A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Gargrave (St. Andrew)
GARGRAVE (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York; containing 1761 inhabitants, of whom 1176 are in the township of Gargrave, 4½ miles (W. N. W.) from Skipton. The parish comprises 11,570 acres, of which 3490 are in the township; 10,427 are meadow and pasture, 483 woodland, 201 arable, and 276 common. The population is partly employed in a large worsted and cotton mill. The scenery is picturesque, and the village is pleasantly situated on the river Aire, over which is a bridge of three arches: the Leeds and Liverpool canal passes near. A fair for cattle, numerously attended, takes place on the 11th of December. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12. 13. 11½.; net income, £750; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Anthony Marsden; impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and J. N. Coulthurst and N. Wilson, Esqrs. The church is a handsome structure, principally in the later English style, with a square embattled tower. At Cold Coniston is a second incumbency. There are places of worship for Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists. The poor have some land yielding £55 a year, the produce of various benefactions. Here are a Roman pavement and an encampment.
GARMONDSWAY-MOOR, a township, in the parish of Bishop's-Middleham, union of Sedgefield, N. E. division of Stockton ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 6¾ miles (S. E. by S.) from Durham; containing 157 inhabitants. This place is said to have derived its name from Garmundus the Dane; and the ancient Via Garmundi, along which King Canute travelled barefooted to the shrine of St. Cuthbert, at Durham, passed through it. The township is the property of Sherburn Hospital, and is situated north of the road leading from Trimdon to Cornforth: the produce of a colliery here is shipped at Hartlepool. The height of Garmondsway-Moor, which commands most extensive views, is a mile to the north-east of Middleham.
GARRIGILL, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Alston, Leath ward, E. division of Cumberland, 3 miles (E. S. E.) from Alston-Moor; containing 1474 inhabitants. Here are mines belonging to the London Lead Company, which afford employment to many of the inhabitants; and fairs for cattle and sheep are held on the third Friday in May, and the first Friday in September. The chapel was erected in the last century. The Independents, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans have places of worship.
GARRISTON, a township, in the parish of Haukswell, union of Leyburn, wapentake of Hang-West, N. riding of York, 4¼ miles (N. N. E.) from Middleham; containing 54 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 660 acres of land, set out in farms.
GARSDALE, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Sedbergh, W. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 6 miles (E.) from Sedbergh; containing 681 inhabitants. It comprises 8599 acres, of which only 20 are arable, and 200 woodland; about 5000 acres are mountain moor, rising on each side of the dale. Some coal-mines are in operation, employing about 40 hands; and there are quarries of marble, a grey fossil of superior quality, but not at present worked. The river Clough, which has its source on Baugh fell, runs through the valley, and falls into the Rothay or Rathay, a little above Sedbergh. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £4 yearly by Edward VI. in 1552, and in the patronage of the Crown, with a present net income of £77: the tithes have been commuted for £51. 19. 6. payable to Trinity College, Cambridge, and £6. 19. 9. to the vicar, who has a glebe of 16 acres. The chapel, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, is a small ancient building. There are places of worship for Independents, Methodists, and the Society of Friends; and a school partly supported by an endowment of £9 per annum. A former monastic cell, belonging to Coverham Abbey, near Middleham, is now a farmhouse. On a hill which separates Dent from Garsdale, is a fine chalybeate spring.
Garsdon (All Saints)
GARSDON (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Malmesbury, Malmesbury and Kingswood, and N. divisions of Wilts, 2 miles (E. by N.) from Malmesbury; containing 215 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 1140 acres, of which 250 are arable, 858 meadow and pasture, and 14 wood; the soil is chiefly clay, with a small portion of sand. The living is a rectory, with the living of Lea annexed, valued in the king's books at £10. 9. 9½., and in the gift of J. Neeld, Esq. The tithes of the parish have been commuted for £165, and the glebe comprises 14 acres. The church is an ancient structure in the early English style.
Garsington (St. Mary)
GARSINGTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Headington, hundred of Bullington, county of Oxford, 5 miles (S. E. by E.) from Oxford; containing 591 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, annexed to the Headship of Trinity College, Oxford, and valued in the king's books at £14. 19. 9½.: the tithes have been commuted for £680, and the glebe comprises 23 acres. The church, an ancient and venerable structure, contains some handsome monuments to the family of Wickham. Sir Thomas Pope, who annexed the manor to Trinity College, which he had founded, commenced the erection of a house of retreat here for the students in time of pestilence, which was completed at a subsequent period, and displays some good specimens in the later English style.
