Cecil Papers: 1553

Pages 106-134

Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House: Volume 1, 1306-1571. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1883.

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419. Henry Lacy to Sir W. Cecil.
1552/3, Jan. 27. Upon sight of Cecil's letter to the alderman and brethren, for the election of Sir Anthony Coke, his father-in-law, to be burgess for Stamford, the whole company agreed without contradiction. And where the Lord Admiral has written in the favour of another burgess, the writer intimates that the burgesses of Stamford are in favour of his son Robert Lacy, of Lincoln's Inn. Prays Cecil to persuade his lordship not to molest this election.—Stamford, 27 January. [The return, dated 16th Feb., 7 Edw. VI, (1553), gives Richard Cooke, Esq., and Robert Lacy, gent., as the burgesses for Stamford, Co. Lincoln.—Parl. Writs and Returns (Public Record Office), Bund. 20.]
Endorsed :—27 January 1553.
½ p. [Haynes, p. 201. In extenso.]
420. William Thorold and Henry Savile to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1553, Jan. 31. Have examined the enclosed bill of complaint presented by Lawrence Wymberley and 14 other inhabitants of South Witham. Report that upon examination of the matter it appeared that R. Troughton and the greater part of the inhabitants had met in the church, and agreed to lay parcel of the common ground several for that year only, for the protection of their corn. That the action in the King's Bench is because, as Troughton allegeth, they, with their cattle, did depasture his corn. The inhabitants also seemed to fear, hearing Troughton had taken their farms in lease from the King, that he might alter things, by enclosure of commons or othewise, and deprive them of their farms.—Grantham, 31 January 1552.
Bill of complaint, presented by certain inhabitants of South Witham to Sir Wm. Cecil, showing, that they and their predecessors had time out of mind used a common ground called “Bradgate” where all the tenants at all times of the year did depasture their beasts. That Richard Troughton, of Witham aforesaid, had of late refused to allow them to depasture their said several beasts upon the common ground, and had sued four of their neighbours by writs of the King's Bench, and a latitat had been directed to the Sheriff of Lincoln, to execute against the said tenants. Praying Cecil to stay the proceedings
1 p.
421. Sir Anthony Auchar to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1552/3, Feb. 1. Has received no answer touching the matter between Cecil and Mistress Hall. Desires now, help and advice. One Mr. Leonard, a lawyer, who married the widow of Anthony Brickes, late Clerk Comptroller of the late King's Household, with whom Auchar had served at Boulogne when Brickes was taken prisoner, has, as executor to Brickes, produced four actions for horse-collars, salt, &c., against Auchar, to which he has offered denial. Since his coming hither, Leonard has obtained a condemnation of all four actions to the value of 100l., which he shall be forced to pay unless the Council will stay the proceedings and the matter be called before Mr. Cox or the Council. Has written to Mr. Mason and Mr. Hoby.—Calais, 1 February.
Endorsed :—1553.
1 p.
422. John Hooper, Bishop of Worcester and Gloucester, to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1552/3, Feb. 2. The morn after I had ended my long and full circuit from church to church in Worcester and Warwickshire, I received your letter, and so do answer the effect of it by the letter enclosed. I did not persuade my conscience to judge upon the reporter of the tale, but rather lamented mine own state, that is as much subject to slander and calumniation as a wretched man's may be. The mercy of God preserve me that I merit them not, and give patience to be contented with all things that he shall send. You and I, if we should kneel all days of our life, could not give condign thanks to God for that he hath mercifully inclined the hearts of the people to wish and hunger for the word of God, as they do. Doubtless it is a great flock that Christ will save in England. I see none worse than we ourselves that have good and true knowledge and yet not the effect in fruits. There lacketh nothing among the people but sober, learned, and wise men. I pray you, for the discharge of your own soul, cause your servant to remember how many souls he is accountable for in Hertilbury; let him be assured, in case neither by himself, nor by a sufficient deputy, he see not God's flock fed before Easter, if I live and have health and go about again, he shall go with a great many others out of his benefice. It is a shame before God so to dally with souls, and let them perish by ignorance, for whom Christ hath shed his precious blood. Tell him what he is—a pastor—pascat igitur; he knoweth this terrible and yet most true sentence : το αιμα εκ της κειρος του σκοπου εκζητησω [Ezekiel, xxxiii. v. 6.]—Worcester, 2 February 1553.
Addressed : “To the right honorable my singuler frend Sr Wm. Cecill, Knight, one of the Kinges Mates cheife Secretaries.”
Holograph. 1 p.
Copy of preceding.
The Same to John Drew, gentleman.
Perceiving by your letter you uttered not your grief after such sort as I charged you, in case ye did not, the more charity was in you and the less in him that reported the fault; but this is, and always will be, the hap of the sufferer, to bear the beginning of the bruit with all the increase and augmentation it taketh by often reporting. Your labours shall not be undiscerned. Where you think Bowcher had a fee, when you see the conveyance between the dead bishop and him, you will understand he had none. Before the allowance I have of the King for that office, I assure you it is not one penny his Majesty hath allowed, as his pleasure is a great deal more to mine office than I am able to deserve, and out of that, not hurting my successors, I will with wisdom and charity recompense such men's labours as serve with me and for me the glory of God in my travailous and painful vocation. I will perform all promises with you, and would have done at this time, if I could have set you in the place clearly. – Worcester, 2 February, 1553.
Holograph, 2/3 p.
Copy of preceding.
423. Richard Ogle to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1552/3, Feb. 5. With regard to his patent as Deputy Recorder of Boston, informs Cecil that Sir John Browne had said in Boston that Cecil being Recorder could make no deputy. Wendon had delivered the patent to the Mayor instead of to Cecil for whom it was intended. The Mayor now refuses to let him have it. Requests Cecil to write to the Mayor to deliver it up. Has sent Cecil's fees, that of the D. of Suffolk is too little. Has forwarded Suffolk's court-roll.—Pinchbeck, 5 February 1552.
1 p.
Copy of preceding.
424. The Lord Chancellor [Thomas Goodrich, Bishop of Ely] to Sir W. Cecil.
1552/3, Feb. 16. Has consulted with the Lord Chief Justice and others, and finds that there are precedents for Parliaments being kept, when the Kings were absent, but they were ill taken afterwards. They think it best to have the Parliament adjourned.—16 February.
Endorsed :—“16 Februarii 1553.”
½ p. [Haynes, p. 145. . In extenso]
425. Sir Thomas Chamberlain to the Privy Council.
1552/3, Feb. 20. Since the Emperor's arrival no matter of moment had occurred, every man attending to hear wherefore the estates of the Low Countries were called. On Tuesday last the same were assembled, and called upon by the Emperor, and by his sister the Lady Regent, to furnish supplies for the war against France. The President of the Estates also spoke, as well as the Treasurer. Six thousand guilders required of Brabant, 9,000 of Flanders, and 3,000 of Holland, and of the other countries after like rate, whereupon the Commissioners of each country departed home, to see how the same might be levied, and so to make answer. The spirituality, it appeared, must give the half of their revenues for the year, as they did the previous year. Great likelihood that by this means, and by great loans made for him in Antwerp, his Majesty would want no money to make the French King a good war. Intelligence that the Count Palatine was appointed to come as commissary of the Princes of the Empire, who desired the Emperor to have the King of Bohemia as his coadjutor in the Empire, and, on that condition, would take the wars wholly upon them that way, and seek to make the French King restore what he had wrongfully usurped since the beginning of the wars. Rumoured jealousy of the Venetians by the Emperor. His Majesty demanded of the Estates payment of one half at the end of next month, and the rest within four months after. Rumour that a son of the King of the Romans was coming towards Brussels shortly.—Brussels, 20 Feb. 1553.
pp. [Lodge, Vol. I., pp. 192–195. In extenso.]
426. Francis Ayscoughe to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1552/3, Feb. 20. Has required Mr. Moryson to inform Cecil “that there is a church in Grimsby called St. Mary's Church, being of a great circuit and compass, all covered with lead, and the town being in great ruin and decay, and nothing so populous as it hath been,” so that the parson, Thomas Williamson, who dwells at Eyston of the Hill beside Stamford [Easton], having little profit thereof, did not find a curate to serve there for the space of two months together; and the people of that parish went to St. James' within the same town, which could easily accommodate them. Since St. Mary's is worth only 7l. 17s. 2d. in the King's books, by the statute it may be united to another church. Suggests, therefore, that this should be done, with the consent of the King and Sir Thomas Hennage, the patrons; Cecil to have the lead, worth 400l., for his trouble in the matter, and he (Ayscoughe) would crave the stone and timber at a reasonable price.—Kelsey, 20 February.
Endorsed :—“1553.”
1 p.
