America and West Indies: July 1700, 1-5

Pages 388-398

Calendar of State Papers Colonial, America and West Indies: Volume 18, 1700. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1910.

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July 1700

July 1. 605. Minutes of Council in Assembly of the Massachusetts Bay. Bill directing how the great bridge over Charles River in Cambridge, lately rebuilt, shall be repaired and maintained, read a second time.
Bill forbidding the exportation of hides other than for England, sent up, read, passed, and received His Excellency's consent.
Committee appointed to consider of methods for the reviving of Trade and Commerce and to endeavour to find a suitable medium to supply the scarcity of money, presented their report, which was read and sent down to the Representatives.
The resolve of the Board, about a conference upon the disagreement of the Houses relating to the method of proceeding to the nomination of persons to constitute the Corporation of Harvard College, was returned by the Representatives with their concurrence thereto.
Report of the Committee appointed to set forth distinct precincts for the support of the Ministry at Watertown, again read, was disapproved and sent down to the Representatives. An Order for accommodating the difference relating to the Ministry in the middle and easterly parts of Watertown was drawn up, passed, and sent down.
Bill in addition to the Act for the equal distribution of insolvent estates, being concurred with by the Representatives, was read, passed and received His Excellency's consent.
Resolve of the House of Representatives that the Committee appointed to examine claims for wages for public service, etc., during the Government of Sir Edmund Andros, be continued until next Session; that they send forth advertisements to notify all persons to bring in their claims, and that 50l. be paid them as a present acknowledgment of their services, was consented to.
Resolve of the Representatives that a present of 1,000l. be made to His Excellency Richard, Earl of Bellomont, to be paid out of the Public Treasury, was read and concurred with.
A Bill for repealing a clause in the Act directing how rates and taxes shall be assessed and collected, sent up from the Representatives, was read a first time.
Petition of the town of Marlborough, sent up from the Representatives with their resolve thereupon that the lands therein mentioned, being formerly reserved and set out by a Committee appointed by the General Court for an Indian Plantation, which lands are bounded partly by the line of the Town of Stow, partly by Mr. Alcock's farm, and for the greater part by the line of the town of Marlborough, be laid to the town of Marlborough and share henceforward in duty and privilege with them as part of the town, consented to. [Board of Trade. New England, 49. pp. 382–384.]
July 2.
Fort William
606. Minutes of Council of New York. Quarterly salaries paid. Proclamation ordered proroguing the Assembly till July 25th.
July 3. Petition of Henry Fowler on behalf of the inhabitants of East Chester read and granted. Petition of Evert Byvanck dismissed. [Board of Trade. New York, 72. p. 329.]
July 2.
607. Journal of Council of Trade and Plantations. Their Lordships judging it necessary to take into consideration the state of the coin in H.M. Plantations, ordered that Mr. Lock be desired to call here on Friday next, in order to confer with him upon that subject.
Letter from Col. Fox, Lt.-General in the Leeward Islands, to Mr. Blathwayt, May 1, and to the Board, May 18, read. Extract, relating to the Governor of St. Thomas protecting pirates, ordered to be sent to Mr. Secretary Vernon. Col. Codrington was summoned to attend the Board to-morrow.
Several letters and papers from Lord Bellomont, March and April, 1700, were laid before the Board. Letter of April 20th read.
July 3. Lord Bellomont's letter, etc., April 23rd, read. Copy of the paragraphs relating to Kidd ordered to be sent to the Secretary of the Admiralty, with the papers therein mentioned.
Lord Bellomont's letter, etc., to the Secretary, May 17th, read.
Mr. Brenton's Memorial, relating to the eastern coast of New England and the Islands adjacent, read.
Col. Codrington attending, their Lordships represented to him the necessity of his hastening to his post in the Leeward Islands, and the rather by reason of Col. Foxe's having assumed the administration of that Government upon him, contrary to what was intended by his Commission. Col. Codrington assured their Lordships that being disappointed of passage in a man-of-war, which he had desired of the Admiralty, and finding no passage at this time directly to the Leeward Islands, he has actually agreed for a ship to transport him to Barbados, which should have been ready before this time, but is now promised about three weeks hence. He stays only upon that account.