Garstang (St. Helen)
GARSTANG (St. Helen), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Amounderness, N. division of the county of Lancaster; comprising the townships of Barnacre with Bonds, Billisborrow, Cabus, Catterall, Claughton, Cleveley, Forton, Garstang, Holleth, Kirkland, Nateby, Pilling, Winmarleigh, and Nether Wyersdale; and containing 7659 inhabitants, of whom 909 are in the town, 11 miles (S. by E.) from Lancaster, 11 (N. by W.) from Preston, and 229 (N. W. by N.) from London. During the parliamentary war, this parish was the scene of some slight military operations; the castle of Greenhalgh, the ruins of which are in the adjoining hamlet of Bonds, was held for the king, by the Earl of Derby, in 1643. When the Scottish adherents to the Pretender made their incursion into England, in 1715, they halted at Garstang, before taking possession of Preston; and in the following year, some of the rebels were executed at this place. The town is situated on the river Wyre, upon the road between Preston and Lancaster. The more ancient part consists of houses indifferently built, and streets irregularly formed; but great improvements have lately been introduced, and the streets are now well paved, the town is lighted, and a few houses of respectability have been added. The scenery in the vicinity is beautiful. There are several cotton-mills and a worsted-mill. The market is on Thursday; a market for cattle is held every alternate Thursday between the first Thursday in Lent and HolyThursday; and fairs take place on Holy-Thursday, July 10th, and November 22nd. The Lancaster canal crosses the river by a handsome aqueduct, near the end of the principal street; and the Lancaster and Preston railway has a station at Barnacre, two miles distant from the town. The inhabitants were incorporated by a charter bestowed in 1314, but this was superseded by a new one granted by Charles II., in 1680, with additional privileges, by which the government was vested in a bailiff and seven capital burgesses, elected on the 29th of September; the freedom is obtained by birth, or by apprenticeship to a freeman: the borough is coextensive with the township. The powers of the county debt-court of Garstang, established in 1847, extend over the greater part of the registration-district of Garstang. The town-hall, situated in the market-place, was built principally at the expense of the corporation, in 1755, on the site of the former edifice: the petty-sessions for the hundred of Amounderness are held at the Royal Oak inn, every alternate Thursday.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £14. 3. 4.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. James Pedder; impropriators, the families of Pedder and Standish: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £480. The church is a stately structure, about two miles from the town, in that part of the parish called Garstang Church-Town, in the township of Kirkland: having been injured by the overflowing of the Wyre, near which it stands, it was repaired in 1746, and again in 1811 at an expense of £1200, defrayed jointly by the parishioners and T. Strickland Standish, Esq. There is a chapel within the town, the living of which is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar; net income, £150, with a parsonage-house. At Pilling is a third incumbency. The Independents, Wesleyans, and Roman Catholics have each a place of worship. A grammar school was built about the year 1757; and a Church of England school for boys and girls was erected in 1845, by subscription, aided by the National Society and the Privy Council: there is a school for Roman Catholics, endowed with £40 per annum. The poor law union of Garstang comprises 23 parishes or places, containing about 13,000 inhabitants.
GARSTON, a township and chapelry, in the parish of Childwall, union and hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire, 5 miles (S. E.) from Liverpool; the township containing, with Aigburth, in 1846, 2436 inhabitants. At a very early period this place gave name to a local family, of whom Adam de Gerstan died in 1265; the Blackburnes, Irelands, Norrises, and Beauclerks subsequently possessed the property, which more recently came, by marriage, to the family of Hawkes. The township, which is beautifully situated on the Mersey, abounds with gentlemen's seats and villas, and commands fine views of the Cheshire hills and Welsh mountains. On the banks of the river are extensive works for refining salt; and at Otterspool is a rivulet flowing into the Mersey, near which is an oil-mill. An act was passed in 1846 to enable the St. Helen's Canal and Railway Company to make docks here, and construct a railway to Garston, nearly 7½ miles in length. Among the residences, is Grassendale House, with 20 acres of land, the property of George Hargreaves, Esq., who is also owner of Beach Lawn, occupied by W. J. Marrow, Esq.; and at Grassendale is the villa of J. Grant Morris, Esq. The living is a donative, made into an independent benefice in the 1st of George II., and paying no fees to Childwall; net income, £138, with a house; patron, Richard Watt, Esq. The tithes have been commuted for £160 payable to the Bishop of Chester's lessee, £35 to the vicar of the parish, and £5 to the minister of the chapelry. A neat place of worship for Wesleyans has been built at the expense of George Heald, Esq., of Garston Lodge, a handsome residence standing in its own grounds. There is also a national school.—See Aigburth.
