A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Knockin (St. Mary)
KNOCKIN (St. Mary), a parish, in the hundred of Oswestry, N. division of Salop, 5¾ miles (S. S. E.) from Oswestry; containing, with an extra-parochial farm called Heath, 271 inhabitants. The parish derives its name from a castle founded here by the family of L'Estrange, who possessed the manor in the reigns of Henry II. and Henry III., the latter of whom directed a precept to the sheriff of the county, commanding the aid thereof, to enable John L'Estrange to erect part of the "Castle of Cnukyn," and to repair the rest for the defence of the borders. His son received from the same monarch the grant of a weekly market, and a fair on the eve and morrow of the festival of St. John the Baptist, both of which are disused. In the reign of Edward III., Madoc, a Welsh nobleman, headed an insurrection, and defeated Lord Strange at Cnukyn. Thomas Stavely, first earl of Derby of that name, was, in his father's lifetime, summoned to parliament, by the name of Lord Strange, of Knokyn. Few vestiges of the castle remain, except the keep, which may still be seen. The living is a discharged rectory, in the gift of the Earl of Bradford: the tithes have been commuted for £328. The church, which has been renovated and enlarged at the cost of the Earl of Bradford and the parishioners, was re-opened for divine service in April, 1847.
Knoddishall (St. Lawrence)
KNODDISHALL (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union and hundred of Blything, E. division of Suffolk, 3 miles (E. by S.) from Saxmundham; containing 397 inhabitants, and comprising 1750 acres. The living is a discharged rectory, with the ancient chapelry of Buxlow, valued in the king's books at £11; net income, £350; patrons, the Trustees of the late T. Ayton, Esq. Buxlow chapel is in ruins.
Knook (St. Margaret)
KNOOK (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Warminster, hundred of Heytesbury, Warminster and S. divisions of Wilts, 1 mile (E. S. E.) from Heytesbury; containing 255 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Bath to Salisbury. The living is a perpetual curacy, usually held with that of Heytesbury; net value, £60; patron, the Bishop of Salisbury. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment, under an act of inclosure, in 1792.
Knossington (St. Peter)
KNOSSINGTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Oakham, hundred of Gartree, S. division of the county of Leicester, 4½ miles (W. by S.) from Oakham; containing 252 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1250 acres, chiefly pasture; the surface is very hilly, and the soil principally sand, in some parts alternated with clay. The low grounds are watered by a small river called the Gnash, which has its source in the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 11. 8.; net income, £270; patron, Thomas Frewen, Esq.: the glebe comprises 42 acres. The church is an ancient structure, in the early English style; the tower has been rebuilt, and 70 additional sittings have been obtained. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. An hospital for four widows of beneficed clergymen, who have each a stipend of £30 per annum, was founded by William Smith, of Croxton, who, in 1711, endowed it with an estate in the vale of Belvoir; the institution, having fallen into disuse, was revived in 1802, under an order in chancery, and a handsome building of brick was erected at an expense of £1096.
Knotting (St. Margaret)
KNOTTING (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Bedford, hundred of Stodden, county of Bedford, 4½ miles (S. E.) from Higham-Ferrers; containing 175 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, to which that of Souldrop was united in 1735, valued in the king's books at £10. 6. 8.; patron, the Duke of Bedford. The tithes have been commuted for £319. 18., and there is a glebehouse, with about half an acre of garden-ground.
KNOTTINGLY, a township, in the parish of Pontefract, Upper division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York, 1¼ mile (E. S. E.) from FerryBridge; containing 4304 inhabitants. This township, which is situated on the navigable river Aire, comprises by measurement 1536 acres; the soil is fertile, and the surrounding scenery in many points romantic. The substratum is chiefly limestone, of excellent quality both for building and for burning into lime, and large quantities are quarried and sent off for the supply of distant parts, both in blocks and when converted into lime. On the banks of the Aire are the King's Mills, erected soon after the Conquest, and which, though under other circumstances, are still in use. The village is well built, on the south bank of the Aire, near its junction with the Knottingly and Goole canal; and consists of several streets, and ranges of houses in detached situations. There are a few houses in the Elizabethan style of architecture, and evidently of that date; and a fine old Hall has recently been pulled down, to get at the limestone beneath. Here are some malting-houses and a very large brewery; a pottery in which earthenware of every description is manufactured, affording employment to more than 200 persons; another, on a smaller scale, in which about 60 persons are engaged; a tobacco-pipe manufactory on a large scale, a considerable tannery, several roperies, and various other establishments. The trade is much facilitated by the river and canal: the canal was formed by the Aire and Calder Navigation Company, by whom, also, the river was rendered more serviceable. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £129; patron, the Vicar of Pontefract. The chapel, dedicated to St. Botolph, is an ancient edifice of brick, with a campanile turret, and is now appropriated to the western part of the township. The eastern part was made an ecclesiastical district, called East Knottingly, in 1846, under the provisions of the act 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37; and a church, dedicated to Christ, is in course of erection, of which the estimated cost is £2000: it is a cruciform structure in the early English style, and will accommodate 800 persons. The living is in the gift of the Crown and the Archbishop of York, alternately. There are places of worship for Independents, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans. Near the Swan inn is an ancient house, formerly a convent.