Ordered that a copy of the Lords Justices' letter to the President and Council of Nevis, Sept. 29, 1698, together with a copy of Col. Foxe's Commission to be Lieut.-General of those Islands, Nov. 15, 1699, be sent to Mr. Attorney and Mr. Solicitor General for their opinion, whether the powers and authorities given by the Lords Justices to the President and Council can be vacated by a Commission to a Lieut.-General, before Col. Codrington's arrival there, who has His Majesty's Commission to be Capt. General and Governor in Chief, and before the publication of his Commission; whether Col. Fox arriving there before Col. Codrington, could by vertue of his Commission dispossess the said President and Council, and assume to himself that Government, by passing Acts in General Assemblies, sitting in judgement and doing other Acts of Government. [Board of Trade. Journal, 13. pp. 96–104; and 97. Nos. 119, 120.]
July 3. 608. Jahleel Brenton to the Council of Trade and Plantations. In obedience to your commands to lay before you the best account I could of what settlements His Majesty's subjects have made on the islands and continent to the eastward of Pemaquid, I humbly offer, (1) I have been informed from very credible persons in New England that they have been upon several tracts of land on the continent east of Pemaquid and on several islands near the same, particularly Monhiggon or Mohiggon Island and Muntinicus Island, that were for many years possessed by His Majesty's subjects, who went thither from several parts of New England, built houses there, had considerable stocks of cattle and enjoyed peaceable possession thereof until 1698 and 1699, when they were driven thence by the Indians.
His Majesty's subjects in New England have for more than twenty years, to my knowledge, yearly fished upon the banks and near the shores of that coast, almost as far as Cape Sables, and never met with any interruption from the French, that I ever heard of, till the beginning of the last war. For more than 20 years, His Majesty's subjects have frequently sent vessels from Boston and other ports of the Massachusetts Bay to the Islands of Britton, and there have laden their vessels with coals, which they digged out of the cliffs of the said Islands, and brought the same to Boston, etc. I never heard in New England that the Islands of Britton were accounted any part or dependance of Nova Scotia, or that Sir Tho. Temple claimed the same. I am humbly of opinion that the lands on each side the River Penobscot are of great concern and value to the Crown of England, for the river is navigable for divers leagues for ships of great burthen, and near the river there is growing great quantities of good oak and pines; but from about 20 miles to the eastward of that river there are no quantities of good oak or pines. Signed, Jahleel Brenton. Endorsed, Read July 3, 1700. 1 p. [Board of Trade. New England, 10. No. 48; and 38. pp. 76–78.]
July 4.
609. Mr. Secretary Vernon to the Council of Trade and Plantations. His Majesty having been informed that several matters of great moment have been sent to your Lordships from the Earl of Bellomont, as well in relation to the security of His Majesty's Plantations in the northern parts of America, as to the great advantages that may arise to this kingdom, if the proper methods were taken for our being supplied from thence with great part of our Naval Stores that are now brought at a dearer rate by the Eastland Trade, His Majesty commands me to acquaint you with his pleasure that those considerations be forthwith laid before their Excellencies the Lords Justices together with your Lordships' opinion of the same. Signed, Ja. Vernon. Endorsed, Recd. 4th, Read 5th July, 1700. 1 p. [Board of Trade. New York, 10. No. 16; and 54. p. 279.]
July 4.
610. William Popple to Sir John Hawles, Solicitor General. The Council of Trade and Plantations desire your opinion in point of law upon the enclosed Acts past at a General Assembly of the Massachusetts Bay, Boston, March 13th last, as also upon those of the same Province and of New Hampshire, which lie already in your hands, all of them with what expedition you can. Annexed,
610. i. List of Acts of Massachusetts Bay passed at an Assembly, March 13, 1699/1700. [Board of Trade. New England, 38. pp. 80–82.]
July 4.
