Cecil Papers: April 1560

Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House: Volume 1, 1306-1571. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1883.

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, 'Cecil Papers: April 1560', in Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House: Volume 1, 1306-1571, (London, 1883) pp. 200-216. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-cecil-papers/vol1/pp200-216 [accessed 30 May 2024].

. "Cecil Papers: April 1560", in Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House: Volume 1, 1306-1571, (London, 1883) 200-216. British History Online, accessed May 30, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-cecil-papers/vol1/pp200-216.

. "Cecil Papers: April 1560", Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House: Volume 1, 1306-1571, (London, 1883). 200-216. British History Online. Web. 30 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-cecil-papers/vol1/pp200-216.

April 1560

650. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, April 1. Received his letters of the 28th of March, on the last of the same. Has himself already written to the Dowager (in such sort as Cecil will perceive from the copy of his letters already sent to him), and has also given orders to Lord Grey to follow Cecil's direction in offering courtesy and reason to her and to the French, but as far as he can understand they mean not to accept their offers, but to keep their forts and strength both of Leith and Dunbar, and to abide the extremity thereof. Has advertised Lord Grey of the coming of the Bishop of Valence, to the intent he may communicate the same to the Lords of Scotland and understand their opinions concerning his usage and entreaty when he shall arrive. In his poor opinion the Bishop will have but a hard passage to Edinburgh or Leith, the Lords being now in arms in the field, especially if the French will stand on their defence, as he thinks they will. Will therefore be glad to understand from Cecil how he shall use him in case he should adventure into Scotland, where he cannot assure his passage in safety.
Finally encloses such letters as he has received from the camp, by which Cecil will perceive that the hostages are in the possession of Mr. Winter, and will arrive here as soon as the wind will serve. Prays him to consider that it will be much to her Majesty's honour to have them, being children, well brought up and placed where they may go to school and have learning, either in Cambridge or Oxford, which their parents have earnestly required at his hands.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 14. Haynes, p. 275. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
651. Otto, Duke of Brunswick.
1560, April 2. Copy of the Queen's letters patent, granting an annuity of 375l. to Otto, Duke of Brunswick, during pleasure.—Westminster, 2 April, 2 Elizabeth.
Latin. 1½ pp.
652. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, April 2. His letters of the 29th March arrived here on the 1st inst. By them they perceive her Majesty's earnest desire to have this matter accorded by Treaty (if it may be compassed without loss of time), that Scotland may be put to due freedom and the force removed from thence; or if the same will not be accepted, that then no further delay should be made, by which the present great expense would be much increased. In these two points they have already done as much as they can do, and have now again written to Lord Grey trusting that he will ensure the same accordingly. They are indeed of opinion, as they resolved with Lord Grey before his departure, that if the French will accept the offers made to them the matter will be composed without force; and if not, they see not but that extremity must follow, and as far as they can learn, the French are prepared to abide the same. The pursuivant whom they sent to the Dowager is not yet returned, but on his return they expect to hear somewhat of their disposition, which they will communicate forthwith. Have had no advertisements from the camp since their last despatch, but hear that the English and Scottish powers are joined together, and trust that if the French will not come to reasonable accord, Lord Grey will use no delay to end the matter otherwise. The battery pieces and munition shipped at Newcastle are already in the Frith, but as yet hear nothing of the battery pieces nor of the armour shipped at London.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 14d. Haynes, p. 276. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
653. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, April 4. Send letters received this morning from the camp. It seems by the Queen Dowager's answer to the pursuivant, Henry Ray, that she will agree to no composition till she may have authority thereto from France. The said pursuivant was, however, on his return taken and detained at Dunbar by the French (whether by direction of the Dowager or not he cannot tell), but on that account he cannot know certainly what answer he received. Indeed, by their proceedings hitherto, it seems that they mind nothing less than to end this matter by amicable treaty. Neverthless, all that may be honourably attempted to induce them thereunto shall not be neglected on their part, and if they will not be induced to reasonable accord, they trust that all diligence will be exerted to end the matter otherwise. If, however, they find that any unnecessary delay is made, Sir Ralph Sadleir shall be sent to the camp in accordance with her Majesty's desire.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 14d. Haynes, p. 277. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
654. The Queen of Scots' Claim to the English Crown.
1560, April 5. Memorial, in Sir Wm. Cecil's hand, of injuries committed by the French since the treaty of the last peace. Relates principally to the assumption by the Queen of Scots and her husband of the title of King and Queen of England and Ireland.
Endorsed by Cecil :—“5 Aprilis 1560. Memorial of wrongs done by France.”
[1 p. Haynes, pp. 277, 278. In extenso.]
655. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to Sir W. Cecil
1560, April 6. Enclose letters from the camp, by one of which it will appear that Lord Grey is inclined to besiege Edinburgh Castle, which, for their part, they think not expedient, as they have answered him already.
Because, in the first place, they consider that her Majesty would, as they take it, wish no such extremity to be used to the Queen Dowager, who is in the said castle; and again, because they think it might be the means, not only of making Lord Erskine an utter enemy (who perchance may be a friend, or at least a neutral), but also of withdrawing the hearts of the Scottish nation from us, “when they shall see us leave the pursuit of the French enemy in Leith, and assail the Scots in Edinburgh Castle.”