427. Sir Richard Mortsine to the Privy Council.
1552/3, Feb. 20. The meeting of the great Princes this Shrovetide, at Duke Maurice's house, called Dresden, was not held. It is said the Electors, Princes, and States of Germany mean to offer, by the Palsgrave, to the Emperor men and money to recover Metz, and anything else that pertains to the Empire, in return for his making Maximilian coadjutor of the Empire with him, but it is thought he will rather want the one than consent to the other. The practice most probably proceeds from Duke Maurice. It was a great “corsey” [grievance] to the Emperor that the Electors and States refused to make his son Philip coadjutor, but if all Germany, freely and unsought for, offer that to his nephew, which they would neither give nor sell to his son, it is like to be a far bigger grief to him. If the suit be now made, it is made in such time as the Emperor can as evil say nay do it, as it must needs be against his will to grant it. It is stated that the Emperor will make Maximilian his general in Almain. As to the rumoured marriage of Marquis Albert with the Duchess of Lorraine, the Palsgrave and the Marquis desire it, and it was thought the Emperor would help it. The Palsgrave would by it hope to come by his part of Denmark; the Marquis desires it because the Duke of Holstein, who was nigh marrying his sister, and broke off on sight of the Duchess of Lorraine, is a great suitor to her, and the Emperor may thus, by his deputy, trouble Denmark. Perhaps Maximilian is sent for to be made general, and some way to be devised so that he be here before the Palsgrave; but, if there be a practice in it, Maximilian will rather stand to be coadjutor than hastily accept to become general. Reasons why the suit is not made for the King of the Romans. The Bishops are so in fear of the Marquis that they would consent to anything that may be their safety. The Bishop[ric]s of Magonce [Mentz], Triers [Treves], and Cologne are to be destroyed if some able and willing man is not found to see them defended against the French King. The Emperor will receive in all from the clergy 1,200,000 crowns for these last two years, and shall have from the Low Countries 2,500,000 of gold, and it is said 2,000,000 of gold from Spain. D'Arras, M. di Prato, and others have sent their plate to the mint, receiving 36 stivers per ounce, instead of 31. Preparations for war both by the Emperor and by France. For matters in Italy the imperials already speak against the Viceroy of Naples [Don Pedro de Toledo] for taking in hand this enterprise [of the recovery of Sienna], complaining that he acted without commission. The Viceroy left in his absence his one son, Governor of Naples, and made the other, Don Garzias, general of the enterprise, he lying at Florence with the Duke. If the Prince of Salerno comes towards Italy his coming shall be the Viceroy's excuse, and his retire taken for honourable. The Duke of Florence does what he can to seem neutral, lending 12 battery pieces to the imperials, and aiding the passage of money to the Cardinal of Ferrara in Sienna. The Bishop of Rome, the Venetians, the Duke of Ferrara, and the Duke of Florence too desire Sienna to be independent of both Emperor and King. The Bishop of Rome has sent Signor Junta, his Master of the Posts, with an offer of mediation; and it is said, if the Emperor had won Metz, the legates would have already been here. Before Junta has his answer and can be at home again the war will wax “good and warm.” It is thought the best part of this summer's war will be in Italy, where it will last till want of money on both sides parts the fray. The Turk has placed a navy under the orders of the Prince of Salerno, who if he get to Naples before the Viceroy, will turn that State upside down. He (the Viceroy) at Sienna beheaded the Marquis di Castel Vetere and imprisoned Signor Cæsare Caraffe. The short letter concerning Transylvania came from the Venetian Ambassador with the King of the Romans. It is supposed the Turk will go to the wars in person this summer, and will either come hither, or meet the Sophy, who this winter, besieged Argis. Exchange of courtesies between the Turk and the King of Poland. While the French King practices in all places to abase the House of Austria, three of the Emperor's chief councillors the Duke of Alva, Don Pedro de Toledo, and the Duke of Florence are in a league against other three, Ferrante Gouzaga, d'Arras, and Don Diego. Thc Queen scarce thinks anything of them, the “Emperor's good servant,” but the Emperor countenances Alva, who is going to Spain, and shows some displeasure to d'Arras. The recriminations of either three against the other three described. The Prince of Sulmona, General Captain in Italy of the Emperor's horse, is dead, and M. du Ruelx is here sick; M. di Prat could not bear that he [du Ruelx] had done well at Heding. The Emperor would give Sulmona's charge to Signor Francisco di Este, but one “three” or the other ever find ways to excuse the non-charge. The Duke of Ferrara is not, as was said, made General Captain by the Venetians. The Duke of Urbino, they say, is made Gonfaloniere of the Church, and the Bishop's nephew is to marry the Duke's daughter and be made Duke of Camarino. The French King's liberality to his troops that served in Metz has been followed by the Emperor's having given extra pay to Marquis Hans' horsemen; it is said, however, that he will trust more to the Germans hereafter than to either Italians or Spaniards, and that this is done to get him the name of a good payer. Some jealously between the Court and the Venetians, because the Frenchmen took up soldiers for Sienna out of Grema.—Brussels, 20 Feb. 1553.
7 pp. [Lodge, Vol. I., pp. 180–191. In extenso.]
428. The Lord Treasurer [Marquis of Winchester] to Sir W. Cecil.
1552/3, Feb. 27. Has read the strange things contained in Cecil's letters. The Emperor and Lady Regent make great provision of money, declaring thereby that he mindeth not to lose honour for all his sickness. Though others think to bring Maximilian into the defence of Italy at the charges of the country, he thinks the Emperor will not of it. Matters are like to move great trouble in Christendom, and give the Turk liberty to do many more things than he could do if the Princes of Christendom were in peace. Is glad of the King's recovery, and likes well the beginning of the Parliament, to stay the King yet from the open air. Trusts by the full Parliament to be ready himself to attend.—Monday, 27 February 1552.
pp. [Haynes, p. 145. In extenso.]
429. The Intelligence of the Spy sent into Normandy.
[1552/3, February.] Jan. 17. There are at Estaples five ships laden with wine and two ships with malt to brew withal; and before Monstreuil 10 boats with wine, oats, &c.
Jan. 18. At Crottoy, two ships of war and one ship with pickaxes and mattocks, and at St. Vallery upon the Somme two ships laden with artillery and two ships of war amending, and one ship laden with “gonstones,” and two ships of war.
Jan. 20. At Trayport, two ships of war and three ships with hay for horse meat.
Jan. 21. At Dieppe, 17 ships with hay and garbage and two with tents and pavilions; five ships with wine and three with bread; 15 ships of war, two laden with shovels and other implements of pioneers, and 30 ships amending and preparing for the war. There is proclaimed by the King that every baker shall bake four times the week.
Jan. 22. At Fécamp, two ships of war, and other ships with victuals and implements of war. At St. Valery in Caux, five ships of war.
Jan. 23. At Newhaven, called Havre de Grace, is great quantity of wheat brought to be shipped; also five great ships of war and the “Sacre” of Dieppe in the road, new victualled to go to sea.
Jan. 25. At Honfleur, eight ships laden with wine and bread; and at Harfleur, 10 ships with wine, wheat, and oats, “whereof be three great ships rigged to the war.”
Jan. 26. At Rouen, five ships of war and 18 laden with wine, &c.; “the saying was, the same to go to Boulogne or into Scotland. And from St. Valery to Rouen be well 8,000 footmen of war to keep the Englishmen from descending, or else to tarry till the ships be ready.”
Jan. 19. At Crottoy is Mons. de Cormasters, brother to the Marshal de Bies, with 300 horses and many footmen.
Feb. 8. At Hesdine, the saying is that the garrison should issue, and that Hesdine should be rendered unto Mons. de Reulx this next week.—Undated.
430. Suits to the King.
1552/3, March 7. List of suits presented to the King and notes of the decisions.
3 pp.
431. Sir Richard Morysine to the Privy Council.
1552/3, Mar. 24. Not till to-day did the Queen send for him to declare his Majesty's answer to his message. Had allowed them leisure for the business, as there were some hindrances; the Emperor's ambassador resident “there” having sent over his secretary on Wednesday last, which would cause the matters to be longer debated; perhaps also the Monk, Abbate di San Giovanni, or Bassamp, was looked for.
M. D'Arras was with the Queen, and interpreted to him the Emperor's answer. The Emperor said he was sorry he could not see him (Morysine); he rejoiced to see in the King of England such a love and earnestness to help to settle things that were now lost and far out of order, and thanked him; but the French King being he that began the brawl, and making no such offers as showed any desire of peace, he could make no other answer than he had made to Mr. Dudley; yet when such offers of peace were made to him as the French King of reason ought to make, and such as he with his honour might accept, the King of England should understand that he wished the weal of Christendom, and he exhorts the said King to continue his mediation. The Emperor was about present Edward with ten Italian horses.
He (Morysine) had answered that the Emperor might be assured of King Edward doing his best to have honour of this enterprise which he had taken in hand. As to Edward's intention of changing ambassadors and recalling him, d'Arras said the Emperor would be sorry for his going hence. He had sent to the Queen that if either she or the Emperor should see occasion for him to send his master word what he might do, or how he might step to some new labour, no pleasure would be so grateful to him as to do it. He also said to the Queen that he had heard there was a monk here with great offers of restitution, with entreaty for marriages, which she and d'Arras laughed away and said were fables.
The rumour is that the French King would render all Piedmont, save Turin and Pignerol, to the Prince of Piedmont, and all Savoy, except Montmelian, to the Duke, and (if the Prince of Spain have a son by the French King's sister) all his rights to Milan to that son; Metz to the Empire; Sienna to those of Sienna; and Lorraine to the Duchess thereof. They have also devised the Emperor's answer, that his son is already promised in marriage, but if the French King will bestow his sister upon the Prince of Piedmont the Emperor would make up the marriage, so that the French King will do that out of hand which he promises in time to come. These rumours are thought to be devised by such as favour the French, to make the people loth to pay the taxes agreed upon. But it were much that the French King should trust Bassamp with articles; more, that he would take them to a monk, and not make the King of England privy thereto. The King of France would thereby mean little honour to the King of England for his travail. The French King is sending Cardinal Chatillon as his ambassador to Rome. It is thought that the Constable sees a time when he may do the King his master good service, or else he would not see this done. Duke Horatio and Pietro Strozzi are said to be going into Italy, but much war is not looked for this summer. The Marquis of Marignano is paying the soldiers for their services at Metz. The Duke of Florence, as the Turk is thought not to come, and France is said to lack money, will show himself Imperial, and being persuaded that the French King means to turn him out of Florence, will do his best to turn the French King out of Sienna. In Sienna the French have abandoned Pienza and divers other forts, but still hold Monticelli and Chiusi. The Emperor is somewhat amended. Had spoken with Vesalius, the Emperor's physician. When his successor comes they will have a view of him, and judge better then as to his condition. Believes he shall never see him weaker than Mr. Dudley, and he saw him at Luxemburg.—Brussels, 24 March 1553.
