Cecil Papers: February 1560

Pages 176-190

Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House: Volume 1, 1306-1571. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1883.

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February 1560

609. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1559/60, Feb. 2. Has received his letters of the 28th January, by which he perceives that her Majesty thinks that, if the neutrals of the Marches and Lothian would show themselves open enemies to the French, there would need no open hostility from England. In answer thereto encloses a letter from Sir James Crofts, by whom a day of conference had been appointed with Lord Hume, the head and chief of the said neutrals in the Marsh, by which Cecil will perceive how the latter holdeth off and how loth he is to come to any good point. Gives it as his opinion that if anything make the neutrals show themselves open enemies to the French it must be our own open hostility, without the plain show and manifestation whereof they will surely sit still as they have done hitherto. And, perchance, if they shall not see any stay or alteration on our part, it may be a means to cause them to revolt and take plain part with the French, “whiche were not expedient for us.” Expects daily that the Lords of Scotland will appoint him a time to receive their pledges, and also when some of them will repair to him to confer with him on the promised expedition to Leith. Begs to be instructed what shall be done in this behalf. Reminds him of the great expense her Majesty is sustaining at this present time, many of the troops having been here since Christmas and having fruitlessly consumed from six weeks' to two months' wages.
[Postscript.] Will relieve Mr. Winter with money according to his necessity, as he has been desired to do by the Council, but trusts Cecil will consider that this was no part of his appointment.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 5 d. Haynes, p. 235. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Foreign.]
610. Sir Thomas Challoner to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1559/60, Feb. 5. 1. This forenoon he and Sir Thos. Gresham had audience with the Regent and presented to her the Queen's letters, containing her pleasure touching his revocation, and Sir Thomas's substitution as her agent. &c. After they had both used words of compliment to the Regent, they received from her such good words of answer, and with such good countenance from her, as they rest therewith well satisfied. Has not yet presented the letter for the horses, nor will he do so, in case his own passport should serve, which “to-morrow videbimus.”
2. Three or four of his last letters have by contrary weather been stayed at Dunkirk. The Spanish bands are here secretly solicited by the French. Admiral Chastillon is at present at Calais with twelve ensigns, and by the end of this month they shall be thirty ensigns, not so much meant for Scotland as for descent somewhere in England. “Take heed of the Isle of Wight.” The French also will join to this force eight companies of their gendarmerie and 1,000 swart rutters. They have made offer to the Duke of Savoy to restore out of hand Turin and the other pieces in Piedmont yet kept by them, for a round sum of money to be employed against us. “Consider this well, for it is likely to be true.” Sends the last Italian advices touching the detection of the conspiracy against the Duke of Florence. It is hoped certainly that this Pope will out of hand have a General Council, yea, though it be in the middle of Germany, and to be personally at it. “Think what moment this is of, and how it may touch us “!
3. The Emperor has received great demonstration of amity at this Pope's hands. Wrote “ulto præteritæ” with divers important advices out of Italy. All men account that the Emperor's and King Catholic's puissance will be much advanced by meaus of this Pope. Wishes and trusts it is considered what their strange amity imports, which may be unto us a pillow in utramque aurem dormire. Sir T. Gresham makes much haste (as he cannot blame him) for the Queen's affairs. He is a jewel of trust, wit, and diligent endeavour. Horrible tempests for two nights past have troubled both the writer and Sir Thos. Gresham,—Brussels, 5 Febr. 1559.
Copy, 2 pp. [Haynes, p. 236. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Foreign.]
611. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to Sir W. Cecil.
1559/60, Feb. 8. Send letters from Sir James Crofts and Mr. Winter, brought to them by Mr. Southacke, one of the Captains in her Majesty's navy, by whom they are informed that her Majesty's ships to the number of thirteen men-of-war remain in the Frith, where they ride in peace. They are in good state saving that they fear some lack of victual, for the furnishing of which Mr. Winter desireth aid and money which shall be given to him accordingly. Cecil will perceive by the said letters that the French are returned to Edinburgh, and therefore they expect every day to hear that some of the nobility of Scotland will repair to them to confer with them on the intended exploit to Leith for the expulsion of the French. Beg to be advertised of her Majesty's pleasure therein and how they are to proceed. On Sunday last there arrived here the Lord Grey, and Sir George Howard on the day after, on whose arrival they consulted together how the said exploit may be best achieved; but they cannot certainly resolve until they have conferred with some of the Lords of Scotland, by whom they may be better instructed in many things which they cannot now determine; in the meantime have thought good to send an estimate of such ordnance and munition as is thought necessary and meet. They find a great difficulty in the carriage of the same by land at this time of the year, both on account of the deep and foul ways between Berwick and Leith, and because such a number of draught horses as the same would require cannot be had in time. They therefore suppose that it must of necessity be transported by sea, as also the footmen appointed for the journey, who should be landed as near to Leith as conveniently may be. In that case the horsemen would enter by land as soon as they received intelligence of the arrival of the footmen.
