how old are you ? how long have you been in office, that you should have such power over the people? Mustee, mustee, sayd Hassan, hold your tongue, sit still. With that spake the king from a window where he sat apart, And is this rogue still alive ? Which being sayd, he was forthwith taken from the councill and strangled. This was done the 29th of April, and the day following the gran signior cut off seven more of the ringleaders of that faction; which done, the standard was brought back again, and all quiet.

This Hasan was reported to have so shrewd a head, and so plausible a tongue, as had he used them with any modesty or moderation, and not slown into that height of pride and insolence, as to bring the odium of all, even of his friends and abetters, upon him, (which the king knew well enough) he might in a short time (as 'tis thought) have been able to give check even to the gran signior himselfe.

As for the reducing of Sidee, the gran signior hath again commanded some of the lords in Asia to rise upon him; hath made Mahomet, bassa of Damascus, vizier-azem, who will soon have an army upon his back, is need requires; and moreover hath sent his own hatsheriff, and the mustee's letter, to command his retreit; which if he refuses to make, some time will pass in all probabilitie, before the vizier can get hither, or the fleet go forth. As for Candy, they can releive that from divers places at their pleasure, should not the fleet go hence; and although the Venetians should be assisted by forreign states, (of which here hath been some suspition) the greatest harm they could do the Turks would be to stop the Cayro fleet, but not the provisions they should bring from thence, for they have formerly and will again be brought over land. So that now the Venetian may see (notwithstanding the large promises of the Turks, which cost them dear) how they were beguiled both of their hopes and moneys; whom God undoubtedly would have blessed better, were they more charitable and just to those poor souls, that have adventured their lives in their service, who here lye languishing in wofull captivity, amongst whom there are none so much neglected as your highnes subjects: Their own they are ready enough to redeem by money or exchange, for which they want not prisoners of quality; but for ours, although I had perswaded the captain-bassa to exchange them for ordinary Turks, and have often solicited Belarine, their resident, for compliance, yet can I not see any good fruits of my labours therein; which failing of, the calamity and misery of these poor creatures cries so loud for compassion and relief, as makes me bold to become an humble suitor to your highness on their behalfs, either to move the Venetian or the charity of well-disposed people for their deliverance.

I have redeemed and freed many at my own cost, more than I have been well able to do, and have used means to keep the rest from starving; but had I had supplies here any way proportionable to those places in Barbary, I could have cleared them all upon reasonable terms, this being the best place in Turky for the disposal of charity in that nature; for once every year the greatest part of English captives from all places are brought in the gallies to this port, to tell the gran signior, where they may be had the more reasonable, in regard here never wants great numbers of Russes, Cosacks, and Polonians, who are brought from the Black Sea, and sold so cheap, as with the money we pay for one Englishman they can buy two or three of them, their common price not exceeding 80 or 100 dollers a man. If such helpes may be sent hither, (of which a prudent care shall be taken, and an honest account rendred of the disposall) I shall not doubt to free all, whether taken in the Venetian warrs or elsewhere, captain Gallily and George Davie only excepted, who being esteemed persons of quality, must be freed by exchange, which, were the Venetians willing, might be done upon very indifferent terms.

Within the space of 14 months here have been made 5 viziers, 4 kemycams, 4 captain-bassas, and 2 mustees; yet notwithstanding the change of these men, and their many officers, I bless God none of our nation have suffered the worth of a penny, but still I have found justice from the worst of them, and shall not doubt by the same providence to do so still, and to maintain the peace and trade upon as honest conditions as ever. Therefore in whatsoever your highness shall please to command or commit to my charge and trust, I shall labour to quit myself with all zeal and faithfulness, as becomes him, who hath from the beginning professed himself to be

Your highnes faithfull servant, and most obedient subject,
Tho. Bendyshe.

Pera of Constantinople, this 5th of May 1656.

Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. l. p. 46.

Right honourable,
I find not any from your honor in this week's pacquet: I hope the next post, which wee expect on saterday next, the wind beinge faire, will bringe me notice of the payment of my bill on the councel, that I may receive the money heere, which I onely stay for, and that then I shall knowe, whether a present for the great duke and an interpreter of his language will be sent me, or after me to Riga; as alsoe, if at last I must remove hence without a vindication. I have sent and got the Swedish resident here to send to his master's ports on this side the Baltick; but there's noe convenyencie there for my transportation, soe as I must be forst to fraight a ship purposely at Lubeck, which I have this day given order for, though the danger is great in soe passing, there beinge (as I formerly writ) divers capers out from Dantzick with commissions from the Polish king and Ch. St. by Middleton's meanes, there residinge, which have taken a ship of Lubeck lately, as they write from thence. I am sorie that one of those frigots, which I heare are gone convoy to the Sound, was not ordered to come to Lubeck, to transport me thence to Riga; which might have beene done (had it been thought of at home) with the same wynd, that keepes them in there. I hope your honor hath remembred to send a letter of credit, as I desired, in case I shall have occasion for it, without which noe money will be had heere; and truly I have not money in London as formerly to charge bills on a private friend, till it be received from the state. And now that I must leave this place, it cannot be expected, that without such a letter of credit private merchants will part with money to a publick person for bills on the state. I shall ad noe more, but only desire, that if consideration hath not beene taken, it may be as to those particulars, especially of a present, an interpreter, and a letter of credit. I rest

Hamb. 5th May 1657.

Your honor's very humble servant,
Richard Bradshaw.

I pray your answer touchinge the affront given me by this senate, in arresting my servant, of which I gave account by last post.