A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1912.
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Addington, which lies on the chalk and Thanet sand, comprises an area of 3,359 acres. It still remains rural, notwithstanding the neighbourhood of Croydon and London. Building operations are, however, invading its borders from the former, and the Croydon borough waterworks, with a well 205 ft. deep, tunnels and reservoirs are situated in the parish. On the Addington Hills and Shirley Common, to the north of the parish, prehistoric remains have been found. The hut circles, close to the borders of this parish, have been mentioned under Croydon. (fn. 1) Twenty-five barrows are said to have existed here, but have now disappeared. South of the church there seem to be traces of earthworks, and Castle Hill preserves the name of the castle which Robert Aguillon had licence to embattle in 1270. The site of the castle lies half a mile east of Castle Hill Farm and occupies a spur of rising ground 400 ft. above the ordnance datum.
Addington Park is principally noted as having been the residence of the Archbishops of Canterbury for nearly a century. The house was built by Alderman Barlow Trecothick, who purchased the estate in 1768. It followed the descent of the manor (q.v.), being purchased in 1807 for the Archbishops of Canterbury, to take the place of the abandoned palace at Croydon. On the death of Archbishop Benson in 1896 it was sold to the late Mr. F. A. English and his trustees now hold it. Some remains of a mediaeval house are said to have existed in 1799, (fn. 2) but the present building is of stone in the classical style, with a long front facing west. Various archbishops have made additions, particularly Archbishop Howley (1828–48), who made the house his principal residence and built a little private chapel in the north wing, the library and additional bedrooms. More recently the chapel was decorated and fitted with oak stalls. In the grounds on the east side is an exceptionally fine cedar of Lebanon, and leading towards the church is an avenue of elms, at the end of which is said to have been a hunting lodge of Henry VIII. The park comprises nearly 500 acres of well-timbered land, the laying out of which was largely the work of the wife of Archbishop Howley.
The village is very picturesque and lies in a hollow. The church is on the main road in the village and is surrounded by a well-kept churchyard containing box trees, cypresses and two ancient yews, near to which was erected in 1910 a churchyard cross to the memory of the archbishops who lived at Addington.
Before the Domesday Survey Addington is unrecorded. In 1086 Tezelin the Cook held of the king 1 hide, in the time of King Edward assessed at 8 hides and then held by Godric. There was a wood worth twenty hogs and it was valued at 100s. (fn. 3) In the 12th century Bartholomew de Chesney held part of Addington by the service of a dish, of whose gift is not known. (fn. 4) Richard I granted it to Peter son of the Mayor of London (i.e. of Henry Fitz Aylwyn, the first mayor (fn. 5)) with Isabella the heiress of Bartholomew de Chesney. Afterwards King John granted the manor to Ralph Parmentier, (fn. 6) who married Joan the younger daughter of Peter. This Ralph was a merchant tailor and citizen of London. Peter's elder daughter Margaret, who married Ralph de Clere, apparently was childless. On the death of Ralph Parmentier the manor came back into the king's hands (fn. 7) and was granted to William Aguillon, Joan's second husband. From him this moiety was called AGUILLONDS, AGLANDS and so on in various corruptions. He, too, held the manor by serjeanty of making a hotchpotch in a yellow dish in the king's kitchen on the day of his coronation, himself or by deputy. (fn. 8) The dish was called Girunt, or if sage were added Maupigernoun. (fn. 9) In 1219 William Aguillon (fn. 10) and Joan conveyed to Henry Bataille half a virgate of land in Addington. (fn. 11) They had a son Robert, who was a devoted Royalist in the civil wars of the reign of Henry III. In 1248 he obtained a grant of free warren in his demesne lands of Addington (fn. 12) and in 1270 licence to embattle his house there. (fn. 13) Robert, who died in February 1285–6, left a daughter Isabella, who married Hugh Bardolf. (fn. 14) The manor remained in this family for some generations and was called Bardolf's. In 1303 Hugh Bardolf died, (fn. 15) and in 1318 Isabella enfeoffed James de Moun, by whom it was conveyed to herself for life with remainder to her son Thomas Bardolf and his heirs. (fn. 16) The manor devolved on John Bardolf in 1328 (fn. 17) and on John's son William in 1363. He in 1379 granted the manor to William de Walcott for life, with reversion to his son William. (fn. 18) Thomas, the eldest son and heir of William, whom he succeeded in 1385, joined the Earl of Northumberland in his rebellion and died of wounds received at the battle of Bramham Moor in 1405, leaving two daughters, who divided the properties. (fn. 19) Joan the wife of Sir William Phelip Lord Bardolf retained the Norfolk estates of Wormegay. Ann, the other co-heiress, married Sir William Clifford. (fn. 20) Whether the manor of Addington descended to Thomas Bardolf or, under the above settlement, to his brother William does not appear.
