A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Studham (St. Mary)
STUDHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Luton, partly in the hundred of Dacorum, county of Hertford, but chiefly in the hundred of Manshead, county of Bedford; containing, with the hamlet of Humbershoe, 817 inhabitants, of whom 206 are in Studham hamlet, 3¾ miles (W. by S.) from Market-Street. The parish comprises 1431 acres, of which 154 are common or waste land. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9, and has a net income of £129; it is in the patronage of the Crown, and the Rev. J. Wheeldon and others are impropriators. The great tithes have been commuted for £275, and the small for £60.
Studland (St. Nicholas)
STUDLAND (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Wareham and Purbeck, hundred of Rowbarrow, Wareham division of Dorset, 5½ miles (E. by N.) from Corfe-Castle; containing 453 inhabitants. This parish comprises 5834 acres, of which 4105 are common or waste. It includes Brownsea and several smaller islands, and is bounded on the north by Poole harbour, on the east by Studland bay, and on the south-east by Swanwich bay: in the last direction is a signal station, on a hill called Ballard down. Studland bay, though an open roadstead, affords excellent anchorage for ships drawing fourteen or fifteen feet of water. Brownsea is of an oval form, about three miles in circumference, and anciently contained a hermitage and chapel, dedicated to St. Andrew, of which there are now no remains. The castle at its eastern extremity was built in the reign of Elizabeth, by the inhabitants of Poole, for the defence of their port; adjoining is a platform, upon which, in time of war, a few pieces of ordnance are mounted. In the parish is also a quay, where vessels of considerable burthen can lie conveniently for taking in or discharging cargoes. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 10. 5., and in the gift of Mrs. Michel: the tithes have been commuted for £135. 10., and the glebe comprises 22 acres. The church is supposed to have been built about the time of the Conquest. On Studland common are many barrows, either British or Danish; the principal is 90 feet in perpendicular height, and is called Agglestone, or Stone Barrow, from its being surmounted by an enormous circular red-sandstone, eighteen feet high, and computed to weigh 400 tons.
STUDLEY, a hamlet, in the parish of Beckley, union of Headington, hundred of Bullingdon, county of Oxford, 5 miles (N.) from Wheatley; containing, with the hamlet of Horton, 418 inhabitants. A Benedictine priory in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary was founded in the reign of Henry II., by Bernard de St. Valori or Walery, and was amply endowed for fifty nuns: its revenue at the Dissolution was valued at £84. 4. 4½. The remains are incorporated with the present mansion of Studley Priory: the conventual church was taken down, and a domestic chapel erected within the mansion, which, by permission of the owner, is open to tenants and others upon the estate. The remains of a Roman villa were discovered in a wood here; and various pieces of masonry, apparently parts of some ancient edifice, have been found.
Studley (St. Mary)
STUDLEY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Alcester, Alcester division of the hundred of Barlichway, S. division of the county of Warwick, 4 miles (N. by W.) from Alcester; containing 1992 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the river Arrow, and on the road from Birmingham to Alcester; and comprises about 4500 acres. There are good beds of clay within its limits, and though no external symptoms of minerals are visible, it is supposed that coal and stone, if sought for at a sufficient depth, would be found: a large portion of the district was anciently covered with forests. The manufacture of needles and fish-hooks, for which Studley is celebrated, is carried on extensively; the works, among others, of James Pardow, Esq., were established in 1800, at the cost of many thousand pounds, and employ about 250 hands. In the parish are the two manors of Skilts and Gattax, the property of the family of Moilliet, and which anciently belonged to the Sheldon family. The Upper Skilts House, situated on high ground, with its farm of 215 acres of good land, commands a magnificent view of a rich and fertile country, with the Malvern, Abberley, and Gloucestershire hills in the distance, and is surrounded by woods which add greatly to the beauty of the scenery. The Lower Skilts House, an old building of large dimensions, now occupied, with about 190 acres of wheat and bean land, by Josiah Rock, Esq., was in former times the grange to a priory at Studley: of two large fish-ponds below the mansion, such as were usually attached to religious houses, one has been drained, and converted into productive soil. Studley Castle, the beautiful seat of Sir Francis L. H. Goodricke, Bart., seated on on eminence, and commanding a fine view of the adjacent lands, was completed in 1836, and is a combination of different styles of architecture; the towers have much of the appearance of the towers near the boundaries of England and Scotland, and the park, which is surpassed by few in the county, contains an artificial lake of considerable extent. A fair for sheep and cattle, which is also a large statute-fair, is held on the 28th of September. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8; net income, £87, with a glebe of 10 acres; patron, R. Knight, Esq. The church is an ancient structure in the early and later English styles, with a beautiful Norman arch at the north entrance, now closed up. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. Six children are taught free, and two are annually clothed, from bequests; the school-house was built in 1810. There are considerable remains of the priory, which was founded in honour of St. Mary, early in the reign of Henry II., by Peter de Studley, who translated hither a society of Augustine canons whom he had previously established at Wicton, in Worcestershire. The house, at the Dissolution, had a revenue of £181. 3. 6. William de Cantilupe erected an hospital at its gate for the reception of infirm poor.