5 pp. [Lodge, Vol. I., pp. 196–204. In extenso.]
432. John Johnson to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1553, Mar. 31. Thanks Cecil for the good comfort in his letter of the 29th instant. Where Cecil requires that there may be assurance made for the wools he had of Cecil's father, which are appointed to one of Cecil's young sisters, states that all his goods have been attached by his creditors. Desires Cecil to be his good master so that some good order may be taken to distribute his goods to the best advantage both for satisfying what he owes for the wools, and that Cecil's sister lose nothing.—London, 31 March 1553.
Holograph. 1 p.
433. Sir Richard Morysine and Sir Thomas Chamberlain to the Privy Council.
1553, April 4. The departure of Marquis Albert and his attitude towards the German bishops. The other princes remain at Heidelberg. The Duke of Wurtemberg has agreed with Magister Teutonice Ordinis for 66,000 thalers, and has offered 150,000 thalers to settle his suit with the K. of Rome, which is thought reasonable. Wolradus, for want of money, has stolen from his soldiers, and given them leave to shift for themselves. The Duke of Brunswick gathers forces, and means to drive Albertus, the father, and Wolradus, his son, out of their countries, and threatens revenge on the sea cities. The King of Denmark, favoured by the Emperor, intends to place his brother, Hans Frederick, in the Bishopric of Bream, though the Dean of Colain, brother to the Duke of Brunswick, is entered thereupon. Agents from Duke Maurice are looked for to treat of a much desired agreement between him and Duke Frederick. Duke Maurice hath parted of late with the Duke of Brunswick at Hala. Maurice maketh money by all means he can, and has received 56,000 thalers from the Bishop and Chapter of Magdeburg towards his siege expenses. Marquis Hans of Brandenburg, who hath men in readiness, and Duke Maurice, are at enmity. Since Maurice practised with France, the French King has stopped the 20,000 guilders he used to pay yearly to Marquis Hans. Duke John Frederick has had bequeathed to him by his brother Ernest a great deal of plate and ready money besides his yearly revenue of 20,000 guilders. The two brothers, Dukes of Mecklenburg, are at great discord.
Description of the Emperor's state of health, and of the remedies applied. By the Queen's advice he had taken some Soldanella pills, through which, his apothecary told Ascham, he is very well amended. D'Alva it is said has either gone to Spain or will tarry at Naples as Viceroy. The King of the Romans and the Turks have, it is reported, agreed upon a truce. From various circumstances it is thought the Turk intends nothing this year. Duke John Frederick, it is said, will be General of the Emperor's wars, and Marquis Albert Vice-general. The Baylo of Brabant is buying plate for coining at 36 stivers the ounce, instead of 31. M. du Ruelx has already gone to his charge, and most of the great men are making ready to go, and some have left. The Transylvanian army complain to the King of the Romans for the lack of payment. The King of the Romans has sent Gusman to the Emperor to exhort him to appoint a diet for the quietness of Germany. The deputies of Milan, sent by Ferrante Gonzaga, have protested to the Emperor that Gonzaga can do no more without money, the subjects being so strained that they began to mutiny, and the French King could make an easy conquest of any of the forts of Milan. M. D'Aremberg's soldiers, which he had before Metz, being evil paid, mutinied, and he was in peril amongst them. The French have burned some villages in Artois. The warlike preparations here will cost, it is reckoned, 51,000 guilders a month. M. de Glasion, Master of the Artillery, is gone towards Artois, and M. de Hoghstraet goes shortly to the frontiers. They (the writers) do not think it possible for the Emperor to make this year any invasion upon the enemy from these parts, nor for his enemy to come hither with any army, “so sore both the limits have wasted each other in so great compass, that, instead of water, famine is bond sufficient to keep them asunder.”—Brussels, 4 April 1553.
3 pp. [Lodge, Vol. I., pp. 204–212. In extenso.]
434. Thomas Parry to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1553, April 7. Forwards a copy of the certificate of Mr. Kingsmyll and Mr. Bridges, as to the “lewd demeanour” of Mr. Key, in his management of the possessions of the House of Ewelme. Points out that the certificate does not mention the plate, ornaments, ready money, or jewels of the said House, amounting to good round sums, nor yet the other lands belonging to the House similarly wasted and spoiled, and converted from the poor, which are speedily to be considered, lest the foundation and almshouse come to perpetual ruin. Inasmuch as her Grace [Princess Elizabeth] tenders much this matter at her heart, she prays Cecil's advice how she may best remedy the evil. She proposes to direct her commission; as Foundress, to Cecil, Sir J. Kingsmyll, and others, for a thorough examination of the matter. Her Grace is determined to remove the violence and oppression, and to have the poor on every hand thoroughly considered. She has written to Mr. Key to come to her, and also to her steward, to forbear holding courts for the present, so that the poor tenants should not be further troubled. She desires Cecil to send a Commission drawn for the purpose of visitation, with a note of such general articles as are to be sent therewith. Sends Cecil a patent of the Stewardship of Colly-Weston signed by her Grace, and sealed with her seal.—Hatfield, 7 April, 1553.
Signed. 2 pp.
Copy of the certificate of Sir J. Kingsmyll, Knt., and Richard Bridges, Esq., appointed by the letters of the Lady Elizabeth to survey the waste and destructions done upon the Manors of Connocke, Co. Wilts, and Weyhill, Co. Hants, parcel of the possessions of the House of Ewelme, by Thomas Keye, Paymaster of the said House
Connocke.—Since his coming thither, 380 trees had been sold and given away by Keye, “to the great decay, ruin, and lack of the inhabitants of the village of Connocke, for that the same village standeth in a cold country in the vale of Konnyng-March, where is very barren of wood.” Many of these trees he had to build up his own parsonage; he also obtained 35l. 2s. by the sale of the timber. Keye had granted away the reversion of the farm of Connocke to one Huncle, an Oxford companion, by deed under the Common seal of the House, and had compelled one Deane, the farmer, to give Huncle 40l. for the lease of that reversion. Also, under a promise to Deane to add certain “lokage” lands to his farm, Keye had obtained from Deane 6 silver spoons, 40s. of old gold, and a cow, but failed to fulfil his promise as regards the lands. He was asked to drink at one of the tenants' houses, whereupon he took a fancy to certain masers bound with silver, and obtained them from the tenant's wife, though she was loth to part with them, but feared to displease him; “and so Mr. Keye left that town without plate.” He exacted “knowledge” money, contrary to custom and equity, the particulars being given.
Weyhill.—A great quantity of timber had been sold by Keye to strangers, also the pollards and “shrobe” trees that stood in the tenants' hedge-rows. Names of those tenants from whom he had exacted “knowledge” money, against all custom and right of that manor.
Signed. 8 pp.
[At the end are some additional notes, in a different hand, as to other irregularities on the part of Keye, stating that he had sold reversions to strangers contrary to the custom of the manor; further, that he took a chalice from Weyhill valued at 6l., and left 40s. there for it, not having any consent of the parish.]
435. Roger Alforde to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1553, April 9. The morrow after the arrival of Cecil's mother, to Wit, Wednesday at night last, Mr. Robert Harrington and Mr. White with their wives came to visit her, to whom she communicated the manner of the administration committed to her. They thereupon declared their opinions for the making of the inventory, which she seemed nothing to mislike, but said that no man should see the will. In the morning she showed it to Mr. Harrington, as Harrington informed him, when Alforde remarked, that as Cecil was willing to perform more than he was bound by the will, it were well if she were moved for her part to perform the will also. Harrington thought this reasonable, and would urge it, upon conference with Mr. Ogle, and as for Mr. White, he said he knew she had no confidence in him. She stated that Cecil's father made a will touching his goods when he went to Boulogne, which not being forthcoming, she said might be with Mr. Digby. Alforde, thinking this might have been about the time he conceived displeasure against Cecil for his first marriage, rode over to Mr. Digby himself, especially as he had been required by Cecil's mother to arrange a lease of Tynwell. On broaching the matter of the will, Mr. Digby at first denied that he had any, but after explaining that Cecil and his mother were well accorded that nothing should remain contrary to the testator's meaning, said he thought he had one, but whether it was touching his goods or lands, he could not say. Being further questioned said that about Michaelmas last, Cecil's father, showed him about 15 or 16 lines written on a great skin of parchment with his own hand, which he told him was his will of his goods, but was not made privy thereto, for he said that no man should know his mind before his death. Thinks that if his father did engross it, the will was probably drawn before by Mr. Digby. Digby had promised to meet Lord Rutland at Stamford on Thursday, and to bring all the writings, and had promised a sight of them before delivery to Cecil's mother. The Escheator sits on Thursday at Oundell for the finding of the office, as he cannot sit at Stamford within the liberties of Peterborough. The jury are of the freeholders in these parts. Gives particulars as to the wood sales and collection of rents; as to the latter, says, that the tenants affirm that they have been accustomed to pay the rents a month after they were due.—Burleigh, 9 April 1553.