Nevertheless they beg Cecil to consider it and to advise them of her Majesty's pleasure therein. Lord Grey and the rest are much perplexed by what they hear of the recalling of the Navy out of the Frith (which indeed, in their opinion, ought not to be done so long as the army shall remain in Scotland), but they trust that the doubt thereof will cause them to use the more expedition in their enterprise, which they will not fail to urge by all the means they can devise.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 15. Haynes, p. 278. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
656. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, April 7. Yesternight the Bishop of Valence arrived here, bringing her Majesty's letters directing him, the Duke of Norfolk, to provide for his safe conduct to the Queen Dowager of Scotland. This is somewhat difficult for him to accomplish, considering that the Duke of Chastelherault and his companions are now in arms in the field, the said Dowager in Edinburgh Castle, and the French shut up in Leith; but on his showing the Bishop what danger might happen to him in his passage, he replied somewhat hotly that he had not, nor would not have come hither but at her Majesty's desire, and that for her Majesty's cause, and not for the Scots' sake he desired to travel between the Dowager and them to make an accord, for which purpose he said he would bestow his labour if he, the Duke, would undertake for his safety. This, however, he durst not assure him, but promised to do for him all that he could if he would make the venture. In the end the Bishop has resolved to send a man of his own with his letters enclosed, both to the dowager and to the Duke of Chastelherault, and upon their answer thinks he will resolve either to go forward or to return, as he shall see cause. In the meantime, as it is not meet that he should abide longer in this town, begs to be informed of her Majesty's pleasure, and what shall be done further in this behalf.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 15d. Haynes, p. 279. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
657. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, April 7. Encloses letters from Lord Grey by which he will perceive the French bravery and the hot skirmishes before Leith, and also such conference as hath passed between the Queen Dowager, and Sir Jas. Crofts, and Sir G. Howard. It seems thereby that she could be content to have this matter taken up and to win time by treaty. Whereof, as they think it good that she should not have the advantage; so if she will accept such reasonable offers as have been made unto her, they think the matter might be well ended. But forasmuch as she seems to doubt what surety can be made unto her of her subjects, who have given hostages upon a contract made with a foreign Prince, they doubt whether she means to come to any such end or good conclusion as may be for their surety and the freedom of Scotland; which, nevertheless, they refer to be considered by their wisdom. Beg to be informed of her Majesty's pleasure therein with such speed as the case requires. At the writing hereof the hostages arrived here; pray that their former request for their education may be remembered.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 15d. Haynes, p. 279. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
658. The Spanish Ambassador's Declaration to Sir Francis Knollys.
1560, April 8. 1. The ambassador says that King Philip well allows that the Queen has stood upon her guard; to the end that she might have her realm in safety, and out of the danger of the French, and that matters might be so arranged in Scotland that the rebels should be chastised. His master has therefore sent him to be a mediator between the French King and the Queen for a conclusion of peace, and reformation of all injuries; but he finding, contrary to his expectations, that the Queen's army has entered Scotland, he cannot proceed according to the tenor of embassage; he therefore requires the Queen to revoke her army or abstain from force for 40 or 50 days, until he advertises his master, and receives answer in that behalf. His master would not leave the French destitute of his aid to the chastening of the rebels in Scotland, if the Queen takes part with them; unto which request they require speedy answer. The effect of the answer the writer supposes must be that since the Queen cannot eschew the imminent danger of the French unless they remove their force, or else by force they be removed, the Queen has not done unjustly in sending her forces into Scotland, and it is not meet to revoke the same unless the French remove their men-of-war, upon due acknowledging by the Scots of their allegiance to their Queen, and her husband the French King; this has been offered to the French Ambassadors, and by them thought reasonable. Unless it appears that the French had ruled in Scotland according to compacts made between the two realms, and that the Scots had rebelled without breach of compacts offered to them, the English hope that the King Catholic will not assist the French to the bondage of the Scots and satisfying of the French, who thereby seek the conquest of this realm.
Endorsed by Cecil :—8 April 1560.
Drafts by Knollys. 1 p. [Haynes, p. 280. In extenso.]
659. Answer to the Declaration of M. de Glasion, the Spanish Ambassador.
1560, April 9. The King Catholic having excused the Queen's preparations and allowed them, would have advised her, had he heard her Ambassadors before despatching his instructions to M. de Glasion, not to endure the danger the realm stood in by the French proceedings in Scotland. Her Ambassadors to the King Catholic arrived at Toledo last March, and she will surely hear other advice after their declaration of her grievances. M. de Glasion requiring her to revoke her army for 40 or 50 days, the Queen in reply doubts not, when his master is well informed how long she has endured the danger, how loth to be constrained to do as she has done for safeguard of the realm, he will rather use his office, that a treaty may be had. To make such accord the Queen is most willing, and will be content to take advice of M. de Glasion, and the King Catholic's Ambassador, so they be content to be informed of her proceedings and the causes thereof. She requires them to suspend their judgments if she think it not convenient to revoke her army.
A brief information to M. de Glasion, of the Queen's proceedings from the beginning.
1. When it was understood last year, soon after the peace, that the French King was provoked by the Duke of Guise and the Cardinal and his sister, the Queen Dowager, in Scotland, to entitle their niece, the Queen of Scots, to the crown of England, and to discover it to the world, and it was covertly signified to the Queen from the King Catholic by Count Feria and by John de Ayalu and the Bishop of Aquila, the Queen thought to cover her understanding hereof, and trusted that the House of Guise should not so prevail for their own particular ambition, as to cause the French King to enter into open war for the same.