Garston, East, or Argastone (All Saints)
GARSTON, EAST, or Argastone (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Hungerford, partly in the hundreds of Wantage and Moreton, but chiefly in that of Lambourn, county of Berks, 3 miles (E. S. E.) from Lambourn; containing 662 inhabitants. The parish comprises 4335a. 3r. 11p., of which 212 acres are waste land or common; the surface is pleasing, and in some parts richly embellished with wood. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8., and in the gift of the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford: the impropriate tithes, held on lease by Sir R. Burdett, Bart., have been commuted for £631, and the vicarial for £265. 16. 6.; the impropriate glebe comprises 134 acres.
GARTHORP, a township, in the parish of Luddington, union of Goole, W. division of the wapentake of Manley, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 13 miles (W. by S.) from Barton-on-Humber; containing 471 inhabitants. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1796.
Garthorpe (St. Mary)
GARTHORPE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Melton-Mowbray, hundred of Framland, N. division of the county of Leicester, 5¾ miles (E. N. E.) from Melton-Mowbray; containing 135 inhabitants. This parish, which is watered by the small river Eye, comprises by measurement 1725 acres. The surface is uneven, but the hills are of very inconsiderable elevation; the soil is various, with some good corn and grazing lands. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 5. 2., and in the gift of the Tollemache family: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £230, and the vicarial for £150.
Garton (St. Michael)
GARTON (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Skirlaugh, Middle division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York; containing 226 inhabitants, of whom 179 are in the township of Garton, 9 miles (N. E.) from Hedon. The family of Grimston have been seated here since the time of William I., when their ancestor Sylvester de Grimston had a grant of land from the king to be held of the honour of Roos. The parish includes a third part of the township of Owstwick, of which the other two-thirds are in the parish of Roos; and comprises 1799a. 14p., whereof about one-third are pasture, 84 acres woodland, and the remainder arable. The soil is various, but chiefly a strong clay: the scenery in some places is picturesque, and embellished with wood, and in others boldly romantic; the coast of the German Ocean on the east presents tall cliffs of rugged aspect. The old manor-house, called the Blue Hall, has been modernised, but some of the rooms are panelled, and indicative of ancient respectability. The mansion of Grimston Garth is spacious, and of somewhat singular construction; it occupies a very conspicuous site, and commands an extensive prospect. The village, which is neat, is situated at the distance of a mile from the cliffs. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 1. 0½., and in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £97. The church is a good structure, with a low tower; adjoining it on the north, is a mausoleum belonging to the Grimston family, built about twenty years since. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Garton-upon-the-Wolds (St. Michael)
GARTON-upon-the-Wolds (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Driffield, wapentake of Dickering, E. riding of York, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Driffield; containing 563 inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation 4050 acres, chiefly arable, and partly the property of Sir Tatton Sykes, Bart.; the soil is various. The village is neatly built, and the surrounding scenery is pleasingly enriched with wood. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown; impropriator, Sir T. Sykes; net income, £125: the tithes were commuted for land in 1774. The church is an ancient edifice, with portions of modern date, and retains some interesting details of Norman character. There is a place of worship for dissenters.
Garvestone (St. Margaret)
GARVESTONE (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Mitford and Launditch, hundred of Mitford, W. division of Norfolk, 5 miles (S. S. E.) from East Dereham, on the road to Hingham; containing 386 inhabitants. It comprises 802a. 31p., of which 594 acres are arable, and 193 pasture. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 16., and in the gift of the Rev. F. E. J. Valpy: the tithes have been commuted for £240, and the glebe comprises 12 acres. The church is in the early and later English styles, with a square embattled tower, and contains considerable remains of stained glass.
