A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Shabbington (St. Mary Magdalene)
SHABBINGTON (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Thame, hundred of Ashendon, county of Buckingham, 2½ miles (W. by N.) from Thame; containing 366 inhabitants. It is bounded on the east and south by the river Thame. The living is a vicarage, endowed with a portion of the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £10. 9. 7.; the patronage belongs to Mrs. M. Wroughton, and the landowners are impropriators of the remainder of the rectorial tithes. The incumbent's tithes have been commuted for £380; the glebe comprises 90 acres.
Shackerstone (St. Peter)
SHACKERSTONE (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Market-Bosworth, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 5 miles (N. W.) from Market-Bosworth; containing, with the hamlet of Odestone, 524 inhabitants, of whom 344 are in the township of Shackerstone. The parish comprises by measurement 1100 acres, of which two-thirds are meadow and pasture, and the remainder arable; the surface is undulated, and the soil clay, intermixed with marl. The river Sence and the Ashby-de-Ia-Zouch canal pass through. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 2. 3½.; net income, £150; patron. Earl Howe: the tithes were commuted for land in 1769. The church is chiefly in the early English style, with some Norman details: it was restored in 1846.
SHADFORTH, a chapelry, in the parish of Pittington, S. division of Easington ward, union, and N. division of the county, of Durham, 4½ miles (E. by S.) from Durham; containing 2000 inhabitants. It consists of the township of Shadforth and one-half of that of Sherburn, comprising by computation 3000 acres. The surface is varied, and marked by long ridges of hills, with valleys intervening; the soil in the vales is of a productive kind, but very inferior on the higher land. The greater portion of the population is employed in collieries, the coal being abundant and of the best quality; and there are several quarries of limestone, which is used for building purposes and for the roads, and also burned into lime. The York and Newcastle railway passes near. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with the rectorial tithes of Shadforth and Pittington townships, and in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Durham: the tithes have been commuted for £266, and the glebe consists of about 12 acres. The chapel or church is a neat structure in the early English Style, erected in 1839, at an expense of £1100, and containing 500 sittings, of which all are free: it is dedicated to St. Cuthbert. There are places of worship for Independents, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans. One of the towers of an ancient castellated mansion which belonged to Walter de Ludworth, still remains.
Shadingfield (St. John the Baptist)
SHADINGFIELD (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union and hundred of Wangford, E. division of Suffolk, 4½ miles (S.) from Beccles; containing 177 inhabitants, and comprising 1369 acres. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £12, and in the gift of Lord Braybrooke: the tithes have been commuted for £303 to the rector, and £6. 14. to an impropriator; and the glebe consists of 7 acres. The church is chiefly in the early English style.
Shadoxhurst (St. Peter and St. Paul)
SHADOXHURST (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of West Ashford, hundred of Blackbourne, Lower division of the lathe of Scray, W. division of Kent, 5½ miles (S. W.) from Ashford; containing 243 inhabitants. It comprises. 1943a. 29p., of which 460 acres are arable, 726 woodland, 405 pasture, 114 meadow, and 20 in hop plantations: the surface is generally flat. The village is situated in a deeply secluded spot. The South-Eastern railway passes through the parish. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 13., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £123. 16., and the glebe comprises 50 acres. The church is a small ancient edifice. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Shadwell (St. Paul)
SHADWELL (St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Stepney, Tower division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex, 1½ mile (E. by S.) from London; containing 10,060 inhabitants. This place, formerly called Chadwelle, took its name from a spring dedicated to St. Chad: previously to the year 1669, it was a hamlet or chapelry in Stepney, but it was then made a distinct parish by act of parliament. It is situated on the northern bank of the river Thames, and comprises several streets which are lighted with gas. The inhabitants are supplied with water from the East London works. That portion of the parish lying near the river, called Lower Shadwell, is chiefly inhabited by ship-chandlers, biscuit-bakers, provision merchants, mast-makers, sail-makers, anchor-smiths, coopers, and other traders connected with the shipping interest. There are also some roperies. Shadwell is within the jurisdiction of the Thames Police-office. The living is a discharged rectory; net income, £352; patron, the Dean of St. Paul's. The church is a handsome modern edifice, with a tower of stone surmounted by a small elegant spire, and occupies the site of the old structure. There are places of worship for Independents, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans. The parochial school, established in 1699, was rebuilt on an enlarged scale in 1837, and is now conducted on the national plan; the Protestant dissenters' original charity school, situated in Shakspeare's-walk, was founded in 1712. Ten almshouses were built for the widows of seamen with funds bequeathed by Capt. James Cooke, and his wife Alice; but being without endowment, they fell into decay. John Carr having left property for the poor, vested in the purchase of £7300 three per cents., almshouses have been erected and endowed for 30 widows of poor seamen. Matthew Mead, a celebrated dissenting minister, was appointed to the cure of the chapel at Shadwell, by Cromwell, in 1658, and was ejected for nonconformity in 1662; his son Richard, an eminent physician, was born in the parish.