2. Yet when the practice increased and the Dauphin and his wife revealed to the world this intent, by taking the arms of England and despitefully hung them up in June last in all open places of triumphs in Paris, yea, upon the stage where the judges sat upon the tourney there, and the heralds of the Dauphin were newly arrayed therewith, the Queen of England began to look more about her.
3. Yet not to make any open quarrel, she caused her ambassador to complain thereof, as of his own mind, to the Constable, who, though he made himself ignorant thereof, because he said the Messieurs de Guise intermeddled in those matters, and that the marriage was made whilst he was prisoner in Flanders, yet he willed the ambassador to forbear further complaint, for he would speak to them of Guise, and it should be remedied.
4. Hereupon the King died, the administration came to the hands of the Cardinal and his brother, whereupon followed more manifestations of their purpose. Besides the universal changing of the Scottish Queen's arms in her clothes of state, her hangings, her plate and vessels, her chapel, her writings, seals, styles, &c, her evil words of the Queen's right, they began divers preparations at sea, rigging their ships, amassing along the coasts of Picardy and Normandy great quantities of victuals, setting in order at Calais and all other ports great quantity of artillery, specially of brass pieces, as cannon; and they began also to send and practise secretly in Almayn for bands of horsemen and footmen.
5. All this they coloured under pretence of subduing a few of the nobility and gentlemen of Scotland, whom the Queen there sought to have put to death for certain quarrels she pretended against them, for matters of religion, having only the last Lent before licensed the same to use the freedom of their conscience, to receive the Sacrament under both kinds.
6. The matter is notorious how the conquest of that realm was diverse ways sought, upon which so much is to be said, as it is too great shame for the French ministers there to have their practices disclosed, but the matter is to be heard betwixt the French King's ministers and the subjects of the land.
7. When these things had proceeded two or three months, the Queen, on deliberation with her Council, finding the matter very dangerous and likely to break out with speed, as soon as they might convey their powers into Scotland, thought it most necessary to review her ships, send for armour and munition bought in the Low Countries, and muster her realm.
8. From June to September great quantity of victuals, munition, and artillery were carried by the French into Scotland, as well as men, and doubting the French finesse might be to pretend a tumult in Scotland, and afterwards suddenly accord all these quarrels, join their forces, invade England and surprise Berwick, the Queen, therefore, had the garrisons of Berwick augmented, and in November made preparation for furnishing it and the other forts.
9. Then came intelligence from France of the great number of ships there prepared to conduct men into Scotland, that La Bross and the Bishop of Amiens had gone, and Martignes and the Marquis D'Elbœuf were to follow, both with large forces; whereupon there was thought no way more convenient to withstand so dangerous a matter than to augment the navy, &c.
Cecil's holograph with endorsement :—“Ye first opiniō for answr to Mōsr. de Glasiō, 9 April 1560.”
5 pp. [Haynes, p. 281. In extenso.]
660. The Duke of Norfolk to the Queen.
1560, April 9. Although he has not written to her Majesty since his arrival here, nothing having occurred of sufficient importance for him to trouble her Highness withal, has yet, according to the directions of her Majesty and the Council, sent in the army under the conduct of Lord Grey, the governance whereof hitherto he trusts will in no wise mislike her Majesty. In what case they now stand between war and peace the bearer hereof (who hath been at the debating of the whole matter with the Queen Dowager of Scotland) can better instruct her Highness than his rude pen can declare. Trusts that when her Majesty has considered the whole of the circumstances, she will find no want of duty in him, nor yet in any that have the doing of her Highness' service here in accomplishing and fulfilling their directions.—Berwick.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 16d. Haynes, p. 283. In extenso.]
661. Viscount Montagu and Sir Thos. Chamberlayne to the Privy Council.
1560, April 10. For declaration of their proceedings and the King's answer they refer to their letter to the Queen which they send by sea with this express messenger, within the King's packet through France. The King is very well disposed to take the honour in compounding all things in this case, and had therein travailed with the French King before their arrival, upon the Bishop of Aquila's advertisement, which serves to good purpose, insomuch that they gather from the Duke of Alva that the French King is already brought to good purpose, the conclusion hanging upon these points: the French King would leave the Queen's title and style, using the arms only in the nether quarter of his wife's arms; he would pardon the Scots of all things past, and leave them to their ancient liberties and government with some personage amongst them; but in respect of alteration of religion he would not endure it, neither would this King counsel him thereto. He will be content to revoke his extraordinary power in Scotland, reserving a small garrison for four holds only, which he minds to keep with three or four ensigns in a piece. This King thinks meet to take advantage of the time to treat upon compounding of this matter with all expedition, whilst the tumults in France endure, and for that purpose sends now in post one Garcia Lass to treat with the French King; and for greater speed turns the matter towards their Lordships to be concluded, lest in sending to and fro to him the opportunity might be lost, and the French King, finding his tumults appeased, would stand firmer in the matter. Their abode seems likely to be chargeable to the Queen and a discredit to themselves, as they find no disposition to rectify the treaties, the meaning whereof they cannot understand.