STUDLEY-ROGER, a township, in the parish of Ripon, Lower division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 1¾ mile (W. S. W.) from Ripon; containing 152 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 500 acres; the village is small, but neatly built, and the surrounding scenery is pleasing. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £117. 13.; and the appropriate tithes for £21, payable to the Dean and Chapter of Ripon.
STUDLEY-ROYAL, a township, in the parish of Ripon, Lower division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 2½ miles (W. S. W.) from Ripon; containing 50 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 590 acres of rich and fertile land, lying wholly within the inclosure of Studley Park. It was for some time the seat of the Aislabie family, of whom William, who married Elizabeth, daughter of the Earl of Exeter, represented the borough of Ripon in parliament for more than sixty years of the 18th century. The mansion is an elegant and spacious structure in the Grecian style, consisting of a centre and two wings, with a stately portico of four lofty Corinthian columns supporting an enriched entablature and cornice, surmounted by a pediment; it contains many handsome apartments, and a valuable collection of paintings by the best masters. The park comprises an area of 650 acres, partly in the township of Markington with Wallerthwaite, and is well stocked with deer; the surface is beautifully undulated, and watered by the Skell rivulet, which forms some picturesque cascades.
In the southern portion of the park, in a deep vale, through which the Skell pursues its course, are the venerable remains of Fountains Abbey. This abbey was established for brethren of the Cistercian order by thirteen Benedictine monks of St. Mary's near York, who, leaving their house for the purpose of observing a more strict discipline, in 1132 obtained from Thurstan, Archbishop of York, a grant of land here. The institution was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, and flourished till the general suppression, when its revenue was returned at £1173. 0. 7. The site and demesne were granted in the 32nd of Henry VIII. to Sir Richard Gresham, and in 1767 were purchased by William Aislabie, Esq., for £18,000. The remains of this once magnificent structure are beautifully situated, and occupy an area of nearly two acres within the township of Markington with Wallerthwaite. They are partly Norman and partly in the early English style, and consist chiefly of the church with its lofty tower, part of the cloisters, the chapter-house, refectory, dormitory, and other portions of the conventual buildings, together forming one of the most extensive and interesting specimens of monastic remains in England. Near the ruin is Fountains Hall, a large mansion in the Elizabethan style, formerly the seat of the Messenger family, proprietors of the abbey lands.
Stukeley, Great (St. Bartholomew)
STUKELEY, GREAT (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the hundred of Hurstingstone, union and county of Huntingdon, 2½ miles (N. W.) from Huntingdon; containing 417 inhabitants, and comprising about 2730 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 14. 2., and in the gift of Trinity Hall, Cambridge; impropriator, J. Heathcote Esq. The glebe comprises 77 acres of land, assigned in 1813 in lieu of tithes, and valued at £125 per annum; there is a good glebe-house. The church is principally in the Norman style.
Stukeley, Little (St. Martin)
STUKELEY, LITTLE (St. Martin), a parish, in the hundred of Hurstingstone, union and county of Huntingdon, 3¼ miles (N. W. by N.) from Huntingdon; containing 396 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated in a valley between two hills, and on the old north road, comprises 1383a. 28p. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 13. 1½., and in the patronage of Lady Olivia Sparrow; net income, £252. The tithes were commuted for land in 1813; the glebe altogether comprises 273 acres, with an excellent house, which, with the land, has been greatly improved by the present incumbent. The church is an ancient structure in the early English style, with a tower richly covered with ivy.
