Cecil Papers: June 1560

Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House: Volume 1, 1306-1571. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1883.

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, 'Cecil Papers: June 1560', in Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House: Volume 1, 1306-1571, (London, 1883) pp. 228-243. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-cecil-papers/vol1/pp228-243 [accessed 30 May 2024].

. "Cecil Papers: June 1560", in Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House: Volume 1, 1306-1571, (London, 1883) 228-243. British History Online, accessed May 30, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-cecil-papers/vol1/pp228-243.

. "Cecil Papers: June 1560", Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House: Volume 1, 1306-1571, (London, 1883). 228-243. British History Online. Web. 30 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-cecil-papers/vol1/pp228-243.

June 1560

725. Sir Wm. Cecil to Sir Wm. Petre.
1560, June 2. Is at his house at Burleigh, rubbing on between health and sickness, yet his heart serving him to get the mastery. From letter inclosed sees it necessary that the Lord Treasurer be called on to dispatch money. If need be to encourage men to fight, money must serve; if by peace they return it may not be spared to cass the bands. Marvels the ships had not arrived in the Frith; beseeches Petre to inquire of Bromfield, Lieutenant of the ordnance, whether from his observations since their departure they might be there by this time; also to speak with Mr. Treasurer to quicken the Lord Treasurer, and to trust, as St. Thomas did, with proof that money is sent down in deed. Sends his wife word he has his health very well. Departs in the morning. Trusts to be at Newcastle by the 6th or 7th.
“This 2nd of June, the day of comfort by the imparting to us all of the Holy Ghost, 1560.”
Original, Holograph. 1 p. [Haynes, p. 320. In extenso.]
726. The Duke of Norfolk to the Queen.
1560, June 2. Reminds her Majesty that before his departure she willed him, when any matter of Veight occurred which was not meet to be made common, to write to her his opinion thereon; and also that she showed him how she put her whole confidence in him to see the numbers of her men fully furnished according to her Highness's charge and pay. In consideration of which he has sought all the means he could to fulfil the trust committed unto him, assuring her Majesty that the abominable robbery of the garrison of Berwick hath infected the country bands. Her Majesty's garrison was first encouraged to robbery by the insatiable “pilling and pollinge” of her captain, Sir James Crofts, who has used himself so suspiciously in this her Majesty's last service (as he partly advertised her Highness by his cousin Percy), that having the choice put to him, he could do no other but deliver him her Majesty's letters for his repair to the court. If his “disordynatt doings” escape unpunished, let her Majesty ever think hereafter rather to be worse served than better. Three things can be tried to his face; first, that since his going into Scotland he hath gone about by all means to discourage her Majesty's friends there, and, however he was affected at the first, he never found him otherwise than opposed to these her Majesty's proceedings. Secondly, as it is to be tried by all those that were in the field, at the day of the assault he did wholly neglect his duty and the charge committed unto him. Thirdly, his manifest deceiving of her Majesty, which, considering the great disorder arisen thereby, he does not consider the least of his ill doings. All these are to be tried to his face, besides many other “greate presumptions of greter matters,” which whensoever her Majesty shall command he will declare unto any one whom she shall appoint. As he himself is lying in the town here till the new supplies do arrive, has forborne to appoint any other captain for the same till he learns her Majesty's further pleasure. In his opinion “neither my Lord of Westmoreland nor my Lord Eures is meet for the same, nor any nobleman here in the north, except it be my Lord Wharton.” Begs therefore to be advertised with speed to whom he shall commit the charge.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 25d. Haynes, p. 320. In extenso. Orig, in State Papers, Foreign.]
727. Sir Wm. Cecil to Sir Wm. Petre.
1560. June 4. Letters to the Queen, &c. He means this night to lodge at Doncaster and trusts to lie on Friday at Newcastle. Whether the rainy weather continue there he knows not, but where he writes the trouble is dust; if any lack, it is of rain, yet no desire of it. Perceives great lack of a bishop of York; thinks if Petre would move the Queen she would pass the congé d'élire for Dr. Maye; the sooner the better. Any letters to Cecil from Gresham and Throckmorton, after the contents have answered the Queen's service, are to be sent down to him. Recommendations to Lord Marquis, Lord Pembroke, Lord Chamberlain, and Mr. Treasurer.
Let one of his men repair with knowledge to Lady Cecil of his health.—From Scrooby, 4th June 1560.
Cecil's holograph. 1 p. [Haynes, p. 323. In extenso.]
728. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, June 4. Yesternight arrived here Lord Ruthen, “a man very well estymed with the Lords of the Congregation,” having commission from them to confer with him as to a suitable place for the French to be permitted to come to treat in. The Lords put the appointment of the place, and their own lives, entirely in her Majesty's hands; nevertheless, they would be glad if it stood with her Majesty's pleasure that they should come no nigher to Scotland nor to the Borders than Newcastle, alleging divers annoyances that come unto them by the Bishop of Valence's entry. First, they say, that the Bishop delivered a sum of money in French crowns unto the Dowager, whereby their enemies as they think, have been somewhat heartened. Secondly, they are afraid that it should withhold the neutrals from being plain partakers, the Dowager having already sent unto them, “promysing them great montagnes,” if they withhold themselves from the congregation till it may be seen what point the treaty will fall to. Thirdly, they have advertisements that there would be divers skilled men as “captains and fortifiers” in their train, passing as though they were their men. Begs Cecil to consider these things, and to let him have some speedy answer herein. If the footmen were come would hope to “ease the French of their paine,” for, once before Leith with a greater power, it would be ours “eyther perforce, or els by rendring”; they made a resolution that plainly, if they should of necessity yield they would trust rather to Winter's courtesy than to Lord Grey's. They are afraid of revengement, and yet he sees not how they can be made prisoners, the Queen's proclamation being as it is. The hope of this gain one way and “greate swetenes that cometh by polling the Quene's Majestie” the other, would make some to wish the countinuance of this “brute lyff.” So that the Queen's Majesty and this Realm were delivered with honour and good success in their enterprises, and he himself at home at Kennynghall, he cares not in what other country they had their fill thereof. Hopes shortly to decipher unto Cecil by mouth a great many other matters whereof he will think strange. “The Bell-Wether of all myschyff” will meet with Cecil by the way, whose company he is sure Cecil cannot miss even for half a score of miles. “I never had so muche adoo as to use temperaunce with hym; he saw I did no wey like his doings, nor greatly his companye; and I could never be rydd of his inquysytiff hed.” Hears that to some points he will plead ignorance. Is very sorry to hear of Cecil's “unstedfast helthe,” which he hopes God will now maintain, considering the necessity for his help and service.
[Postscript.] Hopes Cecil and his “Uncle Wotto” will take his house at Newcastle.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 26. Haynes, p. 321. In extenso. Orig. in State Papers, Scotland.]
729. Sir Wm. Cecil to Sir Wm. Petre.
1560, June 5. The French lie this night at Durham; Cecil at Boroughbridge, and will be at Newcastle on Friday. Lord Ruthen is sent from the Scots to Berwick, and will, he thinks, come to Newcastle. Understands this bruit of treaty perplexes the Lords of Scotland. Must see some remedy, or the French will practice. Is marvellously troubled, understanding that the train of M. de Randan is almost all captains and engineers, who mean to be occupied both at Berwick and in Scotland, to enter Leith if they can; but for their safe conduct they should not depart from Newcastle. “We will prove if the Scots may take exception to them for their offensive qualities,”&c.“And so I end full weary.”—5th June 1560.
Cecil's holograph. 1 p. [Haynes, p. 323. In extenso.]
730. Sir Wm. Cecil to Sir Wm. Petre.
1560, June 6. At two p.m. Cecil received the letters and the book of the Queen's answers to the French ambassador's protestation, which, on reading, he finds faultily printed. Returns it to be immediately corrected, the printer to be admonished thereof, and to correct, as he may, all the rest. Has no leisure to reply to the earnest and friendly letters of Mr. Treasurer and Lord Robert, the day scantily serving him to go to Darnton to bed. The treasure mentioned by the Lord Treasurer was the 12,000l. well known to be sent before Cecil left, but Cecil's meaning was to hasten away the rest, as what is come will not pay the debt of May. Hears of great lack at Leith. Thanks God his health amends, and wishes the rest of the journey finished to the weal of the realm on condition he lacked his health or his life.—Northallerton, 6 June, hora, 3 p.m.
Cecil's holograph. 1 p. [Haynes, p. 324. In extenso.]
731. Sir Nicholas Throckmorton to Sir Wm. Petre.
1560, June 7. I received with a letter from Mr. Secretary by the way of Flanders the others in a French cipher, which, being deciphered by Sommer, I sent presently by bearer to the Q. Pray advertise Mr. Secretary and Mr. Wotton thereof, and of the discourse contained therein, and send this my letter directed to Mr. Secretary with speed.—Blois, 7 June, 1560.
Part cipher, deciphered. ½ p.
Modern copy of preceding.
732. Sir Wm. Cecil and Dr. Nicholas Wotton to the Privy Council.
1560, June 8. They have spent this afternoon in talk with these Frenchmen and entered into many matters. Randan affirms precisely he may not treat of any matter of Scotland without speech with the Dowager. Much has been said, nothing resolved.
They perceive the Dowager is in great peril. The town makes some appearance of lack of victual; but they fear the lack comes not near the soldiers, but the superfluous people. Cecil means, for divers respects, as it were by stealth to meet to-morrow night the Duke of Norfolk at Alnwick; and returning on Monday morning they will conclude with the French for their going or tarrying.—Newcastle, 8 June (in the night) 1560.
Cecil's holograph. 1 p. [Haynes, p. 324. In extenso.]