[Postscript.] They send letters received from Thos. Randall, alias Barnabie, by which Cecil will learn what Scottish Lords and others are about to confer with them, to whom they have appointed a day of meeting at Berwick on the 25th inst.
Pray to be informed how they are to proceed with them, and also which of the pledges they shall retain, as they think the whole number of twelve would entail more expense and trouble than necessary. They subjoin the names of the six whom they think most fitting.
Beg him to consider the charge her Majesty is now sustaining here, and how fast the treasure will be consumed without any fruit of service, fearing that without a further supply the same will not extend to the accomplishment of the intended journey.
The names of the pledges :—
1. The Duke's second son.
2. The Earl of Argyll's father's brother's son.
3. The Lord James's brother uterine, Robert Douglas.
4. The Earl of Glencarne's son, James Cunyngham.
5. The Lord Ruthen's son. Archibald Ruthen.
6. The Earl of Monteith's son, George Graham.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 7. Haynes, p. 237. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
612. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1559/60, Feb. 8. Remembering his promise to her Majesty concerning “the reformynge the inorclynaunce of captains in robbinge here Highnes” thinks himself in conscience not discharged thereof till he has either redressed the fault, or failing that, shown how, in his opinion, it may hereafter be amended. For the four thousand footmen now last come with the demi-lances, if there be any great fault, is contented to answer it as long as they remain in his charge, but for the two thousand at Berwick he takes no charge. And yet he does not think the captain much to blame, for he thinks him rather deceived than otherwise. To be plain with him, thinks there is not one captain of Berwick, or if there be any very few, but that doth rather serve for gain than for any good will of service. “And what good service is likely to ensewe of suche myndes ? I cann judge, nothing but polling and pilling of the Quene's Majestie's treasure.” Cannot perceive how these extremities may be amended at present for it is no time, till this journey be past, to find fault. Assures him, however, that if he may understand it to be her Majesty's pleasure, he will either reduce them to think it sufficient to live on her Majesty's wages without these “in-ordynaunces,” or else will set others in their places that will.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 6. Haynes, p. 238. In extenso Orig. in State Papers, Foreign.]
613. Lord Montagu and Sir Thomas Chamberlain to the Privy Council.
1559/60, Feb. 11. Finding no shipping for transporting horses they have sent away the greater number of them, though by report there is great want thereof in Spain. For their own transport there is no ship above 60 tons and those not furnished. The Vice-Admirals are utterly without money. Where they find ordnance the owners will not part with it without assurance of restoring the same or its value. Have travailed with the customers of Exeter and Plymouth, and the collectors of the subsidy there to disburse the needful sums, promising to procure them privy seals for their discharge. These last having no money of the Queen's, have borrowed somehow of merchants, for which the writers earnestly entreat privy seals. The wind has not yet served. The Vice-Admirals travail painfully to provide necessaries.—From Plymouth, 11 Febr. 1559.
Original with seal, 1 p. [Haynes, p. 239. In extenso.]
614. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1559/60. Feb. 11. Has received letters from the Queen Dowager of Scotland which he sends herewith. They were brought by a Scottish herald, who had nevertheless nothing at all to say beyond the contents of his letters. Supposing therefore that he was addressed hither rather to espie their doings than for any other special cause, has thought good “for the reciproque,” to send an answer to the said Dowager by an English herald to the intent that he may bring such intelligence of their doings in Scotland as he can obtain, at the same time dismissing the Scottish herald with an assurance that an answer should be sent to the said Dowager by special messenger. Has accordingly now sent Chester Herald to Edinburgh for that purpose with letters, a copy of which he encloses. Also sends a copy of a Proclamation issued by the said Dowager whereby Cecil may perceive that they look for nothing more certainly than for open hostility and war at our hands, and will do what they can to provide for the same.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 8. Haynes, p. 240. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
615. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to Sir W. Cecil.
1559/60, Feb. 14. Have received his letter of the 11th inst., with others from the Lords and others of the Council, by which, and also by his other letters of the 8th, they perceive the anxiety of Cecil and the others to hear of the French proceedings, their retirement out of Fife, and also of the state of her Majesty's ships.
