The History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham: Volume 2, Chester Ward. Originally published by Nichols and Son, London, 1820.
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PARISH OF LANCHESTER.
The extensive Parish of Lanchester is bounded on the North by the Parish of Ryton and by the Chapelry of Tanfield; by the Parish of Chester-le-Street on the East; by Witton Gilbert, and by St. Oswalds, in the suburbs of Durham, on the South-East; by Brancepath and Wolsingham on the South and South-West; and by the Parishes of Stanhope and Muggleswick, and by the Darwent (forming the boundary of Northumberland) on the West and North-West (fn. 1).
The Parish includes eighteen Constableries: 1. Lanchester (fn. 2); 2. Greencroft; 3. Holm-side; 4. Langley; 5. Burnop and Hamsteels; 6. Eshe; 7. Hedleyhope (fn. 3); 8. Cornsey (fn. 3); 9. Butsfield and Satley; 10. Heleyfield; 11. Kyo, which includes Bursblades; 12. Iveston with Crook; 13. Collierly; 14. Billingside; 15. Medomsley (fn. 4); 16. Benfield-side (fn. 4); 17. Consett (fn. 4) and Knitsley (fn. 4); 18. Ebchester.
The first place is due to the Roman sera of Lanchester. The Station occupies a lofty brow to the West of the village, on a tongue of land formed by the junction of the Browney and the Smallhope beck. On three sides the ground falls from the Camp, on the West only it is commanded by a high moorland hill (fn. 5), whose prospect ranges from the Cheviots, North, to the chain of the Cleveland and Hamildon hills, South. The Station forms a parallelogram of a hundred and eighty-three yards from North to South, and one hundred and forty-three yards from East to West, and includes an area of about eight acres. The wall or rampart is still in some places almost perfect, and is nowhere totally destroyed. Whatever depredations the spot may have formerly suffered, it is preserved with religious care by its present proprietor. The vallum has been probably nearly twelve feet in height. The outside is perpendicular, built of ashler work in regular courses, the stones being about nine inches deep and twelve long; the interior is also of ashler work, formed of thin stones laid tier above tier, slanting and covering each other featherwise, and run with mortar mixed with rough gravel. The thickness of the vallum at the present surface is eight feet, but diminishes gradually by parallel steps to about four feet at the summit. It has a deep fosse on the West, and on the other sides the advantage of the sloping hill. The angles of the walls appear to have been guarded by round towers, and like every Roman camp, there have been entrances in the middle of each side. Vestiges of the Prætorium may be still traced near the North-gate, though covered with luxuriant herbage.; for the area of the station has been long ploughed, and only presents to a common observer a level close of eight acres, inclosed by a mouldering rampart shadowed with bramble and ancient thorn.
“Stern sons of war—
Behold the boast of Roman pride!
What now of all your toils is known?
A grassy trench, a broken stone.”
When a part of the North side of the vallum was removed, about thirty yards from the East angle the workmen met with a cell formed by six large tesselated stones, and filled with the bones of some animal (fn. 6).
Within the last century, and in the memory of persons still living, the whole area of the station now levelled by the plough was matted with thorns, brambles, and hazels. The late proprietor of the farm at Hollingside (fn. 7) recollected the spot, when it was covered with fallen pillars, and the towers of the wall were still visible. Horsley had an opportunity of inspecting the ruins of the baths, which were placed near the South-East corner of the vallum. The floor was supported by pillars about a yard distant from each other, and resting on a substance apparently metallic. The angles of four square stones met upon each of these pillars, and had their upper surface plastered to the depth of four inches with a mixture of lime, limestone, pebbles, and fragments of brick; this composition is extremely hard, has a rocky appearance not unlike granite, and seems in some parts to have undergone to partial vitrifaction. Beneath these pillars a second range was found resting on blue stiff clay with the space betwixt them filled with rubbish. Every trace of the bath is now obliterated, except some large masses of its flooring, built up in the neighbouring fences (fn. 8). The stone employed in the station has been brought from a hill about a mile to the East of Lanchester. A paved way, which might lead from the quarry to the camp, may be traced in the brook opposite the Church and through the Churchyard, at more than three feet below the surface (fn. 9).
“Though several deep wells have been found near the walls, and though the garrison could be supplied with water from two open springs within fifty paces from the South and East wall, the Romans were not to be satisfied without something like a stream flowing through their camp. The traces of two aqueducts, each at least two miles long, are standing proofs of their industry. These ducts take a circuitous direction on each side of Umber Hill. The Southern branch has its source in the Rippon-burn, and is traced through Mr. White's woods, and on the lower side of the Wolsingham-road, between Coldpike-hill and Hollingside. The Northern channel makes a North-West angle in the fields above Newbiggin, and diverging towards Upper-houses one Way, and to Mr. White's woods the other, terminates at a spring whose stream is now employed in turning Knitchley-mill. This branch is easier to trace than the other, and is extremely conspicuous through the uncultivated ground, in Mr. White's woods, and at its head, where a mound has been thrown up to obtain a level. Mr. White has re-opened a part of it, and employs it in conveying water to his fish-ponds. The reservoir of both channels was opposite the South-West corner of the Vallum.” (fn. 10)
To this brief account, which is merely intended to convey some idea of the present state and appearance of this noble Station, it may be added, in the words of Mr. Hodgson, from whose plain and accurate description I have scarcely ever ventured to deviate, that “Watling-Street is as visible as on the day it was made. On the hill West of Hamsteels, and at Heugh, it may be traced through Porter's Dale, over the high grounds toward Ebchester, and from thence to the Tyne. In some places it is paved; in others formed by a high ridge of earth covered with gravel: in general it has a ditch on each side. On the edge of this road, about a mile North of the Station, near a farm called Low Woodside, the foundations of a small circular building were discovered by the plough about forty years since. In it are a great number of hollow-headed copper nails; a clawed hammer of rude workmanship; and several other antiques were found buried in the ashes resembling those of a smith's furnace.” (fn. 11)
Besides Watling Street, another road called Wrekendyke led from this Station by Maiden Law, Urpeth, Kibblesworth, and over Gateshead Fell to the æstuary of the Tyne. (fn. 12)
There is a very remarkable tumulus at Maiden Law, which I believe has never been opened.
It remains to trace, as far as the few remaining data will permit, the foundation and fall of the station at Lanchester. And here, in limine, the very name of this noble Gamp is extremely dubious. Camden, led in part no doubt by the similarity of sound, considered this place as Longovicum, and was followed by Gale and Hunter. Horseley first disputed this opinion, and, placing Longovicum at Lancaster, contended that Lanchester was Glambanta or Glanoventa, from whence the tenth Iter of Antonine starts, ending at Mediolanum, Drayton in Staffordshire. The objections which Hodgson has produced (fn. 13) to this arrangement seem insuperable. Glanibanta, be it wherever it may, must at all events be some station far to the North-West, from whence the Iter crosses the great range of the Westmoreland, and Lancashire hills, and in a straight course reaches. Ribchester, Manchester, Northwich, and Drayton. On the authority of Richard, two stations, Vindomora and Epiacum, occupy the line of the Northern Watling Street, betwixt the known points of Corbridge and Binchester; and if neither Longovicum nor Glaniventa be identified with Lanchester, it follows that Lanchester and Ebchester must divide the honours of Vindomora and Epiacum. The arrangement of the Iters, as far as concerns the present purpose, and the reasons which incline me to place Epiacum (fn. 14) as the camp of greatest note at Lanchester, have been already detailed (fn. 15). The Station at Lanchester, by whatever name (fn. 16) designated, arose probably during the early ages of the Roman dominion in Britain. A large proportion of the coins (fn. 17) found here are of the higher empire, and the Station had at least had time to decline from its first meridian, when Gordian, according to two notable inscriptions discovered here, restored the Arsenal (fn. 18), and founded the Baths and the Basilica (fn. 19) :
Imp. Caes. M. Ant. Gordia:
Nvs P. F. Avg. Balnevm. Cvm
Basilica A Solo Instrvxit
Pr. Egn. Lvcilianvm. Leg Avg.
Pr. Pr. Cvrante. M Avr.
Qvirino Pre Coh. I. L. Gor.
Imp. Cæsar M. Antonivs.
Gordianvs. P. F. Avg.
Principia Et Armamen
Taria Conlapsa Restitv
It Per MæCilivm Fvscvm Leg.
Avg. Pr. Pr. Cvrante M. Avr.
Qvirino Pr. Coh. I. L. Gor. (fn. 20)
The first of these was found about a hundred yards to the East of the vallum, the other within the fort. Amongst the ruins of the Baths an altar was discovered, with a back of undressed stone fixed to the East wall: the inscription may be read at length—Fortunes Augusti sacrum Publius Ælius Atticus præfectus votum solvit lubens merito (fn. 21). This, as well as the two preceding inscriptions, are in the Dean and Chapter's Library at Durham. In the same place is a very perfect sculpture, which fixes the twentieth legion, Valens Victrix, or some detachment from it, at Lanchester (fn. 22). Two winged Victories, with branches of palm and bucklers in their right hand, support a wreath, within which is inscribed LEG. xx. v. v. FEC.; a boar is represented at the base (fn. 23). Another inscription mentions the second cohort of the Varduli, who probably formed a part of the twentieth Legion:
- Nvm. Avg. Et
- Gen Coh. II.
- C. R. Eq. M. Sub An
- Tistio Adven
- To Leg. Avg. Pr. Pr.
- F. Titianvs. Trib.
- .... R (fn. 24).
This inscription is first mentioned by Dr. Hunter in 1735. “It was found within the ancient fortification; its base and the initial letters of the two last lines broken off.” It is preserved at Greencroft. Another altar, found by Horsley “in the corner of a close belonging to Nicholas Greenwell,” also mentions the Vardulian cavalry: .. OM .... Cohor. Vardvlor. c. R. EQ.... V. S. L. M. (fn. 25); it seems to be a dedication to Jupiter— Jovi opt. max. &c. This was in the possession of Sir Ashton Lever. Another inscription (in the Cathedral Library) mentions the second cohort of the Lingones : Genio Praetoris. CL. EPAPHRODITVS CLAVDIANVS. TRIBVNVS CHO. II. LING. V. L. p. m. (fn. 26) The stone has a hollow square at the top, apparently intended to receive the base of a pillar. Numerous are the other reliques rescued from the ruins of the Station by Horsley and Hunter. Of these one of the most singular is a Gold Plate (in the Cathedral Library), which was “found in 1716, in a heap of rubbish cast out to clear an old foundation” without the vallum, a little South from the Baths. The plate is extremely thin, weighing just two guineas; the letters are raised by an impression made by some instrument on the inner side, which has sometimes struck quite through the plate. The inscription is plainly MARTI Aug. Avffidivs Avfidianvs. D. D.
In the Cathedral Library are several other small altars inscribed to Fortune, to Mars, to Silvanus, and to Vitires. One remarkable stone bears the effigy of Fortune seated, with a globe at her foot, a wheel by her side, and the cornucopia over her left arm; the figure is about two feet high, the head broken off. An altar at Greencroft is inscribed Deo Marti Sancidvs. L. A. Another small altar, ranked by Horsley amongst the Lanchester inscriptions, has the figure of a boar on one face, and is dedicated to Vitires : Deo Vitiri Mximvs v.s. One of the most singular altars was discovered by Horsley; it is inscribed both in Greek (fn. 27) and Latin on the back and on the front: [...PHLAOV ...TIANO ...LIAR] The whole may probably be read [Yper soterias titos fla[?]s titianos Chiliarchos]. The Latin legend is plainly—Æsculapio T. F. Titianus tribunus votum solvit lubens merito (fn. 28). An altar from Lanchester, now in a museum at Keswick, is inscribed D... Victorie. VOT. S. V. L. M. Next to the Cathedral Library of Durham, where the treasures accumulated by Hunter have found a resting-place, the greatest nidus of these antiques is at Ford, the seat of the proprietor of the Station. A military pillar, the only one discovered I believe in this county, is inscribed, C. N. Imp. m. Ant. Gordiano. Pio
Felici Avg.: this was used as a gate-post on the North side of the Lane leading from Lanchester to the Camp. A plain mural altar (presented to Mr. Greenwell by Captain Ormsby):—Deo Silvano. Marcvs Didivs Provincialis BF. COS. V. S. LL. M. Amongst other singular remains preserved at Ford, one piece of sculpture seems to represent a Roman soldier leaning on his horse; perhaps one of the Vardulian cavalry. Another stone has the bust of a strange idol with a round face, half owl, half human, with ears like a strix otus. A small altar without inscription has a toad. Several other remains are still to be seen scattered in the village, or in the neighbouring farms and enclosures. In a garden wall in Lanchester is the figure of a. priest pouring a libation on the altar; he has a torch in his left, and a vial in his right hand; on each side of the altar is a rude sculpture of a lamb. A figure closed up in the North-wall of the Church has been already described (fn. 29).
The historical evidence deducible from these various sculptures and inscriptions amounts to little, more than—that the place was garrisoned by a portion of the twentieth legion, the Varduli, and the Lingones; and that the Romans not only dedicated their altars to the ancient gods of the Tiber, but admitted into their easy heaven Vitires and the Silvan guardians of the British hills and forests. The name of no other Emperor, I think, occurs, except that of Gordian (fn. 30), the restorer of the Station. The names of a few tribunes and proprætors close the catalogue. But the discovery of coins of the Constantines and their successors, to Valentinian, may seem to prove that the Station was scarcely abandoned before the final flight of the Roman eagle. Its destruction was probably owing to some sudden and violent catastrophe (fn. 31). The red ashes of the Basilica and the Bath, the vitrified flooring, and the metallic substances, evidently run by fire, which occur amongst the ruins, form a strong indication that the structure perished in flames (fn. 32). A long night intervenes, and a century after the Norman conquest a Christian Lanchester first appears—parcel of the ancient patrimony of St. Cuthbert, with a Church built out of the military ruins of pagan Rome.
The modern village stands half a mile to the West of the Station, in a warm sheltered vale watered by the Smalhope-burn (fn. 33).
Under Boldon Book Lanchester appears as one of the great manors of the See of Durham.
In Langchestre are forty-one oxgangs, each consisting of eight acres. Twenty tenants in villenage pay for each of these oxgangs thirty pence, and with the help of the cottagers mow the whole of the meadows, and win and lead the hay, and bring the hogs from the forest (fn. 34); and whilst they mow they have a corrody; and when they drive the swine each has one loaf. Four cottagers hold eight acres, 4s.
Ulf holds sixty acres, pays sixteen shillings, serves on the Bishop's errands, and brings one greyhound to the great hunts.
Ulkill and Meldred hold forty acres by similar tenure, pay 12s. 6d. rent, and serve on messages. Orm holds eight acres and a half lately disforested (fn. 35), 2s. The wife of Galfrid Personis holds (of the Bishop's free bounty) a toft and eight acres.
The Punder holds six acres, and takes the thraves (fn. 36) of corn of the vill of Langchestre, and renders forty hens and three hundred eggs.
The meadows and the dairy (or cow-pasture (fn. 37) ) are in the hands of the Bishop.
Five oxgangs of villenage-tenure are unoccupied, and eighteen acres of the demesne. The mills pay eight marks; and every two oxgangs of villan-tenure provide one measure (chordam) of provisions in the great chase.
Under Hatfield's Survey the tenants are distinguished into those who held by exchequer rents, free-tenants, bond-tenants, and cottagers. Free-tenants: Walter atte Halle holds a messuage and ten acres by knight's service. The heirs of Patrick de Kellowe hold a close, called Patrik Close, by 6d. rent; and Thomas Umfravill holds ten acres near Holmeset, once Galfrid Raghop's. [Bond-tenants, Cottagers, and Exchequer-lands, see Ford, Newbiggin, and Hartbuck.] The tenants hold jointly a pasture called Smalhopford, and pay twenty pence. The tenants also hold jointly thirteen acres of the demesne, and pay at Martinmas only 46s. 10d. ob.; and fourteen acres in Smallhop, 4s. 10d. John. Rugheved holds a close called Mallesfield (fn. 38), nine acres and a half; of which William de Rivanx holds one acre, called Mallesclos; and pays 8d. and John pays 3s. 2d. Thomas Coveringham holds one messuage, 2d.; Peter Nesbet a toft and garden, 3d. John Kyng, a toft and garden, 3d. Ralph Milner holds Langchestre arid Burnhop Mills, which used to pay 8l. 5s. 8d. but now only 6l. 5s. 5d. quarterly (fn. 39).
At this day the chief portion of the lands are held by copy of court roll under the See of Durham (fn. 40). The manor includes the several vills of Lanchester, Broom, Flass, Burnhop and Hamsteels, Colpighilly Broomsheels, Satley, Butsfield, Benfieldside, Billingside, Kyo, Rowley, and Roughside.
The White House in Lanchester, and some other freeholds, all parcel of the impropriation, will be mentioned in the sequel.
In 1773 a very extensive division of common lands, extending to above 16,000 acres (fn. 41) took place (fn. 42) within the parish of Lanchester. The division included the several wastes called Lanchester Fell, Medomsley Fell, Ebchester, Rowley, Satley, and Butsfield Fells, Newbiggin Fell, and Knitchley Fell: (the commons of Roughside, Charlaw, and Findon Hill were excepted). A rentcharge of fourpence per acre was reserved to the See of Durham; the mines were also reserved. The new allotments were to be considered as of the same tenure, and subject to the same tithes, as the ancient estates, in right of which they were set out. All timber grown on copyhold allotments was exempted from the Bishop's rent, and twenty-one years was allowed for inclosing the less improveable allotments. Hamsteels Common was enclosed by a separate Act, 12 Geo. III. 1772.
In 1810 an Act was obtained for making a turnpike-road from Durham (through Lanchester) to Shotly Bridge. The road passes directly through the vale instead of the old circuitous route along the heights.
The Rectory, Collegiate Church, and Perpetual Curacy;
For through all these stages the ecclesiastical establishment has travelled. Till the time of Anthony Beke the Church was merely rectorial; but he on the death of Alexander de Alverton, in 1283, erected Lanchester into a Collegiate Church, consisting of a Dean and seven Prebendaries. The following endowment was assigned to the respective Prebends :—
To the first stall: the fee-farms of Eshe, Cornshow, Hedley, Hamsteels, High and Low Bromsheeles, and those arising from the land of Matthew the Forester.
To the second: Medomsley, Housetrees, Kyo, Bursblades, Billingside, Bradley, and Crook.
To the third: Greencroft, Holmside, Colpikehill, Steley, Buclesfelde, the Smith's land, and Scatigurley (Setley.)
To the fourth: Langley, Riding, Stubbilee, Brome, Notesteles, Brunhope, Langcestre, and Peche.
To the fifth : Heley, Conkesheved, and Kincheley.
To the sixth: Yvestane and Benfieldside; and
To the seventh : Morileys, Newbigging, Hartibuke, and Fordes.
These seven Prebends were generally denominated from the place first named in their endowment, as the Prebend of Eshe, &c.
The founder furnished a set of statutes and ordinances, which were confirmed by Edward I. in 1293 (fn. 43).
The chief articles of regulation were, “That the Dean shall be perpetuall within holy orders of priesthood, having whollie the cure of souls.” Each of the Prebendaries of the three first stalls shall provide at their own individual charge one Vicar Chaplain; and each of the four remaining Prebendaries shall maintain one Chaplain in holy orders. Let 'everye of the Vicars goinge from his house towards the churche, and likewise retorninge, &c. endeavour hymself to goo with a modest and grave pace, and when he shall come into the churche lett hym humble hymselfe before the crucifixe, and there lett him pray; and after that he has entered into the quier, and before he doo goo into his stall, lett hym inclyne and bow hym selfe towards the high alter in honour and reverence of our Lord and his most holye mother.”” None of the Vicars shall “brawle or chide in the quier or without; but lett them keepe silent; not mormoringe, gaynsayinge, or contendinge with one another; neyther yett laughing, fleering, staring, nor casting vagabond eyes towards the people remayning in the same churche.” It may be trusted that part of the above admonitions may at this time of day be needless in our Protestant Cathedrals; but the following piece of advice is always in season : “Let the Vicars read and also singe alowde, distinctly, with full voice, and without over skipping or cutting the wordes, making a good pause in the mydest of every verse, begynninge and endinge altogether, not protractynge or drawinge the last syllable to longe; not hastily running it over, much less interminglinge any strange, variable, profaine, or dishonest speeches.” Next, “None of the said Vicars shall without some sufficient cause go into any common taverne nor tarye in the same; neither exercise wrastlinge, dauncinge, or any other hurtfull gaymes, nor [frequent] such spectacles or syghtes, which ar comonly called Myracles (fn. 44); neither lett them be helpers to any that practise the same.” The succeeding clause prohibits the ecclesiastics from that “grave scandalum” of wandering about “upon the streate,” or sitting in the houses of “anie lay person in their habit, unlesse the occasion be godlie and honest.”
The degrees of coercion and punishment for offenders are established much as usual. For the first offence, private reprimand, then severe and public rebuke in the Chapter, with loss of that one day's stipend; for the third offence, loss of three days' stipend; for the fourth, “the subtraction of a whole weeke's waige;” for the fifth, suspension from the priestly office for fifteen days and loss of waige therewith; “but if anie doo fall into offence the sixt tyme, lett him be taken as a rebel not reformable, and without delay expulsed from the college:” saving in all things the discretion of the Deane either “to deale more courteously or sharpely.” Half the fines for neglect to go towards church ornaments, the other half to the Vicars, “who by occasion thereof will be better adorned.”
Each Prebendary shall renew his sacerdotal habit, and pay his Vicar his wages when he receives the fruits of his Prebend.