733. Sir Wm. Cecil and Nicholas Wotton to the Privy Council.
1560, June 11. 1. The writers have to deal with men who leave no way unsought for their purpose. The Queen's letter will show that now they are all going into Scotland, two reasons chiefly moving them; one, the danger of the Queen's life and the discourage in the town will rather provoke the Ambassadors to be more ready to accord; the other, because they see that without being nigh they will not without loss of much time come to an end. They trust to be in Edinburgh on Saturday, and on Sunday afternoon and Monday forenoon to enter into substantial talk. The supply of southern men comes very slowly, although marvellously chargeable to the people by new devices, &c. They look hourly to hear of the state of the Dowager; on Saturday they hear she was speechless. The town is reported very destitute of victuals, but they have suspicion to the contrary. It is true D'Oysel offered Sir Henry Percy to have some communication, being afraid of Grey's cruelty. They thank their Lordships for imparting to them Lord Montague's letters with their opinions thereupon. They think it were well to let the Catholic King's ministers understand that they have entered into a fair way towards accord, and that they find things not so hard to accord as was doubted upon; by this means it shall be reason that the King of Spain be neither at cost of sending ships nor at pain to name umpires.—Newcastle, 11 June 1560.
Cecil's holograph, 1 p. [Haynes, p. 325. In extenso.]
1560, June 11. 2. Duplicate of above in Wotton's hand with postscript by Cecil:—
Their Lordships will perceive by Norfolk's letter what he is advertised of the Dowager's death. Hereupon will follow sundry alterations. If the French will return now without following their commission, although they will provoke them to continue, what shall they do? What if they require the presence of some of their colleagues in the town. This the writers will not allow without their Lordships' order. If they require the assistance of other Scotchmen, that were French, which they think not unreasonable, although they think none will be so bold, what shall they do? Of these things they beseech their Lordships to think and advertise them of the Queen's pleasure.
½ p. [Haynes, p. 325. In extenso.]
734. The Lords of the Council to Sir Wm. Cecil and Dr. Wotton.
[1560, June 11 or 12.] Send copy of the letters received out of Spain from Viscount Montague and Sir Thomas Chamberlain, ambassadors there. Two points seem to be of special consideration in the same; the one, the indirect dealing on the part of the Bishop of Aquila; the other, that the French King is content the King of Spain shall name umpires for the compounding of the differences between the Queen's Majesty and him. For the first point, it is meant the Bishop shall be talked withal here; and, for the second, it is thought good to be passed over in silence. Send an article of a letter from Mr. Gresham, together with an abstract of certain intelligences sent from Shirley, whereby they may perceive the preparations in France.—Undated.
Draft corrected. 1½ pp. [Lodge, Vol. I., pp. 385–387. In extenso.]
735. Sir Thos. Parry and Sir Wm. Petre to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1560, June 12. The Queen on some occasions at this time ministered by the French reminds Cecil specially of two things. First, that in treating with the French Commissioners touching the great injuries done her by the usurpation of the titles and arms of her realms, &c., he not only provide for the leaving thereof, so as it be no more used, but that, as their doings in this matter are openly published to the world, some satisfaction may follow by the French King's Queen, whereby the Queen's just title and right may appear to the world by public demonstration, &c.
Secondly. As to the article of reservation in the last treaty with France, and that touching any innovation on either side during 8 years, albeit both articles (where good meaning is) are reasonable and good for both parties, yet as the French in those and all other their promises do serve the time, and, contrary to good faith, pretend matters for their purpose, when they list, the Queen would be glad if in this treaty (wherein she knows Cecil will provide for confirmation of the other) he will obtain a fuller declaration and provide as much as may be by covenant for this. The French now excuse their use of the Queen's titles and arms as no innovation, considering the same was begun to be used by them before the date of that treaty, which is contrary to its true meaning and all good reason. Cecil is to provide a remedy for this the best he may.—Greenwich, 12 June 1560.
pp. [Haynes, p. 326. In extenso.]
[736. The Privy Council to Sir Wm. Cecil and Dr. Wotton.]
[1560, June 14.] Have received their letters of the 8th inst. Forward certain letters and intelligences out of France received from Sir Nicholas Throckmorton. Draw attention to a supposed scheme—gathered from these letters—for the escape to Edinburgh Castle of some of the chiefest persons within Leith. Desire them to bring to the knowledge of the Duke of Norfolk that of late two principal persons escaped by sea out of Leith into France, so that warning may be given to Mr. Winter.—Undated.
Draft. 2¼ pp. [Lodge, Vol. I., pp. 388, 389. In extenso.]