SHADWELL, a township, in the parish of Thorner, Lower division of the wapentake of Skyrack, W. riding of York, 5¾ miles (N. N. E.) from Leeds; containing 278 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 1250 acres; and includes Red Hall, an ancient mansion which was the birthplace of one of the dukes of Norfolk. A church was erected in 1842: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Vicar of Thorner, with an income of £100. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment, under an act of inclosure, in the year 1803. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
SHAFTESBURY, or Shaston, a borough and market-town, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Moncton- up -Wimborne, county of Dorset, 28 miles (N. N. E.) from Dorchester, and 101 (W. S. W.) from London, on the great road from London to Exeter; containing 3170 inhabitants. The origin of this town has given rise to much conjecture. It is supposed by some to have had existence even prior to the birth of Christ, and to have been called Caer Calladwr. But that which appears to be the most probable period of its foundation is the reign of King Alfred; in confirmation of which, Camden states, that in the time of William of Malmesbury an old stone was to be seen, with an inscription purporting that King Alfred built the city (if we may so render fecit) in 880, the eighth year of his reign. The Saxon derivation of the name from Sceaft, signifying the point of a hill, is thought to be in allusion to the situation of the town. A Benedictine nunnery, founded here, has been ascribed to various persons. Camden, following William of Malmesbury, attributes it to Elgiva, wife of Edmund, great grandson to King Alfred; but Leland and many other writers assert the latter monarch to have been its founder, and his daughter the first abbess. To this abbey the remains of Edward the Martyr were removed after his murder at Corfe-Castle. It appears to have been much resorted to by pilgrims, amongst whom was King Canute, who died here; and the extent of its endowments may be estimated from the fact of their value at its dissolution being £1166 per annum: the remains, however, are inconsiderable. The importance of the monastery naturally increased that of the town, which is reported to have contained, at an early period, ten parochial churches: in the time of Edward the Confessor three mints were established here, and according to a survey made shortly before the Norman Conquest, the place contained 104 houses, and three mintmasters.
The town is situated on a high hill, with a gradual rise on the east and south-east, but more precipitous on the west and south-west; and is at the extremity of the county of Dorset, bordering on that of Wilts. It commands extensive views over both those counties and also over Somersetshire. The streets have been improved of late years, by the removal of obstructions and the erection of some good dwelling-houses and shops. The inhabitants are supplied with water from wells of great depth on the hill: formerly they were chiefly supplied from the adjoining parish of Motcombe, which gave rise to a curious customary acknowledgment, called the Byzant, now discontinued. The manufacture of shirtbuttons, once carried on to a considerable extent, has very much declined. There is an extensive country trade. The market is on Saturday, and is well furnished with all kinds of commodities; fairs are held on the Saturday before Palm-Sunday, June 24th, and Nov. 23rd.
This is a very ancient borough, and is described as such in Domesday book, but it was not incorporated till the reign of Queen Elizabeth, who, according to Mr. Hutchins, granted its first charter, appointing a mayor, recorder, twelve aldermen, a bailiff, and common-council. No charter, however, can be found prior to that bestowed by James I. in 1604, which was followed by one of Charles II. The corporation now consists of a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors, under the act 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76; and the mayor and late mayor are justices of the peace, concurrently with the county magistrates. The town first sent members to parliament in the 23rd of Edward I., and continued to do so without interruption till the passing of the act 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, since which time it has returned only one; the borough now comprises an area of 5644 acres, and the mayor is the returning officer. The powers of the county debt-court of Shaftesbury, established in 1847, extend over the registrationdistricts of Shaftesbury, Mere, Tisbury, and Sturminster, and part of the district of Blandford. Petty-sessions for the division are held on the first Tuesday in every month. A handsome town-hall was erected, at an expense of about £3000 by the late Marquess of Westminster.