The Deane shall retaine the whole alterage as well of the Church of Lanchester as of the Chapels (Eshe, Satley, Medomsley), that is to say, “of sheaves, graine, and blaydes called thrushe tithes, mortewarie's woll, lambes' milk, calves' pulleyne, kocks and hennes, piggs, lync, hemp, hay, and all petty and prediall tithes; with the landes, medowes, demaynes, services, rents, and courtes of the tenants of the Church; whereunto also the pencyons of Colyerley and Satley shall be whollie applyed.” “Wee also assigne to the Deanery the messuages belonginge to the same Chappells, with their courts and lands; this onely excepted--that everye of the Prebendaries shall have a certen portion of the platt, soil, or courtyeard, of the same chappells in which they may sell their corne.” And in consideration of this endowment the Dean shall provide two “competent chapleynes, like in their habitts unto the Vicars of the Cannons;” and he shall bear “all ordinary chardges of the Church, and the repayringe and uphouldinge of the chancell; but he shall not be bounde to the worke of any new building.” And he shall cause the several Chapels to be served by competent Ministers; he shall direct all things relative to divine service, and shall take special care that mattins are sung daily for the benefit of the parishioners who may attend before they go to their labour. Then follows the endowment of the respective Prebends [as stated before] and the arrangement of the stalls in the choir: “the first on the South side we specially reserve to ourself and successors in token of preheminence.” The three remaining stalls on the South were appropriated to the first, third, and seventh Prebendary. On the North the Dean sat opposite to the Bishop, and below him the remaining Prebendaries. The endowment bears date at Aucland, 12 Oct. 1283, the first year of Bishop Anthony, and is followed by the confirmation of Hugh, Prior of Durham.
The College of Lanchester was not exempt from that gradual tendency to decay which, in spite of the foresight and prudence of pious founders, awaits all human institutions—in pejus ruere ac retro sublapsa referri; and when Cardinal Langley, the wise and moderate reformer of all religious and charitable foundations within his diocese, issued his Commission of Enquiry, the return exhibits a long catalogue of the “Vacations and gaping ruins of the Church of Lanchester—defectus et ruinæ patentes;” extending as well to the Deanery and Prebendal houses, as to the Chapels of Eshe and Medomsley. Nor was the moral structure of the College in a better state; the Chaplains places were vacant, and their stipends (as well as the fines of absentees appointed by the Statutes, half to the brethren and half to the repair of the Church) went directly into the pockets of the Chanons (fn. 45). The various repairs necessary are carefully reduced into money and summed up, laying the proper share of the sin and the burthen at the doors of the modern Dean (fn. 46) and his three immediate predecessors. The “chamber above the bridge,” (fn. 47) and the bridge near the hall, are enumerated amongst the premises needing reparation.
The only record which has occurred (previous to the dissolution) relative to the College of Lanchester, is a decree of the same Cardinal Langley—“inter aquæ bajulos de Langchestre et Eshe;” by which sentence it was determined that the College of Lanchester had the sole right to the vend and distribution (porture ac cxinde debitum recissere) of holy water in the villages of Hamsteeles, Corneshaw, and Hedlee, and that the clerk, water-bearer of Eshe, was totally excluded both from profit and privilege—ab aquæ benedictæ bajulatione et stipendiorum (fn. 48), &c.
Deans of the Collegiate Church of Lanchester.
- John de Craven, app. Defensor Ecclesiæ, 8 kal.
- Ap. 1283, and afterwards the first Dean on the new Foundation.
- William de Marclan, occ. 1311.
- William de Qwycham, 1313.
- John de Neubigging, 19 June 1350.
- John de Derby, collat. 2 Aug. 1369 (fn. 49).
- John Burgeys, 1383 (fn. 50).
- John de Cokyn, 13 May 1399. John Dalton (fn. 51).
- William Patteson (fn. 52).
- John Suthwell (fn. 52).
- John Hunteman, S. T. B. (fn. 53) 25 Jan. 1409.
- William Browne, 1416, p. res. Hunt.
- William Aslakby, 1421 (fn. 54).
- Stephen Anstell (fn. 55), ob. 27 Feb. 1461.
- John Rudde, B. D. (fn. 56) ob. 29 Sept. 1490.
- Thomas Thomyoo D. D. p. m. Rudde.
- Lancelot Claxton (fn. 57), collat. 7 Apr. 1496.
- Robert Hyndmer, 2 Apr. 1532, p. m. Claxton.
Pensions paid to the Surviving Members of the Collegiate Church of Lanchester, 1553.
To Robert Hindmer, Dean, 20l.; William Frankland, Prebendary of Iveston, 3l.; Lancelot Knagge, Prebendary of Butsfield, 2l.; Richard Burncheper, Prebendary of Medomsley, 5l. 6s. 8d.; John Mylner, Prebendary or Greencrofte, 4l. 13s. 4d.; William Knagges, Prebendary of Eshe, 5l.
At the dissolution the whole revenues of the College were valued at 49l. 3s. 4d (fn. 58). Some small pensions were reserved for the perpetual Curate of Lanchester (fn. 59), and for the Curates of the dependent Chapelries of Medomsley, Eshe, and Satley. The rest of the collegiate possessions, both lands and tithes, were scattered under Crown grants in very various proportions.
The site of the Deanery is still well known—on a plot of ground surrounded by a fosse, a little to the North of the Church. The old house partly thatched which now occupies the ground probably includes no portion of the ancient buildings.
By letters patent 25 March, 7 Edw. VI. 155., the King granted to Simon Welbury and Christopher Morland, [the manor of Castle Eden, &c.] a messuage in Colierley, late belonging to the Chantry of Jesus in the Church of Brancepath; two messuages in the tenure of John and George Smart, in Lanchester; a messuage called Manestedhed (fn. 60) in Lanchester, parcel of the dissolved monastery of Hexham, and four shillings one penny farthing rent, and the services thereto belonging, in Stanley, late parcel of the Preceptory of the Mount St. John of Jerusalem, in Yorkshire; and all the capital messuage, and site of the late College of Lanchester, and all the lands and possessions to the Deanery of the same, late belonging in Lanchester, Medomsley, Eshe, Greencroft, Ulshaw and Cornsey, and two messuages in Frostesley, in the tenure of Anthony Trollop, belonging to the free Chapel of Frosterley; to hold Castle Eden, &c. and the lands belonging to the College of Lanchester by the fortieth part of a knight's service; and the other lands of the manor of East Greenwich, in common socage, and 15s. 6d. crown rent out of Colyerley, and 12s. out of Frosterley (fn. 61). Almost immediately after Welbury and Morland granted the premises in Lanchester, Medomsley, Eshe, Greencroft, Ulshaw, and Cornsey to Richard Hodshon, who in 1604 granted the Deanery of Lanchester to Lancelot Hodshon. [The estate has since travelled the same road with Manor. House, and is now the property of David Bevan, banker in London.]
White House (Lanchester Lodge). 19 June, 38 Eliz. 1596, Elizabeth, widow of Thomas Tempest, of Stanley, and Nicholas Tempest, Gent, conveyed to James Wauton, of Lanchester, yeoman, a tenement called the White House, parcel of the dissolved Rectory (fn. 62). 21 March 1608, James Walton settled the same estate on trust for his grandson
The rolls contain notices of a few other scattered parcels of the Church or Chantry lands.
Ladie-Lands.—By Ind. 10 Sept. 5 Jac. 1607, Sir Henry Lindley, Knight, and John Starkey, his servant, granted to Arthur Walton, of Lanchester, yeoman, “all those meadowes or pasture landes called the Ladie-landes, and one garth called Ladie-garth, containg about six acres, formerly occupied by Robert Hargill and Robert Emerson, and since belonging to Nicholas Tempest, deceased, and now occupied by James and William Walton under eighteenpence rent, sometime given for the maintenance of one light called our Ladie-light, in the parish church of Lanchestre, and granted by the Crown to Lindley and Starkey (inter alia) 6 April, 3 Jac. 1606.”
Inq. 7 Apr. 11 Car. 1636. Robert Riddell, Gent, died seized of all that messuage, of the ancient rent of 6l. 6s. 8d. parcel of the dissolved Deanery of Lanchester, leaving Sir Peter Ridell Knt. his brother and heir.
Tithes—sometime parcel of the Prebends of Iveston and Medomsley in the Collegiate Church of Lanchester.
The following notices are extracted as briefly as possible from the Chancery Rolls at Durham (fn. 65) :
By letters patent, 9 Feb. 30 Eliz. 1587–8, the Queen granted (inter alia) the whole tythes of groyne and corne within the Prebends of Medomsley, Iveston, and Eshe (fn. 66) (and also the whole tythe, &c. within the hamlets of Lanchester and Newbiggin, see hereafter), to Edmund Downing and Myles Dodding, Gents. 23 June, 34 Eliz. 1592, Downing and Dodding conveyed to Thomas Crornpton, of Bemington, Herts, Esq. and Francis Jackson and Clement Dawbney, of London, Gents. 28 May, 43 Eliz. 1601, the last parties granted to Richard Swyft, of Roydon, in Essex, Esq. Roger Rant, Esq. and John Brewster and John Stanley, of London, Gents. 18 Oct. 4 Jac. 1606, Swyft, &c. transferred the tythes of Iveston and Medomsley to George Warde, of London, and Peter Warde, of Bishop Middleham, Gents. who immediately parcelled out the tythes of both Prebends in various portions to the immediate owners of the soil.
18 Oct. 4 Jac. George and Peter Warde to Robert Lee, of Shottele Bridge, yeoman, “the tythes of grayne, &c. of the townefields, places, and hamlets of Benfieldside, Clibburnhaugh, Lyhehouse, Brigghill, Snawes Green, the Lawe, Shotteley Bridge, and John Hopper's land o' the Dike, all parcel of the Prebend of Iveston, subject to 40s. part of a Crown rent of 5l. 6s. 8d. charged on the whole Prebend.
20 Aug. 7 Jac. Robert Lee to Robert Smyth, of Benfieldside, yeoman; John Hunter, of Medomsley; and Clement Waugh, of Snawes Green, the tythes of Smyth's tenement in Benfieldside, and of one full third of Snawes Green.
[1672 Thomas Hunter conveyed to Francis Barkass all the tyth of grain and corn in Blackfyne, Doddifyne, Clebbarnhaugh, Fynehouse, and Hopper's, parcel of the Prebend of Iveston, under 3s. Crown rent, parcel of 5l. 6s. 8d. issuing of that whole Prebend (fn. 67).]
22 July 1613, Robert Lee, of Wylome, yeoman, to John Smith, yeoman, the tithe of his tenement called the Lawe, charged with 6s. parcel, &c.
3 May, 13 Jac. 1615, Robert Lee to Frances Barkus, of Brighill, and Anthony Comynge, of Shotley Bridge, yeoman, the tythes of Brigghill and a tenement in Shotley, and of one full sixth of Snaws Green, belonging to Anthony and his mother Elizabeth--Brighill, 3s., Shotley, 4s. 6d., parcel of the whole Crown rent.
18 Oct. 4 Jac. George and Peter Warde to John Hutcheson, of the Bournehouse, yeoman, all those tithes in the townefields, places, or hamletts of Iveston, Bournhouse, and Woodside; charged with 3l. 6s. 8d. (fn. 68), parcel of 5l. 6s. 8d., reserved, &c.
18 Oct. 4 Jac. George and Peter Warde to John Marley, of Kyoe, yeoman, all tythes of grayne and corne in the townefields and hambletts of Darwencoate, Hamsterley, Braideley, East and West Billingside, Pontopp, Bursblades, Hairlawe, Harpley-house, beside or adjoining on Kyoe, Kyoetowne, Ryoe-lawes, and Kyoe-peth, Marske Myers, Hutcheson's or Raei's Lyne, Myddles, Stanley Mylne Close, Ousterley, and the Crooke; charged with 16s. 8d., parcel of 7l. 6s. Sd. reserved out of the whole Prebend of Medomsley.
18 Nov. 8 Jac. John Marley, of Kyoe, grants to Anthony Meaborne, Gent. the tithe of Pontopp.
10 Aug. 12 Jac. 1616, Thomas Marley, of Kyoe, to Lawrence Wilkinson, Gent, and Nicholas his son, the tithes of Harpley-house and Marsh Myers; 7s. reserved Crown rent.
17 Oct. 4 Jac. George and Peter Warde to Thomas Hunter, of Medomsley, all those tythes of corn and grayne of Medomsley, Broomhill, and Byerside; charged with 3l. 6s. 8d. parcel of 7l. 6s. 8d. reserved on the whole Prebend.
18 Oct. 4 Jac. Thomas Hunter, of Medomsley, yeoman, to Robert Hunter, of the same, yeoman; one fourth part of the corn-tythe of Medomsley, Broomhill, and Byerside; charged with 17s. 6d. By indenture of same date Thomas Hunter conveys another full fourth to John Hunter, of Medomsley yeoman; 17s. 6d.
Lanchester and Newbiggin.—By Ind. 13 Nov. 8 Jac. 1610, George and Peter Warde grant the tithes of grain of the hamlets of Lanchestre and Newbiggin (granted as above, 9 Feb. 30 Eliz. to Dodding and Downing, &c.) to Sir Nicholas Tempest, of Stella, Knt. 6 Nov. 11 Jac. 1613, Sir Nicholas Tempest conveys for 185l. to Rowland Wilkinson, of Moreside, yeoman, subject to 50s. crown-rent; and 18 Aug. 3 Car. 1627, John Wilkinson, of Newbiggin, son and heir of Rowland, grants to John Atkinson, of Fawlees, in the parish of Wolsingham, all the premises first recited—100l. consideration. The heirs of Atkinson conveyed a part of the tithes of Lanchester to the family of Greenwell.
The following parcel seems to have travelled under a different title:
10. Jan. 17 Jac. James Lawson, of Nesham, Gent, to George Ormesby, of Lanchester, yeoman, all those tithes, parcel of the Rectory, Deanery, and Vicarage of Lanchester, and the tythes of corn, hay, wool, lamb, and all other tythes of Newbiggin betwixt the brook called Smallop, on the North side; a tenement called Punderlande, on the South; all which were granted by the Crown inter alia (28 July, 9 Jac. 1611), to Francis Morice and Francis Phelips, under a reserved rent of 30l. 16s. 8d. and which Morice and Phelips conveyed (3 Feb. 10 Jac.) to William Grey and William Selby, Esquires, who again transferred to Lawson 10 Jan. 1613.
The Widdringtons, of Cheeseburn Grainge, held a considerable portion of tithes. In 16.. Ralph Widdrington, Esq. sold to Nicholas Greenwell and Thomas Kirkby, all the tithes on their respective lands in Lanchester Ford, Lanchester Nook, Mawesfield, and Hooker House. 19 March 1699 Ralph Widdrington, Esq. and William his son and heir, to William Greenwell, of Kibblesworth, and Nicholas Greenwell, of Ford, all the tithes of Ford, Fenhall, Harperley, Mawsfield, High Walls, Low Walls, and Hopper's farm, and all tithes of hay, wool, lamb, calfes, and other small tithes on Barker's farm.
The Church of Lanchester (like most of those which have been collegiate) is very superior to the common parochial structures in the West, and though stripped of its revenues, still exhibits in its architecture the appearance of the mother church of an extensive district, the centre of religious feeling to many a sheltered dale and upland hamlet.
The fabric (of hewn stone or ashler work) consists of a nave and chancel, with regular ailes, a West tower, and a deep porch, which breaks the uniformity of the South front. Each aile is formed by three handsome round pillars supporting four pointed arches with zigzag mouldings. The Southern aile is somewhat wider than that on the North, and both exceed the nave a few feet in length. The chancel is divided from the nave by a blunt arch springing from clustered pilasters, with ornamented brackets or capitals. The arch has three rows of mouldings of rich zigzag or cheveron ornament. The chancel has been stalled on both sides (fn. 69) for the reception of the Dean and Prebendaries (and of the Bishop if present). Six oak seats with carved work still remain under a deep low arch cut in the North wall. The seats on the South have been removed. A door opens out of the chancel into the vestry on the North, under a pointed arch, which has been ornamented with a groupe of figures in bas relief. The Virgin is in the midst, seated in a chair of state and adored by angels, whilst beneath, the old Dragon, trampled under foot, coils in snaky twine. On both sides within the altar-rails are corbeils of human heads, which have perhaps supported images. A fine mitred head on the North is well preserved. Another represents a king. There is a piscina on the South of the altar. The lights throughout the whole fabric are handsome and regular. The ailes are each lighted by two double windows under square labels, and by one towards the East of three lights under a pointed arch. The nave has four clerestory windows on the South, each of two lights under square labels. The chancel has two double and one treble light towards the South, under pointed arches. The East window consists of three tall lancet lights, which have been filled with painted glass. The adoration of the Magi may he still traced in the middle light, with the legend, Ecce magi berum Deum ador (fn. 70). There are several other remains of stained glass. In the most Western window of the chancel is a figure of the Virgin (fn. 71), with the Saviour in her arms, seated in a richly ornamented chair; the head is lost. In the East window of the South aile are the arms of Tempest, impaling Umfreville, stained in rich colours. In the adjoining window of the same aile a venerable bearded head with amber hair and a gold cross on the forehead (fn. 72), with a blue robe; and another head with light golden hair in a circle composed of fragments; and in the central window a monastic head in a black cap, with some other fragments. The West tower rises about twenty feet (fn. 73); the whole structure is embattled, and has flying buttresses. The date of the greater portion of the building does not probably rise higher than the Tudor age. The wrecks of an elder fabric are very visible; fragments of ancient tombs are built up in the walls of the tower, one has a sword suspended from a cross, another a cross flory with an ornamented shaft. Several years ago there was a small flower garden in front of the parsonage. The wall was covered with flags, and one was part of a sepulchral stone on which Saxon characters were legible. A piece of sculpture, evidently Roman, is built up in the wall of the vestry; it seems to represent a genius bearing a cornucopias; the head is bare.
Under an arch in the wall of the South aile lies a recumbent effigy in Stanhope marble of a canon secular, with elevated hands clasping the chalice. This figure, which is nearly concealed by a pew, is conjectured with some probability to represent Stephen Austell, Dean of Lanchester, who died in 1461, on whose account Thurstan Ryston, rector of Stanhope, and William Sotheron, chaplains, conveyed two tenements and eighteen acres in Greencroft to the churchwardens and parishioners of Lanchester on condition of their causing Placebo and Dirige to be annually performed for the soul of Dean Austell on his anniversary, 27 February, and of finding a perpetual lamp to burn before the altar of St. Catharine, where he was buried (fn. 74)
Dean Rudde, one of Austell's successors, lies buried under a blue slab of enormous proportions, about the midst of the chancel: its brass is inscribed:
Drate pro anima mag'lj Joannis Rudde in Decretis Bacca laurii quondam Decani hujus Ecclesiae qui obiit xxix Die Septembris anno D'ni MCCCCLXXXX cu'us animae propitietur Deus animrum.
Upon the same slab:
Here lyeth the body of George Baker, of Crooke, Esq. eldest son of Sir George Baker, Knt. who departed this life October the 14th, Anno Dñi 1677.
Vita Christus. Mors lucrum. Phil. j. 21.
On a blue slab in the chancel:
Samuel Sanderson, of Hedleyhope, Esq. was buryed here in Ann° 1650. And his wife Barbara in 1672.
And Samuel, their fifth son, in 1662.
Arms, Paly of six Argent and Azure, over all on a bend Sable a sword.... Sanderson; impaling, Argent, fretty Gules, on a chief of the second three leopards' heads Or, Liddel. Sans Dieu rien.
On two coarse freestones laid together, near the South side of the chancel:
Here lyethe dame Elyzabeth Whittingham, wife of Sir Timothe Whittingham, of Holmeside, who died the 13 of Marche, Anno Dñi 1614.
Here lyethe Elizabeth Mitforde, their 2 daughter, wife of Michell Mitford, of Sighel, in the county of Northumberland, Esquyer, who died the first of December, Anno Dñi 1613.
On a large blue slab near the former:
Here lyeth John Whittingham, the 3 sonne of Sir Tymothe Whittingham, who died the 1 day of June 1614.
Here lye ye bodies of Stephen and Elizabeth Whittingham, second sonne and eldest daughter of Timothy Whittingham, of Holmside, Esq. which sonne was buryed ye 10 day of July, and Eliz. my daughter, ye 22d day of October, both in ye yeare 1679.
On a smaller stone: Zach. Whittingham, 1711.
On a mural moument of white marble, near the West end of the North aile.
Arms: quarterly Or and Gules, over all a bend Sable.
Jacobus Clavering de Greencroft inComitatu Dunelmensi, armiger, filius Jacobi Clavering de Axwell in Comitatu predicto Baronetti, et lana conjux ejus charissima, cum liberis eorum, hic requiescunt.
George Clavering, of Greencroft, Esq. fifth son of Sir James Clavering, Bart, died at High Wycombe, in Buckinghamshire, and was buried there on the 28th of May 1794, in the 75th year of his age.
On a hlue slab at the foot of the former :
Benjamin, son of James Clavering, of Greencroft, Esq. departed this life April the 26th, 1683. Isa. Clavering, 5 daughther of James Clavering, Esqr. of Greencroft, died Febr. 30th 1706. Henry Clavering, youngest son of Sr James Clavering, of Axwell, died August ye 11th 1711. Catherine, wife of James Clavering, Esqr. dyed Nov. 29th 1723. She was daughter of Thomas Yorke, Esqr. of Richmond, in Yorkshire.
On a freestone-slab near the South porch :
Here lieth the body of Anthony Blarton, sonne of Anthony Blarton, of Kyopeth. Also his wife and thre childrend. He did give to the poore of this parish v pound, to le lettene for tenne shillings in the year for their use, and the stoke to remain for ever. He was buried the ii of September 1617y.
