A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Knowstone, East and West (St. Peter)
KNOWSTONE, EAST and WEST (St. Peter), a parish, in the union and hundred of South Molton, South Molton and N. divisions of the county of Devon, 7 miles (E. by S.) from South Molton; containing 578 inhabitants. The parish comprises 4994 acres, of which 1439 are common or waste. The living is a vicarage, with that of Molland united, valued in the king's books at £26. 10. 10.; patrons, the family of Throckmorton. The church has a plain Norman door.
Knoyle, East (St. Mary)
KNOYLE, EAST (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Mere, hundred of Downton, Hindon and S. divisions of the county of Wilts, 2¼ miles (S. W.) from Hindon; containing, with the tythings of Milton and Upton, 1038 inhabitants, of whom 541 are in the tything of Knoyle. The parish comprises 5558 acres, of which 125 are common or waste land. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £30, and in the gift of the Bishop of Winchester: the tithes have been commuted for £910, and the glebe comprises 111 acres. The gallery of the church has been enlarged. There is a place of worship for Baptists. The sum of £11 per annum, arising from bequests, is applied towards the support of a school; and there is a fund of about £80 per annum, left by various persons, for apprenticing children, and for the benefit of the poor. The celebrated architect, Sir Christopher Wren, was a native of the parish, of which his father was rector.
KNOYLE, WEST, a parish, in the union and hundred of Mere, Hindon and S. divisions of Wilts, 3 miles (E.) from Mere; containing 206 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the confines of the chalk or down district, which is divided by a range of hills from the clayey and woody district; it comprises 1913 acres, whereof 140 are wood and copse, and about two-thirds of the remainder arable, and one-third pasture. The living is a vicarage, in the gift of the Bishop of Salisbury: the great tithes have been commuted for £418, and the glebe comprises 51 acres. The church is a small structure in the decorated style, with a handsome embattled tower.
KNUSTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Irchester, union of Wellingborough, hundred of Higham-Ferrers, N. division of the county of Northampton; containing 42 inhabitants. It comprises 866a. 1r. 8p., of which 140 acres are grass, and 40 wood. Knuston Hall, the seat of Joseph Gulston, Esq., proprietor of the hamlet, is a neat stone mansion, pleasantly situated on the side of a hill, and built about a century since.
Knutsford (St. John the Baptist)
KNUTSFORD (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Altrincham, E. division of the hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester; containing, with the townships of Bexton, Over Knutsford, Ollerton, and Toft, 4006 inhabitants, of whom 3235 are in the town of Nether Knutsford, 24¾ miles (N. E. by E.) from Chester, and 172½ (N. W. by N.) from London. This place, which is of great antiquity, is situated on the banks of a small stream, across which was formerly a ford. Canute, the Dane, is said to have passed over the ford with his army for the conquest of the northern parts of the kingdom, in the reign of Ethelred I., or that of Edmund Ironside; and it may thence have been called Canute's Ford, from which the town is said to derive its name. This, however, is doubtful: in old deeds and writings, and in Jolly's Mise Book of the County, the name is spelt Knotsford; according to tradition, several generations of the name of Knott had a mill on the stream, and as the working of the mill mainly regulated the depth of water at the ford, the place was called after them Knot's ford. At the Conquest, Knutsford formed part of the barony of Halton, but in the reign of Edward I. it came into the possession of Sir William de Tabley, who obtained for it a charter of incorporation and various privileges, all of which are become obsolete. It appears by documents now in the hands of the Bridgewater family, that the royalty of Nether Knutsford was shared afterwards equally between Sir R. Massey, of Tatton, and the said Sir William de Tabley; and that, on the death of the son of the latter, his share being divided among his daughters, was sold in small parcels. The share of Sir R. Massey is now vested in the Egertons, of Tatton; Richard Brereton, of Tatton, the purchaser of it, having, 32nd of Elizabeth, settled all his estates on Sir Thomas Egerton, lord chancellor of England.