Trust they have received the Duke's letters of the 8th inst., by which they will be somewhat satisfied in that behalf. On their part, have long been expecting news from Berwick which they forwarded as soon as it came. The determination of the Council to have an eye to the preparations of the Marquis d'Elboœuf is very good and necessary, as is also their intention to reinforce the navy here. Whether they can have ships from Newcastle and Hull meet for that purpose and in such readiness as is supposed they doubt much; both because there is some want of mariners here, and also because “apte and exploit soldiers, specially harquebuttiers,” cannot be so readily had as in the ports about London. Finally they beg him to take order that the posts may use more diligence in the conveyance of her Majesty's letters, wherein they are very negligent, having only twelve pence per diem instead of two shillings as heretofore. Have consented to a postponement of the day of meeting with the Scottish Lords at Berwick.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 8. Haynes, p. 240. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
616. The Queen to Duke of Norfolk.
1559/60, Feb. 15. 1. Perceives by his letter of the 8th February that he has assigned a meeting and conference with the Lord James, the Master of Maxwell, Lord Ruthen and Mr. Balnaves, the 25th of this month. Also that he wishes to be instructed how to proceed in this matter.
2. The Queen is of the same mind as at his departure. She might refer him to his instructions given in December; but lets him understand how great and inevitable a danger it would be to England if the French were permitted to subdue Scotland by force or by practice. If it shall appear after conference with wise men, or the lords of Scotland, that the nobility and part of Scotland are able to expel the French and preserve the Kingdom from subversion, her former intent must needs continue, to aid the part of Scotland to the clear expulsion of the French, whereby England may be more free from the invasion of France. The manner in which this aid is given (if it be seen necessary) shall be best considered upon conference with the Lords of Scotland at the day appointed.
3. First, to make it strange to them, that they, being stronger in number than the French, have not in so long a time expelled them; next, that the rest of the nobility of Scotland, especially those in the Marsh and Lothian, have not taken part against the French, which if they had done it would have been finished long since. If they answer that without her aid they can neither expel the French, nor yet cause the neutrals to take a plain part, she thinks it meet to proceed with them to consider which is the best way to expel the French; what power they require of their part and what of ours; in what time the same may be best done; whether by a long or a short siege, assault, or otherwise, and with what charge by estimation the same may be done. And other things of importance, viz., provision of victual, carriage of ordnance, and munition, meat for the horses, &c.; all this she refers to himself. He is to have regard that time be not spent to the increase of her charge, and that her charge and number be not greater than requisite. He is to confer with them how they shall be able to keep their country free from another invasion of the French, if by God's goodness they shall be delivered; and to inform himself how and by what manner they will do the same, so that he may be able to judge whether it be probable or not. He is to inform them that the charge is intolerable to her to maintain a continual army by sea in the north parts, although she means not to neglect their defence; and he shall give them his advice how to proceed for the preservation of their country. He shall let them understand that the French will enter into open hostility with her upon her aid being given them. It is necessary to know what friendship she may hope of them towards impeaching the French in case they invade her country, as is most likely.
4. If he sees it convenient he may cause some other as of themselves to propound these two ways: either to have an aid of their men and ships by sea or land to withstand the French if they attempt any invasion in the north parts of her realm, or to establish a concord betwixt the two realms, especially upon the frontiers, as the one might live in surety of the other, without jealousy or doubt; she, for her part, then might better employ the charges for guarding her frontier against the French, and they also. For which purpose two places are to be considered, viz. the town of Berwick and the frontier (where she keeps a chargeable garrison), which, if she were assured of no evil meaning on their part, she might lessen. Whatsoever answer they may make thereto, it might better serve her purpose to stay Berwick in security, than if she might have Eyemouth in her possession guarded by a small number, which she doubts might engender a jealousy with the Scotch; this is to be circumspectly moved or forborne for a season lest there be some sinister construction raised, to the hindrance of the cause.
5. Other means may be devised by Scotland, especially by the Earl of Argyle that the north of Ireland may be reduced to obedience so that the force there may be employed against the French, an enemy to both; it being very beneficial to Ireland she doubts not but the Earl of Argyle will do his best.
6. When he has proceeded thus in conference and concluded any beneficial point to be observed on the part of Scotland, she thinks it convenient the same be put in Articles and hostages delivered for performance thereof. She thinks his choice good of the six hostages named in his letter of the 8th; and wishes that it might be compassed that when any of the Lords upon the frontiers, as the Earl of Moreton, Lord Hume, the Lord of Cesford, or such like be brought to the devotion of this common cause, there be hostages had of them. Having previously given orders to him not to employ any part of the 16,000l. upon the payments of Berwick, yet it is thought meet that he shall pay such of her garrison there as shall at this point be employed by his order in this service and exploit.
Endorsed :—15 Feb. 1559.
Cecil's draft. 4 pp. [Haynes, p. 242. In extenso.]
617. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to Sir W. Cecil.