On a freestone near the South door :
Here lyeth the body of Willm Rippon, who departed this life Septr ye 4 day, 1717. Also the body of Jane his wife, died June 20, 1749y. John Rippon, died Febr. 18th 1780, aged 77. Mary his wife, 9 July 1782, aged 62 years.
Near the pulpit in the middle aile:
Dorothy Thompson, wife of Michael Thompson, of Hullerbush, who died 18 day of March, Año Dom. 1635. M.T.E.T. 1651.
On a freestone slab near the West end of the North aile :
Here lieth the body of Michael Raw, of Wharna Burn, who departed this life Octr ye 14, .an. 1715. Also the body of Thomas Raw, who died April the 25, 1752, aged 75.
On a handsome marble tablet in the South aile :
In memory of John and George, the sons of John and Elizabeth Maddison, of Hole House, near Alansford in this parish.
John the elder went to the Hague in 1761, as private secretary to Sir Joseph Yorke, Bart. (afterwards Lord Dover); from thence he proceeded to St. Petersburg in 1762; and on his return to London in 1764, received an appointment in the General Post Office, in which department he discharged the duties of different official situations, and died at his apartments October the 24th iSoo, in the 67th year of his age.
George the younger also commenced his public life as secretary to Sir Joseph Yorke, Bart. After filling various diplomatic situations, he was appointed Under Secretary of State for the Foreign Department in 1782; and Secretary of Legation under the Duke of Manchester, who negotiated the peace of Paris in 1783; where he died suddenly, August the 27th of that year, in the 36th year of his age. This monument was erected by their only sister, Eleanor, the wife of Thomas Greenwell, of Broomshields, in this parish.
On a marble tablet in the bouth aile:
Joseph Walker, Clerk,
a native of Cumberland, and eight years
Curate of this Parish,
died September 1806, aged 47.
As an honest man, a cheerful and steady friend, as a loyal subject, and an active and zealous clergyman, his character was pre-eminently distinguished; and a few of his friends who esteemed him when alive and lamented his death, erected this little monument to his memory.
On a freestone in the South aile:
Sepulchrum Nico. Greenwell de Greenwell, alias Ford.
William Greenwell, of Ford, died April 14, 1758, aged 63. Mary his wife died March 12, 1771, aged 70.
Ann, wife of Alan Greenwell, of Greenwell Ford, died April 23, 1783, aged 38. Elizabeth, the 5th daughter, died July 14, 1780, aged 2 years. Alan, their eldest son, died May 10, 1790, aged 16. Jane, their 4th daughter, died March 5, 1797, aged 16. Alan. Greenwell, Armiger, ob. Feb. 25, 1806, æt. 67.
On a flat stone in the middle aile:
Here lieth Robert Ornsbey, December 21, Anno 1641. Tu qui legis et audis para sequi.
Middle aile near the pulpit:
Robert Burnop, of Low Burnopside, buried April 6, 1729. Ralph Burnop, son of Robert, died Dec. 9, 1762, aged 64.
On an altar-tomb in the church-yard.
Here lyeth the body of John Sandford, of Collierly, Gent. 2d son of Thomas Sandford of Askam, in ye county of Westmoreland, Esqr. who dyed ye 6 of June 1717, aged 63.
As allso in the grave near adjoyninge on ye right hand lyes ye body of John Sandford, only son and heire to ye sd John Sandford, who died 8 Decembr 1723, aged 38.
On a headstone near the East end of the chancel:
In memory of William Darnell, of Cornsay, who died at West Sheeld, July ye 24th, 1779, in the 86th year of his age.
In the church-yard:
Here lieth interred, George Baker, Esq. who departed this life March 2, 1778, aged 76.
Also Mrs. Magdalene Baker his sister, who died Sept. 13, 1780, aged 75.
Also Ferdinando Baker, Esq. his brother, who died Feb. 22, 1783, aged So.
Also Francis Baker, Esq. their brother, who died Oct 18, 1789, aged 85.
Succession Of Curates.
Lanchester, olim Rectory, now a Perpetual Curacy, not in charge.—Dedication to All Saints. Rectors: Hervey, occurs 1147. Philip de Sancta Helena, 1221. Mag. Alex. de Alverton. John de Graven, 1283, (first Dean, v. antea.)
- Richard Mylner, occ. 21 July 1562.
- Myles Watmough, 31 Jan. 1586, p. m. Mylner.
- Robert Hunt, A. M. lic. 15 Sept. 1624.
- Thomas Thompson, lic. 30 Sept. 1635.
- Josias Dockwray, an intruder, depr. 1662, after conformed and proceeded LL. D.
- Josias Dockwray, A. B. 1663.
- John Martin, A. B. lic. 15 July 1669, p. res. Dockwray.
- Alexander Eagleston, lic. 1682 (fn. 77).
- Thomas Scaife, 1686, p. res. Eagleston.
- Robert Carr, 1694, p. res. Scaife.
- John Bryding, A. M. 1695, p. res. Carr.
- Robert Richarby, 10 Sept. 1721, p. res. Bryding.
- Miles Patrick, clerk, 17 Sept. 1731, p. m. Richarby.
- William Adey, cl. lic. 14 Sept. 1744, p. m. Patrick.
- Robert Dent, cl. 1778, p. m. Adey.
- Joseph Walker, cl. p. m. Dent. 1796.. Joseph Thompson (fn. 78), cl. p. m. Walker, 1806.
The endowment consists or a pension or 10l. from the Crown, and 7l. 6s. 8d. issuing from the Vicarial tithes, both reserved at the Dissolution; of a parsonage-house and garden near the church; about six acres allotted on the division of Lanchester Common; 105 acres at Wigside (fn. 79), purchased with 200l. subscribed and 200l. added by the Trustees of Queen Anne's Bounty; and of 40 acres and upwards (with right of common at Greenhead, in the parish of Stanhope), let for 68l. per annum. This last parcel was purchased for 1740l of which 600l. was subscribed, and 900l. added by Queen Anne's bounty; the remainder was completed by additional benefactions, including 190l. given by the present Bishop of Durham. The Curate also receives 10l. per annum from the Trustees of Lord Crewe's Charity.
The Perpetual Curate of Lanchester has the right of presentation to the Perpetual Curacies of Eshe and Satley.
The church plate includes a silver chalice gilt, with a cover, said to be discovered amongst the ruins of the station—the date, 1571, is supposed to mark the year of its discovery; a silver salver, “The Gift of the Rev. Robert Rickarby to his Parish Church of Lanchester, 1730.” Two silver plates inscribed, “A Gift to the Parish Church of Lanchester for the use of the Communion, in ye yr 1762, by Miss Jane Tempest.”
The Parochial Register begins in 1560. There is a chasm, or a volume lost, for some years preceding 1653.
Ford, or Green Well Ford.
Ford, not specially noticed in Boldon-Book, occupies a considerable portion of the description of the copyhold manor of Lanchester under the Survey. “Bond-lands at Ford—John Shephird holds a messuage and twenty-six acres and a half, once Richard Morley's, and used to mow a portion of the lord's meadow in aid of the cottagers, and to win and lead the hay, and to drive the swine from the forest; and when he mowed he had a corrody; and when he drove the swine, a loaf: he now pays (in lieu of services) 8s. 10d. Seven other tenants hold six messuages and a hundred and ten acres under corresponding rents and services. Cottagers—Richard Shephird, of Forth, holds a cottage and garden and two acres, once Richard Morley's, and assists in mowing, &c. and pays 2s. 8d.; three other cottagers hold under similar rents and tenures. Exchequer-lands--John Prentys holds eleven acres, once William Bradheye's, 3s. 3d. Richard Wylde, nine acres, once John de Fenhall's, 5s. 5d. William Gildforde, eight acres, sometime occupied by Gamel del Forde, 3s., and one rood newly reclaimed from the waste behind his garden, 8d. William Kerre holds an acre, once in the tenure of Richard Lawson, 2d.
Thus before the date of the Survey, John, of Fenhall, and Gamel del Ford had respectively assumed local names from their tenures. About a century later the chief copyhold property in Ford was united under various acquisitions in the family of Fayrhare (fn. 80).
In 1633 Nicholas Greenwell, of Fenhall (fn. 81), purchased Fayrhare's lands in Ford. In 1638 he acquired another portion from Hodgson, of Manor-house (fn. 82), and other parcels at various dates from Hopper (fn. 83) and Atkinson. Other tenements were acquired by William and by Nicholas Greenwell (son and grandson of the elder Nicholas) from the families of Ormesbye, Rippon (fn. 84), Martin (fn. 85), and Kirkby, and the whole estate of Ford is now the property of their descendant William Thomas Greenwell, Esq.
The House of Ford, an excellent modern mansion, stands in the vale, a quarter of a mile to the South of the Camp, surrounded by soft green inclosures, variegated with scattered wood-lands, which track the course of the Browney and Smalhop Becks (fn. 86).
The tenement called Greenwell (where the family resided before Ford was built) lies to the South across the water of Browney.
Pedigree of Greenwell, of Ford and Kibblesworth.
*** In 1601 William Camden, Clarenceux King of Arms, confirmed to William Greenwell, of London, merchant, the “ancient armes of the worll family of Greenwell, of Grenewell Hill, in the County Palatine of Duresme,” (from which the said William Greenwell was descended), viz. Or, two bars Azure, between three ducal crowns Gules, granting him at the same time a Crest, on a wreath Or and Azure a Stork proper, beaked and legged Gules, wreathed round the neck with a branch of laurel. These arms have been usually borne by all the families of Greenwell; but Greenwell Hill, in the Parish of Wolsingham, is by long lineal descent the estate of Thomas Greenwell, of Durham, Esq. and these arms were probably granted to a cadet of that family. See some further attempt to trace the general descent of this ancient and branching stock under Greenwell Hill hereafter.
‡ William, son of William Greenwell, of West Stobilee, bur. 30 Sept. 1680.
“The Prior of Hexham holds a messuage called Maydenstanhall and seventy acres, sometime belonging to Simon de Ashe, by. knight's service, and at the four terms 13s. 4d.” Hatfield's Survey.
After the dissolution, by letters patent, 25. March; 7 Edw. VI. 15.., the Crown granted inter alia to Simon Welbury and Christopher Morland, “the messuage called Manestedhead, in Lanchester, late parcel of the Monastery of Hexham,” to hold of the manor of East Greenwich in common socage (fn. 87). Welbury and Morland immediately conveyed to William Hodgson (fn. 88), who died seized of Maidensteadhall or Manor-House in 1600 (fn. 89), leaving John his son and heir, whose descendants alienated the estate in the reign of Charles II. to the Stevensons of Byerside. John Hall Wharton, Esq. representative of the Stevensons (fn. 90), sold the estate a few years ago to David Bevan, banker in London.
The estate adjoins Lanchester on the South-West. The remains of the old Manor-House, which stood a little to the East of the Durham-road, were taken down some years ago. A modern farm-house stands on the scite.
Pedigree of Hodgson, of Manor-House.
Arms as Hodgson of Hebborne, with due difference.
* “To one John Longstaffe, of Rabic, yf he be living at the daye of my deathe, & yf he be dead to his children, in considerac'on of his losses he sustayned by me in the layte rebellyon in the North in the sarvice of Charles, the layte Earl of Westmorland, thirty shillings.” See some curious particulars of William and Lancelot Hodgson's attachment to the Nevills, in a letter from Sadler's Papers quoted under Greencroft.
The name bears with it its own evident derivation, yet has been frequently corrupted into Coldpigg-hill and Cowpigg-hill.
By charter without date William de Acley granted to St. Cuthbert and his Monks of Durham ad fdbricam Ecclesiæ, the third part of his land of Kolpihill, with the toft and croft which Geoffrey held.
By Ind. 1312, John de Tyckhill, Sacrist, &c. leased his tenement, wood, and meadow in Colpigg-hill to John Prentiz, of Corneshowe, and Isbael (fn. 91); and in 1363 the Prior and Sacrist leased to John Scott and Alice his wife for thirty years, under 7s. rent (fn. 91).
Adam Scott, Forester of Bradwood, occurs in an annual rental, charged with 7s. for one close on the water of Bronn, near Colpit-hill (fn. 92).
Under Hatfield's Survey, William holds one messuage and an acre, sometime Adam Scott's, and pays 12d. Thomas Wrek a messuage and sixteen acres, once Scott's, 5s. 4d. and two acres lately reclaimed from the waste, 8d. John Scot and Alice his wife hold thirty acres in two parcels, under 10s. rent, and a tenement and five acres, once Adam Scot's, 21d.
The Lord Nevill holds by charter six tenements and a hundred acres, and pays 2s. This grant was the foundation of the free manor which at the close of the 14th century belonged to the family of Parke, the descendants of the old lords of Blakeston.
In the reign of Elizabeth the Cocksons were owners of the manor (fn. 93).
In 163 Anthony Cockson the elder (fn. 94) (by Ind. with George Collingwood, Esq. and Ambrose Appleby, Gent.) settled his capital messuage of Cowpigg-hill on his two younger sons George and Charles successively in tail male. In 1651 George settled the estate by articles after marriage, and in 1685 joined with his wife Elizabeth in another settlement on his younger son George Cockson, who devised in 1714 to his wife Anne, and his daughters Elizabeth and Anne. In 1723 Elizabeth intermarried with George Meynil, Gent, and in 1724 joined her husband in conveying the estate in fee to Thomas Bowlby, of the city of Durham, Gent. who in 1730, devised to his eldest son Thomas Bowlby (fn. 95). This estate was afterwards by purchase the property of the Newtons, and was acquired by Andrew Robinson Stoney by marriage with his first wife.
Newbiggin.—Bond-lands at Newbigging—John Fildyng a messuage and eleven acres, and performs the same services as the bond-tenants of Ford, and pays 3s. 8d. Thomas Hill and twenty-six other tenants hold twenty-seven messuages, half a messuage, and divers lands under certain rents. Exchequer-lands—John de Hull holds three acres, once Ralph de Newbigging, 12d. John Fildyng and seventeen others hold sixteen messuages, a toft, two closes, and divers parcels, under certain rents.
Hurtbuck, or Hartibuk—The whole tenure under the Survey is stated to consist of exchequer-lands. John Yonger a messuage and three acres, called Ladies-land, 20d.; a plot called Glasscroft of an acre and a half, 6d.; seven acres called Bettesland, 3s. 7d.; an acre and a half of waste near Bettesland, 6d.; and nine acres with a toft, sometime parcel of John Marssan's tenure, 3s. 8d. William Collesson a messuage and three acres, parcel of the same tenure, 19d. ob.; fourteen acres, parcel, &c. 4s. 8d.; a messuage and thirty-one acres, once John Hurtibuk's, 10s. 4d.; and half a rood of waste before his own door, 2d. William Crokefote, a messuage and ten acres, once Robert Chapman's, 5s. 6d.; a toft and three acres, once Walter Williman's, 2s.; a messuage and three acres, once John Lewyne's, 2s.; a messuage and three acres, once John Craven's, 20d. Robert Taillor, of Knychelay, holds three roods, once Gilbert Halgh's, 10d.; and half a rood before his door, 2d. William Crokefote holds one acre called the Kilnacre, with one drying-kiln, 12d. John Smyth a messuage and five acres in his wife's right, 2s. 2d. Christiana Halgh a messuage and fourteen acres and a half, once his father's, .4s. 10d. Robert Taillor a messuage and six acres, parcel of Marson's tenure, 2s. Hurbuck. was the seat of a family of Selby (fn. 96). The estate now belongs to Mr. Balleny by purchase from John Wharton, Esq. M.P.
Scarcely a mile to the North of Lanchester. The Hall, a spacious handsome mansion built by the Claverings after 1670, stands on the Southern slope of a hill, surrounded by luxuriant plantations of lofty forest trees, and commanding a prospect southwards over the village and vale of Lanchester.
Greencroft is mentioned in Boldon Book under Lanchester. Greencroft pays sixteen shillings, carries the Lord's wine with a wain of four oxen, and the tenants in villenage maintain the twelfth part of Lanchester mill-pool: the demesne lands are exonerated from this service, hut perform the whole carriage of the wine. Under Hatfield's Survey Robert de Kellowe, of Lumley, and John Rugheved (who in the margin are called Drengs), hold the vill of Greencroft; the same division appears of the services. The demesne carries wine and pays as before, and the villans repair the mill-pool, and attend the Bishop's great chase with two greyhounds. The record also mentions lands held by exchequer rents. William Stell a messuage and sixteen acres, 4s. 10d. Alexander del Moresyd a messuage and thirty-two acres, sometime Robert Colier's, 10s. 8d. John Smyth a messuage and thirty-three acres and three roods (once Thomas Rugheved's) parcel of forty-five acres and a half, called le Smythfelling, 11s. 3d. he also holds five other parcels under certain rents. John Urpeth and three others hold twenty-nine acres, sub eisdem legibus. William de Fulthorp, Knt. holds a tenement called the Burnhous, 4s. 10d. Four acres, called Grenhowfeld, which used to pay 2s. are waste.
Kellaw's moiety passed to the Claxtons of Old Park, and is returned in several successive Inquisitions (fn. 97), till it was forfeited by Robert Claxton, who engaged in the Northern rebellion in 1569.
The Rugheveds held a moiety of the manor for at least four descents. In 1340 Nicholas Rugheved died seized of half the vill of Grenecroft, held by fealty, suit of court, and the services of providing (together with his coparceners) for the carriage of the third part of a pipe (doliuin) of wine, and of repairing the third part of the pool and dam of the manor-mill of Lanchester, grinding at the same mill, paying a thirteenth part multure, and paying to the Bishop's Head Forester 2d. and seventeen hens (fn. 98).
Four John Rougheads followed their patriarch Nicholas in lineal succession (fn. 99), the last was living in 1421, but it is not apparent how the line terminated. Two years later Sir Ralph Eure (fn. 100), Knt. died seized of half the vill conditionaliter, which perhaps means on trust or on mortgage; and I suspect that an heiress of the Rugheveds carried the estates in marriage to William Forster, one of the Northern Gentry, who fell at Towton-field on the side of Lancaster in 1461, Die dominica in ramis palmarum (fn. 101). In 1468 Thomas Forster, son of William, conveyed half the vill of Greencroft to Robert Hall, who died seized of the same estate in 1473 (fn. 102). His descendants held the estate for two centuries (fn. 103), and seem also to have acquired the other moiety, which vested in the Crown under Claxton's attainder. Ralph Hall, of Greencroft, Esq. who died in 1656 (fn. 104), was one of those steady loyalists who refused to compound with the Parliament for his estates, and they were consequently included in the Act for sale of Delinquent's estates (fn. 105). His son however, William Hall, was in possession of his inheritance after the Restoration, but so loaded with the consequences of his own and his father's loyalty, that he was obliged first to mortgage and then to sell his estate of Greencroft to the Claverings about 1670: In the latter family it has since rested, and is now the property, and the occasional residence, of Sir Thomas Clavering, Bart.
The following singular epistle from Bishop Toby Mathew exhibits such a curious painting of the old Hall of Greencroft, and of its inhabitants, in the reign of Elizabeth, that though it has been already printed (Sadler's Papers, vol. II. p. 204, and Supplement to Strype's Annals, p. 344), I cannot resist the temptation of transcribing it:
Tobie Mathew, Bishop of Durham, to Lord Burleigh.
Maie it please your good lordshipp to be advertised, that I have lately caused the lady Katharine Gray, widdow, one of Westmoreland's daughters, to be apprehended by Mr. John Conyers, the sheriff of this countie, and Mr. Robert Tailbois, one of the justices of peace, and have admitted her to the safe custodie of Christopher Glover, gaoler of Duresm Castle, to be kept forthcoming in his private house nighe the gaole. This ladie was for many yeares sought by the late earle of Huntingdon; was detected for the receaving and releving of sundry seminarie priests, as Staffer-ton, with the flesh mark in his face, (with whose too much familiaritie she hathe been “judged (fn. 106) ” in London), Bost, who since was executed, Mushe, and Patteson, besydes many others, whose names come not presently to mynde. She hath alwaies illudid the processes and messengers of the ecclesiasticall high commission, by eloyning and withdrawing herselfe hitherto from all appearance. Of late tyme, somewhat synce Martimas last, she took to farme a house and land, called Grenecroft (fn. 107), nigh Lanchester, in this countie, 8 myles hence, northe and by west, letten unto her by M'ris Hall, a widowe, conformable, and sister to Nicholas Tempest's (fn. 108) wife of Stella, that great recusant, where the ladie hath been coming and going ever since, and sometimes made good cheere to twentie of her frendes at once, especially at Christmas: and where, if I be truly informed, there was bad rule kept, both spiritually and carnally. Within halfe a mile of that house, on this syde Lanchester, dwelleth at the manor-house, one William Hodgson (fn. 108), an olde servant and follower of the earle, whose sonne, called John (fn. 108), is a speciall recusant, and is reported (but how certainely, I know hot), to have married this ladie. This William Hodgson is a perilous fellow, conformable to her majestie's proceedings, and fermor to her highness of the whole deanery of Lanchester dissolved, worth, as is saide, some cc markes, or better, above the yerely rent. In Lanchester towne dwellth Lancelott Hodgeson (fn. 109), when he is at home, but he is now in prison for recusancie, a dangerous person, and not unlerned; who the last yere was married, as himselfe confesseth, by an olde popish priest, but no seminarist, nor at a masse, as he allegeth, to Marie Lee, daughter to another of therle's chefe old servants and officers at Brancepeth, in those daies. The manor of Lanchester belonging to me, and Brancepath lordship to her majestie, by therie's attaynder, doe adjoin together, and therefore, I thinke, the lady Graye did there mean, for the tyme, to sett up her rest soe nigh her father's olde tenants; the house itself also (standinge towards the fells, and nigh a pretty wodde) strongly built of newe, with many shifting contrivances, may yelde good opportu-nitie to lodge and intertayne, not only other ill guests, but, pcrcase, thearle himself, si et quatenus. Nowe, that she is in handes, I would, from your lordship be directed, with some expedicion, how she shall be dealte with and used; 1. whether detayned in durance, or bayled upon good bond for her appearance from tyme to tyme; 2. whether she shall be touched only for recusancie, or charged with other matters that may occurre; 3. whether, if any thinge amountinge to felonye shall arise against her, she shall be tried thereof at the next assises here, or in Northumberland, as her sister the lady Margaret (fn. 110) was anno 1593, and by her majestie was gratiously pardoned in hope of the continuance of her pretended conformitie (from which I heare she has relapsed since); 4. whether she shall be suffered to keepe house of herselfe, with some of her owne servants about her, and other friends sometimes resorting to her, as she desyreth earnestly, or lyve, as her keper shall provide for her, in a more private and close maner; 5. whether she shall be permitted to ryde abrode and take the aire, or continue within her lodging; with such other particulars as your lordship, in your wisdome, shall think fitt to impart unto me. My healthe will not yet serve me either to sende for her, or goe to her; but at the tyme of my visitation, about a fortnight hence, or xviii dayes, I shall take occasion to speak with her, and examine her, if your lordship, before that tyme, shall so advise me, and if God will give me leave. The whyle, with humble thanks to your good lordship for the allowance of my impost, I betake your lordship to the grace of God.—At B. Auckland, 27th Maii, 1598.