The town consists principally of two long streets, and is well paved, and supplied with water. The houses are in general indifferently built and of mean appearance, but in the immediate vicinity are several handsome seats; the environs are pleasant, and near the town is a good race-course, where races are held in October. The manufacture of thread, which formerly flourished to a considerable extent, has, since the introduction of machinery, given place to the weaving of cotton and silk, in which part of the population is employed, working with hand-looms, for the manufacturers at Manchester and the adjacent towns. The Trent and Mersey canal and the Manchester and Birmingham railway pass within five miles of the town, affording a communication with Liverpool and Manchester, and various other parts of the kingdom. The market is on Saturday; and the fairs, to which a small number of cattle are brought from the neighbouring villages, are on April 23rd, July 10th, and November 8th. A cattle-fair is held at Over Knutsford, on the Tuesday in Whitsun-week. Constables and other officers are appointed at the court leet of Wilbraham Egerton, Esq., lord of the manor, who also holds a court baron; and the hundred court, and quarter-sessions for the county, are held in the town. The powers of the county debt-court of Knutsford, established in 1847, extend over the sub-registration-districts of Knutsford and Wilmslow. The sessions-house and house of correction for the county were erected in 1817; the former is an elegant edifice, comprising spacious court-rooms, and the latter is also commodious. The town is the place of election for the northern division of the shire.
The parish was formerly included in that of Rostherne, from which it was severed by act of parliament in 1744. It comprises by measurement 3912 acres, whereof about 150 are wood, nearly 1000 arable, and the remainder good pasture and meadow land: 499 acres are in the township of Nether Knutsford. The living is a vicarage; income, £245; patrons, the Lords of the four Manors of Over Knutsford, Nether Knutsford and Ollerton, Toft, and Bexton, in rotation; impropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church, Oxford. The church, erected in 1744, is a neat edifice of brick. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, Wesleyans, and Presbyterians. The free grammar school was founded, and endowed with sixteen marks per annum, in the reign of Edward VI., by Sir John Legh, and several sums were subsequently added; a new schoolroom has been built, and some waste land inclosed, which now lets for £24 per annum. A girls' school is supported by Mrs. Egerton, of Tatton, and a parochial school for boys, by subscription; there are various bequests, also, for distribution among the poor, amounting to about £100 per annum. A curious custom prevails in the town; that of strewing the streets with sand in various forms and devices on the occasion of weddings or other festivals: it is peculiar to the place, and to strangers has a very singular appearance.
KNUTSFORD, OVER, a township, in the parish of Knutsford, union of Altrincham, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester, ½ a mile (S. E. by S.) from Nether Knutsford; containing 225 inhabitants, and comprising by measurement 738 acres. The manor of Over Knutsford, together with Norbury Booths, was purchased of William de Tabley, in 1300, by John Legh, Esq., ancestor of Peter Legh, Esq., the present owner of the estate, whose family have been ever since located in this quarter.
KNUTTON, a township, in the parish of Wolstanton, union of Wolstanton and Burslem, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 1 mile (N. E.) from the town of Newcastle; containing 1388 inhabitants. The township comprises 1713 acres, including Knutton Heath, lately an open common, but now inclosed, and on the outskirts of which the Newcastle races are held. Numerous cottages have been erected within the last few years, and there is a silk-mill adjacent to Knutton Heath. The Primitive Methodists have a meeting-house.
KNYPERSLEY, a hamlet, in the parish of Biddulph, poor-law union of Congleton, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 2 miles (S.) from the village of Biddulph. The township abounds with coal-mines. Knypersley Hall is the property of John Bateman, Esq.
KYLOE, a parish, in the union of Berwick-upon-Tweed, in Islandshire, N. division of Northumberland, 5 miles (N.) from Belford; containing, with the townships of Beal with Lowlin, Berrington, Buckton, and Fenwick, 1023 inhabitants, of whom 117 are in the township of Kyloe. This parish, which is on the road from London to Edinburgh, comprises by measurement 8306 acres. Coal is abundant, and two mines are at present in operation; there are also quarries of limestone and whinstone, which are used respectively for burning into lime and for building and road-making. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £138; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Durham; the glebe comprises 227 acres, of which 187 are moorland, situated at some distance. The tithes have been commuted for £154. The church, rebuilt in 1792, stands on the summit of a hill, on the north side of the village, and commands an extensive view, from Berwick bay to Holy Island and the Farn Islands.