6 pp.
[The Inquisition is dated 13 April, 7 Edw. VI. It states that Richard Cecil died 19 March last past, and that Sir William Cecil is his son and heir, aged 30 years and more. A note at the top sets out that it was delivered to the Court 25 April, 7 Edw. VI, by the hands of Roger Alford, Gent. Inq. p.m. (Chancery), 7 Edw. VI, No. 50.—Public Record Office.]
436. Sir Richard Morysine to the Duke of Northumberland.
1553, Apr. 11. Thanks him for the comfort of his letters. If the Commission be amended, Mr. Dudley hath a wrong, yet he cometh not to end that, which he had so good thanks in this Court, for beginning thereof. If no more offers come than those which came before, he would be loth to tarry till seeds sown in so cold a time and ground as they were, should bring forth any fruits. If “these” bring no better stuff than they had to help themselves with, they and he will do no more than Mr. Dudley and he did. Thinks the Queen would aid, if besought. Looks daily for the Bishop of Norwich and Mr. Hoby, “longing to see what we have to do, and wishing it done, that I might end all the rest my evil lucks in the journey with so good a luck at the latter end. The Princes of Germany are about many, leagues; what will ensue it will hardly be guessed, till it be done.” Thanks him for the kindness of himself and the Duchess to his wife. Don Diego has promised to write to the Duke. Lord Guildford, his son, shall have a fair jennet from Diego; two or three greyhounds, and a gelding or two, were not amiss bestowed upon him.—Brussels, 11 April, 1553.
3 pp. [Lodge, Vol. I., pp. 212–214. In extenso.]
437. Sir T. Chamberlain to the Privy Council.
1553, Apr. 11. The Emperor is well recovered, and begins to attend to his affairs more than he has ever done since his arrival here. It is said the Prince of Piedmont is appointed general of his army to be set forth this year, and is to have for councillors M. du Reux, M. de Hoghstraet, M. d'Arenberg, M. de Lalayne, M. de Busshowe, and M. de Biancourt, who, as well as M. du Rye, shall have 1,000 horse apiece, besides the ordinary bands of the Low Counties. It is thought that ere long the Duke of Arschot, the Prince of Orange, and the Count of Egmont shall have some charge, for the Prince of Orange has been commanded not to depart for Breda. Great preparation of war material which goes towards Artois, whence it is thought an army will invade Picardy; but M. du Reux last summer left a great part of the limits of that country “so full of famine,” that any army conducted there must carry its provision. Discharge of the Duke of Holstein's Swart Rutters, and two other bands of horse, which served at Metz. It is thought the Duke of Alva is gone for the Prince of Spain, and at his return shall be Viceroy of Naples.—Brussels, 11 April 1553.
pp. [Lodge, Vol. I., pp. 214–217. In extenso.]
438. Sir Thomas Gresham to the Duke of Northumberland.
1553, April 12. After the fall of the exchange from 20s. 4d. to 19s., signified in his letter of the 7th, and which was the fault as much of English merchants as of strangers, he took up by exchange 1,837l. 8s. sterling, or 1,756l. 2s. 3d. Flemish, and admonished the merchants that if they took no other way to pay him than by taking up their money by exchange (which lowered the exchange), he would advertise the King and Council of their slender provision, and who they were that did take up any money by exchange. He did this to bring up the exchange, and then gave his word for 4,000l. to be delivered to him by exchange, and raised the exchange in two hours from 19s. to 19s. 8d., where he hopes to keep it. If the Duke has, as he trusts, bargained with the merchants—adventurers and staplers—to have for every pound sterling 23s. 4d. Flemish, to pay here in England, August next, in valued money, it will, when known, bring up the exchange to 23s. 4d. Advises that, if the merchants require to have any more money beforehand to be disbursed, the Duke should not consent, and gives reasons. Writes in favour of Adrian de Borsseland, a kinsman of M. de Bevie, recommended by Schetz, who desires to enter the Duke's service. Has conveyed the Duke's thanks to the Company of Merchants Adventurers, who offer their services.—Antwerp, 12 April 1553.
3 pp. [Lodge, Vol. I, pp. 217–221. In extenso.]
439. Suits to the King.
1553, April 15. Endorsed : “Memoryall of sutes to the King's Majesty : Answered, 15 Apr. 1553, at Greenwich.”
Among these are :—The suits of Lord Talbot and Lord Thomas Grey, noted “granted”; Sir Robert Chester's suit; Thomas Foster's pardon; the request of Alice Dinham, widow, for the manor of West Wittingham, co. Berks; the parsonage of Hillington, co. Middlesex, for Sir Edw. Hastings; the petition of the Vice Chamberlain for Dengiehall, Essex; remission for Lord Delawarr; for the Bishop of York; for licence to the Bp. of Worcester to augment three poor vicarages; and the suit of Thomas Wyndham for the Manor of Preston, co Somerset.
Noted by Cecil.
pp. [Haynes, p. 146. In extenso.]
440. Dr. Wotton and Sir T. Challoner to Sir W. Cecil.
1553, April 15. Notwithstanding the bruit they heard at Calais of an army under the Prince of Piedmont, and other great lords of the Low Countries, who did intend to besiege Hesdin; here at Monstrueil, they understand of M. de Villebon, that the imperial army yesterday approached Therouenne. This enterprise of the imperials cometh suddenly, inasmuch as M. de Loches, Captain of Therouenne, is absent from his charge. The garrisons both of Boulogne and this town seem but small. M. de Villebon told them that the French King had dispersed his old bands and gendarmerie, but they were to re-assemble by the 20th instant. They understand they shall find the King at St. Germain, where he will remain until the deliverance of the Queen, now great with child.—Monstreuil, 15 April 1553.
Endorsed :—“Hast, hast, post hast. Cito. Cito. Cito.
“Pur les affairez du Roy de Inghelterre.”
3 pp. [Haynes, p. 147. In extenso.]
441. Francis Yaxlee to [Sir Wm. Cecil].
1553, April 20. Had had no occasion of writing, nor yet had any, having arrived in Paris two days before, and that day thought to depart thence, and wait upon Sir Thos. Challoner at Poissy, where he thought Mr. Wotton and Mr. Pickering would be; yet he had thought it his duty to advertise Cecil of his arrival at Paris. His great indebtedness for Cecil's “godly counsels and fatherly admonitions.” Wishes to know if Cecil desires either “books, maps, or any other thing in these parts.”—Paris, 20 April 1553. [Postscript.] “I cannot pretermit to shew unto your mastership how going to Chelsea with Sir Thomas Challoner, my Lord's grace of Northumberland used me very gently, and did give unto me ten crowns, willing me to assure myself of his grace's favour, and further required to hear from me out of France, so as I stand in doubt whether I may be so bold as to trouble his grace with my rude letters without your mastership's advice.”
1 p.
442. Sir Philip Hoby to Sir W. Cecil.
1553, April 22. Has received Cecil's letter and the rose, which he has tied to a lace, and carries about his neck, in token of his office. Tenders his most humble thanks for it, to the King and Council.—Brussels, 22 April 1553.
½ p. [Haynes, p. 148. In extenso.]
443. John Burton to [Sir Wm. Cecil].
1553, April 25. Informs Cecil that the warrants delivered to him at London, in February last, for the making of the fines toward the maintenance of the great rivers and drains, especially of Weyland, as well for Kesteven as Holland, by Mr. Ogle's means, were subscribed by Sir Edward Dymok, Sir Francis Astne, and Mr. Welby, in addition to Cecil himeelf; and so sent to Sir John Harrington, who, intending the furtherance thereof, procured a sessions therein, for the same to be had by precept, assigned by Sir John, Mr. Ogle, and Mr. Welby. The knights of Lindsey, who might have assigned the day at the Lent assizes, would not, referring it over. Deferred from time to time, it was assigned at Spalding the 20th of April last. There repaired Sir John Harrington, Mr. Ogle, and Mr. Welby, having with them the controllers of both countries, the bailiff of Deeping, and other the surveyors on both sides, “and so lovingly and neighbourly conferred for all devices, as I never saw the like.” Whereupon Sterffenra was broached, and ran fairly toward the outfall and into Weyland. Devices were since had for the continuance thereof, according to the order of Cecil and other Commissioners. The enormous foundation of old Halmeend thought good to be held shut, but the fen water will issue. “Well considered that the weir dyke is well made on Deeping side, most devised by my master your father, whose soul God pardon, whose example by Boston dyke our countrymen will neighbourly be content to practise.” Because the bridge of “Langall-drole” is now to be set with the same seating onward, they are determined in Pinchbeck to dyke the river from “Dowffhurn” to the sea, and further upward, as the time and weather will give them leave. But for the fines, as the matter rests upon assurance to the owners, and as the Commissioners are so far from one another, asks Cecil to write soon, as he had before done to them, to hold a sessions for that and the subscribing of the whole decrees, whereof he wishes he were able to write Cecil one book, and another, to be by them subscribed, and to remain in the country, which he was of late purposed to perform. Thinks the year will pass away at the present, as the last, and others have done, in this and such-like affairs, for the common weal of the country. Trusts for his attention to Cecil's directions, that he will hear from him. Asks Cecil to procure such money, to remain in the hands of the king's bailiffs and officers, as may serve the same, other drains and conveyances, and especially 40l. to be bestowed by his highness in Weyiand drain, where most need shall be. Mr. Ogle will procure Mr. Thorrold's hand to the said warrant, and then they will be bold to put the money to collection, in good hope of a sessions, for full order in the premisses, specially for the decree of their assurances, on whose marshes the facts are first to be done. The banks of the country lately viewed have not been thought well, and so he must needs say, but the water not so held in the banks in his remembrance, and now willingly consented to have them ordered equivalent, as on Deeping side. Trusts that all men of leisure will yield themselves to the common weal of the country. Refers to Cecil's request made for the draining of the country.—Pinchbeck, 25 April 1553.