Your lordship's most humble in Christ,
I suppose Mr. Topcliffe could saie much touching this ladie, if your lordship would require him earnestly.
To the right honorable my singular good lord the lord Burghley,
lord high thresorer of England (fn. 111).
Pedigree, of Hall, of Greencroft.
Arms as Hall of Consett and Birtley.
Mr. Charles Hall and M'ris Brandling, mar. 16 Jan. 1575–6. See Pedigree of Brandling.
Elynor, daughter of Mr. Charles Hall, of Fellyng, Esq. baptized 28 May 1577.
John, son of Mr. Charles Hall, Gent, baptized 2 Oct. 1580.
William, son of William Hall, Esq. baptized 17 Dec. 1587. Jarrow.
Henry, son of Mr. Charles Hall, Gent, baptized 20 July 1595. St. Nicholas, Newcastle.
Mrs. Elizabeth Hall, of Greencroft, buried 23 July 1676.
Mr. Charles Hall, Lanchester, Margaret Hudleston, Cockfield, mar. 1 July 1709.
Mr. Charles Hall, of Pontup, buried 2 May 1731. Lanch. Reg.
* I can only conjecture that William Hall was nearly connected with the family of Birtley, originally of the same stock with those of Stanley and Greencroft. It may be further presumed that Robert Hall, first named in the text, was the same Robert who stands at the head of the line of Hall of Consett and Birtley; that Robert was his eldest son, and inherited Greencroft, whilst John took the maternal estate of Birtley, Geffrey Hall, moreover, of Marley Hill and Hollenbush (see p. 215), who was certainly, from the mullet in his arms, a third son of the family of Stanley, may very well stand as brother to John and Robert; and I have little doubt that to the same stock belong a line of citizens, drapers, and vintners in Durham, who had lands within the manor of Lanchester in 1550.
‡ 20 July 1596, William Hall, of Greencrofte, Gentilman, to my eldest son Ralph, “the greate over sea covering and the greate iren rackes; to my other three sonnes Charles, Cuthbert, and Robarte, xl. per annum each during life.” Wife Alice and three daughters executors.
Lanchester Par. Register.
St. Oswald's Register.
*** Memorandu'. That about the Feast of St. Michael, 1665, Willm St. George, late, &c. of Dalden, Gent, being very aged, &c. did declare his last will at the house of Mr. William Hall, of Greencroft. He gave all he had to his man Chro'ses Hall, then and yet of Dalden, adding, that he was confident that was the last time he should come to Greencroft. His purse and apparell, 3l.; a horse, 4l.; and a brass watch, 13s. 4d.; ult. Junii 1666.”
Holmside (fn. 112), the ancient seat of the Tempests and Whittinghams, lies near the South Eastern verge of the Parish. The Hall seems to have belonged to a class of mansions inferior to the peel or castle, yet built with some view to defence. Part of the old court-yard is remaining; the Chapel forms the North side, and its West window is still perfect, of two lights under a square label, with the cinquefoil and two blank shields in the spandrils. Above this West window a mutilated figure is fixed in the wall, with a full moony face, and a kind of round helmet or pot en tete. I should almost conjecture this to be a rude piece of Roman sculpture, removed from the Station which may probably have furnished the coins and squared stones used in building this chantry of the Umfrevilles. The original lights of the Hall are narrow, strongly guarded with mullions and iron bars, but the gables have been taken down, and the house enlarged towards the South, and it now presents a confused mass of buildings of very different dates, with outshots and additions on all sides, including in its interior a number of small ill-connected apartments. The moat includes a ruined garden and orchard, and a stone throw to the West stands another small old building defended by its separate moat. The situation is in a hollow flat, and a few centuries ago the gloomy hall of the Tempests must have been nearly immersed in wood and morass. New Holmside Hall, built since the division of the family estate by the Whittinghams, is a mere modern house, on bare rising ground to the North.
Under Boldon Book the estate of Holmside is mentioned as held by one mark rent, and by the forest-service of providing one man to watch the Bishop's deer for forty days, en Forncson, and for as many en le Ruyth, and by the carriage of wine with a draught of four oxen.
The owner's name, as usual in describing the free manors, is omitted; but Richard de Holmeside (who also occurs as the donor of his lands in Iveston to St. Cuthbert) is expressly mentioned as the Lord of Holmeside, in a charter not long subsequent to the foundation of Finchale.
Cartæ de Holmeside.
Will'us fil. Earnoldi omnibus amicis et vicinis suis Francis et Anglis, Sal. Noverit. &c. me dedisse et concessisse, &c. Gilberto de Wenloctona consanguineo meo, unam bovatam terre in Holmside cum duobus toftis et croftis que Bernardus et Petrus tenuerunt. Testibus, Leonio de Heriz, Jordano Escholand, Osemundo filio Hamundi, Gerardo Preposito de Quicham, Rogero de Merley, Roberto de Yoltona, Ricardo de Akesel, Hugone de Dol, Huctredo de Swalewal, Springoldo de Quicham, et aliis.
II. Omnibus, &c. Robertus fil. Gilberto de Winlatona. Noveritis me intuitu caritatis, &c. et pro anitnabus antecessor. et successor. Ricardi de Holmeside Domini mei, de consensu et voluntate ejusdem, &c. dedisse Deo et S. Godrico et domui elemosinarie de Finchal una cum corpore meo unam bovatam terre in Holmeside, scilt illam quam Will'us fil..Ernoldi Gilberto patri meo dedit. In cujus, &c. Set et eartam predicti Will'i domui de Finkall in extrema voluntate contradidi. Testibus, Ricardo de Holmeside, Will'o del hil. Matheo de Lumeleia, Jolianne de Coken, Alexandro de Redhouch, Reginaldo Pincharde, Will'o de Coken, Johanne Clerico, et Eudone de Bincestre.
The local name occurs no more; and within the lapse of another century before the date of Hatfield's Survey, Holmside (with Whitley and other lands in the same district) had become the estate of the Umfrevilles. Thomas Umfreville held the manor, stated to contain a hundred acres, by the services named in Boldon Buke. John Hallyng held a messuage and sixteen acres, once Thomas Couper's, 7s. 8d. The same John Hallyng and John de Wharnows held a messuage and lands called Warlandfield, containing sixty-six acres and a half, 28s. and eight acres of novel waste, sometime of John Stubes, 2s. 8d. In 1387 Thomas Umfreville died seized of the manor by homage, fealty, and 14s. 4d. (fn. 113), and of ten acres called Hamwellburn, held by three shillings exchequer rent, (and of the manor of Whetele, &c.) leaving Sir Thomas Umfreville, Knt. his son and heir (fn. 114).
The history of the ancient martial Umfrevilles belongs to Northumberland. The following sketch of the younger branch (cadets of the Earls of Angus) is merely introduced to explain the descent of the estates.
So widely was the blood of Umfreville scattered amongst the gentry of the North. Yet the estates were not divided according to the line of descent. From amongst this multitude of coheirs Sir Robert Umfrevill, Knight of the Garter, selected Rowland Tempest, the husband of his grand niece Isabel (the third daughter and coheir of Elizabeth Elmeden), and by will or deed estated him in the manors of Holmeside and Whitley. The story cannot be more expressly told than in the very words of Sir Thomas Tempest's foundation charter of Holmeside Chantry:
Cantuaria apud Holmeset.
* These four had livery 9 Nevill, as heirs of their mother, of a fifth part of the inheritance of Gilbert Umfreville.
This Ind. made the twentieth day of November, in the thirtie and second yeare of the rayne of our most dread sovrayn Lord Kinge Henery, after the conquest of Englande, of that name the Eight, betweene Sir Thomas Tempest, of Holmesett, in the Busshopricke of Durham, Knight, upon that one partie; and Robert Tempest, of Holmesett aforesaid, sonne of George. Tempest, deceased, upon the other partie; Witnesseth that it is fully covenanted, &c. that the said Robert Tempest, and the heyres masles of his body lawfully begotten, having the said manor of Holmesett in their seysin, use, and possession; and the heyres masles of Nicholas Tempest, late of Lang chestre, deceased, having the said manor, &c. if the heyres masles of the said Robert Tempest happen to be then expended and gone, according to one deed entayled thereof, made by Rowland Tempest, lait of Holmesett, Esquyer, deceased, the sayd manor of Holmesett cpntenying in their lynages and blood according to the sayd will, shall continually finde and sustaine at the manor of Holmesett aforesaid, one Trieste of good, vertuous, sadde, honeste and priestly conversation, daily, as reason requireth, to say masse and other divine service after the dutie and order of one prieste in the chappel here, for the sowle of Sir Robert Umfravile, Knight, late knyghte of the nobill ordre of St. George of Wyndesore, and of Dame Isabell his wyfe, by whose goodes, landes, and gyftcs, wee, the Tempests, of Holmsett, were first advanced to honest and substantiall living in these parties of Duresme; and for the sowle of Sir Willyam Tempest, Knyghte, great grandfather to the sayd Sir Thomas Tempest; and for the sowles of Rowland Tempest, late of Holmesett, Esquyer, and of Isabel his wife, niece to the said Sir Robert Umfravile, grandfather and grandmother to the said Sir Thomas Tempest; and for the sowles of Robert Tempest, Esquyer, and Anne his wyff, fader and rnoder to the said Sir Thomas Tempest; and for the sowles of Rowland Tempest, Esquyer, George Tempest, Nicholas Tempest, Willyam Tempest, Robert Tempest, Jane Trollop, Isabel Hall, and Agnes Lambert, late brethren and sisters to the said Sir Thomas Tempest; and for the sowle of Dame Elizabeth, late wyff of the said Sir Thomas lempest; and for all the auncestours sowles of the said Sir Thomas Tempest; and for the sowle of the Reverend fader in God Richard Fox, sometime Bushop of Duresme; and for the sowles of John Rakett, Gent. Ralf Gyllowe and John Jackson, deceased, several benefactors of the sayd Sir Thomas Tempest, and of Dame Anne his wyff, and for the good estait of the sayd Robert Tempest and of Margaret his wyff and for their sowles when they shall depart from this world, and for all Xtian sowles, and most especially for the sowle of the sayd last Rowland Tempest, of whois gyft the manor of Holmesett is entayled on us Tempests of that power house. In wetness, &c.
Signed by both parties. Sir Thomas Tempest seals with a coat Tempest and Umfrevillc quarterly (fn. 115). Robert Tempest with a cinqfoil.
"From an original deed in the custody of Sir Thomas Tempest, Knight, late Recorder of Lincoln's Inn, and Attorney-General of Ireland."--Dodsworth, 59, p. 244. Bodl. Oxon.
The above piece of evidence fully explains the establishment and the descent of the family. Robert Tempest (one of the parties to the Indenture) rushed into the rebellion of the Northern Earls, and was attainted with his eldest son Michael (fn. 116). The father was a fugitive at Farniherst in 1570, and the son died an exile in the Spanish service (fn. 117)
In 1570, 12 Eliz. a survey appears of the forfeited manor of Holmside (by Edward Hall and William Humberston, Commissioners) : “the capital messuage, with all the housings built of stone and covered with slate, with the orchards and gardens, within a park (fn. 118), containing three acres. Holmsyde pasture eighty-nine acres (besides Warlandclose, held by copy of court roll), inclosed with paling; Moresyde-pasture, 96 acres; another close of sour pasture (amare pasture) called the Carrs, six acres; and Fawrellbanks, eighteen acres, extenduntur per Commiss. usq. xxiil. per ann.” (fn. 119)
In 1573, 15 Eliz. the Queen granted (inter alia) to Sir Henry Gate, Knt. the Manor and Park of Holmside and lands at Roughside and Moresyde, to hold in socage of the manor of East Greenwich, under 4l. Crown rent (fn. 120). By fine 1595, 37 Eliz. Henry Jackman, Esq. acquired the manor of Holmside, and divers parcels from Edward Gate, of Seamer, co. York, Esq. son and heir of Sir Henry (fn. 121); and lastly in 1613 Sir Timothy Whittingham (fn. 122), of Cowling, co. Richmond, Knt. purchased of Margaret Hawkins, widow, the manor, park, and appurtenances of Holmeside (fn. 123). Timothy Whittingham, grandson of the purchaser, died in 1682. His dispositions by will or deed occasioned some division of the family estates (fn. 124). New Holmside Hall, and some portion of lands and tithes, are vested in John Hunter, of the Hermitage, Esq. and Miss Cookson, who represent the family of Whittingham. Old Holmside Hall was purchased by Robert Spearman, Esq. of Old Acres, and is now the property of Thomas Wilkinson Esq. of Witton Castle, in right of his wife, Hannah-Elizabeth Spearman.
Pedigree of Tempest, of Holmeside.
Arms : Argent, a bend engrailed, inter six martlets Sable.
* Lic. of marriage in Holmeside Chapel, 21 Nov. 1530. Reg. Tunstall.
† See the descent of the manor of Whaddon in Lysons' Cambr. The Tempests sold to the Pickerings about 1648.
I dare not apply the following early registers from Brice-Norton:—Roger Tempest, buried Oct. 1575. Eleanor Ternpest, Jan. 1581. Roger, son of Thomas Tempest, bapt. Oct. 1601. Agnes, daughter, &c. April 1603. Thomas, son of Henry Tempest ye younger, bapt, Sept. 1611. Joane, dau. of Henry Tempest, Dec. 1612. Anne, bapt. July 1615.
* Blomefield's Coll. Cantabrigiensia, p. 175.
† Par. Reg. of Great Tew.
‡ Names executors, his loving brother-in-law Sir Thos. Tempest, Master Wm. Bonner, of Henley, and his father-in-law Edw. Tolly.
§ Names executors his son Thomas Tempeste, Sir George Willmot, of Charleton, Berks, Knt. and James Herne, of Abingdon, Esq.; supervisors, George Speke, Esq. and his brother Sir Thomas Tempeste, Knt.
†† To whom the Author is indebted for much attention, as well as to the Rev. Isaac Mossop, of Cranbrook.
‡‡ Par. Reg. of Brice-Norton.
A certificate under the common seal of the College of Arms, stating the descent of this Susanna, ”Lutetiæ Parisiorum in regno Galliæ commorantis.” Dated 20 Sept, 1686.
The family of Tempest is one of the most ancient and honourable, as well as one of the most branching, of our English gentry, Roger Tempestas held lands and attested charters in the West Riding in the reigns of Stephen and Henry. The following account of his descendants is by Dodsworth, the Yorkshire antiquary, whose statement seems founded on charters. (The Pedigree in the text is traced only from the first ancestor connected with the county of Durham.)
Harl. MSS. No 6136, fo. 18.
* See his descendants, of Broughton and Bracewell, in Whitaker's “Craven.”
Sciant, &c. quod ego llicardus Tempest, miles, dedi, &c. Roberto Tanfield dc Rypon, omnes terras et ten. mea, redditus et servicia, quæ habeo in villa et territorio de Berwyke super Twedam. Et ego, &c. In cujus, &c. T. Roberto Umfraville. mil. Roberto Tempest vic. Northumbrie, Will'o Mytford arm. Nicho Tempest arm. Dat. apud London, primo die Mart. a° H. IV. 11°.
Seal: a martlet on a chapeau resting on a stone. S. Richardi Tempest. Dodsw. LIX. 244, Bodl. Oxon.
From the Registry of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury in Doctors Commons.
54. Essex. Robert Tempest, of Lynce Green, in the parish of Tanfield and county of Durham, Gent. to be buried in Carrow (Jarrow?) Church or Chancel, as near my brother Nicholas Tempeste as conveniently may be. Item, I give to the Mother Church fowre pence. To my cousin Thomas Tempeste, of Whaddon, co. Cambr. Esq. certain monies for the bringing up in learning of one of the sons of my said cousin Thomas Tempest; one of the sons of my cousin George Specke, of Hasilburie, co. Wilts. Esq.; a son of my cousin William Kennion, of Hatt in the said county; one of my cousin Thomas Byf lecte's children, of Bratton, co. Somerset, Esq.; cousin Michael Kemble's children, of Ruddy Carr, co. Hereford, Gent.; one of my cousin James Vaughan's children, of the said county. My sister Clifford. To my cousin Anne Kennion and her sister Mary Vaughan my web of flaxen-cloth which I left to be blotched, equally to be divided, only foure yards to be cut off for my cousin Kemble's children, and then there will be twenty remaining. To my cousin Tempest of Whaddon, the father, my gold ringe with our armes engraven upon it. My brother Clifford. My cousin George Vaughan. To my cousin Wrey of Beamish, for her great favours shewn unto me. To my cousin Francis Specke my Lettane Primer. My cousin Specke's two daughters Betty and Frank. My cousins Betty Loveden and Barbara. To my cousin Thomas Tempest, of Whaddon, the younger, my silver scale with our armes engraven upon itt. Cousin Elizabeth Cooke. Item, I give unto old Mr. Greenwood, of Brisnorton, my black cloake, in these parts worth foure pounds; his man Tailor maie call at Heabourne (Hebburne) for it; my cousin Shelley, my Lady Hodgson's waiting gentlewoman, will deliver it. To Susan Lady Hodgson and my cousin Bridget her sister. To Rebecca Medcalfe. My cousin Francis Tempest, son of Thomas Tempest, of Whaddon. My aunt Hedley's part after her death to my brother Nicholas Headly, of Lynce Hall. Item, I give unto old John Wyse his wife the piece of golde she hath of mine in keeping; and she must deliver to one of my executors my cousin George Medcalfe's bill of debt I left with her to keep; for I could by no means come that way when I came into the North for losing my company, which grieveth me full sore. The residue to my four Execrs, Sir Thomas Tempeste, of Durham, Knt.; Thomas Tempeste, of Whaddon, the elder, Esq.; Thomas Byflete, of Bratton, Esq.; and Hugh Specke, of Hasilburie. co. Wilts, second son of George Specke, of the same place, Esq. 18 Nov. 1643; pr. by Sir Thomas Tempeste, Knt. 27 April 1648; and a second probate granted 30 July 1660, to Sir Hugh Specke, Bart.
505. Alchin. Catherin Tempest, widow, late wife of Henry Clifford, Gent, to be buried near her husband in St. Andrew's Outwerks. To servant Robert Cave; to three sons of cousin Augustin Belson; to children of cousin Thomas Tempest monies due from their father by will of my brother Robert T. Friends John Chamberlain, of Shirburh, Esq. and Mr. Edward Smith, son and heir of George Smith, of Ashe, Esq. in the Bishopric, Execrs. 20 Aug. 1649. Signed Catherin Clifford.
Tnquisitio de Multara villas de Holmeside.
Inquis'c'o apud Holmeset die Mart. prox. post Claus. Pasch. a° 6 Ric'i de Bury, &c. coram Thoma Surteys, milite, Thoma de Hepp. Nic'o Gategang & Ada' de Bowes, per sacrum Will'i de Kibblisworth, &c. qui dicunt quod Ecclesia Dunelm. fuit seisita de tota multura ville de Holmeset ad molehdinum de Langcestre à tempore à quo non existit memoria usque tempus donac'onis D'ni Hugon. Pudsay, quondam Episcopi Dunelmen. que donac'o facta fuit cuidam Gilberto Heroun per cartam suam ante tempus memorie, à qua donac'one nulla multura fuit usq. decessum dicti Hugonis, ita quod à tempore decessus dicti Hugonis, Ecclesia Dunelm. fuit plenè et pacificè seisita de tota multura totius ville de Holmesett, &c. usq. tempus petic'onis Johannis de Birtley, tempore Lodov. Episcopi immediate predecessoris, D'ni Ric'i nunc, &c. In cujus. 1 Feb. ao 5 Pont.
*** The Author is indebted to John Taylor, Esq. jun. for much attention to the Pedigree of Tempest, and for very much local and genealogical information relative to Chester Ward.
Pedigree of Whittingham, of Holmside.
Arms: 1 and 4 Argent, a fess Azure, over all a lion rampant Gules, Whittingham; 2 and 3 Or, on a bend Gules, between two pellets, three bars of the first.
Crest: On a wreath a cubit arm erect proper, habited Argent, cuff Azure, holding an open book of the second, edges of the leaves-and clasps Or. Harl. MSS. N° 1448, fo. 20.