Garway (St. Michael)
GARWAY (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Monmouth, Lower division of the hundred of Wormelow, county of Hereford, 7 miles (N. W.) from Monmouth; containing 574 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the left bank of the river Munnow, which separates the county from that of Monmouth; it comprises 3582 acres, whereof 249 are waste land or common, chiefly the portion forming Garway Hill. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £81; patron, W. R. Jenkins, Esq.; impropriator, Lord Southwell, whose tithes have been commuted for £230. The church is a small edifice, the nave of which is separated from the chancel by a fine Norman arch, supported by several pillars in the same style: the belfry tower was used as a prison during the great rebellion. Near the church was a commandery of the knights of St. John of Jerusalem, originally belonging to the Knights Templars: the dove cote, a curious circular tower with a crypt roof, is the only portion of the building remaining. About half a mile north of the church was a chapel, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene; but no remains now exist.
Gasper, or Brook
GASPER, or Brook, a tything, in the parish of Stourton, union of Wincanton, hundred of NortonFerris, E. division of Somerset; containing 288 inhabitants. It is situated in the most eastern part of the union, upon the borders of the county of Wilts, in which the remainder of the parish is included.
Gasthorpe (St. Nicholas)
GASTHORPE (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union and hundred of Guilt-Cross, W. division of Norfolk, 4½ miles (S.) from East Harling; containing 111 inhabitants. The parish is bounded by the river Ouse, which separates it from the county of Suffolk; it comprises by measurement 864 acres, the greater part arable. The living is a rectory not in charge, united to that of Riddlesworth: the tithes have been commuted for £118, and the glebe comprises 20 acres. The church is in ruins.
Gatcomb (St. Olave)
GATCOMB (St. Olave), a parish, in the liberty of West Medina, Isle of Wight division of the county of Southampton, 3 miles (S. S. W.) from Newport; containing 306 inhabitants. The parish comprises much pleasingly diversified scenery, and from various points are interesting views: stone of excellent quality for building is quarried. Gatcomb Park, the seat of a branch of the ancient family of Worsley, of Appuldurcombe, originally of Worsley, in the county of Lancaster, is a handsome residence. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £25. 18. 9., and in the patronage of the University of Oxford, in trust for the principal of St. Edmund's Hall; net income, £646. The church has a square embattled tower crowned with pinnacles, and contains a figure carved in wood, supposed to be the effigy of its ancient patroness.
GATEACRE, a hamlet, in the township of Little Woolton, parish of Childwall, union of Prescot, hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire, 6 miles (E. by S.) from Liverpool. This place is beautifully situated in a well-wooded vale, and is adorned with several gentlemen's residences. Belle Vale is the seat of James Mulleneaux, Esq.; Woodlands, the property of John Holden, Esq.; and Kendal Cottage, the residence of Thomas Rodick, Esq. In the village is a Unitarian place of worship, built in 1698, which has an endowment of 20 acres of land, with a house for the minister. The Rev. William Shepherd, LL.D., author of the Life of Poggio Bracciolini, and other works, was minister here from 1793 to his death in 1847: the accomplished William Roscoe attended the chapel. An infant school here is connected with the parish church.
Gate-Burton.—See Burton, Gate.
GATEFORTH, a township, in the parish of Brayton, union of Selby, Lower division of the wapentake of Barkstone-Ash, W. riding of York, 5 miles (S. W. by W.) from Selby; containing 258 inhabitants. The township comprises about 1400 acres of land, of which the soil is sandy. Gateforth House, the seat of Miss Theodosia Brooke, is a spacious and elegant mansion, with fine pleasure-grounds attached. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Miss Brooke, by whose father the chapel, a neat edifice, was erected at an expense of £4000, and endowed with £120 per annum; there is a handsome parsonage-house, with three acres of land, lately presented by Miss Brooke.
Gateley (St. Helen)
GATELEY (St. Helen), a parish, in the union of Mitford and Launditch, hundred of Launditch, W. division of Norfolk, 5½ miles (S. E. by S.) from Fakenkam; containing 129 inhabitants, and comprising 1490a. 27p. The living is a discharged vicarage, annexed to the rectory of Brisley, and valued in the king's books at £3. 2. 8½. The great tithes, belonging to Christ's College, Cambridge, have been commuted for £203, and the vicarial for £142; there is a glebe of 27 acres. The church is in the early and decorated English styles, with a square embattled tower.
GATENBY, a township, in the parish of Burneston, union of Bedale, wapentake of Hallikeld, N. riding of York, 4¾ miles (E.) from Bedale; containing 69 inhabitants. It comprises 849a. 15p. of land, partly the property of the Duke of Cleveland: its small and scattered hamlet is situated on an eminence, on the west side of Swaledale. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £85. 14., and the vicarial for £49.