The French King, like as he had proved to have borrowed of this King his ships and Spaniards in Flanders, has also now sent one of his chamber to the King of Portugal, to crave passage for his galleys by his realm, as also to borrow some of his ships only rigged with tackle and ordnance, offering good assurance of merchants for restitution of the same. The French sow here slanderous bruits, imputing the cause of all their tumults to the English as fautors of the Protestant religion, knowing the same best to serve their turn to induce this King to hearken to the matter as the only thing meetest to move him. They think the Council has heard of the risings in Provence. The Pope's nuncio newly arrived here saw 4,000 or 5,000. Two ambassadors of the Emperor have very courteously visited the writers, acknowledging the good entertainment received by their master's ministers in England.—Toledo, 10 April 1560.
pp. [Haynes, p. 285. In extenso.]
662. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, April 20. Although in their general letters they have sufficiently declared the whole state of things here, thinks it good to tell him plainly (as one with whom he is always bold to impart his whole mind, for the great friendship he has found in him) what their conjectures are. As the case now stands the matter between the French and them depends on the agreement between them and the Queen Dowager of Scotland on certain articles which Sir G. Howard is now bringing to Cecil.
These, although they seem but small, do, when they shall be well weighed, under the colour of a true pretence to seek amitie and peace, cloak that which he is afraid, if it be not well considered, may turn her Majesty at this time to save a pound, and ere it. be long cause her to spend ten. Is sure Cecil can well enough consider that so long as the Dowager remaineth the ruler, with a garrison of French, be it never so small, they may, when their strength is ready and ours unfurnished, quickly revenge themselves on those whom her Majesty hath now taken to her protection.
In this case, he thinks, her Majesty's honour and the surety of her realm is much to be regarded, for either it will come to this pass or else, for necessity's sake, the Scots, to make amends, will be fain to join themselves with the French to be our utter enemies. Begs him therefore not to let a small expense now cast away all that hath already been spent.—Berwick.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 16. Haynes, p. 284. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
663. The Duke of Norfolk and his Council to the Privy Council.
1560, April 10. Have presently received letters from the camp in cipher, which, being deciphered, they send herewith, with other letters addressed from thence to Mr. Secretary.
By the same it will appear to their Lordships, not only how loth the Scots are to have this matter compounded by treaty, unless the Queen Dowager be deprived of her government here, and the same be left to some of the nobility of the Scottish nation, and the whole force and power of the French be removed out of Scotland (without which they think themselves in no surety); but also what difficulty there is on their side in winning to Leith, if the matter come to force, without the supply of a greater number both of soldiers and of pioneers. These cannot be obtained so quickly as the case requires unless it is thought meet by their Lordships that her Majesty should be at the charge of entertaining such a number of the Scots as may serve the turn. The two thousand soldiers who should have been here by the 25th of March, arrived only yesternight, and to-morrow will depart hence towards Lord Grey; so that when they are altogether there will be eight thousand soldiers and seven hundred pioneers, besides the horsemen, and yet the circuit of Leith is so great, and there are so many soldiers in it (supposed to be at the least three thousand five hundred French, and five hundred Scots), that this number is not thought sufficient to prevail against it.
Remind their Lordships that, being thus far entered into the matter, if it cannot be ended by treaty it must be followed with such effect as not to leave the enterprise unachieved, although it may be chargeable to her Majesty.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 16d. Haynes, p. 284. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
664. The Queen to the Duke of Norfolk.
1560, April 11. She has received his letters of 6th and 7th inst., with letters from Lord Grey out of Scotland, and allows the advice given by him to Grey not to intermeddle with the siege of Edinburgh Castle for the reasons alleged, as well out of reverence for the Queen's person as for avoiding offence to the Scots; allows also the offers made to the Dowager, provided time is not lost thereby for the exploit against Leith. As Grey cannot attend to both the martial affairs and a treaty, Sadler should repair to the camp to proceed in the treaty with all diligence. She wishes to have that matter of Scotland accorded rather by communication than by force of bloodshed. Sadler shall assure the Dowager in the Queen's name that she means nothing more than the preservation of England, which her daughter challenged, and the continuance of that Kingdom in due obedience to be governed by the laws without force of arms. If it be objected, as always is, by the French, to colour the remaining of their men-of-war, that it is done for subduing of rebellion, she is content that covenants shall be made on her part to give aid to the Queen of Scotland for subduing such as withstand her authority. Of this purpose Sadler shall make the Duke of Châtellerault and his party privy, using their advice, and requiring them to be content. If they have any reason to alter this offer, or part thereof, then Sadler should reform the same according to their opinions, as it may tend to an accord, and not be prejudicial to her realm. In this point Sadler shall use the advice of Grey and Crofts. Divers great causes move the Queen not to reject any probable offers of the Dowager; for if the matter be not ended by force or treaty shortly, it will be harder to be compassed hereafter, which Sadler may show to the Duke and his party.
2. This instruction Norfolk shall deliver by authority of his office, in the Queen's name, to Sadler signed with his hand, for the warrant of the latter. If any more matter be needful to be committed to him for any other treaty Norfolk is authorised to do so.
3. As to the hostages which he desired to be brought up, according to their parents' requests, in some University, the Queen thinks it better to have them distributed hereabouts to certain of her Bishops, as of Canterbury, London, and Ely, where they may be safely kept and increase their learning. In Grey's letter of the 6th inst, mention is made of the offer of the Dowager to Crofts and Howard; she likes the good service done by divers gentlemen captains, to whom she doubts not he has given thanks, and now he is to give them thanks expressly from her.
Draft. 6½ pp. [Haynes, p. 286. In extenso.]
665. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, April 11. Has received letters from the Laird of Lethington which he sends herewith. Has determined to send Sir R. Sadleir to the camp with the footmen who go thither this day, and also, in order to have certain report of their doings and the state of things in the camp, sends with them Sir F. Leeke and a band of horsemen under the conduct of Sir John Foster.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 17.]
666. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, April 12. Encloses letters received this morning, addressed, some to Cecil, some to Sir R. Sadleir, and some to himself. By them Cecil may perceive the great pensiveness and fear the Scots are in of good success of this treaty, wherein he can in no way blame them. What good may come of this communication in the end he knows not, but in the mean time is sure it hath greatly hindered us in the holding of those “who were now determined to take plain part with the Congregation, who all this time have lain still as neutrals.”
Trusts her Majesty and the Council will consider how it standeth with them, for the safety of the realm, to bring this enterprise to a good end, and “how it is cheaper to finish this war now begun than hereafter to begin anew.”
Lest the Scots should be put in greater fear than necessary, and be driven to desperation, has thought good, till he hears her Majesty's resolute determination, to send Sir Ralph Sadleir and Sir F. Leeke to content them somewhat in the meantime with fair and good words.—Berwick.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 17. Haynes, p. 288. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
667. The Queen to the Duke of Norfolk.
1560. April 14. She has received his letters, and the charge sent by Sir George Howard, all of which might have been sent by writing or one of less note; she has returned him with speed. As she would not have the Scots mistrust her, she desires that the siege should be more earnestly prosecuted, and the treaty less regarded; and the Scots should be informed that she will augment her force by sea and land, lest the French conceive slackness in them. And although this be the outward show, she would not that any reasonable offers of the French for accord be neglected, and indeed the more hardly handled the French be in the siege the better it shall be. As for the two articles touching the expulsion utterly of all the French, and removing the Dowager from her authority, though she will shortly advertise her opinion, yet now would she have it appear that she will agree no otherwise than for the surety of Scotland. Understanding that she now entertains in Scotland more horsemen than necessary she would have him take Lord Grey's opinion, and if some may be spared it may be done, but so discreetly that neither the French should conceive comfort or the Scots discomfort. Thinking he may find Lord Grey unwilling, she authorizes him to use plainness with him if need be.
Endorsed :—14 April 1560.
Draft. 3 pp. [Haynes, p. 288. In extenso.]
668. The Queen to Lord Grey.
1560, April 14. Has understood from Sir George Howard his whole proceedings, and exhorts him to continue such as she has ever judged him, and to thank those with him for their services, and by name those who adventured themselves at the approach at Leith. Hears much commendation of Sir Henry Percy, of Lord Grey's own son Barnaby, and of Knevet (of whose hurt she is very sorry), besides Tremayn, Randall, Ligons, and others. Begs when any notable service is done he will certify herself or some about her for her information. Would wish on the bearer's coming there were some such matter demonstrate as might give the enemy discomfort, and so cause him to come to a better accord; in this matter he will understand her mind more fully from Norfolk, her lieutenant.
Draft. 1½ pp. [Haynes, p. 289. In extenso.]
669. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560 April 15. Has received Cecil's and her Majesty's letters of the 9th inst., by which he gathers the good will her Majesty has to accord these great matters with an amicable peace, for which cause she wishes Sir R. Sadleir to be sent thither, who is already gone. Her Majesty doth gather “no frustratt opinion” in chosing him as her instrument for, making no comparison, he is the best esteemed with the Scots of any Englishman, and by his credit there is able to do most for her Majesty's service. Has, nevertheless, for the better executing of her Highness's pleasure therein, sent him the articles drawn out of her Majesty's letter the accomplishment whereof he does no more mistrust than if he were present there himself. This day there is past by here 27 or 28 sail of ships, which they are in good hope contain the ordnance; if so, it will much avail her Majesty's service here.
[Postscript.] They need fear no hurt that may befall by the Bishop's man, for he went no further than the Scottish camp.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 17d. Haynes, p. 290. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
670. The Qeeen to Lord Grey.
1560, April 16. Understanding that the Lords of the Council be brought to some perplexity by conference lately had with the French, wherein they doubt they shall not be sufficiently provided for their surety, and upon intelligence given them that it was not likely for lack of money and such like that the purpose should be prosecuted by her army to the end, the Queen is sorry the cause is so hindered. Requires him to remedy this and recomfort them with the assurance that “we mean to keep our covenants with them, and to make no accord but for their surety, nor spare anything to reduce this purpose to good end.” In approaching the town he is to omit nothing that may tend to compel the French to come to treaty or accord, or to depart or to be surprised. Sir Ralph Sadler had better attend to the treaty, not Lord Grey, who is to do his best to force the French to it, &c. Trusts the rest of the battery is with him.
Endorsed :—16 April 1560.
Cecil's draft. 1 p. [Haynes, p. 292. In extenso.]
671. The Queen to Lord Grey and the Council assisting him.
1560, April 16. By divers means, partly by treaty offered to the Dowager, and partly by doubts cast amongst them that the Queen's army will not continue to the achieving of the purpose for lack of money, the Lords of Scotland in the field are brought into great perplexity, and neutrals hang in suspense, mistrusting the end will be made to their danger and ruin. The Queen marvels much any person should suggest doubts, and requires them to redub this, to establish the Scots in good comfort, and to abate the courage of the French, making both to understand she will not leave her covenants unperformed, &c.
Endorsed :—16 April 1560.