* Said to be son of William Whittingham, Gent, by a daughter of Houghton, of Houghton Tower, co. Lanc, grandson of William Whittingham, of Over, in Cheshire, and great grandson of Seth Whittingham, of Swallow, co. Chester.
† Lanchester Register.
§ Little Holmside, the Highwood, the Low Meadow-field, Oakey Hill, and Erringtons Garth, the Middle-field, the Greengarth, &c.
‖ Reg. of St. Margaret's, Crossgate.
‡ See much more of the Dean hereafter, under the Cathedral.
¶ “Item, to my cousin Captain William Whittingham thirty pounds, to be payed towards his redemption.” Will of Thomas Cradoek, Esq. 1689.
** Timothy Whittingham, Esq. devised the estate to his brother George Whittingham, charged with 500l. each to the daughters of Timothy. George died intestate, leaving his nieces his heirs-at-law.
Ousterley.—“Isabel de Birtley holds a messuage and fourscore and fourteen acres, called Ousterfield, by knight's service, and 16s. 10d. rent.”—Hatfield's Survey.
In 1370 John de Birtley held the manor of Housetre, and sixscore acres, by 15s. rent (fn. 125). On the death of his widow Isabel above named, the rent is stated as in the Survey, clear value 26s. 8d. (fn. 126). In 1428 Thomas Birtley, son of John and Isabel, sold his manor of Housetre (forty acres, called the Hagg, in .Chester-le-Street, and lands in Pelton Pyktre, Bursblades, and the Hay, near Twizell), to William Chauncellor, Esq. (fn. 127) who created a long family entail (fn. 128) under which, on the death of Thomas Chauncellor, Esq. in 1461, the estate of Housetre descended to Alice, wife of John Osbern, of Sheles (fn. 129).
The estate a century later was vested, in the family of Hull, who though apparently but very yeomanly folks, appeared at the Visitation of 1575, and were persuaded to indulge in coat armour (fn. 130).
Pedigree of Hull, of Ousterley-Field.
Arms : Party per pale, Azure and Gules, a cheveron Or, between three fleur de lis Argent.
Crest : on a wreath a cubit arm erect proper, habited per pale Azure and Gules, cuff Argent, holding in the hand a fleur de lis parted at the sleeve.
Grant by Flower, 1575.
* Flower's Visitation.
† Conveyance of lands in Stokley Crook from Robert Hull, Gent. to William Shafto, of Spenn, 12 June, 36 Elizabeth. Rot. Hutton.
‡ Purchase of lands in Woodside or Fawside, parish of Chester, by John Hull, Gent, from George Farehare, Gent. 31 Jan. 13 Jac.
§ Lanchester Par. Register.
‖ Depositions in Chanc. Durham.
Whitley.–In 1339 John de Whitley died seized of the manor of Whitley, held of the Bishop by fealty, and 34s. 8d. rent (and lands in Holmside held of John de Birtley by one penny rent (fn. 131).) In 1350 John, son of Richard del Parke (with Joan his wife) held a third of the manor of Whetlawe by homage, fealty, suit of court, and 40s. rent to the heirs of Marmaduke Lumley, leaving Alice his daughter and heir (fn. 132). Under Hatfield's Survey Thomas de Umfreville held the manor by knight's service, and 36s. rent. The estate rested in the Umfrevills till the extinction of male issue (fn. 133). In 1426 it is included in the Inquest on the death of the first Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (fn. 134); yet it afterwards perhaps belonged to the Tempests, the heirs of Umfreville. I am unable to trace the later descent of the estate. Wheatley-Green, the modern village, consists of some neat tenements and cottages scattered on both sides of the Conebeckor Chester-burn, which winds through a small glen shaded with native oak and ash (fn. 135).
“Arco, the steward, holds Langley as well for his service performed to Henry, sometime Bishop of Winton, as to Hugh Pudsey, Bishop of Durham, who purchased a moiety of Langley with his own money, and gave the same to Arco, with the service of the other moiety, under the rent of half a mark.”—Boldon Book.
The manor had reverted by escheat to the See of Durham; for Bishop Robert of the Isle granted the estate to Henry de l'Isle, one of the early Lords of Wynyard (fn. 136). Yet before 1306 the manor was again vested in the See, and the Patriarch Anthony granted it to Henry Lord Percy (fn. 137). The next evidence occurs in the Survey which, without noticing the intermediate possessions of Percy, states that “Richard Le scrop, Knight, holds the vill of Langley, sometime of Henry de Insula, by knight's service, and 6s. 8d. rent, and Langley Mill Pool by 2d. rent.” The Inquest on the death of the same Richard states the tenure at the fourth of a knight's service, 7s. rent, and suit at the three chief County Courts. Richard Lord Scroop, grandson of Richard, granted the estate on trust to Sir Ralph Eurc (fn. 138) whose son Sir William reconveyed Langley and le Waterfall (the mill I presume) to Henry Lord Scroop (fn. 139). It seems unnecessary to trace the well known descent of the house of Scroop (fn. 140). Langley, if the armorial shields which still decorate her falling halls may he believed, was the residence of Henry Lord Scroop (who married Isabel-Dacre) in the reign of Henry VIII. and was probably the occasional seat of his descendants till the extinction of male and legitimate issue in Emanuel Lord Scroop, of Bolton, Earl of Sunderland and Lord President of the North, whose selection of an obscure Northern port as the title of his earldom was probably the consequence of some remote connection through his Langley estates. The Earl of Sunderland pushing one of his remote heirs-at-law to the end of the entail, and omitting the other, settled his estates on his three illegitimate daughters (fn. 141) : 1. Mary, wife to Charles Marquis of Winchester, first Duke of Bolton; Elizabeth, wife to Thomas Savage Earl Rivers; and Annabella, married to John Howe, of Gloucestershire, Esq. (fn. 142) Langley, with much more important estates, fell on the partition to the Marquis (fn. 143), and in his descendants it rested till 175., when William Powlett, son of Lord William Fowlett (second son of the first Duke of Bolton), sold the estate to Henry Lambton, Esq. whose representative John-George Larnbton, Esq. M. P. is the present proprietor.
The ruins of Langley Hall still exhibit the remains of a manor-house reared in the high stile of the Tudor age. The buildings are now broken into two separate masses, which afford in several points of view a very picturesque effect. The scite is elevated, on the green Southern slope of a hill, moated partly by an artificial fosse, and partly by the Langleyburn, which turns the old water-mill below, and falls through a fine fringe of oakwood to the Brune. The view over the vale of Brune is wild and varied, including knoll and dell and stream and scattered wood, and full in front to the East the Cathedral rises majestically over the Durham hills.
It is not easy to trace with any accuracy the interior of Langley. When Hutchinson wrote, the arms of Lord Henry Scroop still remained on the huge mantlepiece of the great hall: HENRICVS SCROPE, MIL; XI DOMINVS DE BOLTON.... ET VXOR EIVS FILI.... DACR. ET GRAISTOKE (fn. 144). These are removed; but the corbeils of an East window still present probably two exactly similar shields, viz. 1. Scrope quartering Tiptoft; and 2 Scrope and Tiptoft (fn. 145) quarterly, impaling the scallops of Dacre, quartered with the chequy coat of Clifford—memorials which seem with great certainty to point out the founder or restorer of these lofty halls (fn. 146).
The Riding.—“Ricardus, &c. Dunelm. Episcopus. Noveritis nos concessisse, &c. Magro Will'o de Kellawe, clerico nostro, pro homagio et scrvicio suo totam terram illam quo vocatur le Ridyng in Parochia de Langcestr. quam idem Will'us tenet ex dono G. de Horneby. Dedimus etiam eidem Will'o quoddam vastum nostrum quod vocatur Waltstro there juxta le Ridyng, et com'unam pasture, housebot et haybot, pro predicto tenemento sine vasto per totas wardas Cestr. et Langcestr. libere sine contradictione alicujus, reddendo octo solid, argenti pro utraq. terra tantum. In cujus, &c. T. Dominis Johanne de Insula, Ric'o fil. Dom; Johannis fil. Marmeduci, Hugone de Louthre, Walt'ro de Wessyngton, Thoma de Whyteword, Ric. de Routhebiry, militibus; Johanne de Bydyk, Hugone de Scouland, Goderico de Neusum, Will'o de Kilkenny, Will'o de Knycheley, Johanne de Edmansley, Johanne de Pitingdon, et m. aliis. Dat. apud Middilham, 20 die April. A. D. 1312, Pont, nostri primo.” (Orig. D. and C. Treas.)—I hesitate whether this were the same manor of the Ryding of which livery was granted to Thomas, son and heir of Sir Thomas Surtees, Knt. in 1345 (fn. 147), and of which Goceline Surtees died seized in 1367 (fn. 148), held of the Bishop by two marks rent. The estate is again mentioned in the Inquest on Sir Thomas Surtees, nephew and heir of Goceline, in 1379 (fn. 149). Alexander his son and heir, who died two years later, had enfeoffed Sir William Skypwith, Sir Robert Conyers, and others, of the manor of le Rydding, and eighty acres held by fealty, and two marks and a half (and of fifteen acres and a burgage in Darlington, &c. and or the manor of Fellyng, held of the Prior), in fraud and collusion (fn. 150), to deprive the See of Durham of the wardship and marriage of the heir, an infant of twenty weeks age (fn. 151), (afterwards the fourth Sir Thomas Surtees); and perhaps Hutchinson's conjecture is right, that the Rydding paid the forfeit of the attempt, as it appears no more in the Inquests on the family of Surtees. After all, I doubt much whether this Ryding were near Lanchester; and if it were the same, I am ignorant of its subsequent descent.
Stobilee and Danyellees, or Danyelfield.—In 1374 William Jalker held twenty-four acres called Danyelleis, by homage, fealty, and 5s. William son and heir (fn. 152). In 1394 John de Thweng held (together with several burgages, lands, and free rents in Durham), the parcel called Danyellees, by 5s. William Jalker, of Durham, was the heir, aged 30 (fn. 153).
In 1560–1 Christian, widow of Richard Rawlyng, died seized of the moiety of a messuage and two hundred acres in Stobilee and Daniellees, held of the See of Durham by 14s. rent. Alice, her elder daughter, married Robert Ferror, of Fishburne; and Elizabeth, the younger coheir, was wife of William Heighington (fn. 156), whose son, Richard Heigh-ington, of Bishop Middleham, Gent, granted 10 Oct. 30 Eliz. 1588 (fn. 157), all his full moiety of Stobilee (sometime allotted in severalty to his father William) to Ralph Blakiston, of Farnton Hall, Gent, (who probably derived the other moiety from his ancestor William Billingham), and died 1596, leaving John Blakiston his son and heir (fn. 158). Elizabeth, sister of John Blakiston, and the eventual heiress as it should seem of her family, intermarried with Peter Denton, Gent. (fn. 159) in her right of Farnton Hall, who died in 1643, seized of the lands of Stobilees and Daniellees, leaving an only daughter, Anne, wife of John Richardson, of Durham, Gent. (fn. 160)
West-Stobilee was the residence of one of the branches of the numerous family of Green well, which terminated in heiresses (fn. 161).
“Letten to Henery Blackett all those lands and tenements, with the appurtenances, called Stobilee, belonging to William Greenwell, Papist, redd. 10l. 11 Dec. 1645” (fn. 162).
West-Stobilee, or some parcel of it, is now the estate of Lady Peat.
Biggin lies to the North of Hamsteels. This place was the estate of the Burnops.
* Witton Gilbert Register.
‡ Lanchester Register.
† Some curious questions which arose in consequence of the intestacy of the last John Richardson, Esq. both as to the paternal inheritance, and as to that which moved ex parte materna, will be noticed hereafter. See Pedigree of Richardson.
Burnhop and Hamsteels.—Burnhop (fn. 163) lies on the Browney; Hamsteels across the Water Westward nearer Ashe.
Hatfield's Survey—Hamstels cum Burnhop. Exchequer-lands—Robert Scowright holds a messuage and thirty-six acres under 12s. rent; fifteen acres and a half of ancient waste, 5s. 2d.; and an acre and half, sometime of Adam del Chambre, 12d. John Grome holds a messuage and twenty-four acres and a half, once John of Piktre's, 7s. 6d.; and a messuage and eighteen acres, once Robert Fildyngs, 6s. Raph Burnhop holds a messuage and twelve acres, once Adam Cambe's, 4s. Gilbert Ralph a messuage and thirty acres, sometime of the same Adam, 10s.; a toft and twelve acres and a half, sometime John Huetsons, 4s. 2d.; and a rood of waste lately cultivated before his door, 1d.
Richard Henrison holds a messuage and two acres called le Nonnery, 12d. Twelve other tenants occupy twelve messuages, a toft, two plots, two closes, and divers parcels, under rents not expressed.
Free tenants.—Robert de Carlell holds a messuage and sixty acres at Blackburn, once held by Nicholas Knout, 19s. 10d. (fn. 164) The heirs of Nicholas hold certain lands, and pay 5s. 6d.; and Thomas Umfravill holds twenty acres near Hollesheved, which he acquired from William Acton, 6s. 8d.
Besides, there is a toft, fifty-two acres, and a rood called Hugonfield, sometime in the tenure of John Scowright, which used to pay 13s. but is now waste and out of rental.
Ash, or Eshe.
The village of Ash occupies the centre of the heights betwixt the vales of Brune and Derness. Ash Hall, the deserted seat of the Smythes, fronts to the South, a long irregular building, with a projecting porch and dormer windows. The best apartments open into a gloomy court, where the view to the vale is intercepted by a parallel line of offices and stabling: a chamber on the highest story has been fitted up as a domestic chapel. From two shields of arms on the gateway (fn. 165) of the court-yard it may be presumed that the house was built by Sir Edward, the first Baronet, after 1660. His descendants soon deserted Ash for their maternal estates in Shropshire. A grove of old gentlemanly sycamores still shadows the hall.
A plain cross in the village of Ash is inscribed I. H. S. and on the other side 1687.
The manor of Eshe gave name at a very early date to a family of considerable local consequence, who held the estate (with some interruption by heirs general) in one branch or other at least, from the middle of the thirteenth century, till the extinction of male issue in the reign of Henry VIII. The estate arose at first probably by episcopal charter, and was augmented by several successive grants from the extensive adjacent wastes belonging to the See of Durham. Daniel de Es attests Bishop Hugh's charter, of Bacstanford, about 1190; and Thomas de Es occurs in charters towards the middle of the next century. Before 1313 their probable descendant Roger de Eshe, died seized of the manors of Eshe and West Herrington. The former is stated to be held by fealty, and the service of a pound of wax offered in the Chapel of Durham Castle, three suits at the chief County Courts, and 33s. 4d. rent; and for a messuage and ten acres in Cockside, 6s. 8d.; and for fifty acres in Midelwood, near Eshe, 28s. (fn. 166) Roger de Eshe (fn. 167), son and heir of Roger, had livery the same year, and died I presume in 1355 (fn. 168), leaving William his son and heir, who died in 1377 seized of the manor of Esh, held by fealty and suit of court; fifty acres of waste, 20s.; a close of sixteen acres, 17s.; fifty other acres, 16d.; forty acres, 12d.; a certain plot from the waste, 2s.; forty acres, 4s.; forty acres, by fealty, and a pound of wax on St. Cuthbert's day in March; twenty-five acres in Esh-field, by a pound of pepper, or 8d. on St. Cuthbert's day in September; and twenty acres, by fealty and 5s.; and all these parcels are of the Bishop's waste (fn. 169). Thomas, son and heir of William, held the same estate (fn. 170), and left a daughter and heir Joan (fn. 171), the wife of three hushands : 1. Robert Bland; 2. Sir Thomas Colvill (fn. 172), Chivaler (whose own heir was John Percy, of Kildale) : and 3. Richard Forster, of West Auckland. The issue was only by the last: Richard Forster, who died childless, and Matilda who married John Wakerfield (fn. 173), and whose issue, John, Alice, and Maude (fn. 174), also died childless. The estates had been held by these heirs-general under a long entail, the last link of which was, “with remainder to the right heirs of Roger de Eshe, Chivaler;” under which disposition Esh reverted to the male line of its ancient owners, whose connection however with the former branch it seems impossible to explain (fn. 175). Nor did the manor now descend in a straight line; for in 1505 John Eshe died seized (fn. 176), leaving two sisters and coheirs,.... the wife of Batmanson, and Agnes wife of Gervase Dodd; but the estate descended under entail to William, whose degree of kindred is not explained. William was however certainly father of Anthony (fn. 177), whose two daughters and coheirs, Elizabeth and Margaret, intermarried with.... Norton, and Smyth, of Nunstainton. William Smythe, the husband of Margaret, engaged in the rebellion of the Northern Earls in 1569, and was included in the list of attainder (fn. 178); he however appears some years afterwards in peaceable possession of his own estates, and in 1612 George Smyth succeeded to the inheritance (fn. 179) of his mother Margaret. Edward, great grandson of George, was created a Baronet on the Restoration, and his descendant, Sir Edward Joseph Smythe, the sixth Baronet, is still proprietor of the antient estate of Esh (fn. 180).
In 1808 a Roman Catholic College or Seminary was opened on Ushaw Moor, near Ash, by the Ecclesiastics of the ancient English College of Douay (fn. 181). The buildings form a spacious quadrangle. The ground was, I believe, purchased from Sir Edward Smythe.
Prebend of Eshe.—9 Feb. 30 Eliz. grant from the Crown to Edmund Doddyng and Miles Downing, Gents. (inter alia) of the tithes of corn and hay within the Prebend of Eshe (parcel of the dissolved Collegiate Church of Lanchester), to hold of the manor of East Greenwich by fealty, and 8 (fn. 182). 13s. 4d. reserved rent. 23 Jan. 34 Eliz. Dodding and Downing grant to Thomas Crompton, Esq. and Frances Jackson; who convey 28 May, 43 Eliz. 1601, to Richard Swyft, of Roydon, in Essex, Esq. Roger Rant, of London, Esq. and John Brewster and John Stanley, of London, Gents. 8 Feb. 45 Eliz. Crompton, Rant, Swyft, Brewster, Stanley, and Thomas Crompton, of the Inner Temple, Esq. son and heir of Thomas, convey to Robert Pemberton, of Eshe, Gent, father of Michael Pemberton, of Brandon Hall, Gent.; who granted the same Prebend of Eshe to Edward Smythe, of Eshe, Gent. by Ind. enrolled in Chanc. at Durham, 16 Sept. 20 Jac. 1622. The property rested in the family of Smythe till very lately, when some portion of these tithes were sold in various parcels.
Has been already stated to be dependant on Lanchester. A small pension was reserved on the dissolution, and the endowment has since received augmentations from Lord Crewe's Trustees and from Queen Anne's bounty. The Chapel was almost entirely rebuilt in 1770 (fn. 183) and consists of a long narrow nave and chancel of equal height and breadth, and of a South porch, which opens under a low pointed arch. This portion alone perhaps is part of the old Chapel; and here, when Hutchinson wrote, lay “a fine recumbent effigy in stone,” supposed to belong to the family of de Eshe This is now destroyed or removed. The following inscription is also lost.
on a flat stone in the nave :
Heare lyeth the body of Margaret Hunter (fn. 184), wife of Mesler Thomas Hunter, of Medumsley, was buried the first of March 1675.
Esh Chapel not in charge.—6l. 13s. 4d. certified value, out of which is paid 1l. 8s. 4d.; rem. de claro, 5l. 5s. being a pension paid by the Crown. College of Lanchester Patrons olim, now the Perpetual Curate of Lanchester.—Dedication to St. Michael Archangel.
- Anthony Ruther, occurs 14 Dec. 1562.
- Richard Milner, cl. (fn. 185) occ. 3 Feb. 1577.
- Peter Norman.
- Mathias Wrightson, cl. lic. 30 Sept. 1623 (fn. 186), p.m. Norman.
- Robert Swann, clerk, 12 October 1627, p. res. Wrightson.
- Timothy Barnes, literat. 14 Feb. 1634.
- John Martin, A. B. (fn. 185) 1673.
- William Dunn, cl. 1696.
- John Bryding, cl. (fn. 185)
- Miles Patric (fn. 185), cl. 17 Sept. 1731, p.m. Bryding.
- William Adey, clerk (fn. 185), 14 September 1744, p. in. Patric.
- Abraham Gregory, A. M. (fn. 187) 13 Feb. 1768, p. res. Adey.
- John Wheeler, A. B. (fn. 188) 7 Aug. 1773, p.m. Gregory.
- Thomas Capstack, cl. 1783, p.m. Wheeler. Marshall.
The chapel-yard commands a fine view of the vale from Witton to Lanchester.
Flass, immediately below Ash, on the Derness. The estate was long in the possession of the family of Brass (fn. 189); afterwards of the Johnsons, and since of the Halls (fn. 190). It is now the property of Lady Peat. Flass Hall stands low and sequestered, within a reach of the Derness, which is partially shaded with native copsewood.
Blackburn, near Ash, was the estate of the Carlisles, whose descent has been traced under Penshaw (vol. I. p. 196). In 1350, Robert Carlele held the manor of Blakburn, nigh Eshe, and lands called Mauldundersyde, of the See of Durham, by 5s. exchequer rent (fn. 191). Robert, son and heir of the former Robert, held the same estate in 1425; but the tenure is varied to 20s. rent and knight's service (fn. 192). John Carlele, Esq. son and heir of Sir John Carlele, Knt. (who died on Palm Sunday, at Towton field (fn. 193) ), left a daughter and heiress, Joan Carlele, who carried Blackburn, with the other estates of her family, to the Thirkelds in 1488 (fn. 194). Before 21 Eliz. John Wrangham purchased the manor of Blackburn, of Marmaduke Thirkeld, Esq. (fn. 195), and died in 22 Eliz (fn. 196) leaving William his son and heir, who in the following year left two coheiresses, Jane Emerson and Joan Wrangham (fn. 197). I am ignorant of the subsequent descent (fn. 198).