2 pp.
444. John Fenton and others to Sir Wm. Cecil.
[1553], April 28 Thank Cecil for his goodness shown to them. Where, by the common consent of the parishioners of Stamford, such plate and jewels, as were in the churches there, were sold toward the purchase of divers decayed houses and tenements in Stamford, that late were of divers guilds there, which plate and jewels, together with great sums of money, by the inhabitants of the said town were laid forth and disbursed to the intent that the issues and profits thereof should be employed to “the exhibition and finding of an honest learned man continually to teach Grammar” within the said town of Stamford; and forasmuch as such lands and tenements, as late were Master William Radcliffe's, deceased, in Stamford, by Cecil's furtherance and help, by Act of Parliament, were given and established for like intent and purpose, be not at this present of the clear yearly value of 6l., besides charges, “not able to find an honest learned man,” unless the other Guild land now purchased may be applied and occupied for the same intent; and now they are informed that the plate and jewels abovementioned are now called for, to be answered to the King's Majesty; if this should so chance, then, of necessity, the said Guild lands purchased must needs be sold again, to their great hindrance and loss : “and then this godly intent begun should take none effect, and that were great pity. In consideration whereof our most humble suit is unto you that, for the love of God and in the way of charity, it may please you to make suit to the King's Majesty for us, that, by your means, this godly Act begun may have a perpetual continuance.” The obligations they would be under to Cecil. Beg him to give credit to the bearer.—Stamford, 28 April.—(Signed) “John Fenton, Alderman of Stamford, and his bredern comburges of the same Town.”
Endorsed by Cecil : “1553.”
445. Memorial.
1553, April 29. Memoranda in Secretary Petre's handwriting :—
“The bills of Worcester and Rochester.
The letters of Pole.
The writings touching the merchants' complaints.
The letters of the Commissioners at Carlisle.
The letters of Thomas Gresham—his instructions and Mr. Audley's.
The Danish matters—Ranger.
The answer of the 'steedes' Ambassadors.”
Endorsed :—“Memorial of matters to be considered in Council. 29 April 1553.”
¼ p.
446. Sir W. Petre to Sir W. Cecil.
1553, April 30. Our ambassadors are now referred to the Regent, because the Emperor is not yet strong enough to give any open audience. Hears that two Cardinals are coming to treat of this peace, and that there shall be a meeting of Princes in Germany, for compounding the differences between Marquis Albert and the Bishops. They say that the D. of Brunswick, General for the Bishops, has repulsed Marquis Albert's men.—Greenwich, 30 April 1553.
1 p. [Haynes, p. 148. In extenso.]
447. Sir Philip Hoby.
1553, April. Draft letter to the Emperor [Charles V.] notifying the recall of Sir Richard Morysine, and the appointment of Sir Philip Hoby as ambassador resident at his Court.—Westminster, April, 1553.
½ p.
448. Sir W. Petre to Sir W. Cecil.
1553, May 7. Desires to hear of Cecil's good health and recovery. The King is very well amended, and that so apparently, as, continuing to keep himself close a few days longer, his Majesty shall be able to take the air in better case than he hath been a good while.—Greenwich, 7 May 1553.
2/3 p. [Haynes, p. 149. In extenso.]
449. Sir W. Petre to Sir W. Cecil.
1553, May 12. The D. of Northumberland had informed him that the King was desirous to understand, whether Cecil's health would permit him to be at the Court at Whitsuntide, when the ceremony of the feast for the Order shall be kept. Sends for sealing, letters signed by the King.—Greenwich, 12 May 1553.
2/3 p. [Haynes, p. 149. In extenso.]
450. Sir W. Petre to Sir W. Cecil.
1553, May 15. Has delivered Cecil's letter to the D. of Northumberland; the fashion of Cecil's robes, &c, will be settled when Garter comes to Court. The day may be deferred, as they think it not expedient, that the King should yet remain so long abroad as the ceremony requireth. The ambassadors have not yet spoken with the Emperor; in France they had access long ago, many fair words, and certain small requests, the realms of Naples, Sicily, Aragon, the country of Tournay, &c. Things go slowly forward, whether on account of the Emperor's weakness, or that they will not hear of peace, he knows not.—Greenwich, 15 May 1553.
1 p. [Haynes, p. 150. In extenso.]
451. Sir Thomas Challoner to [Sir Wm. Cecil].
1553, May 16. “The occasion of the sending of this our despatch was so sudden, as, after the letter written, we forthwith sent away this bearer.
“I marvel not a little at this sending of de l'Aubespine, we never having been made privy to the same. And specially that they should tell us of his readiness to depart in the afternoon, when he was already departed in the morning.
“I cannot tell, nor am not yet well acquainted with, the usances of this Court, but by report of others my predecessors. I am not yet in room to have recourse unto me of such as know the estate of things here; which after Mr. Pickering's departure hence, I shall have more occasion to confer withal, and then will travail to attain to the perfect understanding of things which as yet I have none entry unto. This bearer is a servant of mine own. I do most heartily pray you to be good unto him for his speedy return, for I cannot spare him any time. Thus,” &c.—Poissy, 16 May 1553.
452. Francis Yaxlee to [Sir Wm. Cecil].
1553, May 16. Has thought it his part to signify unto Cecil that the agreement of the peace to be made at Sienna is like to take small success, for as he was informed by sundry Siennese, his friends, that evening, a certain very strong castle of theirs called Mont' Alcino was then besieged, and the Imperialists minded to give the assault, so as the same was in great peril. There was no peace hoped upon between the Emperor and the French King for that year; the talk was, that, if any peace were made, the same would proceed by the motion of the Pope, the proof whereof would shortly be known then, as was judged, upon the arrival of the Cardinal of St. George, called Capo di Ferro, from the Bishop of Rome. The bearer, steward of Sir T. Challoner's household, ready to take horse. Dr. Wotton's commendations.—Poissy, 16 May 1553.
1 p.
453. John Johnson to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1553, May 20. In answer to the request through Sir Andrew Judd, states that he cannot at present pay what he owed Cecil's father for his wools, but hopes to do so.—London, 20 May 1553.
1 p.
454. James Morice to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1553, May 26. Is very glad of Cecil's recovery. The bearer, his son Philip, has been with him for books and precedents of Deeping, and thinks that such as Cecil has already are not the same as may show him pleasure. Has a great sort of precedents and books, touching the King's Majesty's lands and others, worth looking at. By reason of his age he is not able to search them. Will deliver themto anyone on the King's warrant. Expresses thanks for Cecil's “great gentleness” to him and his, especially to his son, the bearer. Would do any service in his power to Cecil or any of his friends.—Roydon, 26 May.
[The year is taken from the contemporary endorsement.]
1 p.
455. John Johnson to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1553, May 27. States that the “Trinity,” a London vessel, is bringing him five tuns of Seville oil. Desires Cecil to enter an attachment against the same, before the ship's arrival, in satisfaction of the writer's debt to Cecil's father for wool. Thanks Cecil for his goodness. Is willing to be occupied in any work he can do.—London, 27 May 1553.
1 p.
456. Sir Conrad Penny to Edward VI.
1553, June 6. Thinks it his duty to acquaint the King with the affairs of Germany, but hitherto has had nothing of sufficient importance to communicate. Now, however, when a fitting opportunity has offered itself, he could not but write. Philip the Great, son of Henry Duke of Brunswick, has collected in those parts a large body of horse and foot. He enters many cities and towns, and by his warlike tumult drives not a small number of good men to poverty and want. He has, besides, recovered and holds most of the strongholds and castles taken by Count Wolrad de Mansfeldt, and has imposed a heavy fine on the bishopric of Munster and Osnaburg, under threat of devastating it by fire, and has also forcibly gained possession of the diocese of Minden. The said Philip the Great has, moreover, concluded a treaty with the Bishops of Bamberg and Wurtzburg, who are the chief enemies of Albert, Marquis of Nuremberg. In opposition to the aforesaid Duke Philip, a considerable number of horse and foot are gathering in that part of Germany, and daily, almost every hour, the army is seen to be largely increased. The whole of it is being raised in the name of the Marquis Albert of Nuremberg, the head of whose army is Christopher, Count of Aldenberg, with De Warburg second in command, and Walderdon. The force, however, is not being collected very hastily, yet horse and foot flock to it every day. The writer is summoned to join, but something of great importance is intended, which as yet is concealed. Nevertheless, he hopes shortly to know, and then he will not fail to signify the same to the King. What will come of this warlike commotion will be seen in due course. Prays for the continuation of the King's favour, and offers his services. Offers to enter the service of the King are constantly made to the writer by nobles, knights, captains, &c.—Hamburg, 6 June, 1553.
Latin, 4½ pp. [Lodge, Vol. I., pp. 221–224. In extenso.]