STUNTNEY, a chapelry, in the parish of the Holy Trinity, Ely, union, hundred, and Isle of Ely, county of Cambridge, 1½ mile (S. E.) from Ely; containing 220 inhabitants. It consists of about 2500 acres: the soil is fertile, producing wheat, barley, and oats; the surface generally is flat, and the river Ouse flows within half a mile of the village. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £77; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Ely. The tithes have been commuted for £580, and the glebe comprises 32 acres. The chapel is in the Norman style of architecture.
Sturbridge, Cambridge.—See Stourbridge.
STURGATE, a hamlet, in the parish of Springthorpe, union of Gainsborough, wapentake of Corringham, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln; containing 41 inhabitants. It is situated near the border of Heapham parish.
STURMERE, a parish, in the union of Risbridge, hundred of Hinckford, N. division of Essex, 1 mile (S. E.) from Haverhill; containing 333 inhabitants. Sturmere takes its name from a lake, or mere, covering about 20 acres, that extended from the river Stour, by which the parish is bounded on the north; it comprises about 800 acres, and is watered by a rivulet. Though now obscure, it was formerly of considerable importance, and stretched into the counties of Cambridge and Suffolk, including the parishes of Haverhill and Kedington, each of which now exceeds it in population. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 10., and in the gift of the Duke of Rutland: the tithes have been commuted for £264, and the glebe comprises 10 acres. The church is an ancient structure of flint and rubble stone, partly in the Norman and early English styles, with a rich arch of the former character on the south side. Numerous coins of Antoninus Pius and of the Lower Empire have been found; and in widening a road, in 1820, several skeletons of gigantic size were discovered.
Sturminster-Marshall (St. Mary)
STURMINSTER-MARSHALL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Wimborne and Cranborne, hundred of Cogdean, Wimborne division of Dorset, 5 miles (W.) from Wimborne-Minster; containing, with the chapelries of Lytchett-Minster, Corfe-Mullen, and Hamworthy, 2869 inhabitants, of whom 902 are in the township of Sturminster-Marshall. This place derives its name from the situation of its church on the river Stour, and its adjunct from the Earl of Pembroke, earl marshal, to whom it anciently belonged, and who, in the reign of Henry I., obtained for it the grant of a fair. The parish comprises 11,496 acres. The township comprises 3465 acres, of which 361 are common or waste; it is bounded on the north-east by the river Stour, over which is a bridge of eight arches. In the centre of the village is an open spot still called the market-place, though no market has been held within the memory of man. The living is a vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes of Lytchett-Minster, Corfe-Mullen, and Hamworthy, and valued in the king's books at £31. 5.; net income, £920; patrons and impropriators, the Provost and Fellows of Eton College. The great tithes of the township have been commuted for £469; and the vicarial for £120, with a glebe of 122 acres. The church has an embattled tower, and a remarkably large chancel; and at the west end of the north aisle a space is partitioned off, in which the royal peculiar court of Sturminster-Marshall is held. Each of the three chapelries contains a chapel of ease. In 1799, William Mackrell endowed two schools with the interest of £1200 three per cent, consols. Upon Cogdean Elms, an eminence in the parish, where the courts of the hundred to which it gives name were formerly held, are some stately elm-trees.
Sturminster-Newton-Castle (St. Mary)
STURMINSTER-NEWTON-CASTLE (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Sturminster-Newton-Castle, Sturminster division of Dorset, 9 miles (N. W.) from Blandford, and 108 (W. S. W.) from London; containing 1920 inhabitants. This place, which derives its name of Sturminster from the river on whose bank it is situated, and from its minster or church, is supposed to be the Anicetis of Ravennas, and was known to the Saxons at a very early period. Alfred the Great gave some lands here to his son Ethelwald; and in 968, Edgar granted the manor of Sturre, or Stour, to the abbey of Glastonbury: this gift was confirmed by Edmund Ironside. In the Norman survey, the place was included in Newenton or Newton, from which it appears to have derived the adjunct to its name. At the Dissolution it was presented by Henry VIII. to Catherine Parr, and after her death was given by Edward VI. to his sister Elizabeth, who devised it to Sir Christopher Hatton, from whom it passed to the family of Lord Rivers. In 1645, some hundred clubmen of Dorsetshire and Wiltshire forced the quarters of the parliamentary troops here, and after slaughter on both sides, were victorious, taking sixteen dragoons, with several horses and arms. In 1681 and 1729 the town suffered by conflagrations, and at the latter period sustained damage to the amount of £13,000.