In 1446 William Uvedale was granted leave to alienate the manor to Sir William Bokeland, Richard Walsh, Robert White and John Woodward, (fn. 21) trustees for John Leigh. His descendant Nicholas son of John Leigh (who died in 1509), on attaining his majority in 1516 received licence to enter in the manor of Addington or Bardolff or Auguillondys. (fn. 22) He built the mansion-house called Addington Place and died in 1581. (fn. 23) His heir was his grandson Oliph Leigh. Sir Oliph Leigh's claim to present his dish at the coronation of James I was left unanswered. (fn. 24) The manor continued in the Leigh family for many generations. (fn. 25) At the coronation of Charles II in 1661 Thomas Leigh, according to his tenure, made a mess of pottage called Diligrout and brought it to the king at his table as he was ordered by the court of claims. The king accepted the service, but did not taste of it.
After the death of Sir John Leigh in 1737 there was doubt as to the succession and much litigation. (fn. 26) Finally the estates were divided between the female heirs, Mary the wife of John Bennett and Ann the wife of Henry Spencer. (fn. 27) These were the first cousins of the last Sir John by his paternal uncle Woolley Leigh. In 1767 by Private Act of Parliament a partition took place and the Spencers took Addington. In 1768 Mrs. Spencer and Woolley Leigh Spencer her eldest son sold the manor of Addington to Barlow Trecothick for £38,500. He by his will in 1774 left his estates to his nephew James Ivers on the condition that the latter assumed the name and arms of Trecothick. (fn. 28) In 1803 his property was sold in lots and William Coles and Westgarth Snaith bought the manor. (fn. 29) They sold the properties in 1807 to the Archbishop of Canterbury, (fn. 30) who purchased them with money obtained from the sale of Croydon and other money vested for the purpose of buying a residence. Between 1896 and 1899 the manor was sold to Mr. F. A. English, by whose trustees it is now held.
This manor is noteworthy for another reason besides its curious tenure. The holder was the only baron by tenure in Surrey. William Aguillon sat as baron by tenure in the Parliament of 18 Henry III and his son Robert sat by the same title. It was revived for Hugh Lord Bardolf husband of Robert Aguillon's daughter and became extinct with the death and attainder of Thomas Bardolf in 1405.
—There was another estate in Addington in 1086, which before the Conquest was held by Osward of the king and comprised 8 hides and was worth 100s. In 1086 Albert the Clerk held it of the king and it was assessed at 2 hides and a wood worth twenty hogs; the value was still 100s. (fn. 31) This holding may perhaps be identified with the 2 carucates of land in Addington which in 1241 Walter de Merton gave to the Knights Templars. (fn. 32) Walter de la Grave and Alice his wife in 1249 gave Brother Robert de Saunford, Master of the Templars, 4s. rent in Addington. (fn. 33) In 1311 the order was dissolved (fn. 34) and thirteen years later this manor with others was reassigned by Parliament to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, in whose tenure the manor remained until the Dissolution. In 1535 the priory's lands in Addington were valued at £8 6s. 8d. (fn. 35)
The manor of Addington Temple was granted in 1544 to Nicholas Leigh, (fn. 36) from which date it followed the descent of Addington Aguillonds.
A third manor existed, but its history is fragmentary. Nicholas de Bibury, chaplain, in 1333 (fn. 37) granted Thomas de St. Michael de Cuddington the manor of Addington for life, to hold of the chief lords with reversion to Laurence his son and contingent remainder to his right heirs. Possibly this was the Temple Manor, for this at one time was held at farm by a John de Blebury, clerk. (fn. 38) About 1349 a manor of Addington was held by John de Bures, whose frequent debts and bonds on security of his lands in Surrey become conspicuous in the Close Rolls about this date. (fn. 39) At last in 1352 he sold the manor, which he held of the gift of Geoffrey de Chiryton and Sir Thomas de Clayden, to William de Winteworth. (fn. 40) In the same year he granted Sir Robert Gurney a house called Roughedoune, formerly belonging to William Dudekin. (fn. 41) Before 1541 this manor had come into the possession of Nicholas Leigh and appears under the name of the manor of Bures. (fn. 42) It apparently afterwards became amalgamated with his other manors.