1559/60, Feb. 15. Enclose letters from Sir James Crofts in reply to the Articles submitted to him by Cecil's direction concerning the fortifications of Berwick. In their opinion, before the works proceed any further the matter should be reasoned and debated “rather upon view of the ground than of any plott.” Recommended therefore that Sir R. Lee and some skilful men should be sent with all speed for that purpose.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol 9. Haynes, p. 241. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Foreign.]
618. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to Sir W. Cecil.
1559/60, Feb. 15. His letters of the 11th at night, arrived here on the 15th at 5 in the morning. In them they are not answered either how they are to proceed in their consultation and conference with the Lords of Scotland, nor which of the hostages they are to receive. Trust he will not forget to advise them in that behalf with all speed. Their meeting with the said Lords is “prevented” by two days, as stated in their last letters, and a new day cannot at once be conveniently appointed.
Their proportion of artillery, although it may to him seem large, is with them thought to be of the least. They will make the best shift they can for the furniture thereof, but lack especially limber horses and harness. They are not to be had within the limits of his (the Duke of Norfolk's) Commission of Lieutenancy, prays Cecil therefore to take order for the provision of three hundred from Northamptonshire, and other southern counties. Marvel not a little that they hear nothing of Abington, nor of the arrival of any sufficient store of victual, whereof they will shortly be in such lack as will be the hindrance of the whole service.
Send letters which arrived yesternight from Sir James Crofts, with others addressed to Sir Ralph Sadleir and him, from the Earl of Arran and the Lord James Stuart.—Newcastle, 15 Feb. 1559.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 9. Haynes, p. 242. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Foreign.]
619. Sir Edward Carne to the Queen.
1559/60, Feb. 16. The French here can obtain nothing at his Holiness' [Pius V.] hands against your Majesty; his Holiness hath such respect to your Majesty and to your realms that he will attempt nothing against you, unless occasion be given first 'therhence.' One of the Cardinals that is greatest with his Holiness shewed me that he and another do mind to move his Holiness to send his nuncio to your Majesty, but that they stay till your Majesty send first to his Holiness.
His Holiness continues sending away his kinsfolk hence; some of his nieces were left out of the decree of banishment, which his Holiness perceiving, made a new decree for them, and would none of them here, but to depart out of hand; and so all they of his kinsfolk that were great here, men and women, be gone, and [he] will hear no man to entreat for them.
From France the advice came late that there is a sure hope of the peace and that Philip will marry the French King's daughter; and yet I am informed by an ambassador of Philip's, who lies here for the erection of certain Bishoprics in Flanders and Brabant, Philip hath an army ready of horse and foot and hath taken up 4,000 swartrutters, and that the French King doth prepare an army. The cause is that both will be in readiness in all events. The saying is in the Court here that his Holiness waxes very weak and cannot sleep. The Spaniards here be the gladdest men in the world upon advertisements that they had of late, trusting that your Majesty will marry with King Philip, which is liked far better here than the French King's daughter for him. Yesterday was kept a consistory here wherein was nothing done but that the bishopric of Brescia was given to the Potestate of Brescia as the Venetians desire, whereby Signor Prioli, that was there with my late Lord Cardinal, is clean excluded from the right he pretended to it, who had an access unto it, they say.
His Holiness had made a bull against all Cardinals that be inquired upon of heresy in the Holy Inquisition, that they should be deprived of their voices, active and passive, in the election of any Pope, i.e., they should neither vote nor be capable of election, which bull the Pope subscribed but the Dean of the College refused, because, he said, the honestest man of all might have an enemy that might give wrong information against him, and he thereby be inquired upon, though not faulty, and therefore unless any Cardinal were convicted, he could not reasonably be deprived of his right. On this opinion passed all the Cardinals present (sic), and so the bull could not pass. Rome, 16 February 1559.
Orig. 3 pp. [Haynes, p. 245. In extenso.]
620. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to the Privy Council.
1559/60, Feb. 16. In obedience to their Lordship's instructions of the 12th inst., to prepare certain ships from the towns of Newcastle and Hull, for the reinforcement of Her Majesty's Navy in the Frith, have, in the absence of Geoffrey Vaughan, appointed Bartram Anderson for the setting forth of the said ships.
The ships provided are, however, utterly unfurnished both with ordnance and victual and also with mariners, so that, as far as they can perceive, they cannot be got ready in time for the service for which they are required. And also, as they wrote in their letter of the 14th inst., they cannot levy in these parts such apt and expert soldiers, especially arquebusiers, as in this case were meet and convenient. Have thought it well to advise their Lordships hereof, to the intent they may the better supply these lacks. Will nevertheless do all that may be done for the furtherance of the service.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 9d. Haynes, p. 245. In extenso. Orig in State Papers, Foreign.]