Pedigree of Smythe, of Eshe and Nunstainton, co. Pal. and of Acton-Burnell and Langley, co. Salop.
Arms : Sable, three roses Argent. CREST : a roebuck's head erased proper, attired Or, gorged with a chaplet of laurel.
Will of Gerard Salvin, Esq. 18 Mar. 15 Car. II..—“Son-in-law Mr. Thomas Smythe.”
Will of Charles Salvin, of Tudhoe, Gent. 28 March 1685, prov. id. an.—” My sister Smith, her three children, Anne, Thomas, and Catharine.
Will of Ralph Salvin, of Tudhoe, Gent. 1 March 1698 :—“To my nephew Thomas, youngest son of my sister Smythe, 20 nobles. To his sisters Anne and Catharine.”
* “Among my poore neighbours that are householders in Acliffe Parish, iiiil.; xxs. to reparation of Acliffe Church; for forgotten tieths, in dischardge of my conscience, xxs.; to my syster Margaret, wyfe of Martyn Grymstone, xxl.; sisters, Custance, wyfe of William Stellyng, Fraunces, wyfe of Robert Layton, Isabel, wyfe of Christopher Sotheron, xxl. each; to every of my syster's children, xxl.; to my cosynge William Smythe, of Eshe, and George his sone, my lease of Ketton; to my said cosynge George, xxl.; to my cosynge Margaret, William Smythe his wyfe, for a token to buy her a nage with, iil. vis. viiid.; to my cosynge and landlorde Sir William Bellasses, to buy him a geldinge, vil. xiiis. iiiid.; to my ladye his wyfe, iiil. vis. viiid.; ye residew, two thirds to William and George Smythe, of Eshe, and one third to my nephew William Sotheron.
† The Baronetage makes Edward, who married Catharine Metham, father of John (who continues the line), as well as of Thomas, s. p.; but John was the younger brother of Edward and not his son.
§ The estate of John Smithe, Esq. at Embleton, was sequestered 5 September 1664, he being then engaged in the service of Charles I. He occurs in the list of Recusants who bore commissions in the royal army. See vol. I. p. 100.
† Eshe Parish Register.
‡ Heighington Parish Register.
Sir Humphrey Lee of Langley (father of Sir Richard), was created a Baronet 3 May 1620. See Collins's Baronetage, vol. 11. p. 149.
** Lady Mary, wife of Baronet Smith, buried 8 March 1677–8. Eshe.
‡ ‡Mary Smythe, daughter of George and Elizabeth Shuttleworth, was a nun at Calvao, near Lisbon, in 1736.
Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. George Smith, baptized 16 November 1694, at St. Margaret's, Crossgate.
Mrs. Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. George Smith, buried 28 March 1695-6, at St. Oswald's.
Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. George Smith, baptized 13 November 1694.
Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. George Smith, baptized 17 March 1696.
Catharine, daughter of Mr. George Smith, baptized 22 May 1698.
Mary, daughter of Mr. George Smith, baptized 26 November 1701.
Ann, daughter of Mr. George Smith, baptized 2 November 1703.
Anne, daughter of Mr. George Smith, Crossgate, buried 25 November 1703.
Cornsey and Hedley.
The early history of these places is united. Under Boldon Boole, “Cornshuve and Hedley, which Walter the Chamberlain holds, pay two marks and carry wine with a draught of twelve oxen, and provide five chords at the Bishop's great chase. Robert de Cadomo pays 12d. for suit of the County Court of Durham, and so is quit of the said suit; and Walter Fitz Hugh pays 12d. for suit of the County Court of Sadberge, et sic quietus, &c.” Bishop Hugh granted the vills of Cornshowe and Hedley to William de Cadomo and Robert fil. Roger, grandsons (nepotibus) of Simon. Bishop Philip and King John confirmed the charter.
Philippus, &c. Baronibus, militibus, et omnibus hominibus suis de Haliwerefolke Francis et Anglis, Sal. Noverit universitas vestra nos concessisse, &c. donationem quam bonaæ memoriae Hugo, &c. fecit Waltro de Cadomo et Roberto fil. Rogeri nepotibus dilecti nostri Simonis Camerarii, viz. de villis de Cornsho et Hethleia, sicut in carta ejusdem predecessoris nostri quam prefati Walfrus et Robertus inde habent plenius continetur, reddendo inde quatuor solidos tantum. Ut autem, &c. T. B(ertramo) Priore Dunelm, Haimerico Archid., Rog, Venant Vicecom., Jordano Escolant, Gaufr. fil. Ric., Henr'o de Ferynton, Will'o. fil. Thome Walt'ro de Monasteriis, Rogero D'Audr. Petro Harpyn, Sirnone de Hautorn, Walt'ro Escoll., et multis aliis.
Johannes, Dei gra. Rex Anglie, Dom. Hibernie, Dux Aquitan. Comes Andegav. Archiep'is Ep'is Abb'ibus Comitib[us] Baronib[us] Justic. Vicecom. p'p'itis et o'ib[us] Ballivis et fidelib[us] suis, Sal. Sciatis nos concessisse et presenti carta n'ra confirmasse Walt'ro de Cadomo et Rob'to fil. Rog'i, nepotib[us] Simonis Camerarii de Dunelm. villas de Cornesho et de Hethley, quas Hugo Dunelm. E'pus dederat predicto Simoni de vasto suo, et quas postea idem Simon eid. Ep'o quietas clam' ad opus p'd'cor' nepot' suor'. habend. &c. reddend. quatr sol. tantum, lib'as et quietas ob o'i, &c. Quare, &c. salva in o'ib[us] Ep'o Dunelm. foresta sua, ita tamen q'd ep'i et hede's focalia et maeremia ad p'pias domos suas et homin' suor. &c. et si porcos h'uerint in foresta, et pasture ib'm fient, lib'i et quieti sint de pannagio porcor. de p'priis domib[us] suis sicut aliqui Barones et Milites p'c'i Ep'i sunt vel esse debent., sicut cartae p'd'cor. Hugon. et Phi' Dunelm. Ep'or r'onabilitr testantur. T. G. Eborum Archiep'o, G. Com. Essex., Willelm' de Estuteville, Rogero Constab. Cestr., Willelmo Brieci, Hugone.. ard, Gileb., Henr'o de Puteaco, German. Tisun. Dat. per man. S. Archid. Wellen, et Job. de Grey, apud Ebor. 27 Maii, A° nri primo 1200.
These chartersa were frequently produced by after possessors in evidence of the tenure (fn. 199). At an early date Walter de Kam granted twenty acres in Corneshow to the Almoner of Durham, of which nine acres and a rood lay in Raggespeth, and ten acres three roods in Pilebrom and Baldwinesheved (fn. 200). William Hochonson, in 1424, agrees by Ind. with John Prior of Durham (fn. 201), that he and his ancestors beyond memory of man held of the church a toft and croft in Cornsowe, and twenty acres in Cornsowe East-field, betwixt Savegges feld East, and le Aldeton West, the Hamwellbum South, and the North Loanyng North, by 12d. rent. In 1350 William del Rawe (Comsay Raw?) died seized (jointly with Dyonisia his wife, of half the manor of Cornsbow, by fealty and the twentieth part of a knight's service (fn. 202), leaving Alan, son of John Bell, his nephew, and heir (fn. 203). In 1353 John de Wilughby, Chivaler, died seized of half the manor by fealty and 2s. leaving John his son and heir. This moiety became the estate of the Earls of Westmoreland, and continued so till the forfeiture (fn. 204). The family of Eshe held some parcels under the Nevills. The property at a later date has been scattered. The Greenwells held some interest here for several descents (fn. 205); and a more considerable estate, with the chief mansion-house in Cornsay, has been for above three centuries the property of the family of Taylor (fn. 206).
Cornsay Alms Houses were built and endowed by William Russell, Esq. of Brance path Castle, in .1811. The very particular provisions made for securing to these beadsmen a supply of the necessaries of life, seem calculated to resist the common fate of foundations whose support depends merely on a monied rent. The establishment consists of “ Six poor Women and Six poor Men, not to be admitted under 55 years of age, also a Schoolmaster and Mistress who are to teach 20 poor Children, either boys or girls; to be admitted between the age of 6 and 10 years, and not to continue longer than the age of 12 years, who are to be taught reading, writing, and arithmetic, by the master; the girls sewing and knitting by the mistress. Books, slates, and pens, to be found in such quantities and quality, as the owner of Brancepath Castle may deem necessary and proper.”
Allowance To Each Man And Woman.
Or the same allowance quarterly, the 24th December, 24th March, 24th June, and 24th Sept.
When any of those days fall on a Sunday, the above to be distributed on the Saturday preceding.—Also in May in every year, each man and woman to have three loads of coals, each load to contain eight bolls (coal measure), to be laid down at the door of each man and woman.—Also a coat for each of the men and a gown for each of the women, between the 1st October and the 24th December in every year.—Also to each man and woman the use of a piece of ground in front of their respective houses for a garden, now set out.
The Schoolmaster to have on the 24th December, and 13th May, in each and every year, ten pounds in money on each day,—also on the said days, two stones of good beef or mutton, four stones of wheat meal, half a pound of tea, half a stone of moist sugar, half a stone of currants or raisins.—Or the same allowance quarterly.—Also in May in each year, six loads of coals, each load to contain eight bolls (coal measure), to be laid down at the door of the said Schoolmaster.—Also the use of two pieces of ground, in front of the house and school, for a garden, now set out.
The Schoolmaster to read prayers every Wednesday morning, at eleven o'clock, out of the New Whole Duty of Man, or some other good book of prayers, and also on every Sunday morning, to read the Morning Service, and a sermon out of either Hampson's or Paley's Sermons, to such of them as may not be able to go to church, either from sickness or infirmity; prayers also to be read on every Sunday evening, at eight o'clock in the summer, and seven o'clock in the winter. Sacrament to be administered twice in every year by the Rector or Curate of Brancepath, who will be paid twenty shillings each time; if they refuse, then to apply to any other clergyman, who will be paid the same; wine and bread to be found by the owner of Brancepath Castle for the said purpose.
The women who are able to wash for the men, and make their beds, to take it alternately; for which, if done, to be paid sixpence per week by them for so doing, unless they agree for less.
The Schoolmaster to have the use of one iron bedstead and hangings, one Bible, one Prayer Book, one volume of Hampson's Sermons, one volume of Paley's Sermons, and the New Whole Duty of Man. Each poor man and woman to have the use of a Bible and a Prayer Book, one iron bedstead with hangings, one mattress, one flock-bed, one bolster, one pillow with one slip, three blankets, one cover, one table, two chairs, one fender, with fire shovel, poker, and tongs.
The endowment is provided for by a demise for ten thousand years, granted by William Russell, Esq. to Gordon Drummond, Esq. (now Sir G. Drumtnond, K. B.) Rowland Burdon, Esq. and others, of the said almshouses, and of a tenement or farm house, and divers closes at Billihall, in the parish of Brancepath. Afterwards, in 1816, a similar demise of certain lands in Thorpthewles, in the parish of Grindon, was granted to the same trustees for ten thousand years in aid of the lands charged in the first deed (fn. 207).
Hedleyhope, united with Cornsey in Boldon Book, and in the grant of Bishop Hugh. Afterwards, under Hatfield's Survey, the Earl of Westmoreland (fn. 208) held Hedlayside, sometime of John de l'Isle, by knight's service and 33s. 4d.; and Lord Nevil (fn. 209) holds the manor of Coxside by 6s. 8d. Hedleyhope remained in the family of Nevill till the forfeiture. Hedleyhope and Cockside House are included in a fine levied by Carr, Earl of Somerset, Plaintiff, and Edward Nevill, Esq. (otherwise Earl of Westmoreland (fn. 210) ) and Sir Henry Nevill, Knt. of the manors of Raby, Brancepath, &c. 8 Aug. 1614. After this princely inheritance reverted to the Crown by the confiscation of the favourite, Hedleyhope was, I presume, purchased by the Sandersons. The principal estate now belongs to Lady Peat. A tenement called Dickon-house is the property of Mrs. Wellens, daughter of the late Mr. George Forster.
Rowley Gelet, in Darlington Ward. I presume it is to this place that the following charter belongs:
Petrus Parsona de Segefelda, omnibus, &c. Noverit. &c. quod ego pro salute anime Dñi mei Hugonis Dunelm. Episcopi, et pro animabus patris et matris mee, et omnium parentum meorum, dedi, &c. Deo et B. Marie et glorioso Confessori S. Cuthberto et Monachis Dunelmensibus totam terram meam de Ruelie cum capella et cum omnibus, &c. sicut Dñs meus Hugo mihi eandem in feudo et bereditate dedit et carta sua confirmavit quam ego una cum largitione ipsius terre super altare B. Cuthberti multis videntibus obtuli. Hiis T. Simone Camerario, Mag. Ric. de Coldigh. Magro Henrico, Magro Roberto de Adintune, Magro Waltro de Adentune, Jordano Eschotlaunt, Will'o fil. Thome, Rog. Daudre, Rog. Burd. Rog. Pinchard, Rog'o de Applindene, Simone de Hawetorn, Joh'e de Settune, Rich. Brun, Philip de Hovedene, Will'o de Acleie, Steffano de Cornesh., Adam de Cellario, et multis aliis. 1° 6 ae Special.
The Gelets (fn. 211) do not occur as owners of Rowley, but in 1392 Roger Geletheld a rent charge of 10s. issuing out of all the lands of Hedley-on-the-Hill. There are some remains of a square entrenchment at Rowley, on the height of the hill above the Derness.
Pedigree of Sanderson, of Hedleyhope.
Arms: Quarterly—I and 4, paly of six Argent and Azure, on a bend Sable. A sword (with the point upwards) of the first, hilt and pomel Or, Sanderson. 2 and 3, per bend indented Azure and Argent, three cinquefoils counterchanged, Chaytor.
Crest : On a wreath a talbot passant Argent, spotted Sable. Motto : “Sans Dieu rien.”
“The sword upon the bend was granted to Henry Sanderson, Esq. Constable of the King's Castle of Braunspath as an augmentation to his coate, by Will (fn. 211) Segur, Garter, and Richard St. George, Esq. Norroy. 27 Feb. 1° Jac. A° 1603.” Note in Dugdale's Visitation 1666.
John Sanderson, Mayor of Newcastle, 1537.
Margaret, daughter of Mr. Samuel Sanderson, born 31 May 1614. Mr. John Sanderson, of London, Mrs. Mary Fulthorp, of Brancepath, and Mrs. Milburn, of Newcastle, sponsors. Brancepnth Register.
* Brancepath Register.
† St. Nicholas Register, Newcastle.
‡ Lanchester Register.
§ Thomas Sanderson, Gent, of Hedleyhope:—10l. to the poor of that Church which did late belong to the pious Dr. Gilpin; to Mr. Joseph Forster all my printed pictures, and all my materials and instruments relating to the arts, except all pictures painted by myself; Mr. Henry Liddell, 1l. 1s.; Mr. Gill, Mr. Bennett, Mr. Bradbury, 1l. 1s. each. Brother Charles, Execr. Codicil Sept. 14, 1704. To Mr. Forster only half my pictures, and 5l. therewith; the other half to cousin Elizabeth Newton; p. 1706.
‖ Barbara Sanderson, of Hedleyhope, widow. &c. Son Peter, son Thomas, dau. Mary, dau. Barbara Emerson, grandson Thomas Jenison; four of my daughter Curwen's children, Thomas, Patricke, Barbara, and Mary; grandson John Frankland; to grand-daughter Isabel Stanley my imbroidered gloves with gold; grand-dau. Barb. Curwen my blew silk peticote with silver lace; her sister Mary my devine books, and my great Bible that I daily read in; my kind daughter-in-law Eleanor Sanderson, my Dantzicke spice-boxe, and a littel fine basket which came from Holland; my virginalls to go as heir I oomes.
To the West of Cornsey. Under Hatfield's Survey, “Hugh del Park held in right of his wife a messuage and forty-three acres and a rood, once of Ralph Carter, Richard Sheles, and John Wren, 16s. 9d. Adam del Dale a messuage and twelve acres, once of Henry de Satley, 3s.; and half a rood of waste lately cultivated, 6d. Robert Alde, a messuage and thirty acres, once Walter Ivesley's, 10s. 3d.; and a messuage and four acres, called Leperfeld, 8d. Richard del Shell, a messuage and twenty acres, once of the same Walter, 6s. 2d. Henry Bernard a close of nine acres, sometime of Christian Colson, 3s. Hugh Parker a messuage and nineteen acres, in right of his wife, 6s. 10d.; and six acres of waste, 2s. Adam Taillor a messuage and forty-two acres, called Stubleysm, 26s. The Master of the Hospital of Kepyer holds a messuage and fifteen acres and a half, 13s. 4d.”
Broomshields has been at least for nearly four centuries the possession of a branch of the Greenwells (fn. 212). The House of Broomshields has been rebuilt by the present proprietor, and the estate, which has already some beautiful woodland on the little Panbeck (which falls Eastward to the Browney), will in a few years assume an entirely new aspect from rising plantations.
West Sheele, or West Broomshields, was long the inheritance of the Darnells, who are as indigenous as the Greenwells. The property was alienated to the family of Greenwell by the late William Darnell, merchant in Newcastle, father of the Rev. William Nicholas Darnell, Prebendary of Durham (fn. 213).
A small straggling village creeping along a narrow vale, with its little Chapel on a bleak hill to the North.
In 1221 Philip de St. Helena, rector of Lanchester, granted to Satley, as a separate Chapelry, a general release of all tithes, oblations, and altarage within Satley and Butsfield, which was confirmed by Bishop Richard de Marisco. Satley afterwards fell, from its slender endowment, into a mere chapel of ease to Lanchester; from which it was again severed on receiving an augmentation from Queen Anne's Bounty in 1768 (fn. 214).
In 1324 Robert dc Grenewelle held the vill of Sateley of the See of Durham in chief, by 40s. rent and 13s. 4d. in addition for the manor-mill, leaving John his son and heir, aged eighteen (fn. 215).
Under Hatfield's Survey, William de Merley held the vill (with the manor-mill), containing a hundred acres, by foreign service, and 53s. 4d. The heirs of Peter de Hessewell held one tenement and a hundred acres, once of Adam de Chaumbre, by foreign service and 4s.; and one close of thirty acres under one penny rent. Exchequer-lands.—John de Chestre in right of his wife, a messuage and thirty-three acres, sometime of Peter de Hessewell, lls. 4d. Henry of Satley twelve acres, called the Parrok, 4s. John de Mer ley a messuage and eleven acres, called Kaysfield, 5s. 6d.; an acre of waste lately brought under cultivation, 6d.,; and a messuage eighteen acres and one rood, sometime of Roger Rash, 9s. 1d.
The site of the mill, with twenty-five acres and a half, are accounted as waste.
At a somewhat earlier period John del Chaumbre died seized of a considerable portion of the vill, leaving his sister Isabel, and Eda and Julian the issue of two other sisters, his coheirs (fn. 216). In 1380 Peter de Hessewell, the husband of Julian, held the whole of Chaumbre's lands, now called the the manor of Satley, jointly with his wife, by 4s. rent and suit of court (fn. 217). Peter, eldest son of Peter and Julian, died within his minority, and Thomas de Hessewell his brother held at his death in 1423, a messuage and a hundred acres, once Adam de Cliaumbre's, and a close of thirty acres, leaving Agnes, wife of Hugh Creighton, a distant collateral relative, his heir of blood (fn. 218).
The other principal free tenement mentioned in the Survey descended to William, son of John Merley, of Unthank, who died in 1417, seized of the vill and manor-mill of Satley, held of the Bishop by knight's service, suit at the three chief County Courts, and 53s. 4d. (fn. 219) In 1423 Ralph Eure, of Witton, Knt. held a messuage aud fourteen acres of William Maddison, who was the heir of Merley (fn. 220).
Isabel, widow of Ralph Millot, of Whithill, and daughter and heir of Robert Eure, of Holmeside, Esq. died in 1533-4, seized of twenty acres of arable, ten of woodland, and eighty of pasture, in Satley, held of the See of Durham, by knight's service and 53s. 4d. and of a messuage called Halhyll; held by 16s. rent, leaving Robert Millot her son and heir (fn. 221). The estate remained vested in the family of Millot, and was included in a general recovery of their estates in 28 Eliz. 23 Nov. 1585 (fn. 222).
By Ind. July 1614, Robert Milot, of Maland, Gent, for 600l. granted to William Lambton, of Lambton, Esq. William Wrey, of Beamish, Esq. and Ralph Lambton, of Tribley, Gent, all his grange of Satley (fn. 223).
By Ind. 2 June 1614, Robert Millot, of Maland, Esq. granted his tenement called Hallhill, to Thomas Taylor, of Stowhouses, yeoman (fn. 224).
In 1641 Martin Rippon died seized of a fourth of the manor of Satley, leaving Thomas his son and heir (fn. 225).
In 1687 the freeholders in Satley Constablery were—Francis Taylor, of Halhill, Gent.; Andrew Jopling, of Satley; William Taylor, William Rippon, and Thomas Greenwell, of Steely (fn. 226).
Mayland.—Bishop Philip granted the manor of Mayland (by the description of six score acres of land on the East part of Meyland), to Bartholomew de Mariscis, with the service of Ralph de Byres (who then held the estate of the Bishop), viz. 60s. annual rent, to hold by presenting to the Bishop and his successors a pair of gilt spurs annually on the feast of St. Cuthbert in September (fn. 227). By another charter Bishop Philip confirmed the tenure of Ralph de Bires, charged with 60s. (fn. 228) The effect of the two charters was to interpose Bartholomew de Mariscis as mesne lord, and to place Ralph de Byres, who before held in chief, in the situation of suh-feoffee. Two confirmatory charters of Bishop Richard de Marisco, or possibly one of Bishop Poor and one of his successor, are still extant (fn. 229). After a long interval Maland appears in the possession of the family of Melot of Whitehill, and is included in a family settlement, 23 Nov. 1585. An Inquest on the death of Robert Mellot, 12 April 1623, states the ancient tenure by 60s. rent, according to the charters of Bishops Philip and Richard.