KNOTT-LANES, a division, in the parish and union of Ashton-under-Lyne, hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 5¼ miles (N. E. by E.) from Manchester; containing 5521 inhabitants. The division consists of the northern and central parts of the parish. It claims antiquity for its name as high as the time of Canute, the Dane, who is said to have halted here on his march from the western to the eastern coast: Knott is inferred to be a corruption of Nute, an abbreviation of Canute. Several of the old Lanes are narrow and winding, and being in many parts overhung with trees, their appearance is romantic. There are a few ancient and some good modern residences, among the former of which may be mentioned, Bardsley House, once the seat of a family of the same name; Taunton Hall, the seat of the Claytons as early as the reign of Henry VI.; and Alt-Hill, the former abode of the family of Lees. This division, the centre of which is about three miles north of the town of Ashton, comprises about 1030 customary acres of land; and contains several small villages and hamlets, whose population is employed in cotton spinning and weaving, and in collieries. The Fairbottom canal, here, is of great advantage in the conveyance of coal. An episcopal chapel is situated at Lees, or Hey, a village in the extreme northern portion of the district; and there are some schools, one of which, connected with the chapel, has a small endowment.—See Bardsley and Lees.
KNOTTY-ASH, an ecclesiastical district, in the district parish of West Derby, parish of Walton-on-the-Hill, union and hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire, 4 miles (E.) from Liverpool, on the road to Prescot. The situation of this locality is very beautiful, and its air salubrious; it contains several handsome mansions, and some of the principal merchants of Liverpool have seats and villas here. Knotty-Ash House is the property of the Worrall family. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Trustees; income, £150, with a good house. The church, dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, was built in 1836, and is a handsome edifice in the early English style, with a tower surmounted by a spire. There are schools in connexion with the church.
KNOWBURY, an ecclesiastical district, partly in the parish of Cainham, hundred of Stottesden, and partly in the parish of Bitterley, hundred of Overs, union of Ludlow, S. division of Salop, 4 miles (E.) from Ludlow. It stands elevated, on the Clee hills. Iron-ore of excellent quality, being remarkably elastic, is obtained; and extensive coal-mines are wrought, the produce of which is of a very superior description: some of it is so hard as to be made into beautiful vases, inkstands, and various ornaments. There are also stone-quarries. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Bishop of Hereford, with a net income of £100, and a house. The church, dedicated to St. Paul, and consecrated in January 1840, is a neat edifice with a tower; it stands on the hill side, and is a conspicuous object from all parts of the surrounding country. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists. A school is supported, chiefly by Lady Clive.
Knowle (St. Giles)
KNOWLE (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Chard, hundred of South Petherton, W. division of Somerset, 2¾ miles (S. by W.) from Ilminster; containing 99 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Bishop of Bath and Wells, with a net income of £72. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £60; there are 31 acres of glebe.
Knowle, with Knighton-Sutton
KNOWLE, a village and chapelry, in the parish of Hampton-in-Arden, union of Solihull, Solihull division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of Warwick, 10 miles (S. E.) from Birmingham, and 10 (N. W.) from Warwick; containing 1208 inhabitants. It derives its name from its situation on the summit of a knoll or hill: this hill is supposed to have been the site of a Roman station, and the opinion has been in some degree confirmed by the discovery, in an adjoining field, of an urn containing coins of the Lower Empire. The chapelry comprises 3265a. 3r. 11p., of which 1786 acres are arable, 1434 meadow and pasture, 9 woodland and plantations, and the remainder water and waste; the surface is varied. There are some quarries of limestone, but not now in operation. The village is on the Warwick and Birmingham turnpike-road, and the Warwick and Birmingham canal passes through the chapelry. A fair for cattle and sheep takes place annually, on the first Monday after St. Ann's day; and the petty-sessions for the division are held here, in conjunction with Solihull, on the first Saturday in every alternate month, during the winter season. The chapel, dedicated to St. Ann, is a handsome structure in the later English style, and contains some ancient stalls and fragments of stained glass; a chantry was endowed by Walter Cook, canon of Lincoln, and founder of the chapel, in the reign of Richard II., and at the Dissolution it was valued at £18. 5. 6. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with lands purchased by Queen Anne's Bounty and producing £90 rental, and with £10 per annum from the Commissioners of Woods and Forests; total net income, £130; patron, W. H. J. Wilson, Esq. The great tithes, amounting to £450, are payable to the Master and Brethren of Leicester Hospital, Warwick; and the small tithes, £150, to the vicar of Hampton. There are various benefactions to the poor, the principal being that by Fulk Greville, Esq.