621. The Duke of Norfolk to the Privy Council.
1559/60, Feb. 19. In debating the weightiness of the service here they have found one matter not yet appointed respecting which they desire a speedy answer. My Lord Grey, “accounting of himself not otherwise than a man may in this transitory world,” and considering that, if by any unfortunate means he should not be able to furnish this service according to his earnest good will, lack might be found in him hereafter, has thought good most earnestly to require them to entreat their Lordships in time that some worthy man might be appointed, who, by his experience and understanding in warlike matters, should supply such a want. Wherefore they are most earnestly suitors to their Lordships that “this my Lord Grey's wise and circumspect request” may receive the attention it deserves.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 6d. Haynes, p. 246. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Foreign.]
622. The Council to the Duke of Norfolk.
1559/60, Feb. 20. 1. We have perused yours of the 15th containing a letter of Crofts to you, and certain articles concerning your difference of opinions for the fortifications of Berwick next the sea. We have informed the Queen who does not disallow the answer of Crofts. Although we would have been glad to understand some particular matter for answer of the said articles, yet it is determined as soon as Sir Richard Lee returns from Portsmouth (whither he must be sent next week) he shall go to Berwick with some other men of skill. You having Lord Grey and other experts there, who can judge as well as any in the south, it will be sufficient that at the coming of Lee the same may be considered by each as you think fit; meanwhile keep the question a secret and cause the workmen to proceed with works begun.
2. By another letter of the 16th directed to us we perceive the calling of Bartram Anderson in the absence of Geoffrey Vaughan. You find the merchant ships, which have been stayed there a long time, unfurnished with ordnance, victuals, and mariners, &c. In answer, it appears by Vaughan's of the 10th directed to the admiral that he certified the case to be otherwise. For remedy we think that where there are 12 stayed for service, at least six (and the rest also) might be furnished and sent to sea, each one as soon as ready. There be partly despatched hence four or five ships well armed and equipped which shall countervail 10 or 12 of those merchant ships. The Marquis d'Elbœuf makes all haste he can, having hitherto but 10 or 12 ships ready. We think Winter should be warned to stand upon his guard and be in good wait with one bark on the coast of Lothian and another on Fife side, and that you also help that his ships be relieved and furnished with archers and hagbutters, &c.
3. For answer of certain points in a letter of the 15th to Cecil you shall understand, where you find lack of answer in letters of the 11th for your proceeding in conference with the Lords of Scotland, the Queen, the same day addressed you with sufficient declaration of her pleasure. As to lack of horses for carriage of great ordnance being so great that you require 300 from the south shires with harness and draught gear, it has perplexed us that so necessary a matter should be now to provide. Though we think you chargeable with no neglect therein, yet first, the number allotted to the draught of your ordnance exceeds the common use; a cannon is generally drawn by 30 horses, you assign 60; a demi-cannon by 20, you assign thirty; and so in the rest. Then we thought (as once was written) you would devise to carry your ordnance by sea, and land it five or six miles on this side of Leith, and so have spared some number of horses, having also the help of some oxen of your friends in Scotland.
4. As for the provision hence, we think it difficult and likely to breed delay. We see not how such a number can be suddenly provided and sent before the time you should commence the exploit. Yet we have moved the Queen to be at the charge thereof, to buy 200 or 50 more if she can, within the cos. Leicester, Lincoln, Huntingdon, and Cambridge, wherein will be much travel and expense of time, but we must prefer surety before all other respects. Some of us think the number might have been made out of Yorkshire and other shires beyond Trent on sufficient warning. The harness and draught gear were sent last December, and as we are informed by officers of the ordnance, all arrived in the north, saving a few left at Lestoc by miscarriage of a vessel. We trust it has arrived, or shortly will arrive ; if it should not, Bennett can furnish 500. Abbington is on his despatch; of the state and mass of victuals there, you shall receive a brief, &c.
5. As for treasure, you shall shortly hear of a reinforcement; order should be taken that the Queen's victuals and armour be duly paid for. Sir George Howard must be admonished and ordered that the money arising therefrom be preserved and accounted for, &c.
It is reported that besides the band of 100 horsemen allowed you, and the like to Lord Grey and 600 lances also, there be 100 lances more in charge, and 600 light horsemen also presently in wages, which we think ought not to be, or else there is greater cause for the same than we know of. At your departure our opinion was that 600 lances and pistolets should have been sufficient, and no more horsemen in pay, Lord Gray's band to be part of the same, and at the time of the exploit such light horsemen as were needful could be levied in Northumberland and the bisphopric without charge to the Queen. We are confirmed in that opinion. And for our satisfaction, we covet to be advertised what are the ordinary charges at this present, and of the particular charges, how the same ended in January, and how they shall end this month, and if increase shall grow the next, that we may understand the same also.—From Westminster, 20 Feb. 1559.