611. William Popple to Mr. Attorney and Solicitor General. The Council of Trade and Plantations desire your opinion upon the enclosed letter and commission, whether the powers given by the Lords Justices to the President and Council of Nevis can be vacated by a Commission to a Lieutenant General before Colonel Codrington's arrival there and the publication of his commissions; and whether Colonel Fox arriving there before Col. Codrington could, by virtue of his Commission, dispossess the said President and Council and assume to himself that Government by passing Acts in General Assemblies, sitting in judgment and doing other Acts of Government. To which their Lordships desire your speedy answer. Signed, Wm. Popple. ¾ p. Enclosed,
611. i. Copy of a letter from the Lords Justices to the President and Council of Nevis, Sept. 29, 1698. [Col. A. and W. J. 1698. No. 862.]
611. ii. Copy of H.M. Commission to Col. Fox, Nov. 15, 1699. [Cal. 1699. No. 965.] [Board of Trade. Leeward Islands, 6. Nos. 74, 74.i., ii.; and 46. pp. 52, 53.]
July 4.
612. Mr. Burchett to Mr. Popple. My Lords of the Admiralty have considered your late letter, which enclosed a copy of a memorial from the Council of Trade and Plantations and H.M. Order in Council. By this memorial it is proposed that the Chief Justice appointed for New York be appointed Judge, and the Attorney General, Advocate of the Vice-Admiralty there. I am to acquaint you that, in pursuance of H.M. Order in Council, Dec. 3, 1696, their Lordships did direct the Judge of the Admiralty to issue out Letters Patents of the Vice-Admiralty of H.M. Colonies of the Massachusetts Bay, New York and New Hampshire to Governor the Earl of Bellomont, with power to appoint deputies and under officers, pursuant whereunto he has appointed Wade Withrop, Judge of the said Vice-Admiralty, and as for Advocate, it is an office that has very seldom, if ever, been established in foreign Vice-Admiralties. But, if His Majesty shall be pleased expressly to direct by his Order in Council that these two gentlemen shall hold those employments, my Lords will give the necessary directions to Sir Charles Hedges to issue Letters Patents accordingly. Signed, J. Burchett. Endorsed, Recd 4 July, Read 25th ditto, 1700. 1¼ pp. [Board of Trade. New York, 10. No. 17; and 54. pp. 281, 282.]
July 4. 613. A scheme for making observations and directing the practice of continued fevers in the West Indies. Done by way of aphorism. Three periods of the fever are described and treatment for each prescribed. Signed, W. Cockburn. Endorsed, Recd. July 4th, 1700. 2 pp. [Board of Trade. Plantations General, 5. No. 73.]
July 4.
614. Journal of Council of Trade and Plantations. Dr. Cockburn presented a paper containing a scheme for making observations and directing the practice of continued fevers in the West Indies.
Letter from Mr. Addington, May 2, with Minutes of Council and Acts of the Massachusets Bay, laid before the Board. The Acts were ordered to be sent to Mr. Solicitor General.
Letter and papers from Lord Bellomont, May 25, 1700, read.
July 5. Mr. Locke attending as he had been desired, the paragraph of Col. Nicholson's letter, July 1, 1699, with Mr. Neal's letters of Oct. 27th, and Nov. 24th, relating to the coin of England, were read. A memorial was presented to the Board by Mr. John Tysack, proposing that a Mint may be erected in some of the Plantations on the Continent of America as a means to remedy many inconveniencies in the trade of those parts, which was read, and he being further heard in what he had to offer, their Lordships after full consideration of the matter, did not think fit that any Mint should be erected there, but, esteeming it generally convenient that all the coins currant in the Plantations should pass in all places at one and the same rate, they resolved in the first convenient opportunity to consider the difficulties that occur therein, and in what manner it may be best effected.
Letter from Mr. Secretary Vernon, July 4th, read. Papers relating to the security of the Plantations and the supplying of this kingdom from thence with Naval Stores, received from Lord Bellomont, ordered to be got in readiness, that they may be considered in order to a report accordingly. [Board of Trade. Journal, 13. pp. 104–111; and 97. Nos. 121, 122.]