457. Savoy Hospital.
1553, June 10. Copy of the surrender by Radulphus Jackson of the Savoy Hospital to Edward VI.
½ p.
458. Sir Philip Hoby to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1553, June 20. Glad to hear of Cecil's recovery. State of his own health. Has been recommended to go to some baths, distant two days' journey from Brussels. Requests leave to do so.—Brussels, 20 June 1553. [Postscript.] Declining health and credit of the Emperor.
2 pp. [Haynes, pp. 151, 152. In extenso.]
459. Dr. N. Wotton to Sir W. Cecil.
1553, June 21. Regrets to hear of Cecil's illness. Bids him moderate his labour, his complexion not being strong enough to continue as he began. A good part of the labour which was wont to lie on the Clerk of the Council's hands is now turned to Cecil. Mentions books, which he offers to bring home for him.—Poissy, 21 June 1553.
½ p. [Haynes, p. 152. In extenso.]
460. Sir Philip Hoby to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1553, June 25. As many variable bruits run there about King Edward, would like to be informed of his Majesty's exact state, as also of such proceedings as the Council have determined, or shall determine thereon. Thus he will be able to answer such bruits as do, and will, arise. Prays God that England's wickedness may not be the cause of His taking away the King.—Brussels, 25 June, 1553. [Postscript.] The night before there came to them one Evered, the King's jeweller dwelling at Westminster; he had come from Antwerp, and showed them that, in that place, it was reported for truth, and wagers were laid, not only that Edward VI. was dead, but also that Mary had succeeded : likewise, that the Emperor was sending with all speed the three personages who were on their way to England, that they might be as Councillors to Mary. Sir Philip's estimate of them. England would go to utter ruin if ruled by such men.
pp. [Haynes, pp. 152–154. In extenso.]
Modern copy of the preceding.
461. James Haddon to Sir Wm. Cecil.
[1553, June 26.] Had perceived by Mr. Petre's early reply his and Cecil's goodwill towards him. Requires advice as to the entry of his first fruits, whether he should follow the ordinary way and appoint sureties. Asks that the first day of payment may be delayed as long as possible. If it be thought good, as they (Cecil and Petre) have already determined, and that there be some such way of entrance of first fruits as he knows not, then, when he has certain word that the matter is settled, the writer asks, whether he may (as thoroughly possessed), appoint one to execute the office in his jurisdiction, as he hears by Mr. Weston and others it is very needful.—Suffolk Place, 26 June 1553.
[In the First Fruits Index of Persons compounding, James Haddon compounds for the Deanery of Exeter, 30 June, 7 Edw. VI.]
462. Dr. N. Wotton to Sir Wm. Petre and Sir Wm. Cecil.
1553, June 27. His last warrant of two month's diet he has received already, and as he sees no certainty of his short revocation, has written to the Council to have the warrant amended. Has also referred to the expense of his journey to the Emperor and the present one, requiring them to take some respect thereunto, and if nothing better can be obtained, he would be glad if the King would give him the silver vessels, which by the late King's commandment, Dr. Tunstall, late Bishop of Durham, delivered to his custody, when Tunstall and he waited upon the D. of Northumberland to the French Court. The parcels of silver are :—three [p]l[at]ers, eightee[n di]shes, [eig]hteen trenchers, and six saucers of silver ung[ilt], weighing about 669 ounces. Requests Cecil not to forward his enclosed letter to the Council unless he approves of the requests,—Poissy, 27 June 1553.
1 p.
Copy of preceding.
463. John Burton to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1553, July 9. Asks to have the direction of the new Commission of Sewers, and Sessions thereon, “for confirmation of your late travail for Weyland.” Cecil's last warrant was sent to Mr. Thorrold, and not yet returned, which should be for the levy of the money towards the costs of the fens; and in that part lacketh only a Sessions, for order of Sir John Harrington's recompense, and of others upon whose grounds the fens should be out. Says, that Burn Ee from Dowffhurn to the outfall is in good order. The beche or river called Chelebeche and now Poynton Lode, and Rysgate Ee, are diked within the value of two weeks' work. So that Burn Ee and the north part of the same, so far as the content of Cecil's last Commission, are in good case. And now Weyland—for the chief drain of the fens on the South of Burn Ee, and of all that part of Kesteven and Holland, unless Cecil affords his assistance—shall rather surround the same fens and parts, than give any ready conveyance or drain to the same. Submits the premises for Cecil's discreet provision.—Spalding, 9 July 1553.
Holograph. 1 p.
464. John Hooper, Bishop of Worcester and Gloucester, to Sir m. Cecil.
1553, July 10. When he returned home on the 3rd of July, weary from his journey through the whole diocese of Gloucester, was rejoiced to receive a letter from Cecil, announcing his recovery from a severe illness. Had received Drew with Christian affection. To day he proceeds on a new visitation, that the affairs of the Church, if God should will it, may be amended—Worcester, 10 July.
Endorsed :—“3 Junii 1553.”
Latin. Holograph, 2/3 p.
Modern copy of preceding.
465. Death of Edward VI.
[1553, July.] Rough draft of letters of the Council to the English ambassadors with the Emperor and the King of France to announce the death of Edward VI., on the 6th of the month, from disease of the lungs. The ambassador at the French court is further directed to thank the King for his friendship shown by his letters touching the detection of certain practices of the Emperor intended with the Lady Mary.
pp. [Lodge, Vol. I., pp. 225–227. In extenso.]
466. The Rebellion in the North.
[1553, August.] A list of names, being “Prisoners in the Rebellion of the North, primo Mariae,” commencing with the Duke of Northumberland and ending with Dr. Cocks. The method of proceeding against the said prisoners; the persons appointed to examine the prisoners; the persons to take order for the arraignment, and for the ordering of all the matters; and the persons appointed for the examination of the other offenders, and to assess their fines.
pp. [Haynes, p. 192. In extenso.]
A list of
35 Peers, commencing with the Marquis of Winchester, Lord Treasurer, and ending with Lord Darcy.
1 p.
467. The Lords of the Council to Sir W. Cecil.
1553, Sept. 21. Notifying the Queen's pleasure that he should immediately send to her Highness the seals belonging to the Order of the Garter, together with the old register. St. James', 21 September 1553.
Endorsed by Cecil :—“Counselles letter for ye ordr.”
½ p. [Haynes, p. 201. In extenso.]
468. Sir Edward Dymoke to Sir Wm. Cecil.
[1553], Sept. 28. Had the Queen's warrant unto Sir Richard Southwell for his “complete harness to serve at the coronation,” with other “parcels,” as appears by a letter to Lenthall from Southwell. Because no such things are to be had in the armoury, and Lenthall, for his discharge of the delivery of those parcels, would have Cecil's commandment for his discharge, the writer desires Cecil, as the time of the service is at hand [Mary was crowned on 1 Oct. 1553], to command that he may have such things as are contained in Southwell's letter, which he sends. If the letter be not sufficient discharge for Cecil, the writer will be bound to deliver the “stuff” to him again after the service has been done, unless he can see Cecil discharged as he himself will devise.—“Michaelmas even.”
1 p.
469. Christopher Heron.
[1553], Nov. 11. Petition of Christopher Heron to the Bishop of Winchester, Lord Chancellor, desiring a letter to Sir William Cecil, for the consideration of his complaint as to his lease and grant.
Endorsed :—“Saturday, 11th Nov.—Granted.”
470. Sir Edward Dymoke to Sir Wm. Cecil.
[1553], Nov. 23. Since he last spake to Cecil for allowance of such things as he should have had against the coronation, he has never heard from him, nor will Lenthall deliver him any such “parcels” without Cecil's commandment. As to Cecil requiring a warrant from the Queen, the truth was, that at the coronation of Edward VI. the writer had all such parcels delivered him by Cecil's father, without warrant, and at this coronation he had no warrant for anything, except for his “harness.” He had his cup of gold, his horse, and all his trappings and crimson satin without warrant, nor was any required from him, “inasmuch as it doth appear by old precedents of my claim that I ought to have it, and I do intend to have my claim exemplified under seal.” Prays Cecil not to be “more straytor” with him than his father and others have been. It was the Queen's pleasure that he should have all things pertaining to the office, and so she willed him to declare to the Lord Treasurer. Rather than be driven to sue out a warrant for so small a thing, he would lose it. Has sent Cecil Lenthall's bill, which he has paid. Prays he may have either such-like things delivered to him, or their money's worth. He ought to have all contained in the bill, except the two partizans. Prays Cecil to be as favourable as possible, and to weigh the case as his own. Will not fail to requite Cecil's friendship, if he lives. “I do not pass so much of the value of the allowance as I do for the precedent to hinder them that shall come of me, if I do lose it at this time.”—23 Nov.
[The “stuff” in Philip Lenthall's bill consists of a shroud, a girdle, and a scabbard, of velvet,” two gilt partizans,” “a pole-axe,” “a chasing staff,” and a gilt pair of spurs; amount, 6l. 2s. 8d.]
pp. [Lodge, Vol. I., pp. 229–231 (ed. 1838). In extenso.]
471. The Council in the Marches of Wales.
1553, [Nov.]. Instructions for the Council in the Marches of Wales, in the first year of Queen Mary's reign, addressed to Nicholas, Bishop of Worcester, President of the Council of Wales; William, Earl of Worcester; Walter, Viscount Hereford; Robert, Bishop of St. Asaph; Sir Thomas Bromley, Knt., Chief Justice of England; Sir Richard Morgan, Knt., Chief Justice of the Common Pleas; Sir David, Brooke, Knt., Chief Baron of the Exchequer; Sir Robert Townshend, Knt., Justicier of Chester; Sir Rice Maunxell and others, her Highness' Commissioners now appointed by Commission within the Principality of Wales and Marches of the same.