Draft. 6 ½ pp. [Haynes, p. 248. In extenso.]
623. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to Sir W. Cecil.
1559./60, Feb. 20. Since the writing of their letters of the 16th inst. have called before them Bartram Anderson, of this town, who is joined with Geoffrey Vaughan, for the furniture and setting forth to sea of such ships as are appointed here and at Hull. By him they are put in good hope that six ships of this town, or at least four of them, will be well furnished and set to sea within ten day, and the other two will follow as speedily as may be. For the thorough manning thereof have taken order for the levying of 400 soldiers, besides a sufficient number of mariners.
Have also written to the said Vaughan, who is at Hull, for the setting forth of four more ships with all speed; and for the manning thereof have given order to Sir Thomas Gargrave to furnish him with such a number of soldiers out of Holderness as he shall think to be necessary.
As it is thought here that the number of 4,000 footmen is of the least for the good accomplishment of the intended exploit into Scotland, have thought fit to put a thousand more in readiness; for which purpose, he, the Duke of Norfolk, has sent his letters into Cheshire, Lancashire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and Nottinghamshire, for the levying of two hundred men in each shire to be sent hither by the 6th of March.
To-morrow they intend to repair to Berwick to meet the Scottish Lords, with whom they will treat according to her Majesty's pleasure on such points as are contained in her Majesty's letters of the 15th inst., and upon such other things as they shall think meet and necessary.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 9d. Haynes, p. 247. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
624. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to Sir W. Cecil.
1559/60, Feb. 24. In their letters of the 11th inst. advertised him of the sending of Chester Herald to the Queen Dowager of Scotland. He is now returned, and the result of his conference and such intelligence as he has obtained they send in writing. A French gentleman called Montaignac arrived here with the said Chester on his way with letters from the Queen Dowager to her Majesty. Have taken order for his passage to the Court accordingly.
The Lord of Lethington and the Master of Maxwell have arrived here, but the rest of the Lords who come by sea are detained by contrary winds. Send herewith a letter received by the Duke of Norfolk from Mr. Winter.
[Postscript.] One of her Majesty's ships named the Falcon has arrived in the Haven Mouth with the Lord James and the rest of the Lords of Scotland appointed to this meeting. Have just sent out boats to meet them.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 10. Haynes, p. 250. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
625. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to the Privy Council.
1559/60, Feb. 26. Have received their Lordships' letters of the 20th on the 24th inst. In answer thereto signify, firstly : touching the setting forth of the ships from Newcastle and Hull for the reinforcement of Mr. Winter, their Lordships will by this time have learnt from their letters of the 20th inst. what steps they have taken therein by means of Bartram Anderson and Geoffrey Vaughan, and they will not fail to carry out the effectual execution thereof with all diligence. They will also forthwith give warning to Mr. Winter of the Marquis Delbœuf's hearty preparations and will advise him to stand upon his guard, and to lie “in good awayte,” with one barque upon the coast of Lothian, and another upon the Fife side, as their Lordships have advised. Have also furnished him with 200 arquebussiers from the garrison of this town, so that they think him well strengthened to meet with any evil event. Secondly, as regards the carriage and draught horses, perceiving their Lordships to be somewhat perplexed, state that they have not neglected their duty in that behalf, but with much ado have got together some of the best in these parts, which they are informed are nevertheless weak and insufficient for the service, so that unless their Lordships can help them with 250 out of the southern shires they will have great lack thereof. Trust they may have them within 10 days. Are still in mind to carry their great pieces of ordnance with other munitions by sea, but yet, when they are landed, horses will be required to carry them from the sea side to the place where they must be occupied, and they dare not trust to the carriage of Scotland.
Thirdly, touching the bands of horsemen here. Whereas it has been reported to their Lordships that there are 100 lances more in charge than were appointed, and 600 light horsemen also presently in wages; the truth is that there were 600 “launces and pistoletts” appointed and levied from sundry shires of the realm, which are all arrived; and 100 besides were appointed by them, the Duke of Norfolk and Lord Grey, not intending to make any gain by them, but to employ them amongst the rest in this service, “trusting that no one hundreth of all the rest is better appointed.” The occasion whereof was, that by their instructions the service is limited to 700 lances. For the light horsemen they have thought it good to levy 400 in Yorkshire, and 200 on the Marches, whereof there are not more than 300 in wages. The said 400 they have devised to use “with curriars or harquebusshes,” and therefore did the sooner levy the said 300 in wages to the intent they might have time to exercise themselves in the “feate of the curriar.” The reason why they levied such a number is because there is no surety in the Marches whether they are amongst friends, enemies, or neutrals; and therefore when the Lord Grey is in Scotland the Duke of Norfolk intends to lie at Berwick with a convenient power of horsemen, besides the garrisons of the country, in order the better to keep the said neighbours in awe. Fourthly, their Lordships will understand from Valentine Browne the charge of the last month, and as soon as the next pay shall be made for February, they will advise them of the charges thereof. Although the wars are always so chargeable, and will exhaust much treasure, their Lordships may be assured that they have done and will do as much as lieth in them to prevent her Majesty being put to further charges than necessary.