July 4. 615. Minutes of Council in Assembly of the Massachusetts Bay. Bill granting 1,000l. to His Excellency, sent up, was read and passed.
Mr. William Payne, by the majority of votes, was nominated and chosen to the office of Commissioner and Receiver of the duties of impost and tunnage of shipping. Collectors of Excise for the respective counties were similarly chosen.
July 5. Petition of Thomas Druery, David Rice and other farmers adjacent to Sudbury, praying that they may be laid to the town of Framingham, was read. Ordered accordingly, with the concurrence of the Representatives.
Bill granting 1,000l. to His Excellency passed and consented to.
Resolution of the Representatives, that 30l. be allowed to be disposed of by His Excellency for secret intelligence, read and concurred with.
Petition of Abigail Faulkner, wife of Francis Faulkner of Andover, in the County of Essex, husbandman, setting forth that at a special Court of Oyer and Terminer held at Salem, 1692, she was arraigned, tried and condemned for witchcraft, and praying that the records of the proceedings of the said Court against her may be defaced, was read with the passings of the Representatives thereon, that the prayer of the petitioner be granted her. The Board refused to concur, but addressed His Excellency to grant petitioner His Majesty's gracious pardon, which he expressed his readiness to do.
July 6. The draft of an Address to His Excellency to improve his interest in his Majesty and the Ministers of State relating to the matters contained in the humble Address of this Court unto His Majesty, was read, approved, and sent down to the Representatives.
The two Houses disagreeing about the method of proceeding for the nomination of persons for the Corporation of Harvard College, a conference of the two Houses was proposed and managed. [Board of Trade. New England, 49. pp. 384–388.]
July 5. 616. Memorial of John Tyzack to the Council of Trade and Plantations. On the state of the coinage in the Plantations. The inhabitants of the Bahamas, Carolina, and neighbouring islands, also Pennsilvania, East and West Jersey, New York and New England, the soil of which being not capable of raising tobacco and having no other produce to make returns for the commodities of England except some skins and furs, whalebone and whale-oil, which will soon grow less plentiful, are forced to keep sheep, sow hemp and flax and set up the linen and woollen manufactures, to the prejudice of England. Merchants trading thither pay at least 30 per cent. for Bills of Exchange. There is now in the Plantations a great quantity of Spanish money, plate and bullion, and would be much more if returns were answerable. This money, etc., is of no use to the inhabitants to make returns to England, because of the uncertain value put upon it there. A piece of eight in the Bahamy Islands is about 5s.; in Carolina, Maryland and Virginia 4s. 6d.; in Pennsylvania 7s.; in New York and New England 6s. 6d., but frequently rising and falling in value by the contrivance of some designing men in those countries, who engross it when at the lowest, and so make merchandize of it and export it into foreign parts, where it is of more value than in England. The remedy proposed is to set up a Mint in some of the Plantations, for coining all the said Spanish money, plate and bullion and baser mettle into English coin of the same goodness and value from a crown piece to a farthing; and that by Proclamation the value of Spanish money, etc., be adjusted to about 6s. 3d, per ounce in the Plantations; and that no Spanish money, etc., be exported out of the Plantations till first coined into English money to fit it for returns to England only. This making returns more certain and disappointing the designing perverters of trade, encouraging merchants and the oppressed Planters, increasing navigation and commerce, bringing constant supplies to the Mint in returns to the Plantations, and from thence in returns to England, and by such circulation continually landing more of the Spanish riches upon our shoar. Signed, John Tyzack, a Proprietor who hath lived and travelled in the Plantations. Endorsed, Recd. Read July 5th, 1700. 1 large p. [Board of Trade. Plantations General, 5. No. 74; and 35. pp. 302–304.]
July 5.