737. Sir Wm. Cecil to Sir Wm. Petre.
1560, June 15. Is so traversed by this French Bishop that they can make no certainty of their proceedings. All yesterday was spent in articles touching their entry, their manner of treaty, the abstinence of wars, and so agreed that the writers determined to take their journey this morning. Yesternight the French forbare signing them upon cavillations, and gave hope they would finish them by 4 o'clock this morning, and now it is 6, and they [Cecil and Wotton] cannot speak with them, they excusing themselves by long sleep. They are in contention about a word, wherein he means to have the victory, or else not depart this day. Here is such abominable robberies in the camp by the old captains, that it would weary any Prince to have victory with their service; commonly they lack not only a half part, but three parts, and also infect the country captains. It has been no small fault of Sir J. C., who is now there, to give example and nourish them therein. His faults in that part are too evident in this town. If they depart this day, they will write to-morrow from Haddington.—Berwick, 15 June, 1560.
Endorsed:—“At length we are agreed upon our articles, whereof we cannot send you the copy.”
Cecil's holograph. 1 p. [Haynes, p. 326. In extenso.]
738. The Bishop of Valence and M. de Randan to the [Bishop of Amiens] and others.
1560, June 17. The King, desiring to put an end to the differences between his Majesty and the Queen of England, has sent us with an authority in which you are named, to treat in the matter. It has, however, been pointed out that the rules of warfare would be contravened in allowing the besieged to hold communication with those who have the means of aiding them. Thereupon it has been proposed that M. d'Amiens should be allowed to come out conditionally. But this point not having been gained, they have arranged to proceed to negotiations, and have proposed a suspension of arms till Saturday evening. Trusts this will meet with their approval.—Edinburgh (Lislebourg), 17 June 1560.
Endorsed:—Copy of the letter sent with the articles of suspension of arms to Leith by the Bishop of Valence and Mons. de Randan.
French. 1¼ pp. [Lodge, Vol. I., pp. 390–391. In extenso. See also State Papers, Foreign, 1560, No. 204.]
739. Articles agreed upon by the Commissioners of both parties in the presence of the Duke of Norfolk.
[1560, June 17.] 1. The treaty of peace to be made in Edinburgh.
2. The time to be prolonged beyond Saturday, if necessary.
3. There is to be a suspension of arms from Monday, the 17th inst., to Saturday next, 8 p.m.
4. During the said suspension, no hostile act to be done against Leith, Inch Keith, or Dunbar.
5. The besieged not to issue out beyond certain points; and no provisions to be supplied to them.
6. Those of the camp of the English and Scots not to approach nearer to Leith than usual. If the negotiation fail, the suspension to terminate.
7. Safe conduct for the French Commissioners; the said Commissioners only to bring 1,000 crowns for the two, and the gentlemen of their suite 500 crowns.
8. The French Commissioners promise not to negotiate with French or Scotch during their stay in Edinburgh.
9. Those in the train of M. de Randan and the Bp. of Valence not to leave their lodgings without the consent of those deputed to accompany them.
10. It shall be permitted to the Commissioners of France to communicate with the Archbishop of St. Andrew's, the Scottish Secretary, or the Justice Clerk.
11. The French Commissioners may demand and retain the cipher of the King and Queen, left by the Queen Regent in the hands of her secretary; and, if it be lost, the secretary shall decipher for them.
12. The French Commissioners may send to comfort the French ladies who attended on the said Queen Regent.
13. The Commissioners of both parties agree to observe these articles.
14. The Duke of Norfolk assures the safety of the Commissioners and their company, coming and going, and during their stay at Edinburgh, provided the above articles are duly observed.—Undated.
Copy. French. 3 pp. [Lodge, Vol. I., pp. 392–395. In extenso. See also State Papers, Scotland, Elizabeth, Vol. IV., No. 13.]
740. Arms and Style of England.
1560, June 19. “Answer to the demand that the Commissioners of England made for a recompense, which they pretend the Queeti our Sovereign ought to make, for that she hath borne the title and armories of England against the will of the Queen their mistress” (From heading).—Edinburgh, 19 June 1560.
Signed :—Monluc. E. de Valence. Randan.
French. 1½ pp. [Lodge, Vol. I., pp. 396–398. In extenso. See also State Papers, Foreign, 1560, No. 210.]
Translation of the preceding.
2 pp. [Lodge, Vol I., pp. 399–401. In extenso.]
741. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, June 19. Thanks him for his advertisements and wishes him better hope of good success in his treaty.
Is glad that Cecil finds, with his own eyes and ears, that his report of the state of affairs was true. Was sure though, that although there would be great working for the covering of faults, the truth would be known at last.
There is no man of whom any account is to be made but of Mr. Sadleir, for council matters, and of Mr. Randall for warlike affairs. There is time enough, if Cecil would write unto the Court, to have the Lord Wharton placed there by her Majesty's direction, which, in his opinion, would prevent all misfortunes that might fall. Hopes that whatever his rash head writes on a sudden, Cecil will moderate according to his good consideration. It is impossible for him to leave the town before the money arrives; their arms are also not arrived from Newcastle. Sends a packet which has just arrived from the Court. With regard to the passing of the Scottishmen, can give no straiter commandment for the prevention of such escapings than he has already done, wherefore he hopes he will be holden excused. From Berwick.