Finally, they have had some conference with the Lords of Scotland, and according to their instructions “made it strange” that they could not expel the French, being no greater power than they are, out of Scotland. They answered thereunto “right discreatly, as wise and grave men that seamed to lament their insuffycyency in that behalf;” but what their answer was their Lordships, they doubt not, can easily consider, as, in effect, it is touched in her Majesty's letters, and in others received from Mr. Secretary. Have proposed certain questions unto them, to which they look this day for answers.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 10. Haynes, p. 251. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Foreign.]
626. Articles agreed upon at Berwick.
1559/60, Feb. 27. 1. At Berwick 27 Feb. 1559, it was agreed between Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, Lieutenant in the North, on the one part, and the Lords James Stewart, Patrick Lord Ruthven, Sir John Maxwell of Terricles, William Maitland, the younger of Lethington, John Wyschert of Pyttarrow, and Master Hendry Balnevis of Hallhill, in the name of James, Duke of Châtellerault, second person of the realm of Scotland, and the others joined with him, for maintenance of Christian religion, and defence of the ancient rights and liberty of their country, on the other part, in form following:—
2. The Queen, understanding that the French intend to conquer the realm of Scotland, suppress the liberty thereof, and unite it to France, and being required thereto by the nobility of Scotland in the name of the whole realm, shall accept the said realm, the said Duke of Châtellerault, the heir apparent to the crown, the nobility and the subjects thereof, into her protection for preservation of their old freedoms and liberties from conquest as a Christian realm in the profession of Christ's true religion, during the time the marriage shall continue between the Queen of Scots and the French King, and one year after.
3. For that purpose with all speed she shall send into Scotland sufficient aid of men to join with the Scots, as well by sea as by land, not only to expel the present power of the French, but also to stop all greater forces entering therein, and shall continue the same till they be utterly expelled, making no league with them except by agreement of the Scots.
4. In case any forts within the realm be won out of the hands of the French by the Queen, the same shall be immediately demolished, or delivered to the said Duke and his party, nor shall the English fortify within Scotland, but by advice of the said Duke and the nobility and estates of the realm.
5. The Scottish nobility shall aid the Queen's army against the French.
6. They shall be enemies to all such Scotch and French as shall be enemies to England.
7. They shall never assent that the realm of Scotland shall be knit to the crown of France, otherwise than as it is already by the marriage of the Queen of Scotland to the French King.
8. If the French at any time hereafter invade England, they shall furnish at least 2,000 horsemen, and 1,000 footmen to pass upon her charges to any part of England. And if the invasion be north of York they shall convene their whole forces at their own charges, and continue so long in the field as they are wont to do for the defence of Scotland.
9. The Earl of Argyle shall employ his force to reduce the north parts of Ireland to the perfect obedience of England, according to an agreement between the deputy of Ireland and the said Earl.
10. For performance and sure keeping hereof, they shall enter to the Duke of Norfolk certain pledges, before the entry of the Queen's forces in Scottish ground, the time of the continuance of the hostages to be only during the marriage of the Queen of Scotland with the French King, and one whole year after.
11. These articles to be signed by the said Duke of Châtelherault, and the nobility joined with him, within 20 or 30 days of the delivery of the said hostages; they declaring that they mean not thereby to withdraw any due obedience to their sovereign lady the Queen, nor in anything to withstand the French King being her husband and head, that shall not tend to the subversion and oppression of the just and ancient liberties of the Kingdom.
12. For the performance of the same on the part of England, the Queen shall confirm the same by her Letters Patents, to be delivered to the nobility of Scotland at the entry of their pledges.
Draft, with Cecil's endorsement:—“27 Feb. 1559.”
5 pp. [Haynes, p. 253. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Foreign.]