Sturminster-Newton comprises the two townships of Sturminster and Newton, occupying different sides of the river Stour, and connected by a causeway and a bridge of six arches, of which the latter has been widened and improved, and the former raised to prevent the inundation to which it was previously subject. The streets are in general narrow, and the houses low and indifferently built, except in the market-place, where is a large oblong market-house, with warerooms above and shambles below. A turnpike-road, lately completed, runs through the town to Sherborne. Some trade is carried on with Newfoundland, and the little manufacture in the town consists of baizes, though woollen goods were formerly made. The market is on Thursday; on every alternate Thursday is a large market for cattle; and fairs are held on May 12th and October 24th. The parish comprises by estimation 4346 acres, of which 613 are arable, 3410 meadow and pasture, 227 wood, and 96 common; the soil is chiefly clay, and the lands are in good cultivation.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £16. 16. 8., and in the gift of the Fox family: the great tithes have been commuted for £185, and the vicarial for £775; the glebe comprises 81 acres. The church, a handsome edifice on the south side of the town, was originally built by John Selwood, abbot of Glastonbury, and has been lately repaired and enlarged at the expense of the Rev. T. H. Lane Fox; it consists of a chancel, nave, and aisles, with an embattled tower, and contains a painted window which cost 400 guineas. A chapel of ease at Bagbere, in the parish, has fallen into decay. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The poor-law union of Sturminster comprises 19 parishes or places, and contains a population of 10,235. The principal object of interest is a fortification or camp called the Castle, situated on an eminence at Newton, near the south bank of the river, and supposed to have been constructed by the Romans, or not later than the Saxon era; it consists of a vallum and deep fosse, in the shape of the Roman letter D, and on the top is a small artificial mount or keep, near which are the ruins of an ancient house where the courts were formerly held.
Sturry (St. Nicholas)
STURRY (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Blean, hundred of Bleangate, lathe of St. Augustine, E, division of Kent, 2½ miles (N. E.) from Canterbury; containing 1001 inhabitants. It comprises 3085a. 2r. 34p., of which 49 acres are roads, 563 in wood, and the remainder land in good cultivation: there are some large pits of excellent gravel, used for repairing the roads. The river Stour, which is navigable for barges to Fordwick, flows through the parish. The village is large and well built, and situated in a valley on the road from Canterbury to the Isle of Thanet. A fair is held on Whit-Monday for toys and pedlery. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 1. 8., and in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury: the great tithes have been commuted for £684, the vicarial tithes for £255, and there is a glebe-house, with about 2 acres of land. The church is in the early English style, with a tower surmounted by a spire. Here are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans; and a national school supported by an endowment of £200, and by subscription.
Sturston (Holy Cross)
STURSTON (Holy Cross), a parish, in the union of Thetford, hundred of Grimshoe, W. division of Norfolk, 5¼ miles (S. W. by S.) from Watton; containing 47 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Wissey, and comprises about 1800 acres, of which 800 are rabbitwarren; the soil is sandy. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £28; patron, Lord Walsingham. The church is in ruins.
STURTON, a township, in the parish of Scawby, union of Glandford-Brigg, E. division of the wapentake of Manley, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 2¾ miles (S. W.) from the town of Glandford-Brigg; containing 86 inhabitants.
STURTON, with Bransby, a township, in the parish of Stow, union of Gainsborough, wapentake of Well, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 8¼ miles (S. E.) from Gainsborough; containing 501 inhabitants, of whom 394 are in Sturton. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Endowments amounting to £12 per annum have been bequeathed for education.
Sturton (St. Peter)
STURTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of East Retford, North-Clay division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 6 miles (E. N. E.) from East Retford; containing, with the hamlet of Fenton, 646 inhabitants, and an area of about 4100 acres. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 7. 3½.; net income, £282; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of York. The tithes were commuted for land in 1822; the glebe comprises 127 acres. The church is a spacious structure in the later English style, with a lofty square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles, and contains some handsome monuments to the Thornhaughs, of Fenton Hall. The Roman road from Lincoln to Doncaster passes through the parish.