P.S.—Had forgotten to write the Berwick news, which is that Mr. Crofts should be here within two or three days at the; furthest. If that were true they need not study for the appointment of a new captain.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 27.]
742. Sir Wm. Cecil and Dr. Wotton to the Queen.
1560, June 19. Furnishing a long and detailed account of their proceedings in connexion with the French King's ambassadors from the 11th inst., the date of the death of the Queen Dowager. Concerning the town of Leith, they perceive the necessity of their victuals is not such as hath been reported. “They have daily, beside their store, help, by taking of fresh salmon, plaice, and other sea fish, both within their town and without. They occupy freely in the sea before their town two boats and two nets. They have of late been content to send victuals to Inchkeith, which argueth no extreme necessity. Indeed they have, like wise men of war, made hard proportions to their base soldiers, and have driven the vulgar people to extremity, to seek their living by cockles and other shell-fish upon the sea sands. As for Inchkeith it is now of late well re-victualled, and so is Dunbar.”
Ask for instructions on the following points :—(1.) Whether the Queen will stand so earnestly upon satisfaction that, without the same obtained, they shall break, and put the matter to the Duke of Norfolk; and what recompense shall be required. (2.) If they give order to retire the Queen's army and navy, whither they shall be directed, and how many shall remain at Berwick. (3.) What they shall do with the prisoners taken on both sides.
Beseech her Majesty to consider the last article of the French ambassadors, as to ceasing from preparation on both parts.—Edinburgh, 19 June 1560.
Signed. 6 pp. [Lodge, Vol. I., pp. 401–411. In extenso.]
743. Sir Wm. Cecil and Dr. Nicholas Wotton to the Lords of the Council.
1560, June 19. The travails and debates of the writers with these Frenchmen are not much less than theirs of the camp with the French besieged. “We can get nothing but with racking and straining, and we have it in words they always will steal it away in penning and writing.” By the writers' letters to the Queen, and by the copies of certain articles passed between them for their entry and suspension of arms, and of the articles offered by the French, and not allowed by the writers, their Lordships shall perceive much of their proceedings. How these matters of Scotland will be accorded they know not; this afternoon they meet. On the one part this matter has so many crooked points in it to accord, considering they deal between a Prince and his subjects, and so subtle a nation, and on the other part the writers knew many causes there before their coming and perceive more in the army since to induce them to forbear a war. They cannot understand but that the nobility and gentry with the common people do well conceive the fruit of amity betwixt these two realms, and are utterly bent against the French, so as the writers are forced to procure them favour and entertainment. They see that this Council of Scotland may be directed to do anything the Queen commands them; but how long that will endure, God knows.
In the matter of redress for usage of the style and arms, they see the French here rest only upon moderation thereof, that the dishonour of the French and their uncles do not so ensue, as they say the English “covet.” Although their doings have deserved the same, the writers know not whether the Queen will have them fall into the war, rather than lack their wills in dishonouring them. When their Lordships have considered all things here, and if it seems meet, that they shall upon any advantages known to their Lordships rather break than conclude in that point, or in other like, they can easily do it. And for all doubts here in camp, if money be sent, and Norfolk comes in, there is no doubt but that the town shall be in his hands within 10 days, as Cecil plainly understands. Refer their Lordships to such advertisements as they have made to the Queen, and beseech a speedy and certain answer—Edinburgh, 19 June 1560.
pp. [Haynes, p. 327. In extenso.]
744. Viscount Montague and Sir Thos. Chamberlain to the Queen.
1560, June 20. They have this day dispatched Frances Picher, the Queen's post, with large declaration of their proceedings with the King and his ministers upon her letters. They are suddenly warned of the despatch of one this night to the French court and so are not able to put the duplicate of their former letter in cipher; they have thought meet to put the sum and effect thereof into this, touching the King's amity towards her and his good disposition to the compounding of these matters. First, by the conference had with the King and his ministers jointly, with other good intelligence, the writers inform the Queen that she ought neither at this time nor from henceforth, if it pleases her to accept him for her brother and friend, to fear the common enemy that has been, to whom these present quarrels compounded, he will always have an eye, both for her interest and surety and for his own. For more ample signification of his good will, he will send in three or four days Don John Pacheco, a gentleman of his chamber, unto the Queen with his advice how she should accept composition out of hand for avoiding greater inconvenience without sticking at some points of small moment, as at the breach of the last league with the Scots and re-delivery of their hostages, which can neither now nor hereafter be any assurance; experience teaching sufficiently to know their fidelity in keeping promise which they never did. The King also would not have the Queen greatly to stand for this time at the keeping still of 300 or 400, or three or four ensigns of French soldiers at the most in Scotland, making strong capitulations upon this agreement in that behalf. The King understands it to be almost agreed upon for leaving of the Queen's arms and titles, suffering the Scots to be governed by their own laws from henceforth with forgiveness for the past, and the razing of Leith. The King advises that in this conclusion two special articles might be remembered with protestation; the one that whensoever the French King attempts to place a greater number of soldiers than are agreed upon, the Queen may seek to expulse the same and be not imputed to have violated the common peace; the other that for anything at this time done by her the French shall never impute her a breaker of the last league made at Cambray for restitution of Calais, meaning thereby to take advantage in that respect and break that covenant. If the French King condescends to the same in this conclusion, the King is of opinion that both the Queen and himself have the advantage if hereafter the French start again, as they are not to be trusted. The King and his ministers think it meet the Queen should bend herself to this composition. They hope Frances shall arrive well unto her and almost as soon as this.—Toledo, 20 June 1560.