The town comprises the parishes of St. Peter, containing 1101; Holy Trinity, 1145; and St. James, including the liberty of Alcester, 924 inhabitants. The living of St. Peter's is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 10. 2½., and, with the ancient parishes of St. Lawrence and St. Martin, united to the living of the Holy Trinity, valued at £4. 1. 10½. It is in the gift of the Earl of Shaftesbury, and the tithes have been commuted for £171. 7. St. Peter's church, although it has undergone many modern alterations, is of considerable antiquity, and contains a curiously carved font, and a very old monument supposed to have been removed from the abbey. The church of the Holy Trinity, an ancient structure said to have been enlarged by Sir Thomas Arundel in the reign of Elizabeth, was taken down, and rebuilt upon a larger scale, in 1841, by subscription, and contains a beautiful east window presented by the late Marquess of Westminster. The churchyard is spacious, and adjoining it may be seen the remains of the abbey wall. The living of St. James' is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £1. 11. 0½., and in the gift of the Earl of Shaftesbury: the tithes have been commuted for £399, and the glebe comprises 4 acres. The church is a small ancient fabric. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, and Wesleyans. A free school was founded and endowed by Mr. William Lush, in 1719. Spiller's hospital, for ten men, was established and endowed by Sir Henry Spiller, in 1642; and an almshouse for sixteen women was founded by Matthew Chubb, in 1611, and endowed by him and several other benefactors. The union of Shaftesbury comprises nineteen parishes or places, and contains a population of 13,106. On Castle Hill, an eminence near the town, is a small mount surrounded by a shallow ditch, which some have conjectured to be the site of a castle, but which by others is supposed to have been a Roman intrenchment. Shaftesbury is the birthplace of the Rev. James Granger, author of the Biographical History of England. It gives the title of Earl to the family of Ashley-Cooper.
SHAFTO, EAST, a township, in the parish of Hartburn, union of Castle ward, N. E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 11¾ miles (W. S. W.) from Morpeth; containing 38 inhabitants. This place is of considerable antiquity, being mentioned in records of the 13th century. In 1378 Matthew Bolton, vicar of Newcastle, and others, were feoffees for founding a chantry in the "chapel of Shafthowe," and endowing it with 100 acres of arable and pasture. The Shaftos, Aynsleys, and Vaughans appear to have been the most important landowners. The township comprises about 570 acres. The mansion-house here is sheltered by higher grounds on the north, and by a grove of wood on the west, and though at a considerable altitude, is agreeably situated. Behind it rises a lofty verdant hill termed Shafto Crag, adjacent to which is a spacious cave formed in the solid rock. Slight remains of the chapel are still to be seen.
SHAFTO, WEST, a township, in the parish of Hartburn, union of Castle ward, N. E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 12½ miles (W. by S.) from Morpeth; containing 31 inhabitants. This place, which was formerly the seat of the Aynsley family, is situated on a dry knoll, a little to the south of Shafto Crag. A colliery here abounds with the fossil called by the pitmen salmon.
SHAFTON, a township, in the parish of Felkirk, wapentake of Staincross, W. riding of York, 5 miles (N. E.) from Barnsley; containing 264 inhabitants. It comprises 810 acres of land, the whole fertile with the exception of about 50 acres of waste called Ferry Moor. The substratum contains coal of good quality, and a shaft has been sunk for a depth of 100 yards to a seam about 5 feet in thickness, which is wrought with success. The village is pleasantly situated on the acclivities of an eminence. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Shalbourn (St. Michael)
SHALBOURN (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Hungerford, hundred of Kinwardstone, Marlborough and Ramsbury, and S. divisions of Wilts, 5 miles (S. S. W.) from Hungerford; containing, with the tythings of Oxenwood and Newtown, and the hamlet of Bagshot, 1043 inhabitants, of whom 620 are in the village of Shalbourn. The parish comprises about 6000 acres of land, principally arable; the surface is varied, and the meadows are watered by a copious stream issuing from a spring near the village, which in its course turns several mills. The substratum contains green, white, and red sandstone, and is supposed to comprise coal also, but no mines have been opened. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £14. 17. 6.; net income, £271; patrons, the Dean and Canons of Windsor; impropriator, the Marquess of Ailesbury. The church is principally in the Norman style. In the parish is an ancient chapel in a dilapidated state, with a house attached to it called West-court, thought to have been a retreat for the monks of Sarum. On the edge of the down, here forming a continuation of Salisbury Plain, is a tumulus commanding prospects over several counties. Fragments of human skeletons, supposed to be the remains of persons slain in the wars during the heptarchy, are often met with in the neighbourhood; and Wansdyke, the line of division between the kingdoms of Mercia and the West Saxons, runs along one boundary of the parish. Here is a chalybeate spring, formerly in great repute.
SHALBOURN, WEST, a township, in the parish of Shalbourn, union of Hungerford, hundred of Kinwardstone, Marlborough and Ramsbury, and S. divisions of the county of Wilts, 5¼ miles (S. S. W.) from Hungerford; containing 245 inhabitants.