617. Governor Blakiston to the Council of Trade and Plantations. I received your letter of Jan. 4 by way of Virginia, and I am under a very deep sense of concern that those two volumes of laws I sent home, Aug. 16, 1699, were not concerted fitting for His Majesty and your Lordships' approbation. If I have misjudged H.M. Instruction in not having the Laws revised by myself and the Council, I am sorry for it. At my first meeting of the Assembly I was not unmindful of that Instruction, and the Council with myself did with all imaginable scrutiny inspect those laws which were all in force before my arrival, not above two new laws having been made that Assembly, excepting for imposts. If I had refused the establishing those Laws which they had made before my arrival, seeing I did not conceive any of them except the law for Religion to be anyways repugnant to His Majesty's prerogative or interest, it would have been a means to have given the country an ill impression of me at first, and that I was clothed with some commands from His Majesty to eclipse them of what they had enjoyed since the happy Revolution, the con sequences whereof your Lordships are the best Judges. The Council with myself were always very sensible that the law for Religion would not be found agreeable to His Majesty's sentiments, but my predecessor, Gov. Nicholson, had often acquainted your Lordships he could not be prevalent for that law to pass any otherwise, and since it lay dormant from '96 to '99, I never having the least caution from your Lordships of it, did conceive it might be of dangerous consequence for me not to assent to the law, for I might bring myself under the imputation of being an instrument of discountenancing the Protestant Religion, since the Law had slept so long at home, it seemed to have had indulgence from some great authority, which I humbly pray may plead my pardon to His Majesty and your Honble. Board in the irregularity of this action.
Your Lordships are pleased to observe that a paper was presented to you by some considerable merchants against that law. The law as it was then, I must confess, was compiled after a very strange and disagreable manner; but those gentlemen that tell you the Quakers are so considerable in this Province, as they would seem to insinuate, are under a great mistake, for the Papists and Quakers both are not a twelfth part of the Province, neither with submission do we find that there is any particular provision made for them as they suggest. I cannot tell what private agreement may have been made, but there is a record upon the Council Book in my Lord Baltemore's tyme, which I enclose, which seems to imply that the Quakers were not a sort of people they desired amongst them in the minority of this Government. With leave, I dare affirm at this tyme they have no reason to complayne, for they never had the least disturbance or disquiet in their way of meeting, nor any society of opinions in the Province, but I have followed H.M. Instructions in the toleration of Religion, while they demean themselves with regard to the Government, of which your Lordships may be better satisfied by the enclosed letter from the Gentlemen of the Council. I shall always be very cautious for the future not to re-enact any law that has once been disasented to by His Majesty, without his express consent first had. Your Lordships do not seem to disapprove of any of the laws that are sent home, but those which had so just an exception, so that I hope there has been no injury done to His Majesty. I must confess the enumerating Law, to ascertain what are Laws, was ill-advised, for, as your Lordships are pleased to remark, [it] endangers the whole, and we have committed the same error in the last Sessions, not having then received your directions, but the next meeting of the Assembly it shall be repealed, which we hope will be time enough before your Lordships lay them before His Majesty. We hope the Law for the Protestant Religion is so carefully corrected now that it will not meet with His Majesty's dislike. I hope it is come safe to your hands with the Journals, etc., by which you will find the inhabitants here very easy in all respects. I humbly acknowledge your Lordships' countenance to me in sending the Address of this Province in my favour to the Secretary of State to be laid before His Majesty. What business of moment offers to the Secretary of State, Lords of the Admiralty or Commissioners of Customs I shall transmit to you, as you command me. I enclose a copy of my deposition which I sent to Mr. Secretary Vernon, that I had acquitted myself of all the effects of pirates which came under my cognizance, and sent the effects to my Lord Bellomont, as Mr. Sec. Vernon directed me. I am sure I was out above 40l. in quest of the pirates, but not having any latitude from him to deduct my just charges, I sent all away as commanded. I shall be better able to give you an answer to that paragraph of your letter relating to opening a Trade with the Western Indians when I have seen my Lord Bellomont, for since I have your approbation, I intend up that way the latter end of the next month, and hope I shall not be absent above 14 days. It will be a time when no ships are in the Province or expected.