The church of ST. MARY consists of a chancel, north vestry, organ-chamber, north and south aisles, south porch and west tower. (fn. 43)
The church has suffered much from additions and restorations. Externally, with the exception of the south and east walls of the chancel, all that is visible is modern of various dates. The chancel and nave were originally built about 1080. Three windows in the chancel are the only remaining details of this early date. The walls are about 3 ft. 3 in. in thickness. About 1140 the character of the chancel was entirely changed by the insertion of the very interesting triplet of round-headed windows in the east wall and another window of the same design in the western part of the south wall, the smaller and older opening hard by being then blocked up. Towards the end of the same century a west tower seems to have been added, for a writer of 1852 speaks of this tower, which has now disappeared, as being 'Norman, or at least Transition-Norman.' About 1210 the south aisle was added and the south arcade of the nave formed. At this date the eastern window of the south wall of the chancel—widened externally in modern times—was inserted. In the middle of the 14th century a low side window was inserted beneath the sill of the south-west window of the chancel. According to a view of 1792 a window appears to have been inserted in the south wall of the south aisle some time in the 15th century. This seems to have disappeared early in the 19th century, when the walls of the aisle were heightened. At the same time new quoins were given to the chancel wall and the old tower was dressed up in pseudo-classic taste. Extensive restorations were carried out by Archbishop Howley before 1848, and in 1876 the present north aisle, vestry and organ-chamber were added and the tower rebuilt in an incongruous 14th-century style.
In the east wall of the chancel are three round-headed lights of about 1140. The central light is 8 in. higher than the side lights. The splays are finished with a reveal, a rebate and a chamfer, the chamfer of the central light being worked to a double-quirked hollow. This is the only east-end triplet of the 12th century remaining in Surrey and is therefore of peculiar interest. (fn. 44) Originally it is probable that there was only one window in this wall, and this may have been the existing narrow light in the apex of the gable which, after being blocked for centuries, has been lately opened. In the north wall of the chancel is a small round-headed window of the first period, resembling that now blocked in the south aisle. The aperture is 5 in. wide and 2 ft. 6 in. in height, neither grooved nor rebated for glass. The splayed opening measures 4 ft. 3 in. by 2 ft. 9 in. with a sill 5 ft. 4½ in. above the floor. The splays are carried out to a feather edge, finished with a narrow chamfer. This window now looks into the vestry. The eastern-most window of the south wall is a wide, ugly lancet with a modern external label of Bath stone. Internally it retains its original moulded arched head and splayed jambs. It appears to have been a narrow early 13th-century insertion, widened in the 18th century. Its internal sill is lowered to form a sedile. In the middle of the south wall is a blocked window, visible externally, answering to the window in the north wall. Its head is cut out of one stone, and there are three stones in each jamb, axetooled, but, as is common with the smaller 11th and 12th-century windows, there is no stone sill. The rubble and pebble plaster with which the narrow loop is closed shows that the blocking took place at a very early date. At the west end of the south wall is a window similar in design and date to the window of the eastern triplet of c. 1140. Beneath this window, the splays of which are carried down internally to form one opening, is the low side window, dating from about 1350. This is a wide single light, with a trefoiled ogee head. The exterior face of the stonework has been renewed in Bath stone, but upon the old lines. The inside half of the jambs and head is original. The ancient iron bars remain inside, and there may have been an external or an internal shutter, as the stonework is rebated on both faces. The internal sill is cut down to form a seat in the thickness of the wall. The chancel arch is modern, as are also the north arcade and the north aisle.