Knowle, Church (St. Peter)
KNOWLE, CHURCH (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Wareham and Purbeck, hundred of Hasilor, Wareham division of Dorset, 1 mile (W.) from Corfe-Castle; containing, with the tythings of Bradle and East Creech, 463 inhabitants, of whom 183 are in the tything of Church-Knowle. The parish forms a vale between two ranges of the Purbeck hills, and comprises 3427 acres, chiefly meadow and pasture land; about 1400 acres are common or waste: the soil in general is a stiff loamy clay. In the northern part are pits of pipeclay of the kind used in the manufacture of the Colebrook-Dale china; the produce is carried by means of a small railroad to the mouth of the Froome, and thence is shipped to various quarters. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £17. 17. 6.; net income, £285; patron, Lieut.-Col. Mansel. The church, which is in the early style of architecture, contains 400 sittings.
KNOWL-END, a township, in the parish of Audley, union of Newcastle-under-Lyme, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 1 mile (S. W.) from Audley; containing 270 inhabitants. It contains a number of scattered houses, and the hamlet of Shaley-Brook.
Knowlton (St. Clement)
KNOWLTON (St. Clement), a parish, in the union and hundred of Eastry, lathe of St. Augustine, E. division of Kent, 4¼ miles (S. E.) from Wingham; containing 27 inhabitants. The parish comprises 428 acres, of which 54 are in wood. The mansion-house was the residence of Sir Cloudesley Shovel, to whom it came by marriage with the widow of Sir John Harborough, whose two sons were drowned with Sir Cloudesley when his vessel was wrecked off the Scilly Isles. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 5. 2½., and in the patronage of Captain D'Aeth: the tithes have been commuted for £120; there are 13½ acres of glebe.
KNOWSLEY, a township, in the parish of Huyton, union of Prescot, hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire, 3¼ miles (N. W.) from Prescot; containing 1302 inhabitants. This place was early held by a family of the local name. It became the property of the Lathom family by the marriage of Sir Robert de Lathom with Catherine, daughter and heiress of Thomas de Knowsley; and passed into the family of Stanley in like manner, in the 14th century, by the marriage of Isabella, daughter of Sir Thomas Lathom, grandson of Sir Robert, with Sir John Stanley. The township comprises 5055 acres, of which about 2000 are woodland and park; the soil is a stiff clay, and moss: coal exists, but is not wrought. Knowsley Hall, the principal seat of the Earl of Derby, is situated here. The mansion stands on an elevation in the park, and has evidently been erected at different times; its most ancient part is of stone, with two round towers, and is said to have been raised by the first earl of Derby, for the reception of his son-in-law, King Henry VII., on whose head the crown, taken from Richard III. after the battle of Bosworth, was placed by this nobleman, who had been one of the main instruments of Richmond's victory. The house has undergone vast improvements since the present earl succeeded to the property. It contains a splendid gallery of paintings by the first Italian and Flemish masters, with a number of portraits of members of the family, rendered peculiarly interesting as serving to perpetuate the likenesses, costumes, &c., of many personages distinguished for their bravery, magnanimity, loyalty, and sufferings. The park is the largest in the county, being ten miles in circumference; is abundantly wooded, and well stocked with deer. Knowsley has been the principal seat of the earls of Derby since the injury that was sustained by Lathom House in the parliamentary war. The river Alt takes its rise here, and empties itself into the sea at Altcar, passing Sefton. The tithes have been commuted for £200. A church was erected in 1843, at a cost of £3500; it is dedicated to St. Mary, is in the early English style, and was built and endowed by the Earl of Derby. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £300, with a house; patron, the Earl; by whom schools for boys and girls are supported.