Butsfield.—Hatfield's Survey—Exchequer-lands : John Prentys and Richard his son hold a messuage and eighty acres, sometime of John de Buttesfeld, 32s. 4d.; Roger Ode a messuage and thirty acres of the ancient demesne, 15s.; and seven acres and a half, and the corn-kiln, 3s. 10d. ob. William Hert holds the same quantities under equal rents. Richard de Birley a messuage and thirty-three acres, once of Alan Stelley, 17s. 2d.; and a messuage and nineteen acres, once of Stephen Bayard, 9s. 5d. Waste: Sixty-nine acres, once in the occupation of Richard de Hessewell, are in the hands of the lord per breve de cessavit, and one acre, sometime of the same Richard, lying alone, and two acres at Akehed, which used to pay 31s. 8d.
But the chief object of attention in this wild high tract, is the estate of WOODLANDS. Under the Act for the division of Moors and Wastes within the Parish of Lanchester, a portion of moor was sold to defray expences. Thomas White, Esq. of Retford, co. Notts. was the principal purchaser, and by a spirited and successful speculation cloathed these barren moors with a rising and thriving forest. According to Mr. White's own statement, “The ground, in a state of nature, was covered with ling fern, broom, and bad grass, and rushes in the wet places; the high parts very bad land, channelly, and not many inches from a grit-stone rock : lower down the hills the land is of a better quality, but was then cold and swampy from want of draining. The features of this inclosure are rather gentle than bold, inclining from the North and South towards a narrow valley, which continues from East to West through the adjacent country; over which a small trout stream meandered in so many mazes as choaked its own progress, and rendered the whole of this small valley, containing about eleven acres of my best and most sheltered land, almost useless”. (fn. 230)
In the midst of this new creation Mr. White built a good mansion-house, laid out his pleasure-grounds and gardens, and made the neglected waters of a Roman aqueduct (fn. 231) supply his fishponds and reservoirs : and here Thomas White, Esq. to whom I owe my acknowledgments for much hospitable attention, dwells—patrias exercens artes, extending and adorning his hereditary Woodlands (fn. 232).
On the Western verge of the Parish, adjoining Rowley, in the Parish of Muggleswick. Bishop Hugh granted the whole vill of Heley to Alan de Chilton, in exchange for Alan's interest in the Bishop's vill of Cornford.
Hug. D'i gra. Dunelm. Ep'c. om'ib[us] h'ib[us] toti' Ep'atus sui ffrancis et Anglis, salt. Sciatis nos dedisse & cõcessisse & p'senti carta ñra confirmasse Alano de Chiltona & he'dib[us] suis in feodo & he'ditate villã ñram de Helleia cu' o'ib[us] rebus ad eã p'tine'tib[us], scilt p' has divisas: In occidentali parte sic. Blakeburne desce'dit in horseleiehope burne & ind. sic. horseleiehope burne descendit' i' Derwente: In orientali parte sic. hauckesburne descendit i' Rueleiehope b'ne & inde sic. Rueleiehope burne desce'dit i' Derwente: q'm Joh's Archidiacon. de nob. tenuit cu' incremento totam t'r'a & boscu' q'd jacet infra p'dictas divisas. Tenenda' de nob. & successorib[us] n'ris per ipsum & he'des suos, redde'do inde annuati' dim. marcam argenti p' om'i servicio & consuetudine & exactione ad 4tor t'minos statutes in Episcopatu n'ro. Scil. ad festum S'ci Cuthb'ti in Quadragesima, ad festum S'ci Joh'is i' Estate, ad festum S'c'i Cuthb'ti in Septe'bri, ad festum S'c'i Martini. Habebunt [&] ipse & he'des sui & ho'ies sui de nemore n'ro ad edificandu' & comburendu' i eade' villa q'd necessariu' fuerit & com'une' pastura' i' foresta n'ra, & ho'i'es sui dabunt pannagiu' de porcis suis sic. alii ho'i'es militu' n'ror' q' i' foresta mane't. Ipse au' Alan's de p'priis porcis suis que't erit, dabit [&] singulis annis sex denarios tantu' p' forestagio. Quare volum's & p'cipim's q'd p'dict. Alan's & he'des sui p'dicta' t'ra' lib'e & qu'ete & honorifice habeant & teneant de nob. &. successorib[us] n'ris p' p'dictu' serviciu' cu' o'ib[us] lib'tatib[us]. Salva in omnib[us] reb[us] tam in feris q'm in aliis dignitatib[us] n'ris foresta n'ra. Hoc & ei dedim's in exca'bio & p' calupnia q'm habebat i' villa n'ra de Corneforda, q'm nob. qu'ete clamavit. Hiis Testib[us]: Henrico de Puteaco, Gileb'to Hansard, Rad. Haget, vicec., Michaele fil. Brieni, Philippo filio Hamo'is, Rog'o de Aldri, Eudone de Punchardu', Galfrido fil. Richardi, Jordano Escolland, Joh'e de Mu'davilla, Gilb'to de la leia, Will'o fil. Gerardi, Gilb'to de Clara, Ac'e dispe'sario, Rob'to de Walsant, Galfrido de Hethwic, & multis aliis. 4a 1æ Pont. 13, 2 D. and C. Treas.
This grant was confirmed by Henry II. (fn. 233) by charter dated at “Wudestok, T. Gaufr. filio meo, Ranul. de Glanvile,” &c.
In 1349 Richard de Chilton, “Lord of the manor of South Heley,” gave the same estate to Sir John Stryvelyn, Knt. (fn. 234) In 1361 Sir John Stryvelyn granted his manor of Heley to Thomas Catour, John de Langsett, and Hugh Wodde (fn. 235), from whom he immediately took a refeoffment, and being thus seized in fee simple, alienated to John Nevill, Lord of Raby, who in 1382 (fn. 236) granted the manor of “Helee, near Mugleswyck,” to William de Lanchestre, Vicar of St. Oswald's, and William Graystanes, Chaplain; the latter of whom, surviving his colleague in trust, conveyed the estate to the Prior and Convent of Durham, under a licence of alienation (non obstante le mortmain, &c.) from Bishop Fordham, 1 May 1387 (fn. 237).
The Almoner of the Convent held lands here at an earlier date, which Alan de Chilton granted to William, the carpenter of Bishop Hugh, and which William gave to the Church, and Alan himself added a toft in Heley by a separate charter (fn. 238).
Heley Chapel is mentioned in the foundation charter of the Collegiate Church of Lanchester. I know of no later evidence. In 1648 the Parliamentary Commissioners (not without some reason in point of juxta-position) did “think fitt and certifie that Heyleyfield, in Lanchestre Parish, be annexed to Muggleswick, and united to be a Parish Church.” (fn. 239)
Allansford, on the Derwent, below Cold Rowley. Its bridge is one of the chief passes over the Derwent (fn. 240) into Northumberland, and is surrounded by some of the most romantic scenery on that beautiful water.
Hole-House, an old gray tenement according with its name, in the deep vale of the Derwent. This was the early estate of the Leyburnes, who sold to the Hoppers (fn. 241), and from them Alexander Maddison purchased in 1595. The two last lineal male descendants of the family are commemorated in their epitaph at Lanchester. To what is there stated it may be added, that there is a strange story of George Maddison's death being occasioned by poison (at an entertainment in Paris), which was intended for the English Ambassador (the Duke of Manchester (fn. 242) ). Eleanor, sole surviving sister and heir of John (fn. 243) and George Maddison, married Thomas Greemvell, of Broomshields; and her son John Greenwell, Esq. of Broomshields, is the present proprietor of Hole-house.
Walter de Monasteriis (Musters) gave the vill of Kyhou, with the mill, to Simon de Ferlington, charged with its proportion of the fifth part of a knight's service; which tenure included Kyho, Stanlee, and a carucate of land near Durham, once of Gilbert the Chamberlain, and under 20s. reserved rent to Walter and his heirs (fn. 244). Simon, then Archdeacon of Durham, granted the vill to the Almoner of St. Cuthbert : his charter provides an exhibition for three poor scholars.
Omnibus, &c. Mag (fn. 244) Simon de Ferlington Archid. (fn. 245) Dunelm. Salutem. Noveritis me dedisse, &c. elemosinarie domui S. Cuthb'ti in Dunelmo villam de Kyhou cum pertin. quam emi de Walt'ro de Monasteriis in puram & perpetuam elemosinam ad sustentac'onem trium scolarium de scola Dunelm. quos Mag (fn. 244) beatius eligerit et cum tabella in honore beate Virginis et S. Cuthberti confecta ad elemosinariam Dunelm. cotidie mittet qui eis beatius in cibo et potu perspiciet, et in domo elemosinaria pernoctabunt et elemosinarius in lectis eis decenter prospiciet. Et in hujus, &c. T. Job. de Insula, Walt'o monacho Dunelm., Ric. Capell'o de Acle, Laur. Cappell'o, Rob. de Ripun, Rob. Butel. et multis aliis.
But after the death of Simon the Archdeacon, Henry de Ferlington, his brother, entered on the estate, and gave it to the Hospital of the Trinity in Gateshead in frank almoigne. The two parties referred their respective claims to the Bishop of Durham, Richard Poor, who decreed that the house of the Trinity should keep possession of the vill, paying to the Almoner of Durham half the fee farm of the said vill, viz. 40s. and each party shall answer to its own share of the knight's service (fn. 246). In 1631 Isabel de Birtley held lands in Kyo of the house of St. Edmund's (to which .the Trinity was annexed) by the service of a rose on St. John the Baptist's Nativity; and at the dissolution, the rental of the same house includes—terr. in Kyo, 2l. 1s. per annum.
These were probably free-lands, but Hatfield's Survey describes several other tenures. Henry de Kaunt held a sheepfold (fn. 247) and four acres, 20d. Richard Henrison fourteen acres, called Lymesfeld, which used to pay 6s. 8d. and was once the tenure of Richard Pureeblades, who surrendered it by fine, and is still living; it now pays 3s. 4d. William fil. Ricard. a messuage and thirty-two acres, 11s. 4d.; and six acres in Kyow loaning, 2s. John Colleson a messuage and thirty acres, once of William Sisson, 2s. Henry Kaunt a messuage, thirty-two acres and one rood, called Kyowpeth, 11s. 1d.
At a later date the Marleys had lands in Kyo, and a family of Blakiston in Kyopeth (fn. 248).
Harperley, or Harpley House, a tenement named in the arrangement of tythes (p. 312), was long the property of the Wilkinsons, who are indifferently styled of Kyo, and were also of Ferry hill.
Pedigree of Wilkinson, of Harpley and Kyo.
Arms: Azure, a fess Erminois between three unicorns passant Argent.
Crest: On a mural crown Gules a demi unicorn rampant Erminois, erased of the first, armed and maned Or (fn. 249).
Lowrance Wilkinson, Harparley Church, 18 Dec. 1683
Barbary Wilkinson, of Harparle, 6 May 1680, Lanchester.
† Lanchester Par. Reg.
‡ Merrington Par. Reg.
Gilbert the Chamberlain held the service of Ralfe Caunt, of Bursebred, in exchange for the Isle of Bradbire.—Boldon Buke.
In 1350 Thomas de Gildeford died seized of the vill of Bursblades, held by homage, fealty, and suit of court (with the wood of Smethestrother and the pasture of Depeden), leaving three sisters or their representatives his coheirs (fn. 250).
Under Hatfield's Survey, William Grome held the whole vill, once belonging to Gilbert the Chamberlain, by military service and 10s. rent. The descent of this family may be seen with that of Gildeford, under Collierley. In 1403 William Grome (son of Robert and Joan, who had alienated her manor of Bursblades to her son, the same William, before 1395 (fn. 251) ), died seized of the vill, except a small portion held by Julian de Cornwalle, leaving Thomas Grome his son and heir under age (fn. 252), who was living in 1440.
In 1370 John de Birtley, with Isabel his wife, held eighty acres in Bursblades, of William de Ferrie (perhaps William Neuhusbond, who married Joan Gildeford) by the fourth part of a pound of pepper (fn. 253); and in 1386 John de Gildeford held ninescore acres of Robert Grome, “per unum quartionem cumini.” (fn. 254)
At an earlier period Simon de Bursblades gave a small parcel of land to the Almoner of Durham (fn. 255); and a single inquest on the same local family states, that John, son of John, son of Philip de Bursblades, held a messuage and sixty acres by homage, fealty, and 11s. rent; and eleven acres of the lord of Bursblades by the service of the third part of the pound of cumin (fn. 256).
In 1517 Richard Hedworth, of Whickham, acquired lands in Bursblades by marriage with Margaret, heiress of Alexander Newton, of Pokerley. See the Pedigree of Hedworth, p. 197.
The following charters seem to have formed part of the Newtons' title :
Joh. Barker de la Clos et Christiana uxor quiet, clam. Will'o Huntleye de Crawcroke, &c. in Burseblades et Foulebrygg. T. Joh'e Gyldford, Joh'e Ravensworth, Gilberto Eglyne, Joh'e Scrutvyle, Thoma Gibson, Will'o de Bekle, Ap. Crawcroke, 7 Feb. 6 H. IV.
Robertus et Alicia Kaunt, et Joh'es Sadler, tenentur Thome Grome, in quinque marc. si predictus Thomas pacifice gaudeat terras ex dono Thome Genour et Matildis ux. suæ quæ fuer. Roberti Peeth de Bursblades. T. Will'o Lawes, sch. et jun. de Kiblesworth, Joh'e Huntle de Pokirle, Joh'e Wilkynson de Kyhowe, Ricardo Pykring de Lynts. Ap. Bursblades, 26 April 1440, 18 Hen. VI.
Consimilis carta Thome Genour et Matil. uxoris et Thomae fil. eor. in decem marcas Thomæ Grome, &c.
Consimilis carta Joh. fil. Thome Henryson de Shotlebrigg et Isabelle uxoris sue. Ap. Bursblades in f. S. Katerine, 18 H. VI. 1439.
Sciant quod ego Matill. nuper ux. Thomæ Genour, una filiar. et heredum Roberti Peeth, nuper de Bursblades, in pura viduitate dedi Thomæ Grome de Pokirlay, omnia quae habuit ex dono Thomae Genour et mee in Bursblades. T. Joh'e Blenkinsopp, Roberto Hall de Stanley. Ap. Bursblades, 16 Apr. 25 Hen. VI.
Carta Simonis de Bursblades.
Omnibus, &c. Simon de Bursblades. Noverit. &c. me voluntate Dionisiae uxoris meae et hered. meor. dedisse, &c. Deo et Domui Elemosinariae S. Cuthberti, pro animabus antecessorum meor. et pro sal. animae meae, toft, et croft, quod tenuit Absalon in Bursblades, cum tota terra quae jacet a predicto tofto et crofto usq. ad fontem juxta Parcum, et totam terram infra cursus predictor. fontium et cursum fontis qui vocatur Munkewell, usq. ad sepes predictae villae de Bursblades versus occidentem. Quare, &c. T. Will'o de Ketton, Will'o de Ferie, Walt'ro de Willington, Will'o de Munketton, Helia et Simone de Hetheworth, Will'o de Fulewell, Digaro de Hetheworth, Will'o de Boldon, et multis aliis. Lib. Elemos. p. 37.
Sciant, &c. quod ego Joh'es Rughede, dominus de Grencrofte, dedi, &c. Roberto Herbotyll de Chilton, toftum et croftum, contin. unam acram in Bursblades jacen. inter terras Joh'is de Gildeford ex utraq. parte, ac etiam dimid. acram terrae in campo de Bursblades; reddendo annuatim unam rosam in f. Nativ. S. Joh. Bapt. heredibus Will'i Grome de Bursebladys si petatur. T. Joh'e Gildeford, Joh'e Brithley, &c. Ap. Bursbladys, 6to die Maii, A. D. 1411. Lib. Elem. p. 38.
The name is probably derived from the situation. A high Pike adjoining is called Pontopike.
In 1361 John de Gourlay died seized of the manor of Ponthop and of half the manor of Shepmanstele, held by homage, fealty, suit of court, and 2s. exchequer rent, leaving Richard his son and heir, aged fifteen (fn. 257). Under Hatfield's Survey, William de Gourlay held the manor of Ponthope, containing sixty acres, by 2s. rent at the Feast of St. Cuthbert, in September; a close of fifteen acres, called the Park, 5s.; a messuage and forty-eight acres, sometime of William Gelleson, ancient rent, 16s. now only 8s.; and a messuage and thirty acres, called Shippyngstele, by 2s. rent. In 1395 the same William died seized of the manor, held by offering one bezant at the feretory of St. Cuthbert on his feast day in March, towards supporting the Bishop's oblation, and one other bezant, or 2s. to the Bishop, suit at the three principal County Courts, and knight's service : he held also the Park by 5s.; and twenty acres in Shipmansteele, purchased of Geoffry de Fawles, and charged with an outrent of 12d. to the heirs of Hugh del Redhough (fn. 258). Richard Gourlay (son and heir of William) alienated his manor of Ponthop to Sir William Claxton, Knt. in 1409. The descent of the family of Claxton has been already traced. On the division of the estates amongst the four coheirs of Sir Robert Claxton, Ponthop was allotted to the family of Elmden, whose heiress carried this estate, amongst other large possessions, to her husband Sir William Bulmer. In 1600 (fn. 259) Bartram Bulmer, great grandson of Sir William and Elizabeth, sold his whole messuage of Pontop to Anthony Meaburne, to whom, 18 Nov. 1611, Thomas Marley conveyed all the “tythes of corn and grain within Pontop,” parcel of the dissolved College of Lanchester. The estate is now by maternal descent the property of Thomas Swinburne, Esq. (See Pedigree of Meaburne).
Pedigree of Meaburne, of Pontop.
* Lanchester Par. Register.
‡ St. Oswald's Reg.
† Patent 11 Feb. 1635 to Anthony and Thomas Meaburne, of the office of Forester of Weardale jointly, and to the survivor. Rot. Morton.
Three miles to the North of Lanehester, a considerable village on a cold hill side, or what Leland would have called, “a sparkelish uplandish towne.”
This is a place of somewhat more ancient note than most of the neighbouring hamlets, (which scarcely Occur till Hatfield's Survey), being mentioned both in Boldon Buke and in a mass of charters in the Treasury, which however it is not very easy to fix according to exact priority of date.
Under Boldon Buke “Ivestan pays two marks, provides a milch cow, ploughs an acre and a half of the lord's land at Langcestre, attends the great chace with two greyhounds, and undertakes the carriage of wine with a wain of eight oxen.”
None of the charters are perhaps of so high a date : 1. Richard de Yvestan grants to William Ferrator (fn. 260) the meadow above the acres of Goceline, the land betwixt the rivulet and the land of Adam and Estrotleie, with Huctred's land, and an acre and a half betwixt the tenure of Lefwin and Brumlei burne, extending to the ford towards the village, and from thence to Brumlei bank, betwixt Lefwin's tenure and the road to Langecestre; and one other acre beginning at Brumlei burne and falling to the aqueduct? of Heseldene, to the North of Lefwin's land: to be held by 6d. rent, and 1d. on a common military aid. Next, Agnes and Maude, daughters of Michael Ferrour, join with their husbands, William son of Herebert, and Ralph fil. Nicholas de Cotes, in a grant to John of Yvestan, son of Alan de Knycheley, of five acres in Ivestan-field above Morpath (fn. 261). 3. Agnes and Matilda in their widowhood grant to John fil. Adam fil. Med. de Knicheley, the whole meadow and land in Yvestan-field within (or below) the Helde and the Heldelech, the Sumerlesu, and the helde Medu. Then, William son of Roger de Schirburn, and Agnes daughter of Michael Ferrur, grant by charter dated 1279, to John son of Adam de Knycheley, a messuage, toft, croft, and sixteen acres in Yvestan; the lands are stated to be held of the Almoner of Durham, and the charter is executed at Durham, in the presence et in itinere D'nor. Roberti de Nevill, Guischard de Charun, Tho. de Herrington, and Alan de Walkingham, the Bishop's Justices, A. D. 1279 (fn. 262).
Again, Robert, son of Richard de Yvestan, grants to Richard of Holmeside, in fee, forty acres towards the North of the vill at Hesliheved. Then, Richard de Holmeside grants all his land in Yvestan-field, “inter sepem viridem et Heseldene,” to the Church of Durham in frank almoigne; and by a second charter, all his land within the Park of Yvcstane (with the bercharia) to the Sacrist of Durham for the service of the altar. And lastly, Robert de Yvestan grants to St. Cuthbert and to the Almoner of his Church of Durham fourteen acres in Yvestan, viz. a toft and croft at Lethelands (fn. 263).
Whatever interest the Church of Durham derived under these grants, Ivestan became, at least before the date of Hatfield's Survey, the possession of the Hospital of Kepyer (fn. 264). “The Master of Kepyer holds Ivestan;” and then follows the tenure exactly as in Boldon Buke. The subsequent history of the vill is extremely short. After the dissolution the whole Hospital of Kepyer was granted by Edward VI. to Cockburn, lord of Black Ormiston, for his services in conducting the Regent Somerset's army through the borders in his destructive inroad into Scotland. In 1576 John Cockburn, of Ormiston, sold the manors of Kepyer, Old Durham, St. Giles Gate, Little Kepyer, Frosterly, Aymundeston, Tweedmouth, and Iveston, to John Heath, Esq. warden of the Fleet (fn. 265). The heir of Heath married Tempest (fn. 265), and the estate of Iveston is still vested by lineal inheritance in Lady Vane-Stewart, the representative of both houses.