The south arcade is of three bays with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders, supported by massive columns, alternately circular and octagonal, dating from about 1210. The present floor level of nave and aisle has been raised considerably, and in consequence the bases of the columns are buried. The capitals have a projection and a section that are both unusual. The great projection is due to the thickness of the wall above, and in section an additional member, or second necking, is introduced in the middle of the bell of the capital. The same peculiarity may be noticed in the capitals of the jamb-shafts of the south doorway at Blechingley and in Southwark Cathedral, both examples of about the same date, suggesting that all three works were by the same mason. (fn. 45)
The early 13th-century south aisle is exceptionally narrow. Early in the 19th century the walls appear to have been raised to nearly three times their original height. A print of 1792 shows this aisle in its original state. (fn. 46) At this time the nave and aisle were under one continuous roof and the aisle wall had heavy buttresses, while there were a lancet window in its eastern wall, another probably in the western, and a window of three lights with a square head, of 15th-century character, in the eastern bay of the south wall. A porch of smaller dimensions occupied the place of the existing wide one; its western wall was probably in the same position as at present. The south door, the only entrance to the church except through the vestry, retains apparently its original stonework on the inside. The windows are all modern, those in the east and west walls being stone lancets dating from 1848 externally, but with curious classical niches of semicircular form in their internal sills which were evidently made at the previous recasting, when the walls were raised.
With the exception of the chancel, all the exterior is now cased in black flints, some parts, such as the south aisle and porch, being in split and squared flints, and Bath stone dressings have been used throughout. The roofs, including the pyramidal cap to the tower (which has no parapet), are tiled, except that of the south aisle, which is of lead behind a stone-corbelled parapet. These roofs seem to be modern, as are also all the fittings, including the font.
The oldest monument is a Sussex marble slab with brasses to John Leigh, his wife and five children (1509–44), now laid in the pavement on the north side of the chancel near its western end, but formerly part of an altar-tomb with panelled sides, standing where the recessed monument to Archbishop Howley (which caused its removal) now is, in the eastern part of the north wall. It stood in front of the large mural monument to later generations of the Leigh family, which was removed with it to the western part of the chancel. John Leigh is shown habited in a long furred gown with deep sleeves bordered with fur, open at the neck to display his doublet and vest. His face is clean-shaven, the hair being parted and worn long, and his hands are joined in prayer, while a scroll issuing from his mouth bears the inscription ' Deus misereatur mihi et benedicat nobis.' His wife Isabel daughter of John Harvey is attired in a long gown, with a cincture bearing in front three roses and pendant cords or chains, terminating in a bunch of bells. She has furred cuffs, her hands are raised in prayer and she wears the kennel head-dress with an embroidered border. From her lips rises a label with the words 'Illuminet vultum tuum super nos et misereatur mihi.' These, from the style of the costumes, must have been engraved about 1509. Underneath is a group of five children, the three girls wearing a bonnet and long-sleeved gown that came into fashion in the closing years of the reign of Henry VIII, proving that this piece was engraved some thirty-five years later than the large figures, probably on the decease of the mother. In the head of the stone is a lozenge bearing the crest and coat of arms quarterly, with the motto Expectamus Resvrrexionem, the arms being Leigh quartering Payne, and crest, a lion lying down; and below, on a shield, are the same arms impaling Harvey: Quarterly, 1 and 4 Gules on a bend argent three trefoils sable, for Harvey; 2 and 3 Sable a lion rampant argent within a border gobony argent and sable, for Nernuit, as also her arms in a lozenge. There is a border-strip having the emblems of the four Evangelists within quatrefoils, one in each corner, and bearing the inscription in black letter : 'Here Liethe John Leigh Esquyer and Isabel his Wyfe Dowghter of John Harvy of Thurley in Bedfordeshyre Esquyer and Sole Syster of Sr George Harvye Knight which John deceassed the xxiiii day of Aprill in the yere of oure Lorde God Mcccccix and the sayd Isabell deceassed the viii daye of Ianuary in the yere of Christes Incarnacion Mcccccxliiii on whos Soules I pray God have Marcy.'
On the southern side of the chancel floor towards the west, but according to Aubrey near the altar in his time, is a grey marble slab bearing the effigy in brass of Thomas Hatteclyff or Atcliff, who died 30 August 1540. The style of the armour, &c., shows, however, that it must have been engraved during his lifetime, perhaps twenty or thirty years before his death. He married Anne the eldest daughter of John Leigh. He is represented with long hair parted in the centre and his hands joined in prayer, in full plate armour, but with a shirt of mail beneath, which appears at the neck and beneath the attenuated taces and tuilles, and on either side he wears a misericorde and a sword. Between the junction of the leg-pieces and broad-toed sollerets mail again appears. The inscription, which is upside down and in black letter, reads : 'Of yor charite pray for ye Soule of Thomas Hatteclyffe Esquyer Sũtyme one of ye fowre masters of ye howsholde to our soũaigne lord King Henry ye VIII & Anne his wyfe wiche Thomas dep[']tyd ye xxx day of August Ao MVc and XL.'