KYME, NORTH, a township, in the parish of South Kyme, union of Sleaford, wapentake of Flaxwell, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 7¾ miles (N. E. by E.) from Sleaford; containing 361 inhabiants. This township comprises 3650 acres of land, whereof the eastern part is a low fen, forming a portion of the great level, the drainage of which was undertaken by the Earl of Lincoln, in 1653. In the village, which is pleasantly situated on the Tattershall road, and on the east side of the Car-Dyke, is an ancient cross, repaired in 1826; and near it are traces of a Roman encampment.
Kyme, South (All Saints)
KYME, SOUTH (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Sleaford, wapentake of Flaxwell, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 8½ miles (S. W. by S.) from Tattershall; containing, with the township of North Kyme, 942 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on that part of the Sleaford navigation called Kyme Eau, derived its name from the Kyme family, who were barons by tenure and writ in the reign of Stephen, and had a seat here, mentioned by Leland as a "goodly house and park," of which only the tower now remains. A priory of Black canons was founded in honour of the virgin Mary, in the reign of Henry II.; it was valued at the Dissolution at £138. 4. 9. The parish comprises 8370 acres. An act was passed in 1840 for the more effectual draining of the lands. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £99; patron, Earl Brownlow. The church formed part of the priory, and was a large fabric, but in 1805, it was mostly taken down, and now consists of only one aisle, with a south porch; an arch at the west end covers the bell. Marmaduke Dickenson, in 1711, bequeathed £200, since invested in land producing £45 per annum, to be distributed among the poor. Sir Gilbert Talbois, created Baron of Kyme in the reign of Henry VIII., and who died without issue in 1536, is interred in the church.
Kynnersley, Salop.—See Kinnersley.
KYO, a township, in the parish and union of Lanchester, W. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 10½ miles (N. W.) from Durham; containing 965 inhabitants. It was anciently the estate of the Birtley family, who held it by the service of a rose, of the master of St. Edmund's hospital in Gateshead. The township comprises 1230 acres, and is near the road from Lanchester to Whickham.
Kyre, Great (St. Mary)
KYRE, GREAT (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Tenbury, Upper division of the hundred of Doddingtree, Tenbury and W. divisions of the county of Worchester, 4 miles (S. E. by S.) from Tenbury; containing 160 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the borders of Herefordshire, and the road from Tenbury to Bromyard intersects it from north to south. It consists of 1406 acres, of arable and pasture land, and hopground, with many orchards. Stone is quarried for reparing the roads. Kyre House, pleasantly situated, was formerly the seat of the Pytts family; it now belongs to the family of Childe. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 17. 8½., and in the gift of William Lacon Childe, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £170, and the glebe comprises 37½ acres, and a small house. The church is an irregularly built edifice, with a wood spire: the chancel contains some handsome monuments to the family of Pytts. An almshouse for eight widows, who each receive half-a-crown weekly, with coat and clothing, was founded under the will of Ann Pytts, in 1715.
KYRE, LITTLE, a hamlet, in the parish of Stokebliss, union of Tenbury, Upper division of the hundred of Doddingtree, Tenbury and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 5 miles (S. E. by S.) from Tenbury; containing 144 inhabitants. It is surrounded on three sides by the county of Hereford, and intersected from north to south by the road from Tenbury to Bromyard. Its area is 835 acres, of which 405 are arable, 339 pasture, 16 woodland, and 40 hop-ground. The surface is undulated, the soil a loamy clay, with an impervious clay-marl subsoil: there is a gravel-pit.
KYTES-HARDWICK, a hamlet, in the parish of Leamington-Hastings, union of Rugby, Southam division of the hundred of Knightlow, S. division of the county of Warwick, 5½ miles (N. E.) from Southam, on the road to Rugby; containing 118 inhabitants. The family of "Herdwick," a branch of the "Hastangs," took their name from this place, and some of them are supposed to have resided here. John de Herdwick, in the time of Edward III., held several offices of distinction, and in the first of Richard II. was one of the justices of the peace for the city of Coventry. Another John de Herdwick aided Richmond, afterwards Henry VII., at the battle of Bosworth-Field, and, it is said, by his good conduct as a guide to the army, got the earl the advantage in that fight "of the ground, winde, and sunne." The manor, at this period called Herdwick-Grembald, was conveyed by him, in marriage with one of his daughters, to William Dingley. It next came to Sir T. Trevor, Knt., one of the barons of the exchequer, who bequeathed it to the Wheeler family. The hamlet is situated about a mile and a half east of the village of Leamington-Hastings: the river Leam flows on the north.