Shalden (St. Peter and St. Paul)
SHALDEN (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Alton, hundred of Odiham, Alton and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 2¾ miles (N. W.) from Alton; containing 185 inhabitants. The surface is finely undulated. The manor-house is an ancient structure, and near it are some remains of an intrenchment. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 15. 10., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £330; the glebe comprises 23 acres.
SHALDON, a hamlet, in the parish of St. Nicholas, hundred of Wontford, union of Newton-Abbott, Teignbridge and S. divisions of Devon, 5¼ miles (E.) from Newton-Abbott; containing 538 inhabitants. This hamlet is composed of a tract of land recovered from the sea by an embankment, and is pleasantly situated on the south bank of the river Teign, across which a bridge has been erected, communicating with Teignmouth. It contains many genteel villas. A church was erected about 150 years since, by the Carews, of Haccombe; and there are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Wesleyans.
SHALFLEET, a parish, in the liberty of West Medina, Isle of Wight division of the county of Southampton; containing 1218 inhabitants. The parish extends across the island from Hamstead Ledge on the north to Hulverstone on the southern shore, and stretches along the northern coast from the town of Yarmouth to Newton bay. It comprises by measurement 6200 acres of land, of which the soil varies greatly in quality, but is generally strong, producing good crops of wheat and beans. A stream abounding with trout intersects the parish. The river Newton is navigable with the tide nearly to the village; and in the bay is a quay accessible to ships of considerable burthen, at which coal is imported, and bricks, tiles, and pottery, made at the Hamstead kiln, are shipped. The substratum contains stone, of which there are some quarries at Dodpits, worked chiefly for building purposes. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £18. 12. 1., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £127; impropriators, Sir Richard Simeon, Bart., and Miss Kirkland. The church is partly Norman and partly of later date, with a low massive embattled tower surmounted by a spire of more recent erection, and a remarkable Norman doorway having a rudely-sculptured impost or lintel filling up the head of the arch, said to represent a bishop, the arms of the figure being extended, and the hands resting on animals resembling griffins. The interior of the church is spacious, and the south aisle is separated from the nave by a series of columns of Purbeck marble. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
Shalford (St. Andrew)
SHALFORD (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Braintree, hundred of Hinckford, N. division of Essex, 5 miles (N. N. W.) from Braintree; containing 832 inhabitants. The parish is supposed to have derived its name from an ancient ford over the Blackwater, by which river it is bounded on the east. It is about three miles in length, and two in breadth; the soil in some parts is a loam intermixed with sand, and in others a heavy wet loam with a substratum of brown clay. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7; net income, £155; patron, the Prebendary of Shalford in the Cathedral of Wells. The church is an ancient edifice, with a tower.
Shalford (St. Mary)
SHALFORD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Hambledon, First division of the hundred of Blackheath, W. division of Surrey, 1 mile (S. S. E.) from Guildford; containing 996 inhabitants. It is situated on the road to Brighton, and intersected by the Wey and Arun Junction canal. Shalford House, which occupies a low yet pleasant situation near the church, was originally built about the year 1600, and was nearly rebuilt in the last century, since which, several alterations and improvements have been made: there is a good collection of pictures. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the living of Bramley annexed, valued in the king's books at £8. 4. 7½., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £240; impropriator, Sir H. E. Austen. The church was rebuilt in 1790, chiefly at the expense of Robert Austen, Esq., to whose memory there is a mural tablet in the chancel, by Bacon.
Shalstone, or Shaldeston (St. Edward)
SHALSTONE, or Shaldeston (St. Edward), a parish, in the union, hundred, and county of Buckingham, 4 miles (N. W. by W.) from Buckingham; containing 201 inhabitants. It comprises about 1200 acres, of which 600 are arable, 500 meadow and pasture, and 100 woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 0. 5.; net income, £199; patron, G. Jervoise, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1767.
SHAMBLEHURST, a tything, in the parish and union of South Stoneham, hundred of Mansbridge, Southampton and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 4¼ miles (W. by S.) from Bishop's Waltham; containing 1405 inhabitants, of whom 1007 are in the south, and 398 in the north, division. The union workhouse is situated in the tything.
Shangton (St. Nicholas)
SHANGTON (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Harborough, hundred of Gartree, S. division of the county of Leicester, 6¼ miles (N. by W.) from Harborough; containing 39 inhabitants, and consisting of about 1240 acres. Shangton Holt, comprising about 30 acres, is one of the finest covers for foxes in the county. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 13. 4., and in the patronage of Sir J. Isham, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £318. 16. 4., and there are 29 acres of glebe. About threequarters of a mile from the church is Gartre Bush, where the hundred court was formerly held.