Against the western part of the north wall of the chancel has been re-erected the mutilated monument in alabaster and black marble to Sir Oliph Leigh, kt., great-grandson of the John Leigh whose brass is described above. It consists of several tiers; on the lowest, of which the plinth is destroyed or buried, reclines on her hand his wife Jane daughter of Sir Thomas Browne of Betchworth, kt. Her husband Sir Oliph, in full armour, his left hand resting on his sword, while the right supports his head, lies in a recessed slab behind and above her. Over him are two black marble tablets bearing inscriptions, and above these two pairs of kneeling figures, the men in armour and their ladies set within two circular arches flanked by black marble obelisks. The whole is crowned by a plain frieze and cornice, on and above which are two shields bearing the arms of Leigh and Carew. Originally there were four shields, including the arms of Oliph, and there seems also to have been a superstructure having angels blowing trumpets, though it was missing even when Aubrey wrote. The kneeling figures in the upper part represent (left) 'Nicholas Leigh, of Addington, Esquier' and his wife Anne, 'sister to Sr Nicholas Carew of Beddington Knight by whom he had Issue John Leigh. Malin . Elizabeth . Mary . Anne,' as the inscription below records: and (right) 'John Leigh of Addington Esquier Sonne of Nicholas Leigh of Addington Maried Joane Daughter and Heire of John Olliph Esquier by whom he had Issue Sr Olliph Leigh Knight John Charles Anne Joane Elizabeth and Katherin. He ended this Lyfe the 31th of March MDLXXVI.'
The inscription under the two large recumbent effigies reads: 'Here resteth in Peace Sir Olliphe Leigh of Addington Knight who married Jane Daughter of Sr Thomas Browne of Bechworth Knight by whom he had Francis his onely Sonne and Heire. He died the 14th day of Marche MDCXII. And in memory of John Leigh his Father and Nicholas his Grandfather caused this Monument to be erected.'
This latter clause is explained by a passige in Sir Oliph Leigh's will : 'I will that my son do, within one year after my decease, cause a monument to be sett up in the chauncell of the parish church of Addington, wherein shall be sett downe the ages, tyme of death, matches, and yssues of my grandfather, my father, and myselfe.'
Besides the figures above described there are two small mutilated kneeling figures of a young man and a young woman in a 'Paris head,' now standing loose on the floor, which are doubtless those referred to by Aubrey as at the head of the recumbent female effigy, ' all in the proper habits of those times, as well as in their natural colours.' The whole monument bears traces of colour and gilding. Two funeral helms, a sword and what may be part of another are suspended from the wall.
Projecting from the south wall of the chancel near its western end are a tablet and an enormous urn of Grecian design. The first is to Mrs. Grizzel Trecothick, placed here by ' her affectionate husband Barlow Trecothick. . . . She died at Addington xxxi July MDCCLXIX, aged xli years.' The other, set up to his memory 'by his affectionate [2nd] Wife Ann Trecothick,' is to ' Barlow Trecothick, Esqr, Merchant, Alderman, and Lord Mayor of the City of London,' who also sat in Parliament for the City.
The tomb of Archbishop Howley, which stands in the sanctuary on the north side, is within a low segmental-arched recess in the wall. The stone bears the insignia of his office and the brief record of his life and death.
The registers date from 1559 and are in three books: (1) all entries 1559 to 1779; (2) parchment copy of (1); (3) all entries 1768 to 1812. They contain many entries relating to the Leigh family and other interesting items. (fn. 47)
The church of Addington, with the chapel of All Saints, was given to St. Mary Overy by Bartholomew de Chesney. (fn. 48) A certain Reginald de Addington who had bought the patronage of All Saints also made a grant to the convent. The church was appropriated by the canons and was valued in 1291 at £8. (fn. 49) At the Dissolution the rectory was valued at £9 and the vicarage at £4 16s. 5d. (fn. 50) The Bishop of Winchester was entitled to 2s. 1d. a year. The rectory and advowson follow the history of the united manors from the reign of Henry VIII, when they were granted to Nicholas Leigh, (fn. 51) up to the sale to the Archbishop of Canterbury, with whom they have since remained.