Cecil's draft. 1 p. [Haynes, p. 292. In extenso.]
672. The Queen to the Duke of Norfolk.
1560, April 16. Perceiving by his letters of 12 April the perplexity of the Lords of Scotland by reason of the treaty had with the French by Sir James Crofts and Sir George Howard, which they doubt would prove nothing to the surety of the realm, &c., the Queen is grieved at such a result. He is with all diligence to advertise Lord Grey and the rest that the Queen never meant any treaty should be had with the French but with the knowledge and consent of the Scots, nor any thing concluded, but to the benefit of Scotland, nor any stay of the siege till accord were either made with Scotland or were very likely to be made. He (Lord Grey) is instructed to demonstrate her mind to keep all covenants between her and the Scots, and to lose no time towards the siege; yet to neglect no offers of the French tending to the accord with Scotland. If by communication peace might be had, that should not be dangerous to Scotland, the Queen had rather have the same in that sort than by force. The report of lack of money is doubly foolish. 1o. There was no lack many days past, nor will be as soon as the treasurer shall come. 2o. If there has been any lack, it was not the part of any good minister to utter it to the discomfort of the Scots.
If Lord Grey should lack numbers in prosecuting the siege, it were better to take Scottishmen into wages than to send for English. She suspends sending a special man, as she wrote by Sir G. Howard, considering Sir R. Sadler is gone thither.
Endorsed :—16 April 1560.
Cecil's draft. 2½ pp. [Haynes, p. 291. In extenso.]
673. The Privy Council to Lord Grey and his Council.
1560, April 16. They are troubled to learn that the Lords of Scotland received discomfort, and the French the contrary, by the late treaty with the Dowager, and by reports that the Queen's army would not long continue there for want of money. The Queen writes presently to him how much it miscontenteth her; they, after thanking him and his Council for their great pains, advertise them that it is necessary to redub the wound given, and by prosecution of the siege and light estimation of the treaty to demonstrate to friends and to the enemy that they mean to pursue the cause with all vehemence. The Queen and her Council have fully determined not to desist the achieving the enterprise, either for expense of treasure or men, &c.
Endorsed :—16 April 1560.
Cecil's draft. 1 p. [Haynes, p. 292. In extenso.]
674. Wm. Maitland to Lady Cecil.
1560, April 18. Has delayed writing how things have proceeded lest he should increase her care. If once clear of all terms of treaty he sees no likelihood but of good success. Saving that they stand in doubt that the Queen may be entreated to fall to a communication, he sees nothing yet to be misliked. The Lord St. John will shortly be directed to the Queen.—Camp before Leith, 18th April 1560.
1 p. [Haynes, p. 293. In extenso.]
675. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, April 18. Hopes he will not think him remiss in sending advertisements of the proceedings here, assuring him that either in his general letters to the Lords of the Council, or else in his private letters to himself, he has certified as much “as his harte did knowe;” and for his better satisfaction concerning all things and opinions at the camp has moreover sent his cousin, Sir Geo. Howard, as better able to certify them than his own rude pen. Has had no messenger from Lord Grey since Monday morning, but hears from some Scottish espials that there was a great skirmish on that day.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 17d. [Haynes, p. 293. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Foreign.]
676. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, April 18. Whereas he wrote that on Monday last a skirmish occurred at Leith, Mr. Leeke is now arrived here who saw the whole and certifieth of certainty that it was one of the hottest skirmishes that ever he saw; and there were killed and hurt on either side (as he saith) a hundred and forty or a hundred and sixty. It was hard to judge who had the better; on our side there was none above the degree of a Lieutenant slain; Capt. Barkleye was hurt and taken; Mr. Arthur Gray shot through the shoulder, but thanks be to God, in no danger; Bryan Fitzwilliams shot through the leg; and of the French, one of their chiefest captains slain called “Monsieur Chapper.” Hopes this will be a lesson to them that have the charge there to keep their men out of Edinburgh. Thinks, as far as he can gather by the report, there were at the skirmish almost one half of the footmen. Captain Reede and Captain Vaughan, as he is informed, showed themselves very stout and valiant at the said skirmish.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 18. Haynes, p. 294. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
677. French Marine Affairs.
1560, April 19. Two acquittances given by captains of ships and merchants to M. Jehan Lat, Treasurer of the Marine, for the King of France.
French. 1 p.
678. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, April 19. Her Majesty's letters, and his of the 26th of this present, were the best welcome of any since his arrival here. For now they know that her Majesty will go through, either by fair or foul means, as shall seem most agreeable for the surety of both the realms here. Has this night despatched Her Majesty's letters to Lord Grey, in whom of any there lacks least good will of forwardness; “ther be others that cast perrils, if the skye fall we shall have larks.” Their letters will, he hopes, “redubbe this longe slackness.”