Endorsed :—“Primo Mariæ—receaved of Mr William, my Lord Treasurer's man, the xxiiijth of November.”
12½ pp. [Haynes, pp. 193–201. In extenso.]
472. Lord Edward Clinton, Lord High Admiral, to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1553, Dec. 13. Has received Cecil's letter and thanks him for the goodwill in the farm he required of him. Will willingly give Cecil's price for the same. Still, if he could have him for his neighbour in that county, would be content to forbear that and a good piece of his own. Asks him to travail with Markham for his part, and will perform any arrangement made by Cecil.—London, 13 December 1558.
Signed. Addressed to Wimbledon.
½ p.
Copy of preceding.
473. Sir Wm. Cecil's Servants.
1553. List of Cecil's servants to whom liveries were given; twelve of them receive liveries of the best cloth, with badges; eleven receive 1¼ yards of best cloth each, with cognisances of the second sort; and nine receive coals of the second cloth. “Item, a coote clothe remaineth with my Lady to bestow at yor pleasure.”
2 pp.
Notes in Cecil's handwriting as to the distribution of the above liveries, with calculations of the prices of the materials. Also—in another hand—stock of materials in the bakehouse, pantry, brew-house, kitchen, &c., valued at 23l. 19s. 6d.
Endorsed by Cecil :—“Servants and their lyueryes. 1553.”
2 pp.
474. Thos. Paynell.
1553. Commonplace-book, various, by Thomas Paynell.
244 pp.
475. Westminster Palace.
[1553]. Account of Sir Andrew Dudley, knight, and Arthur Sturton esquire, deceased, keepers of the Palace at Westminster.
[This account is divided under five heads :—]
1. Stuff wanting at a Remayne [account of all stuff remaining unspent] taken at the Palace at Westminster by virtue of a Commission directed to the Lord Hastings of Loughborough, then Lord Chamberlain, Sir Henry Jerningham, Sir Edward Waldgrave, and Sir Walter Mildmay, knights, James Bassett, and Richard Weston, esquires, late in the custody and charge of Sir A. Dudley and A. Sturton.
[Among the items under this head are the following :—]
“One celler tester [canopy for the fixed top and head parts of a bedstead] and iij single vallances of carnation velvet all over, embroidered with cloth of silver.”
“One bedstead of walnut tree, having celler tester and three single vallances of crimson cloth of gold, with works, and blue velvet cloudwise, paned [striped] with purple velvet; one bed and one bolster of tick filled with feathers; three quilts filled with wool; one pillow of fustian filled with down; and one counterpane of crimson Turkey silk.”
“One walking-staff having a cross upon the upper end of black horn.”
“One set of chessmen, the one side black wood, the other side white bone.”
“Four topnets of feathers for horses.”
“Two horse-tops of red and yellow feathers.”
“One top for a head piece of red and yellow feathers.”
“One clock like a heart [or hart] set in copper.”
“One basin of whitework.”
“Seven layers of glass.”
“One layer of jasper colour.”
“A glass quarter full of civet.”
“Nine looking-glasses of sundry colours sorts.” [sic].
“A little coffer of Danskwork” [Danish work].
“One Sleve coffer covered with red fustian of Naples.”
“One small box furnished with toothpicks.”
“One case of crimson velvet for a hat.”
“Two screens of purple taffeta.”
“Fifteen fire-forks [shovels] of iron.”
“Five pipes of Venice gold and rolls of passamayne of Venice gold.”
“One tassel of Venice gold belonging to a pair of beads.”
“One cabinet covered with leather of Paris work.”
“Certain pieces of perfume cakes to burn.”
“A good quantity of Storaxe Calamytye.”
“One Venice lute.”
“One cradlecloth of crimson velvet, the ground satin.”
“Md. that sundry of the parcels afore written remain in the house at Westminster in sundry store-houses and garrets, old and broken, (that is to say) Tables with pictures, maps, looking-glasses, standards, chests, coffers, cases, candlesticks, lanterns, tables, trestles, cupboards, forms, stools, and irons [ornamental irons on each side of a hearth] skins and such like.”
(2.) Stuff delivered to the Lady Jane, usurper, at the Tower, by commandment only, over and above sundry things delivered by two several warrants.
[Among the items under this head are the following :—]
“One muffler of purple velvet, embroidered with pearls, of damask gold, garnished with small stones of sundry sorts, and lined with white satin.”
“One muffler of purple velvet, embroidered with purples of damask gold, garnished with small pearls and small stones of sundry sorts, and furred with sables.”
“One sable skin, with a head of gold, muffled, garnished and set with four emeralds, four turquoises, six rubies, two diamonds, and five pearls; four feet of gold, each set with a turquoise; the tongue being a ruby.”
“One case of black leather, containing a muffler of black velvet, striped with small chains of gold, garnished with small pearls, small rubies, and small diamonds, lacking pearls in divers places. and one small ruby, and one small diamond, the same muffler being furred with sables, and having thereat a chain of gold enamelled green, garnished with certain pearls.”
“One hat of purple velvet, embroidered with pearls of damask gold, garnished with small pearls, and small stones of sundry sorts, and fringed with gold.”
“A cap of black velvet, with a white plume, laced with aglets [tags] enamelled, with a brooch of gold.”
“A cap of black velvet, having a fair brooch with a little square table ruby, and divers pictures enamelled with red, black, and green, with xviij buttons, with small rock rubies, and xviij buttons also of gold with three small pearls the piece.”
“A brooch of gold, with a face and a helmet upon his head, and a white ostrich feather.”
“Three garters, having buckles and pendants of gold.”
“A shirt, the collar and ruffles of gold.”
“Three shirts; the one of red work; the other of gold and black; the third of gold, silver, and red silk.”
“A purse of sable skin perfumed.”
“A sword girdle of red silk and gold.”
“Two little images of box, graven, representing the king's majesty, and the late king Henry his father.”
“A sword and a dagger gilt, with a girdle to the same.”
“Two dog collars, wrought with needlework, the iron gilt.”
“One Turkey bow, and a quiver of Turkey arrows, the quiver of crimson velvet, embroidered with leather, and a cover for the same of red cloth.”
“One fair striking clock standing upon a mine of silver : the clock being garnished with silver and gilt, having in the top a crystal, and also garnished with divers counterfeit stones and pearls, the garnishment of the same being broken, and lacking in sundry places.”
“One alarum of silver enamelled, standing upon four balls.”
“One round striking dial, set in crystal, garnished with metal gilt.”
“One round hanging dial, with an alarum closed in crystal.”
“One pillar, with a man having a device of astronomy in his hand, and a sphere in the top, all being of metal gilt.”
“One alarum of copper garnished with silver, enamelled with divers colours, having in the top a box of silver, standing upon a green molehill, and under the molehill a flower of silver, the same alarum standing upon three pomegranates of silver.
“One little striking clock within a case of latten, book fashion, engraven with a rose crowned, and Dieu et Mon droit.”
“One sable skin with a head of gold, containing in it a clock, with a collar of gold, enamelled black, set with four diamonds, and four rubies, and two pearls hanging at the ears and two rubies in the ears, the same skin also having feet of gold, the claws thereof being sapphires, two of them being broken, and with a diamond upon the clock.”
“A coronet for a duke, set with five roses of diamonds, six small pointed diamonds, one table emerald, six great ballasses [kind of rubies], seven blue sapphires, and thirty-eight great pearls, with a cap of crimson velvet, and a roll of powdered armyons [ermines] about the same.”
(3.) Stuff delivered by Arthur Sturton, deceased, without warrant, as well to sundry persons, who have subscribed his book for the same, as also delivered by his own book, without testimony.
[Against each item is a marginal note, stating to whom the article or articles were lent, and sometimes adding further information. Among the items under this head are the following, the marginal notes being put in italics :—]
“One piece of black silver tinsel—7 yards.” (Given to Mary Jerningham towards her marriage by the hand of the Lady Jerningham, xxvij Januarii Anno Vto. R. Marie, &c.)
“One pair of playing tables of wood” (lent to the Lord Chancellor, Bishop of Winchester, in the time of his sickness at the Court, and so lost at his death).
“The phismanye [physiognomy] of King Henry the eight painted in a table, like an antique” (broken because it was the destruction of the Bishop of Rome).
“One kirtle of white velvet; one kirtle of crimson taffeta; one kirtle of purple damask.” (Delivered to Mrs. Clarencius.)
“Two sheets of two breadths.” (Delivered to Mrs. Clarencius for poor folks at the Savoy.)
“Eight table napkins of diaper and damask-work” (lost by the Duke of Northumberland).
“Two large squirts of copper” (delivered to Sir Henry Sidney at Greenwich, to be occupied in the King's lodgings toward the waterside).
“One whole piece of carnation velvet—15¼ yards.” (Delivered to Mrs. Sturley, to the Queen's use, per billam suam vjto Maii Ao. primo R. Marie, &c.)
“One whole piece of purple velvet containing 23¾ yards.” (Delivered to Edward Jones, at sundry times, to the Queen's use, by book subscribed with his hand.)
“One Paper of the Passion painted.” (Delivered to Mrs. Clarencius.)