The deserted seat of the Bakers, stands a little to the West of Iveston.
Boldon Book:—“Cruketon pays four marks.” The name of the tenant, as in all the free manors, is omitted, but it was the estate of the ancient De la Leys, lords of Witton, and not long after the date of the record Gilbert de la Ley gave all his land of Cruketon South of the Brune to the Church of Durham.
I. Universis, &c. Gilebertus de Leia, Salt'm. Nov't. &c. me intuitu caritatis et ob amorem et rev'entia' gl'iosi Confessoris Cuthberti et pro sal. ãime Dñi mei pie memorie H. quondã Dunelm' Ep'i et om'iu' successor' ejus et p' salute ãime mee et he'dum meor', dedisse et conc'ssisse et hae p'senti carta mea confirmasse P'ori et monachis Dunelmen. tota' t'ra' mea' de Cruketon versus Austrum ab aqua de Brune cum o'ib[us] p'tinenciis suis in purã et p'petua' elemosina'. Quare, &c. Hiis T. Am'ico Archid., Leonio de Heyriz Vicecom., Radulfo de Multon, Jordano Escoll., Rog'o de Kibbleswurda, Rog'o de Epplinden, Randolfo de Fisseburn, Walt. de Monasteriis, Rob'to filio Thome, Rob'to de Monast'iis, et aliis. Seal, a lion passant.
Philip de la Ley confirmed his father's charter in nearly the same words : Testibus Ada' de Yelande, Rog'o de daudere, Rob'to filio Meldredi, Joh'e Haunsard, Alex, de Helton, Rob'to filio Thome, Rob'to de Monast'iis, Walt'ro de Monast'iis, Will'o de Lumeleya, Galfrido de Hepeduna, Simone de Hautorn, et m. aliis, Seal, a fesse embattled between six birds, within a plain bordure, Sigillum Philipp de Leya. 2. 6æ Spec. D. and C. Treas. (See Plate of ancient armorial Seals.)
Under Hatfield's Survey John de Kirkby held the vill of Crokhogh and a hundred acres of arable arid woodland, by knight's service and 2s. and half an acre at Stokerley, once of Peter del Croke, 4d.
The heirs of Kirkby probably alienated Crook to Roger Thornton, the rich merchant of Newcastle (fn. 266), whose son the younger Roger died seized of the estate in 1459, leaving Elizabeth his daughter and heir, wife of George Lord Lumley. Richard Lord Lumley held the same estate in 1511 (fn. 267), which was soon after alienated by his descendants. 1 Nov. 1566 Ralph Vasie conveyed the messuage of Crook with Stokerley to Robert Blenkinsop (fn. 268). In 1571 Vasie and Blenkinsop joined in conveyance to Robert Hull, of Ousterley (fn. 268), who again sold 9 Nov. 1588 (fn. 268), to William Shafto, Gent. (fn. 269) Lastly, about 163. William Shafto de le Spen granted the vill of Crook, near Iveston, to George Baker, Esq. (fn. 270) (afterwards Sir George Baker, Knight), in whose descendants the estate is still vested.
Thomas Baker, a celebrated scholar and English antiquary, was born at Crookhall (fn. 271), September 14, 1656. He was educated at the Free School of Durham, under the Rev. Thomas Battersby, and afterwards removed to Cambridge, where he was admitted Pensioner of St. John's College, June 13, 1674. He took his first degree in 1677, was elected Fellow of St. John's (on Dr. Ashton's foundation) in 1679; proceeded A. M. 1681, was ordained Deacon by Bishop Compton, of London, 20 Dec. 1685, and Priest soon after at Bugden, by Barlow of Lincoln. In 1689 he was appointed one of the University Preachers, being then B. D. Soon after Dr. Watson (fn. 272), tutor of St. John's, on being promoted to the See of St. David's, offered Mr. Baker his domestic Chaplaincy, which however he declined, and soon after obtained the same situation in the family of Crew, Bishop of Durham. By this munificent patron Mr. Baker was collated to the Rectory of Long Newton in June 1687, and to this first preferment would probably have been added the Rectory of Sedgefield and a Prebendal Stall at Durham. But at this period the most interesting portion of Mr. Baker's character begins to develope itself. The meanness of Bishop Crew s political conduct is well known to have thrown a deep and lasting shade over his many splendid qualities; he is alike excluded from the palm of the patriot, and from the faded, but perhaps not less honourable wreath due to the fidelity and constancy of the devoted loyalist, who adhered in poverty and in exile to the blood of his ancient masters. In Baker's own words—“When King James's Declaration (for Liberty of Conscience) was appointed to be read, the most condescending thing the Bishop ever did me was his coming to my chamber (remote from his own) to prevail with me to read it in his chapel at Auckland; which I could not do, having wrote to my curate not to read it at Long Newton; he prevailed however with the curate of Auckland to read it in his own church, when the Bishop was present to countenance the performance. When all was over, the Bishop (as a penance I presume) ordered me to go to the Dean (as Archdeacon) to require him to make a return to the Court of all such as had not read it, which I did,'though I was'one of the number (fn. 273).”
Mr. Baker in consequence quitted the Bishop's family, and abandoned all hopes of further preferment from that quarter. Another severe trial awaited his integrity. Mr. Baker, in common with many good and conscientious men, adhered firmly to the tenets of indefeasible hereditary right (fn. 274); and on the 1st of August 1690, he refused the oaths to the Prince and Princess of Orange, and as the price of adherence to his principles, surrendered his rectory of Long Newton “with great cheerfulness,” in the following very characteristic letter:
I must desire you once more to return my humble thanks to my Lord, as for all his favours, so particularly that my living has been reserved to me so long; and that my Lord may not suffer by it, I have nothing further to desire, only this, that my Lord would now dispose of it. I am very sensible of his Lordship's favour, and with how much goodness I have been treated in this whole affair; and therefore I do now part with it with as much thankfullness as I did receive it. I am not desirous to know my successor; whoever my Lord thinks fit to succeed me shall be acceptable to me, and I shall not only be in charity with him, but have a friendship for him, and if any thing farther be required of me to make the living more easy to him; I shall' be ready to do it upon the least intimation of his Lordship's pleasure...My humble duty to my Lord, &c.
In fact, worldly losses and all external circumstances fell with a blunted edge on the panoply of Mr. Baker's most disinterested and truly christian temper. He saw without regret the avenues of power and wealth for ever closed upon, him, and retired with contented cheerfulness to his chamber at St. John's, where he was still protected in the enjoyment of his Fellowship by the interposition of some unseen but powerful patron (fn. 275).
In this retirement Mr. Baker composed his “Reflections upon Learning, wherein is shewn the insufficiency thereof in its several particulars : in order to evince the usefulness and necessity of Revelation.” (fn. 276) In the execution of his plan the author has shewn both extensive knowledge invery various branches of science, and the deepest and most humble sense of the imperfection of human nature, and of its entire dependance on a particular manifestation of the divine will. About the same time Mr. Baker republished Bishop Fishers' (fn. 277) Funeral Sermon for Margaret Countess of Richmond. The preface contains an account of the Founder, her several charities, and a catalogue of the Lady Margaret, or Divinity Professors in both Universities. The connection of Fisher with St. John's brought him in contact withBaker's daily studies, and he seems to have entertained thoughts of writing his life, which however for some reasons (fn. 278) he declined. At the same time he was engaged in collecting, on a very extensive plan, materials, for a history of St. John's College (fn. 279), and of its various learned sons and inmates.
Thus occupied within the quiet cloisters of his College Mr. Baker could scarcely apprehend any further persecution on the score of his speculative attachment to the doctrine of hereditary right. But there was still a shaft in the quiver of the adversary. Soon after the accession of George I. the tender of the oaths to every individual holding preferment in the Church or the Universities was rigidly enforced (fn. 280); and on the 20th of June 1716, the peaceful antiquary of St. John's was formally ejected from his long loved Fellowship (fn. 281). This last deprivation affected him much more sensibly than all his former sacrifices, and the stroke fell the heavier from the hand by which it was inflicted (fn. 282). Mr. Baker bore the trial with his usual patient resignation, yet it is easy to trace in his letters feelings of deep and natural regret for a situation endeared to him, not by its emoluments but by its associations, and his books ever after exhibited the mildly querulous inscription of Tho. Baker, Coll. Io. Socius ejectus.
Mr. Baker did not leave the society of which he was no longer a beneficed member, but continued within the walls of St. John's to his dying day. In 1723 an annuity of 201. granted him by his eldest brother (during a colliery lease) expired, and his whole income was reduced to forty pounds a year, charged on the Elemore estates (fn. 283). He had still many powerful friends, but in conformity with his principles refused several subsequent offers of preferment (fn. 284), alleging “that the pittance which was left him was quite sufficient with good economy to carry him comfortably through the world.” Mr. Baker's remaining years passed in the unvaried tranquillity of a literary life spent within the quiet precincts of a College (fn. 285).
Temperance, tranquillity, and regular habits (fn. 286) protracted his existence to his 84th year. On the 28th of June 1740, he was seized with a paralytic stroke, and expired, without much of pain or sickness, on Wednesday the 2d of July following (fn. 287).
Mr. Baker's funeral obsequies were attended with all due observance by the Society in which he had so long lived beloved and respected. His remains were interred in the Ante-chapel of St. John's College, “on the North side near the monument of Archdeacon Ashton, on whose foundation he had been both Scholar and Fellow. The character of the venerable antiquary of St. John's may be easily deduced from the preceding pages, and his memory will be respected so long as steady integrity, guileless simplicity, and a disinterested contempt of all worldly emoluments, when placed in competition with conscientious adherence (fn. 288) to principle, continue objects of regard (fn. 289).
It seems unnecessary to insist further on Mr. Baker's extensive acquaintance both with polite literature and the more extensive province of antiquities; but it may be remarked that he was not more sedulous in acquiring knowledge than courteous and liberal in imparting it. It would be endless to enumerate the acknowledgements of assistance paid to him by his literary contemporaries. He assisted Hearne (fn. 290), Rawlinson, Tanner, Browne Willis, and Peck, in their antiquarian labours. His accurate knowledge of English history enabled him to supply Burnet with valuable additions and corrections to his history of the Reformation (fn. 291). Walker acknowledges his able assistance in a work where Baker must have been particularly at home, “The Sufferings of the Clergy;” and his various communications are honourably acknowledged by Knight (Life of Erasmus); Richardson (De Præsulibus Angliæ); and Father Courayer, in Defence of English Ordinations. Strype's Annals, and Smith's Edition of Bede (fn. 292), were also indebted to his friendly labours. He supplied Dr. Middleton (fn. 293) with several authorities for the Origin of Printing at Mentz; and his assistance is acknowledged by Ames in his Typographical Antiquities. In short, all who wished to draw recondite information from the noble libraries of Cambridge, or to gain intelligence respecting any of her distinguished sons, applied to the courteous and benevolent sage of St. John's—tanquam è magno fonte haurire
Though possessed of such stores of various literature, Mr. Baker's printed publications were confined to the “Reflections upon Learning,” and the “Lady Margaret's Funeral Sermon,” already mentioned. His only finished MS. was his “History of St. John's College, from the foundation of Old St. John's House to the present time,” which was left ready for publication. But forty-two volumes of MSS. fully attest his laborious industry as an antiquary, and his MS. annotations, which he was in the habit of sprinkling pretty freely over the margins of his printed books, prove his extensive course of reading, and his deep and judicious knowledge of English antiquities. The first twenty-three volumes of Mr. Baker's MSS. were bequeathed to Edward the second Earl of Oxford, the founder of the Harleian Collection, in a grateful sense of a long series of kindness and attention (fn. 294). These volumes are of course in the British Museum (fn. 295) The remainder were given to the University of Cambridge. Much and valuable matter on other subjects is dispersed throughout them; but their chief scope and tendency is the collection of a vast mass of materials calculated for the groundwork of that grand desideratum, the Athenæ Cantabrigienses.
Mr. Baker's printed books (with the exception of a few legacies) were given to St. John's College (fn. 296).
Biblioth: Coll: Div. Johan. Cant. Ex dono Viri Reverendi Thomæ Baker, S. T. B. qui olim fuerat hujus Collegii Socius; postea vero, ex Senatus Consulto ejectus, in his Ædibus Hospes consenuit; vitæ integritate et fama, quam ex Antiquitatis studio consecutus erat, celeberrimus.
This testamentary disposition was not the only instance in which Mr. Baker was a benefactor to St. John's. “Being appointed one of the executors of his eldest brother's will (by which a large sum was bequeathed to charitable uses) he prevailed with the other trustees, the Hon. Charles Montague and his own brother Francis Baker, to dispose of 1310l. (and it is supposed he added something of his own) in the purchase of an estate, to be vested for the maintenance of scholars therein. The Indenture for these exhibitions bears date 5 May 1710. The number of them is six, and the right of their disposal was reserved to himself during life, and afterwards vested in the Master and eight Senior Fellows of St. John's.” He besides gave 100l. to the College, reserving only the interest for life : and it may be here mentioned that he was instrumental in raising 200l. towards obtaining an equal sum from Queen Anne's bounty towards the augmentation of the Perpetual Curacy of his native parish of Lanchester, which certainly stood in great need of such charitable addition.
A portrait of Thomas Baker “was purchased from Lord Oxford's Collection by Dr. Rawlinson, and by him placed in the Picture Gallery at Oxford.” Charles Bridges pinxit memoriter. A mezzotinto was taken from it by J. Simon. Mr. Vertue also going to Cambridge (fn. 297), was engaged to take his portrait by stealth. So it seems the old gentleman had an insuperable objection to the operation.
Sir George Baker, grandfather of the venerable antiquary whose memoir has stretched to so unreasonable a length, was the son of Oswald Baker, of Durham. His first preferment was the office of Clerk of the Durham Chancery, which his father-in-law William Smith, Esq. resigned in his favour. He afterwards filled the honourable office of Recorder of Newcastle-on-Tyne, a situation generally held by one of the first provincial lawyers in the North, and which as usually leads to the establishment of a handsome family estate. In Sir George Baker's case however matters went otherwise. When Newcastle was beleaguered by the Scots in 164. Sir George (who probably on this occasion received knighthood from the Marquis of Newcastle) was one of the principal persons who conducted the defence of the place, which, abandoned by the regular troops, was defended for nine weeks by the inhabitants under the orders of the Mayor and Aldermen. The town was stormed on the 19th October. Sir John Marley (Mayor), Sir Nicholas Cole, and Sir George Baker retreated to the Castle, and held out till the 27th, when they capitulated on honourable terms. The subsequent adventures of Sir George Baker's life (which have very little resemblance to those of any Recorder of Newcastle before or after him) are unknown to me. Sir George Baker died at Kingston-upon-Hull, and it should seem from some expression in his epitaph, in circumstances not over opulent. He was buried with the military honours due to a cavalier. It was one of the good works of the Antiquary of St. John's to erect a monument to his gallant ancestor, whose ashes had lain neglected forty years.
Haud procul hinc jacet, Georgius Baker, Miles.
Qui postquam multa pro Rege pro Patria fuisset tulissetque, præcipuè in propugnando fortiter Novo Castro contra Scotos tunc Rebelles, hic tandem indigno et meritis suis dispari fato concessit. August. anno MDCLXVII.
At non passus est Deus tantam virtutem penitus latere; obscurè obiit; honorificè tamen sepultus; funus ejus prosequentibus Militum Tribuno totaque Cohorte militari memorabili honoris prelatisque exemplo. Tandem cum per quadraginta plus minus annos neglectus jacuisset, Nepos ejus Thomas Baker, S.T.B. non tarn virtutis quam adversæ fortunæ hæres avi charissimi indignæ sortis misertus,
Hoc ei monumentum mœrens lubens posuit, Anno 1710.
Pedigree of Baker, of Crook Hall and Elemore.
* St. Mary-le-Bow Register, Durham.
† St. Nicholas, Newcastle.
‡ Lanchester Register.
§ Whickham Register.
‖ Qu. If there were not another sister married to the Rev. Richard Burton, (grandson of Bishop Cosin, see vol. I. p. cxiv.) whose only son Richard Burton, Esq. was executor to Mr. Thomas Baker, 1739?
¶ Qu. If not wife to Nicholas Fenwick, Esq.
Hatfield's Survey.—John de Gildeford holds the manor of Colierley, containing two hundred acres of pasture, arable, and woodland, by foreign service, suit of the County Court, and. The same John holds forty-six acres and a half by charter and 15s. 6d. rent.
*** Inq. 6 Sept. 1473, Isabel Bitchburn de London died seized of Strothermedowe, Gilforth-place, and 8 burgages in Gateshead. Johanna Robson, æt. 50, and John Brown, æt. 40, next of kin and coheirs.
Joan Robson, the Inquest on whose death is noted above, died seized (as well as of Gilforth place in Gateshead, and half Gategang's lands) of one moiety of the manor of Colierley and of Smethystrother, held by the 20th part of a knight's fee, leaving Thomas Hodgson her son and heir, whose son Hugh, and grandson George Hodgson succeeded to the same estate in 1505 and 1508.
In 1474 an Inquest on the death of Robert Rhodes, Esq. (fn. 298) states, that on 1st April, 14 Edward IV. he was seized of the manor of Colierley, and of land called Grenelawe, held of the Earl of Westmoreland, and that he then granted the manor to John Hebburn and William Laweson probably on trust; for a pardon occurs to Agnes, widow of Robert Rodes, for intrusion into the manor of Colyerley, Smethystrother and Grenelawe.
By Letters Patent 21 Nov. 1571, Queen Elizabeth granted (inter alia) lands in Colierley to Sir George Bowes, Knt. and his trustee David James. By Ind. 20 April 1608, Sir William Bowes, of Streatlam, and John Hutton, yeoman, conveyed (with recital of the Crown grant) four tenements in Colierley to Robert Pye, William Parker, and Cuthbert Burrel, of Colyerly, yeomen, and Robert Cooke, of Newcastle, merchant (fn. 299).
In 1629 George Cooke, of Newcastle, merchant, died seized of a fourth part of the manor of Colyerley, held in socage of the King's manor of East Greenwich, leaving his uncle William his heir (fn. 300), who died in 1631, leaving two daughters and coheirs, Elizabeth, wife of Samuel Cocks, and Margaret Cook (fn. 301).
In 1671 John Emerson, Alderman of Newcastle, devised his lands called Collierley to Thomas Jenison and John Mowbray, on trust for his wife Barbara for life: and afterwards for his daughter Mary Emerson, and failing her issue for his daughter Alice Jenison.
b Boldon Book.
Mary (fn. 302) became the wife of John Sandford (fn. 303) (second son of Thomas Sandford, of Askham in Westmoreland (fn. 304) ); their son John Sandford (fn. 303) the younger left an only sister and heir Elizabeth, who intermarried with Anthony Meaburne (fn. 305). (See Pontop.)
This village is now more usually called Dipton. Depeden occurs in the earliest Inquest on the Guildfords, 1341.
Hatfield's Survey.—Richard Lorde holds a messuage and thirty-six acres and a half, once John Garreson's, 12s. 6d.; and acre called Pundbanks, 6d. Exchequer lands.—Thomas Gowhill holds a messuage, twenty-four acres and a half, 8s. 2d.; an acre and a half in Pundband, 6d.; and an acre called the Bog, lately cultivated, 1d.
In 1361 John de Gourlay held twenty acres in Billynside by fealty and 5s. rent (fn. 306).
Agnes Raw, widow, surrendered a tenement in Billyngside to John Vasey, Gent. 1546 (fn. 307).
Charitable Benefactions to the Parish of Lanchester.
By will dated 20 April 1674, Rowland Wilkinson, of Raredon, in the Parish of Lanchester, yeoman, devised all “his freehold landes lying and being in Satley, in the county of Durham, to the only use and behoof of the Poore of the Parish of Lanchester and Satley for ever, to be lett by ye Churchwardens and Overseers of the same Parish for the tyme being, and the rent received by them to be distributed amongst the said Poore with the rest of the said Parish stocke at Chrisonmas and Ester, according to the custom by the offesers and four and twenty of the Parish.” He ordains William Darnell, of the West Shele, and John Plumpton, of Butsfeald, executors.
Extract from the will of Cuth. Atkinson, of Woodside, yeoman:—“I doe hereby give and bequeath ye sume of sixty shillings of good and lawful money of England, yearly to the issuing and going forth, and to be paid out of my lands and tenements at Woodside aforesaid, to the Poor of ye Parish of Lanchester aforesaid, to be yearly paid and distributed at ye Feasts of Easter and Christmas, by such person and persons as shall hereafter possess and enjoy all those lands and tenements at Woodsyde aforesaid, and by the Curate or Parson of Lanchester aforesaid for the time being, to ye most needy, indigent, helpeless poor people in ye Parish.” (Dated) “ye ninth day of January 1681.”
By will dated 1762, Mrs. Jane Tempest, of Hamsteels, spinster, left a rentcharge of 4l. per annum, for ever to the Poor of the Parish of Lanchester.
A Parochial School was established in Lanchester by subscription in 1748. The trustees are Sir Thomas Clavering, Bart. the Incumbent of Lanchester for the time being, and W. I. Greenwell and George Ornsby, Esqrs. George Clavering, of Greencroft, Esq. left a rent-charge of 10l. per ann. for ever, to provide for the teaching of four boys. Mr. Smirke (a native of Lanchester) lately left 100l. the interest to be applied in paying for the instruction of four boys. The Perpetual Curate and William Thomas Greenwell, Esq. are trustees.