The Lords of Scotland and they are agreed that if Her Majesty would be contented that Edinburgh Castle should be taken, it would much advance the expedition of the taking of the other, fur they think she doth more hurt than five hundred of the French. She “sendeth contynuallye upp and downe,” which cannot be remedied without a siege; this may be done and no slackness used towards Leith, which, he is assured, they will have in four days. She were better to be at the Queen's courtesy than we at hers, and the taking and demolishing of it will do the realm no hurt. Concerning Inchkeith, Cecil will sufficiently understand the state thereof by the Admiral's letters which he will receive herewith. Other news he has none but that the French have gained but little. The Bishop of Valence taketh his journey to-morrow into Scotland, having leave to tarry there eight days in going and coming. Looks for neither good nor bad by his going, and yet he is accounted amongst the Lords of Scotland that know him one of the finest engineers in Christendom.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 18. Haynes, p. 294. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
679. Lord John Grey to Secretary Cecil.
1560, April 20. Thanks him for his letter and friendship, the continuance of which he requires the rather for that he well understands Cecil is the only maintainer of God's cause and defender of his country. As to the Philippians both abroad and of the Queen's Council, her Highness must either disperse them abroad to their own houses or else wipe them quite out of her Council; in which number he reckons Lord Arundel, Petre and Mason. What the writer thinks of Parry the Treasurer he had rather tell him to his face than write it. Too much lenity and gentleness hath marred all; the Queen should now go through with that she hath begun, because it is God's cause, the common-wealth's safety, and her own surety. As for King Philip's aiding his brother against the heretic Scots, the Queen may (and she will not sleep her matters) win Leith and put the country in some good stay before he shall be able to levy a man. There are but three ways to winning a fort, famine, assault, and the mine; the last is easiest of all, the ground serving for it. If the Duke of Norfolk have good provision of wheels every ship there may lend him a cannon, and the ship not be a whit the more unfurnished; so whilst they trench for the placing of their battery, they may with more safety and less suspicion enter their mines. Knows the ground well, and is sure the upper part of the town will be undermined. The coalminers at Newcastle will serve to do it, and begs Cecil to set it awork. The Queen should so countenance Lord Grey with entertainment as to put new courage into him.—From Pyrgo the 20th of April 1560.
Endorsed :—20 April 1560.
2 pp. [Haynes, p. 295. In extenso.]
680. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, April 21. Sends letters received this morning from the camp, by which it appears, that although at the late skirmish it was thought that the loss on our side was great, that of the French was greater; and that the enterprise to Leith is supposed to be more feasible than before. Intends to send “Levinston the Scott,” whom he has stayed here on suspicion, to the Duke of Chastelherault with the next convoy. Begs to be supplied with an alphabet of the cipher which was lately deciphered by “Sommer,” certain letters having been lately intercepted which came from Leith to the Dowager, which he thinks he might perhaps decipher by the aid of the said alphabet. Trusts Cecil will send him her Majesty's resolution touching the besieging of Edinburgh Castle and Inchkeith both of which are thought feasible and easy to be done, without hindering any part of the purpose to Leith, and that within a short time.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 18d. Haynes, p. 296. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
681. The Queen to the Duke of Norfolk.
1560, April 23. Perceives by his letters of the 19th that it is agreed by the Lords of Scotland and her ministers that if she would be content, Edinburgh castle might be taken (and the taking of Leith advanced) within four days. To this proposal and the surprise of Inchkeith, which by Winter's report is hard pressed for victuals, he desires answer. The Queen and Council reply that the matter of Edinburgh Castle shall be well and circumspectly considered. If Lord Grey and his Council think Leith cannot be otherwise taken with expedition, neither by treaty nor force, they are to use their discretions to attempt Edinburgh. Before force is showed to the Castle they are to make some honourable offers to the Dowager; which if she will not accept then they are to proceed to the enterprise, but with honourable considerations towards her person. Inchkeith being well kept from refreshing of victual cannot long endure, therefore she remits it to Lord Grey, his Council, and the Admiral to do what is most necessary, so as the prosecution of the taking of Leith be not neglected. He is to advertise Lord Grey and Council hereof with speed. She marvels not to have heard of any communication betwixt the Queen and the English since the coining away of Sir George Howard, as there was an appointment for six to communicate thereupon.
Endorsed :—23 April 1560.
Cecil's Draft. 1 p. [Haynes, p. 297. In extenso.]
682. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, April 23. Sends letters received this day from the camp. As he is wont always to be plain with Cecil, must however tell him his “fantasie” in one thing, which is, that he in no way likes the apparent intention of the Scots (if they should relent in any part of their demands, as Lord Grey writes), to give place to have a certain number of French left in Dunbar; which he thinks to be too near to “Berwick's chief enemy,” that is Eyemouth. Does not say this as if the thing were already agreed upon, but because he would be loth to speak too late; for if Leith be, as it seems by Lord Grey's letter, shortly to be taken, “there will no way fall out so sure for the safety of the English and the Scots as to win it by force.” This, however, is but his foolish opinion. There are two things in Randall's letters to Cecil and himself chiefly to be considered; the one in Cecil's letter's, “of the Lord Erskine's warning to the Lord James”; the other in his own, “of the dissembling Bisshop's venemous wordes.”
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 18d. Haynes, p. 296. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
683. The Queen to the Duke of Norfolk.
1560, April 25. Authorises him to appoint lieutenants in the shires which are within the limits of his commission, chosing those who have filled the office before, unless for urgent reasons to the contrary. Sends instructions for deputies, which on perusal he is to adapt as occasion may require. He is to return certificate of his proceedings herein.
Endorsed :—25 April 1560.
Minute corrected by Cecil. 2 pp. [Haynes, p. 298. In extenso.]
684. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, April 26. Complains of the slowness of his advertisements from Lord Grey. Intends to send a man of his own (Strange), by means of whom he will be able to advertise Cecil both with more speed and more certainty. With reference to Cecil's request to know his opinion concerning the state of Leith and their doings there, will tell his mind, with the protestation he has always made use of heretofore. Leith of itself is accounted no ways strong, nor yet, he believes, when it shall be tried will be found in it half the four thousand men that have been by our fearful men so often named, and yet a great many of their best captains slain and hurt. Must needs say plainly unto him there be two in the field, “the one so far to seek, the other so desperate,” that nothing proceedeth. Lord Grey, to say the truth, showeth himself forward enough, but all is not in him that has been thought.
Is a subject and will obey; but if with his allegiance he may, will rather lie in prison than ever come such a journey, where another shall have the doing and himself the burthen.
He dares say that if they would once go in hand withal, Cecil would hear good news within three days after, but he cannot get them to leave off treating, which, Cecil may be sure, “shall never fall to our bent” except they find themselves unable to defend. In order that Cecil may be assured whence all this desperation and treaty cometh, sends herewith a private letter of Mr. Crofts to him with his answer thereto. There is no way to further this matter in his opinion, but by direct forbidding of the treaty and commanding “the battrye with the assaulte.”
The mariners offer, if they might have the spoil, to enter it or die therefore; there is no defence towards the water side, but borders with sand cast against it; and no other part of the town much stronger, except it be towards the north-west part where they have made a citadel, which will serve them to small purpose when they have lost the nether part of the town. Whereas the Scots were charged divers times by my Lord Grey and Sir James Crofts that they had not their full numbers, they stood in the trial that they missed not one man, and to prove the truth of their statement required them to be called twice a day, and they should answer to their names. Thus the message his cousin Sir Geo. Howard was commanded to do was not true.
[Duke of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 19. Haynes, p. 298. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
685. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, April 27. Sends a letter received by him from Lord Grey by which he will see that as yet the French gain nothing at our hands. The taking and overthrowing of the Dunbar men will make our letters pass now in more safety.
Would hope that we shall quickly make an end of Leith and be ready to go in hand with Dunbar, which will not be long in doing “if this abusing dissembling treatye were quytt shaken off.” One thing Cecil may be sure of, they will never conclude any before her Majesty will release her pledges and covenants to be taken between the Scots and her Majesty; and whenever it shall be brought to that pass, her Majesty will have “a faire catche” in recompense of her great charges. If Leith were not easy to be won, then it were good treating; but if it is, there is no way so sure for us as the sword. Has sent thither Sir Richard Lee, and doubts not but with his experience and understanding he will prick them forwards to make an end. It is a shame to lie so long at a “sand wall.”
Durst not send in the treasure by land for it was in such cumbersome money that it could only be carried in carts, for which the country serveth not; and besides the borderers are lately appointed to be ready at one hour's warning, the meaning of which he cannot judge except it were, with the succours of Dunbar, to have set upon the convoy. Sends however Valentine Browne this night by sea with a “wafter” and the Elizabeth of Hull. Begs, for God's sake, when they send any more money that it may be in gold or else in new silver; this last was in “pence, twopence, and old testones.”
[Duke of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 19d. Haynes, p. 299. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
686. Wm. Maitland to Lady Cecil.
1560, April 28. Begs her not to chide his slowness in writing. The practices of the enemy, who have driven much time in unfruitful communication, have kept him continually in fear of having no comfortable matter. Praises God the matter is like to fall out better. When all communication is dissolved neutrals begin to come in apace. More at Lord St. John's coming; Mailvin will keep him company.—Camp before Leith, 28 April 1560.
1 p. [Haynes, p. 301. In extenso.]
687. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, April 28. Sends herewith a letter from the Lord of Liddington, and also certain articles proposed by the Dowager of Scotland to the Lords of the congregation, by which he may soon gather what the French shoot at. For his part, can judge no other but that they would make her Majesty lose all her excessive charges, and in the end go forward with their former devices, when time shall serve them, both against the Scots and us. What have they lost if they get Dumbarton for Leith? And why may not they whensoever they list? They are best able, having under their conduct the whole of the havens of Scotland, and being in greater numbers of men than ever they had yet.
And if the French keep Dunbar, and he should speak like an Englishman, he had rather they had Leith still. “Loke upon yt well, for if it fall out so, I look the Queens Majestie shall rather augment here Barwick chardgs, then dymynysshe yt.” Writes the more earnestly for he would be loth that hereafter it should be said, “and if we had thought somuche, we wold better have looked unto yt.”
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol.20. Haynes, p. 300. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
688. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, April 29. He may see by Lord Grey's letters that now things go forward, and that the past slackness hath not been for lack of his often calling on. Assures him that if things had been handled with the same celerity before, as they have been since the 14th of this month, Leith had not been now to win. Nevertheless Cecil knows the nature of my Lord Grey, and although he will in the meantime “feed his humor with som gentle lettres,” prays Cecil, “for his better harting,” to procure some letter of thanks from the Queen's Majesty unto him; and it would do no hurt if there were some private letters of the like effect to those that he requireth. Whereas Lord Grey writes that he can get no Scots in wages neither for love nor money, intends to write to the Lord of Lethington, and will advertise Cecil of the certainty thereof. Has stayed the giving of his authority for the besieging of Edinburgh Castle according to Cecil's letters, and has also sent his letters to Mr. Winter with such advertisements as he thought necessary.
Prays him to send him speedy word whether, “if King Philip will needs land any men in Scotland,” they shall use him as an enemy or not. The matter is of great importance, and yet he knows not her Majesty's pleasure.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 20. Haynes, p. 301. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]