STURTON-GRANGE, a township, in the parish of Warkworth, union of Alnwick, E. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 8 miles (S. E. by S.) from Alnwick; containing 108 inhabitants. It comprises about 1100 acres, of which twothirds are arable, and the rest pasture, with about 10 acres of woodland; the soil is various, the surface undulated, and the scenery embraces both land and sea views. Stone is quarried for building and for the roads; and there is a brick and draining-tile manufactory. The township consists of three farms, occupied by the respective owners. The village is about two miles and a half westward from Warkworth.
STURTON-GRANGE, a township, in the parish of Aberford, Lower division of the wapentake of Skyrack, W. riding of York, 7 miles (E.) from Leeds; containg 77 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 760 acres, in one well-cultivated farm; the substratum contains coal of good quality, of which a mine was opened in 1833. A rent-charge of £33. 2. 6. has been awarded as a commutation for the vicarial tithes.
Sturton, Great (All Saints)
STURTON, GREAT (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Horncastle, N. division of the wapentake of Gartree, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 5½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Horncastle; containing 127 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8, and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £116; impropriator, R. J. Loft, Esq.
Stuston (All Saints)
STUSTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Hartismere, W. division of Suffolk, 3 miles (N. by W) from Eye; containing 252 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from London to Norwich, by Bury St. Edmund's. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 16. 8.; net income, £174; patron, Sir Edward Kerrison, Bart. The church is in the decorated English style, with a circular tower of more ancient date, and contains a handsome monument to the Castleton family.
Stutchbury (St. John the Baptist)
STUTCHBURY (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Brackley, hundred of King's-Sutton, S. division of the county of Northampton, 5 miles (N. by W.) from Brackley; containing 21 inhabitants. It comprises an area of 1200 acres, of which the soil is chiefly a heavy loam; the surface is level, and watered by a small stream. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £3. 6. 8., and in the gift of the Crown; net income, £5. The church is in ruins.
Stutton (St. Peter)
STUTTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the incorporation and hundred of Samford, E. division of Suffolk, 8 miles (S. by W.) from Ipswich; containing 492 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2138a. 3r. 38p. The soil in some parts is luxuriantly fertile, and in others dry and gravelly; the surface is undulated, and the scenery enlivened by handsome seats. The river Stour, which is navigable for vessels of considerable burthen, separates the parish from Essex. Here are the gateway and other remains of Stutton Hall, forming good specimens of the domestic style prevalent in the reign of Elizabeth. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 17. 6.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Thomas Mills; net income, £550, with a parsonagehouse delightfully situated in grounds tastefully embellished. Several fossil remains have been dug up in the parish.
STUTTON, with Hazlewood, a township, in the parish of Tadcaster, Upper division of the wapentake of Barkstone-Ash, W. riding of York, 1½ mile (S. by W.) from Tadcaster; containing 380 inhabitants, of whom 190 are in Stutton. The township comprises by computation 2610 acres, of which 600 are in Stutton; the soil is rich, and the substratum abounds with excellent limestone, which is extensively quarried, and burnt into lime at several kilns here. The hamlet of Stutton is situated in the vale of the Cock rivulet. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £26, and the impropriate for £149.—See Hazlewood.
STYDD, an extra-parochial liberty, adjoining the parish of Shirley, in the hundred of Appletree, S. division of the county of Derby, 4¾ miles (S. by W.) from Ashbourn; containing 40 inhabitants. It comprises 312 acres, of strong fertile land, mostly pasture. The Hall, once a substantial edifice, has been suffered to fall into decay, and is now occupied as a farmhouse. Here are the ruins of a fine chapel.
STYFORD, a township, in the parish of Bywell St. Andrew, union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 7 miles (E. by S.) from Hexham; containing 104 inhabitants. It is delightfully situated on the north side of the Tyne, about a mile and a half west from Bywell. The mansion here, erected some years since, from an elegant design, consists of three fronts; it is well sheltered on the east and north by rising grounds and by plantations, while a beautiful plain above a mile in length stretches before the south front.
STYRRUP, a township, in the parishes of Blyth and Harworth, union of Worksop, Hatfield division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 3½ miles (W. S. W.) from Bawtry; containing 634 inhabitants. The township comprises 2959a. 2r. 36p., of which 940 acres are in the parish of Blyth; the commons were inclosed in 1802. The tithes, with those of Harworth, have been commuted for £279. 10. payable to the vicar of Harworth, £58. 13. 6. to the vicar of Blyth, and £205 to Trinity College, Cambridge. There are places of worship for Wesleyans at Styrrup and in the hamlet of Oldcoates.