627. The Queen to Sir Ralph Sadler.
1559/60, Feb. 28. We have ordered that whensoever Lord Grey shall be appointed to enter into Scotland, Sir James Crofts be joined with him, to take the principal charge and conduct of our forces, if any mishap should come to the said Lord Grey. In his absence we have commanded the Duke of Norfolk to commit to you the charge of Berwick, and of the two wardenries in the absence of Lord Grey, which ye shall, as our said lieutenant shall order, take and keep to our use till their return, authorizing you to choose skilful captains, &c., without any notable hindrance of our purposed exploit. Given under our signet.
Endorsed:—28 Feb. 1559.
Cecils draft. 1 p. [Haynes, p. 258. In extenso.]
628. The Privy Council to Sir James Crofts.
1559/60, Feb. 28. Request him to accompany Lord Grey. It is not meet to burden him with any charge as long as Lord Grey shall prosper, save to bestow his advice and counsel. The Lord Lieutenant will have due regard of his lacks and thereafter augment his entertainment.
Endorsed:—28 Feb. 1559.
Cecil's draft. 1 p. [Haynes, 257. In extenso.]
629. The Privy Council to the Duke of Norfolk.
1559/60, Feb. 28. By your letters of the 24th we perceive in what estate things be there, both by Chester's report whom you sent to Edinburgh, and by the arrival of the Lords of Scotland. We fear the purpose has too many delays, the adversary will grow too strong and the Queen's charges too great. We think you do well to comfort Winter and such as serve there, for they have a sore and painful time. By your persuasion procure that Sir James Crofts may not think it any lack of consideration of him that he is so suddeuly appointed to enter with Lord Grey. To further the cause two things should be considered, the one, in giving him reputation and credit, the other, in making him a convenient allowance for his entertainment, &c.
Endorsed:—28 Feb. 1559.
Cecil's minute. 1 p. [Haynes, p. 257. In extenso.]
630. The Queen to the Duke of Norfolk.
1559/60, Feb. 28. It has always been thought meet that if any succour should be given by you to the removing of the French it should be under the conduct of Lord Grey. We also think some trusty and meet person should be sent with Lord Grey, that if any mishap befell him, there might be one ready to take that charge.
We have chosen Sir James Crofts, Captain of Berwick. Considering this is such short warning, that he may not be able to put himself in such good furniture as his desire would be, ye may persuade him not to prolong herein but enter with Lord Grey, as one having no other particular charge than himself will be content withal, except in case of miscarriage of Lord Grey. For his entertainment our pleasure is you shall determine what shall seem convenient for his degree, with authority to be chief of council with and second to Lord Grey. Sir Ralph Sadler to be Captain of Berwick in place of Sir James Crofts, and to be Warden of the East and Middle Marches during Lord Grey's absence, with choice of good captains to be with him at Berwick.
Endorsed.—28 Feb. 1559.
Cecil's minute. 1 p. [Haynes, p. 256. In extenso.]
631. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to the Privy Council.
1559/60, Feb. 28. Have been these three days in conference and consultation with these Lords of Scotland upon this great and weighty matter. Having proposed unto them certain questions, and received their answers thereto (which questions and answers they send here-with in writing), they came in the end to debate with them concerning the conditions on which their hostages should remain in England, And because they require certain promises of her Majesty under the Great Seal of England, concerning which they, the Council, thought it not meet to resolve and conclude without knowledge of her Highness's pleasure, they have determined to send eftsoons the Lord of “Lydington” to be a humble suitor to her Majesty in all their names for the obtaining of their said requests, which they seem to desire more for the satisfaction of others of the nobility of Scotland, “who are not yet fully reduced to their devotion and party,” than from any mistrust in her Majesty.
In the meantime have agreed that they shall repair home to' put their force and power in readiness to join with our power at “Achinson's Haven” in Lothian, the 25th of March next coming, and that, as soon as her Majesty's pleasure shall be known, they shall have their hostages together, ready to be put into one of her Majesty's ships in the Frith to be transported hither.
They surely find them to be grave and discreet men, and although they seem to be in great hope that the whole nobility of the realm will join with them (being assured of her Majesty's support), yet are they loth to promise anything more than they think themselves able assuredly to perform. They find them also of singular zeal and goodwill to do all things that may tend to the establishment of these two realms in perpetual unity and concord, but of so little power and substance that of themselves they are unable to defend or offend the common enemy without the support of England. As it is thought here that the power promised by the said Lords, being but 5,000 men will not, joined with our power, be sufficient for the achieving of this exploit, “if they are driven to abide upon the siege at Leith,” have sent the bearers hereof, Sir Nicholas Strange and Mr. Randall, to declare unto their Lordships the opinions which move them to think a greater power desirable. In the meantime the Duke of Norfolk has taken order for the levying of 2,000 footmen to be in readiness by the 25th of March to set forwards at an hour's warning.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 11d. Haynes, p. 255. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]