SHANKLIN, a parish, in the liberty of East Medina, Isle of Wight division of the county of Southampton, 9½ miles (S. E.) from Newport; containing 462 inhabitants. The parish comprises 672a. 2r. 22p., of which 341 acres are arable, 248 pasture, and 75 woodland; the substratum abounds with building-stone, which is extensively quarried. The village occupies a sequestered site, sheltered by lofty downs which nearly inclose it on two sides, yet sufficiently elevated to command a fine view of Sandown bay and the ocean; it contains several lodging-houses, and two excellent hotels. At a short distance is a chasm called Shanklin Chine, which, extending a considerable way inland from the coast, and being overgrown with trees, shrubs, and brushwood, contrasted at intervals with bold masses of rock or brown earth, forms a beautifully romantic scene. The parish was anciently part of that of Brading, from which it was separated in the reign of Stephen, when the church was founded by Geoffrey de L'Isle. The living is annexed to the rectory of Bonchurch. In the church, which is a small ancient edifice, remarkable for the simplicity of its style, is an oak-chest curiously carved, with a Latin inscription dated 1512, the gift of Thomas Silksted, prior of Winchester.
Shap (St. Michael)
SHAP (St. Michael), a small town and a parish, in West ward and union, county of Westmorland, 6 miles (N. W.) from Orton; containing, with the chapelry of Swindale, and part of Mardale, 996 inhabitants. It comprises about 51,000 acres. The soil is various, a considerable portion of it peat-moss; the surface is hilly, and the river Lowther flows through the parish, while the beautiful lake Hawswater bounds it on the west. The substratum contains abundance of limestone, much blue slate, and a remarkably fine range of red granite; the surrounding country is highly interesting to the geologist. Shap is resorted to for the efficacy of its mineral spring, which closely resembles that of Harrogate: the well or spa is about three miles from the town, on the bank of a rivulet separating the parish from that of Crosby-Ravensworth. For the accommodation of the increased number of visiters, the late Earl of Lonsdale erected a handsome hotel, the grounds of which are enriched with thriving plantations. The town consists chiefly of one long street, on the road between Penrith and Kendal. Here is the highest point on the line of the Lancaster and Carlisle railway. The gradients on this part of the undertaking are 1 in 75: the cutting at the top of the rise is 900 feet above the level of the sea, and more than half a mile long, ranging from 50 to 61 feet in depth. Engines are constantly kept here, to assist carriages up the incline. In 1687, a charter was obtained for a market on Wednesday, and three fairs on April 23rd, August 1st. and September 17th, each for two days; but they have been long in disuse, and at present only a small market is held on Monday, and a fair for cattle and pedlery on May 4th. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 15. 7½.; net income, £73; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Lonsdale: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1767. A gallery has been erected in the church, and 110 additional free sittings provided. At Swindale and Mardale are separate incumbencies. Thomas Jackson, in 1703, gave a messuage and some land for the erection and support of a school; the income is £25. The late Earl of Lonsdale erected a handsome school, which he endowed. About one mile west from the town are the venerable ruins and tolerably perfect tower of Shap Abbey, founded about 1150: at the Dissolution the revenue was estimated at £166.10. 6. At Hardendale, in the parish, Dr. John Mill, the learned editor of the Greek Testament, was born in 1645.
Shapwick, (St. Bartholomew)
SHAPWICK, (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of Wimborne and Cranborne, hundred of Badbury, Wimborne division of Dorset, 4½ miles (S. E.) from Blandford-Forum; containing 437 inhabitants. The river Stour bounds the parish on the south. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 9. 4½.; net income, £379; patron, Lord Rivers. Here was a small Carthusian priory, a cell to that of Sheen, in Surrey.
Shapwick (St. Mary)
SHAPWICK (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Bridgwater, hundred of Whitley, W. division of Somerset, 6¾ miles (W. by S.) from Glastonbury, on the road to Bridgwater; containing 402 inhabitants. The substratum contains blue lias, which is quarried as occasion requires. A spring here, called Holy Well, anciently belonging to the monks of Glastonbury, was analyzed by Dr. Beddoes, of Bristol, and found to resemble the Harrogate water. A canal from the Bristol Channel at Highbridge passes by the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of Ashcott annexed, valued in the king's books at £9.13. 4.; net income, £215 ; patron, incumbent, and impropriator, the Rev. G. H. Templer. The church is, an ancient structure in the early English style, and contains some monuments of the Bull family.