[Chiefly in cipher, deciphered, 2 pp. Haynes, p. 328. In extenso.]
745. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, June 20. Their armour is arrived at last before the haven, and they hope to have it all the next tide. They use all the diligence they can to put themselves in readiness, and he fears nothing but the fewness of their number. The new reconciliation between the Laird of Liddington and Sir James Crofts seems to be very true, for, as he is credibly informed, the Lords of the Congregation and he did write to the Queen or some of the Council in his behalf. Prays him to send his nephew Fitzwilliams hitherward. Would there were many more such for the purpose.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 27d.]
746. Sir Wm. Cecil to Sir Wm. Petre.
1560, June 21. The French and Scottish Commissioners had not met that afternoon to discuss the proposed treaty, in consequence of the time required by the latter for consultation and translation. Were to meet next morning. Expects to have something to write towards the evening. The hardest knot will be the league between England and Scotland. Great dislike of the French to it. Doubts how it will be maintained. Would gladly know the Queen's pleasure in the matter, their instructions being very general in this respect. A plainer explanation would greatly help, as the whole will hang on this point. Desires a declaration from the Queen whether they are to desist, unless a pact can be obtained wherein the nobility are mentioned, or if there shall not be an article for a mutual defence of the liberties of either realm. Hopes to obtain Sir W. Petre's assistance in this matter, though late.
[Postscript.] Sends an intercepted letter from a French secretary in the castle to the town. If Mr. Hampton can do nothing to it, it should be sent to Mr. Sommer, whom he wishes earnestly to have had with him. Desires that Mr. Hampton may take care to send these letters to Mr. Throckmorton.—Edinburgh, 21 June 1560.
Seal. 1 p. [Haynes, p. 329. In extenso.]
747. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir W. Cecil.
1560, June 21. Cecil made a hard adventure when he sent him (Norfolk) his seal of arms. “It is ever ill trusting of an unthrift with such credyt.” The more Cecil speaks of the “pale breach,” it makes him think Lord Grey's direction to have been better than Sir Jas. Croft's execution. However the matter stands, if he had been in Croft's case he would never have made means to have been purged by strangers.
The matter looks very ill when his head can find no better means for his purgation than that part of their men were come but not all. Complains of the great lack of powder and other munitions.—Berwick.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 27d.]
748. Sir Wm. Petre to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1560, June 22. He will understand from the letters of Mr. Treasurer what has been done for the speedy sending of money to him. The sum will be a greater one than that required in his letters. No such letter as Cecil had written about, from himself and Mr. Wotton to the Lords of the Council, had been brought to Greenwich. The intelligence lately sent by Mr. Throckmorton had been since confirmed, both as regards the continuance or rather increase of the inward discord and division and of their unreadiness. Wherefore it has been agreed that about 2,000 men, who had been commanded to be at Portsmouth on the 28th of the month, should be stopped, but remain in readiness to start at one hour's notice. The order was intended to lessen the charges for victuals and pay, and would also serve for the then harvest time. Mr. Gresham had prolonged the payments in Flanders for six months, and was asking leave to come to England on the delivery of the bonds, which were all ready to be sent to him. The expectations of all depended on Cecil's doings, which he prayed might, with the Quaen's honour, establish quietness.—Greenwich, 22 June 1560.
¾ p. [Haynes, p. 330. In extenso.]
749. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir Wm. Petre.
1560, June 23. Forwarding the enclosed documents and explaining the delay in sending them.—Berwick, 23. June, 1560.
Seal. ¼ p.
Modern copy of preceding.
Enclosures :
1. Abridgment of the replies made by the Deputies of the King and Queen. These were made by Commissioners of Mary Queen of Scots and her husband, and have reference to the Government of Scotland.—Dated by Cecil, 22 June.
French. 1¼ pp. [Haynes, p. 331. In extenso.]
2. Demands of the Commissioners of Mary Queen of Scots and Francis II. with reference to the same subject.
Cecil appends the following postscript:
“23 Junii. Sence these articlees wer cōceaved, uppō talk this daye betwixt them, the cōtentes of these articlees be tēpered otherwise to ye cōmodite of Scotland.
To morroio shall this dayes treaty be putt in wry ting so as by tewsdaye at night ye certenty I trust will appere.
“W. Cecill,”
[These enclosures are annotated by Cecil, and are marked, “To Sr Wm Petre.”]