“Thirty-eight sable skins.” (Delivered to Thomas Percy, to the Queen's use, at sundry times, by book subscribed, &c.)
“Seventy-nine tables, with pictures, some of pearl, some embroidered, and some painted; six stained cloths; eight pictures of earth; twelve maps or descriptions of cities, towns, and countries.” (There is a general warrant to discharge these parcels, dated iiijto Martii Anno iijtio R. Marie, &c.)
“A ring of gold, having the king's majesty's arms in a stone for a signet.” (Delivered to the Earl of Arundel, then Lord Chamberlain, for the king's majesty.)
“One casting bottle [bottle for casting or sprinkling perfumes] of gold.” (Delivered to the king for his bedchamber.)
“One round coin of gold representing the image of the late king Henry the eight.”(Delivered to Mrs. Rogers for the king's majesty.)
“Two Guernsey white petticoats.” (The one given to the Earl of Arundel, the other to Mr. Rogers, by the king.)
“One Song Book; one trunk to shut in, covered with leather.”(Delivered to the King.)
“Two pair of perfumed gloves, plain; one pair of friezed velvet gloves, embroidered with purls [borders] of gold, and lined with crimson velvet.” (Given away by the said Lord Chamberlain.)
“One coverpane [counterpane] of ostrich feathers.” (Delivered to the Duchess of Northumberland, mensis Maii Ao vijo RR. Ed. vjti.)
“Two little babies [dolls] in a box of wood, one of them having a gown of crimson satin, and the other a gown of white velvet. (Taken away by Sir Henry Jerningham.)
“One bag of green velvet with chessmen and table men.” (Delivered to the Court at St. James, and there lost in Queen Mary's time.)
(4.) Stuff remaining in the custody of George Brydeman, uncharged, viewed by the Lord Chamberlain, and laid apart, to be shown to the Queen her majesty.
[Among the items under this head are the following :—]
“One French hood.”
“One sleeve furred with poles and shanks of sables.”
“Two neckerchiefs of cipers, [cipress, a fine kind of gauze,] with six clasps of gold.”
“Eight collars of crypens, [crepine, or golden net-caul,] wrought with gold.”
“A picture of the Lady of Suffolk in a yellow box; another picture of Andrew Dorye in another box; and a picture of Queen Katherine, that last died, in a box. All which parcels aforesaid are within a coffer of murrey [dark red] velvet, plated with copper.”
“One pair of gloves embroidered with friars' knots and Venice gold.”
“One other pair of gloves with Stafford knots and antique flowers of Venice gold.”
“Three pair of gloves knit of white silk and gold, lacking the tops of the fingers.”
“Two pair of Spanish gloves.”
“A picture of Princess Dowager.”
“A little book with the Lord's prayers, and the lord of Somerset's arms.”
“The picture of king Edward in a little box.”
“A little parchment book with prayers.”
“Four hour-glasses set in ebony, in a box of printed leather.”
“A quill for a pen, garnished with gold and silver.”
“A cushion-cloth, wrought with silk and gold, having a beast in the midst, like a lion.”
“Cv. books of sundry kinds, diversely covered, and part of them garnished with silver.”
“Certain writings, late the Duke of Somerset's.”
(5.) Sundry kinds of jewels, plate, and other stuff of the king's majesty's borrowed by Sir Andrew Dudley, knight, parcel of his own charge at the king his majesty's Palace at Westminster, for the furniture of his pretended marriage to the Lady Clifford, Anno R. R. Ed. vjti vijmo.
[Among the items under this head are the following :—]
“One fair tablet of gold, to open in the back, made like a castle, garnished with xxvij diamonds, eight rubies, and four sapphires, cut lozenze-wise, with a picture of a woman and an agate [small figure cut in agate] holding a small diamond in her hand, like a glass.”
“A flower of gold, with a rose of diamonds in the midst, and eight small table diamonds on the borders, and three pearls pendant.”
“Two crypen parteletts [partlets, or ruffs] of cipress wrought with gold.”
“A fair ring of gold, with a blue sapphire, enamelled black and white.”
“A brush of hair, with a handle of purple velvet, garnished with passamen lace of silver and gold.”
“Sleeves of cambric and calico cloth for plucking out of French sleeves as following, viz., two pair wrought with black silk, three pair wrought with blue silk, and two pair wrought with red silk.”
“Three linings for partlets of nettlecloth, wrought with red silk.”
“A pair of shears of iron for a woman, parcel gilt.”
“A table of Diana and nymphs bathing themselves, and how Actæon was turned into a hart.”
“Two targets of steel lined with velvet.”
“One cassock of black velvet all over embroidered with Venice gold.”
“An ewer of antique work of silver and gilt, garnished with pearls, jacinths, amethysts, and other stones of small value—22½ oz.”
“Three bowls with a cover of silver and gilt poz. [i.e. weighing] 97½ oz.”
“Three spoons of gold taken out of the green coffer in the silk house.”
“One Allmayn cup with a cover thin beaten of silver and gilt, in a case.”
“Six launsedegayes with brassell staves, trimmed with green velvet, and fringe of green silk, save one is with blue silk and velvet.”
“One case of knives, of black leather printed with gold, furnished with knives tipped with metal gilt.”
“Three combs, a glass, an ear-pick, and a bodkin, all of white bone, garnished with damascene work.”
“Fifty-one ostrich feathers.”
“A Flanders chest.”
“Six leams [collars for hounds] and collars of red velvet.”
29½ pp.
476. The Merchant Adventurers.
[1553]. Petition to Thomas Goodrich, Bishop of Ely and Lord Chancellor, from the “New Haunce” of the Merchant Adventurers, for redress of their grievances against those of the “Old Haunce.”—Undated.
A Roll, 10 feet long.
477. Royal Castles and Parks.
[1553]. Survey of royal castles and parks, with names of their constables or keepers, and their fees.—Undated.
56 pp.
478. Bishop Ridley to Edward VI.
[1553]. Canones de modoconcionandi [by Nic. Ridley].
Signed :—“Your Highnes Chaplain Nic : London.”
3 pp.
479. John Mardeley.
[1553]. “Short recitall of certayne holy doctors wch proveth that the naturall body of Christe ys not contayned in the Sacrament of the lordes supper, but figuratively. Collected in myter by J. M[ardeley].”—Undated.
Begins :—“We marvell muche
Yor mynde ys suche.”
Ends :—“And the papystycale levene
To be beleved ys most worthye.”
14½ pp.
480. Articles of the Church of England.
[1553]. The Articles of the Church of England, as put out by Edward VI.—Undated.
Signed by the King.
Endorsed :—“K. Edward his confession of his religion.”
14 pp.
481. Robert Ferrar, Bishop of St. David's.
[1553 ?]. Exceptions purposed by Robert [Ferrar], Bishop of St. David's, against his accusers, Hugh Rawlins and Thomas Lee.—Undated.
482. Homilies.
[1553]. Two homilies on the doctrine and government of the primitive church.—Undated.
Latin. 134 pp.
483. Topographical.
[1553]. List of counties and chief towns in England and Wales.
6 pp.
484. Petition of the Inhabitants of Reading.
[1553]. Petition of the inhabitants of the parish of St. Lawrence, in Reading, to the Privy Council, for the appointment of an additional priest, at 10l. a year salary, to assist the Vicar of the said parish.—Undated, but temp. Edw. VI.
Broadside. ¾ p.
485. Proposal for a Common Bank.
[1553?]. Summary of the contents of a book, in two parts, by Fitzherbert [Sir Anthony?], proposing the plan of a common bank, the capital to be raised by the sale of the best garment—to be taken as a mortuary—of every person of property who died. Estimating the parishes in England at 15,000, and the value of the mortuaries of every parish in one year at 40s., the annual profit is calculated at 30,000l.; this treasure to be employed to the relief of the needy or of “the Prince,” if he need money, at the rate of 6l. in the hundred. The second part of the book deals with a scheme for the reformation of base money, as also with the subject of the lawfulness to receive reasonable interest for the loan of money, with the authorities for the proof thereof.—Undated.
Endorsed by Cecil :—“Fitzherbert.”
486. “The Order and State of Calais.”
[1553 ?]. In the citadel lies the Governor's cousin, who is his lieutenant, his name his Captain Rock, and there are 150 soldiers in it. The captains in the town are—Captains St. Marten, Monteiya, and Lecost. each one with 100 men. There is one Captain Rogers, who is sergeant-major, having the charge and oversight of the soldiers and of the locking of the gates. One Mr. Park is, as it were, gentleman-porter, who takes the report and names of all strangers. Describes “The order of the watch,” under which head the manner of posting the soldiers is given. Under the heading, “The watch in the town,” it is stated that “at 10 of the clock at night they have a great bell that doth ring for the space of half a quarter of an hour, so that it is heard in all the town, so that whatsoever they be that doth come out of their house after that bell without a lantern, either townsmen or others, he is carried to ward, except he be a soldier, and make a lawful excuse. . . . . . . . . As further, because he hath the soldiers in suspicion, whereas they had been accustomed to keep every one their search house six or eight nights together, now he will not let them know to what place they should go to, but when they be all gathered, the three sergeants come to the sergeant-major, and so there is three papers like unto 'walentynes' put in a cap and so they draw, and by that they know their place and not before.” The citadel has two gates, one towards the town, daily guarded, and the other the Boulogne gate, which is not open but as they have occasion. In Rysbank there are three soldiers every night and as many every day.—Undated.
Endorsed :—The manner of the guard of Calais.
3 pp.