Endorsed by Cecil:—22 June 1560.
French. 2 pp. [Haynes, pp. 331, 332. In extenso; the two enclosures being printed as one document.]
750. Sir Wm. Cecil to Sir Wm. Petre.
1560, June 23. Expresses desire for further intelligence. States that the French and Scottish deputies had dined at his lodging, and had agreed upon most of the articles of the treaty. His presence is of great service as the Scottish lords give way, for his sake, where otherwise they would not. Uses no persuasion to them. Their consideration of the wish for peace, and their grateful spirit towards the English Queen. Shifts of the French deputies. Accommodating behaviour of Lord James [Stewart] and the Laird of Ledington. Will write further after the morrow. If he was sure that, supposing the French forces removed by agreement, they would either more slowly or quietly agree to other things, he could devise to remove them, and their own forces also, thereby lessening costs, and affording more leisure for the consideration of Scottish affairs, and a conclusion upon them; but he fears nothing will move the French to come to an agreement with them, save the apprehension they have of losing their men. Yet for the present is content to treat more quietly because the Duke of Norfolk is unable to get quite ready through want of money. Hopes that John Bynkes arrived on the Sunday. Desires that his wife may be informed he is in health.—Edinburgh, 23 June 1560.
pp. [Haynes, p. 332. In extenso.]
751. [The Privy Council to Sir Wm. Cecil and Dr. Wotton.]
[1560, June 24.] “For answer to the Commissioners in the North.” For the satisfaction or recompense for the title and arms, &c., shall be required:—
1. That the King and Queen of France shall forbear to use the said title and arms, and by proclamation forbid their subjects to use the same, as also the joining or quartering the arms of England with those of Scotland.
2. Any grants or writings wherein the title is mentioned, or with seals annexed containing the title and arms, to be corrected and newly made, written, and sealed.
3. All writings not so reformed within six months after the date of this treaty, to be void and of none effect.
4. Where the said title and arras have been graven, painted, or otherwise set up in sundry places in France and Scotland, the same to be by open proclamation commanded to be taken down or defaced within six months. (A marginal note states: “If this article being as much pressed as may be, may not be obtained, the same to be also referred to the order of the King of Spain.”)
And for the further demands in satisfaction of the great wrongs done to the Queen, to require Calais, and 500,000 crowns.
If this be not obtainable, to reserve the order for the said recompense to a further treaty between the Queen's Commissioners and those of the French King and Queen; and if they agree not within 3 months from the date of this treaty, the order to be reserved to the K. of Spain. If it shall be agreed for the retire of the soldiers, 4,000 of the best appointed to remain at Berwick for the guard of that place, which shall be a good aid to the Lords of Scotland, to countenance and encourage them for the establishment of their state.
The French soldiers to be sent in the victuallers' or merchants' ships found in the Frith, Berwick, Newcastle, or Hull, and some may, if required, pass through this realm by land, so as they come not above 40 in one company, and unarmed, except with their swords and daggers. Hostages to be given for the surety of the ships of England. The prisoners on both sides to be set at liberty. “The last of the French articles is thought reasonable.” (fn. 1)Undated
Draft. 2¼ pp.
752. The Queen to Sir Wm. Cecil and Dr. Wotton.
1560, [June 24.] Has received their letters of the 19th inst., together with such articles and copies of writings sent by the same. Notifies her resolution touching the points submitted for consideration, being the same in substance as contained in the letter of the Privy Council of this date, with the exception that the number of soldiers to remain at Berwick is altered to 2,000. Instructs them how to deal in the matter of the existing league between her and the Scots. — Undated.
Draft corrected. 8¼ pp. [Lodge I., pp. 412–417. In extenso. See also State Papers, Scotland. Elizabeth, 1560. Vol. IV. No. 24; Calendar of Foreign Papers, No. 228.]
753. Sir Wm. Cecil to the Duke of Norfolk.
1560, June 25. Refers him to bearer for a report of the state of matters. These are nearing arrangement, “onely diffidence maketh strangnes.” The trouble, and specially his, is chiefly with the Lords of Scotland. Finds some so deeply persuaded in the matter of religion that nothing can persuade them that may appear to hinder it. Great assistance given herein by the Laird of Ledington. Otherwise sees folly would hazard all. Thinks the afternoon will try the issue. The treaty cannot be fully concluded until he receives answer to John Bynkes' message from the court. Trusts to hear of him by Thursday night or Friday morning.—Edinburgh, 25 June 1560.
¾ p. [Haynes, p. 333. In extenso.]
754. The Duke of Norfolk to Sir Wm. Cecil.
1560, June 26. I have received your letters, by which I take a good hope of peace. If it chance so happily, I would fain if I durst make a journey unknown thither, for I would be glad to see somewhat for my learning. We have no news except that Sir James Croft's men be gone towards London, as they say, to meet their master, who cometh down in great triumph, which if it be true, I will learn wit, not to be so hasty in such like cases again. And yet I thought a man could not have gone nigher a traitor and have missed than Sir J. Croft. I am plain with you as one of my chiefest friends; I cannot skill to dissemble. I pray God make him a good man.
P.S.—I pray you send me your opinion for my request of seeing Leith if things so chance.
[D. of Norfolk's Entry Book, fol. 28.]
Modern copy of the preceding.
755. Sir Wm. Cecil to Sir Wm. Petre.
1560, June 27. Writes to inform him of the trouble that has arisen from the Queen's letters, last sent by John Bynkes. By these they were commanded to make a contract with the French for the substance of the league between the Queen and the Scots, but the French declined, saying they had no authority. After much altercation they offered a general clause to confirm all things in the said treaty relating to the preservation of liberty in either kingdom. Mr. Wotton would not agree to this, and so, notwithstanding all Cecil's indirect policy, the French will needs depart. Before this matter was pressed they were content to let alone the league, which he would have interpreted to have been a permission answerable to an article in the Queen's instructions, but Mr. Wotton doubted this, and feared to adventure. If the Queen's letter had left this affair to his discretion, he would rather have adventured it with those terms than have broken the agreement come to on all parts. But as ministers they had to act according to their instructions. Want of money hinders the getting ready of the army; this the French perceive, and therefore grow colder. Will write if he sees anything better on the morrow. Thinks they will be forced to depart on Monday, as the French are offended at their safe-conduct not being procured on this date [i.e. the 27th].—Edinburgh, 27 June 1560.
Seal. 1 p. [Haynes, p. 334. In extenso.]
756. Sir Wm. Cecil to the Duke of Norfolk.
1560, June 28. Informs him of the arrival of John Bynkes. Had received intelligence from the town that Martigues was dead, and that the hope of peace kept the soldiers quiet. This hope encourages: the French ambassadors to agree to certain points. Had that morning communicated to Lord Grey and the camp, and to the Lords of Scotland, that in consequence of letters reeeived from the Queen they would probably break with the French. The Scots very glad at this, as also Lord Grey and certain captains. The soldiers discontented; they cursed Sir George Howard whom he had sent to spread the report of the probable rupture. Had caused certain papers to be shot into the town, which would make some stir there. Sends a copy. Does all this to lessen the French ambassador's hope of peace, and so bring them to better terms. Thinks the town might be forced to surrender, but then considers peace would not follow. Is averse to a war, as he knows, except on necessity. Hopes himself for peace, yet is content to spread another opinion in men's minds there. Trusts the duke will do the same where he is. Must wait before he can write more; begs him to give the news so far to the Court. The Treasurer must come to pay off their horsemen, and the cost of some victuals he (Cecil) has ordered, for the ships, else they will not be able to return home.—Edinburgh, 28 June 1560.
[Postscript.] Begs him to excuse his lack of writing to the Court as he is overwhelmed with business. “My meaning is, not that contrary opinion were divulged either to France or to King Philip's ministers, but of peace, for staying of their purposes.”
2 pp. [Haynes, p. 334. In extenso.] Appended,
Copy of a paper thrown into the town of Leith. Urging the inhabitants to give up 50 hostages to Lord Grey or to the English Ambassadors. Otherwise the Duke of Norfolk will revenge the blood they have caused to be shed. Advising them not to be deceived by the French promises of aid, as the troubles in that country will not let them bring assistance. A new army from England has arrived at Berwick, and is ready to march. They can surrender now with honour, as they have well sustained a long siege, and the promises of help made to them have so many times failed.
Dated by Cecil:—28 June 1560.
French. ⅓ p. [Haynes, p. 335. In extenso.]
757. Account of the Treasurer of the Household.
1560, June 28. Account of Sir Thomas Parry, Treasurer of the Household, for one year and seven months—28th November, 1 Eliz. (1558), to 28th June, 2 Eliz. (1560).
23 pp.
758. The Queen to Sir Wm. Cecil and Dr. Wotton.
1560, June. Instructions how to proceed with the French Commissioners as to the league (fn. 2) between England and the nobility of Scotland. If they will agree to none of the ways suggested, so as to assure the Queen (beside their Prince's promise only) of the continuation of amity with the nobility of Scotland, and preservation of their reasonable liberty, they are to break off any further treaty. In such case they are to give early notification thereof to the Duke of Norfolk, that he may with all good speed proceed with the army to Leith. Doubts not they will have such foresight as the Lords of Scotland may remain in courage, and well understand that the Queen seeks chiefly their surety, and liberty of that realm.—June, 2 Eliz.
2 pp. [Lodge, Vol. I., pp. 417–420. In extenso.]
Fair copy of the preceding.
2 pp.


  • 1. This article was for the ceasing from preparation on both parts. Lodge, Vol. I., p. 415.
  • 2. Referring to the treaty concluded at Berwick, on the 17th of February preceding, between the Commissioners of the Congregation and the Duke of Norfolk.—Lodge, Vol. I., p. 416.