About four days ago I met Gov. Nicholson upon the frontiers of Virginia and this Government, to consult and endeavour to detect some Indians who have committed a most barbarous murther by killing six children and a man and his wife in Virginia, which Government has a great suspicion that the murtherers are some of the accomplices of the Emperor of Piscattaway, which are in league with His Majesty and inhabit in this Province. That Society of Indians have been often suspected to have committed enormities in both the Governments, but they always pretend ignorance, and what mischief is done is by naked Indians, which are utter strangers and live at a great distance, so that it is next to impossibility to have any proof of the fact. I have been myself with some of the Indians and have sent to get intelligence where the Emperor was at the tyme the murther was committed. The inhabitants upon the frontiers of this Province are very much alarmed upon this occasion, and I was informed they were upon the point of deserting their Plantations, upon which I went amongst them, and encouraged them to continue, and I ordered an officer and six troopers to raing (range) there for the defence and security of those parts. I must confess, if there can be no tolerable circumstance traced that the Piscataway Indians have been active in this, I should be very tender in doing anything to make a war with them, tho' their number is very insignificant, not having 100 fighting men amongst them, for it would unavoidably make all the inhabitants upon the frontiers desert their habitations, whose numbers are now very considerable and make great quantities of tobacco; besides no English man is capable of finding them out in the woods, nor can we foresee what interest they may have to engage other Indians on their part.
I shall be careful in my Instructions relating to the pressing of seamen, I have given Capt. Coode, H.M. advice-boat Messenger, a copy of the Order of Council, Nov. 3 last. I shall by the next conveyance send you copies of all orders I have given him since his arrival. He is now with the vessel under his command at the head of the Bay in the Freshes to avoid the worm. The pro visions he brought out of England with him being all spent, and having no credit here has impeded his going to Delaware Bay, according to his directions from the Admiralty, but I conceive those orders so necessary in the detecting illegal traders and others, that I have supplied him with a little money to endeavour to purchase provisions at the head of the Bay, which if he succeeds in he shall immediately be sent down to Gov. Nicholson for his concurrence to go cruse in Delaware Bay, where he will be free from the worm and more capable to serve His Majesty in his station, several vessels daily coming in there. I send a Journal of the Council Proceedings out of Assembly, where you may see what measures have been taken in relation to the Indians, and also duplicates of the public papers, the originals whereof I transmitted May 28. The Address to His Majesty on behalf of the Law for establishing the Protestant Religion was desired by the Assembly, as you will see by their Journal, to be transmitted to his Grace, the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London, to be laid before His Majesty. The Bishop of London being Diocesan here made me think their request in no way inconsistent, having no directions to the contrary. I hope the caution your Lordships have given me as to the passing Laws will be a sufficient admonition to me to avoid the like error for the future. Signed, N. Blakiston. In answer to yours of Feb. 16, I never granted any denizations since my being here, not esteeming myself qualified by any authority from His Majesty so to do. I am sorry to hear of Capt. Munday's misfortune upon the Coast of Guinea, and have issued a Proclamation to apprehend the Pirate and those nine men that deserted him, in case they happen to come within this Government. Endorsed, Recd. Oct. 14, Read Oct. 16, 1700. Holograph. 6½ pp. Enclosed,
617. i. Abstract of above, with marginal comments. 2¾ pp.
617. ii. Copy of Order of Council of Maryland, July 23, 1659. Whereas there have of late been several vagabonds and idle persons known by the name of Quakers that have presumed to come into this Province, as well dissuading the people from complying with military discipline as from giving testimony or being jurors, etc., the Governor and Council command all and every the Justices of the Peace that, as soon as they shall have notice that any of the aforesaid vagabonds or idle persons shall again presume to come into this Province, they forthwith cause them to be apprehended and whipped from Constable to Constable, until they be sent out of the Province. ¾ p.
617. iii. Deposition of Governor Blakiston as to the treasure belonging to Theophilus Turner the pirate, which passed through his hands. Feb. 29, 1699. 1 p. Endorsed, Recd. Oct. 14, 1700.
617. iv. Council of Maryland to the Council of Trade and Plantations. Annapolis, July, 1700. As to the Law for Ascertaining the Laws, etc., we are fully convinced by your Lordships' reasons of our oversight therein and only beg your patience till next meeting of Assembly. As to the Act of Religion, we advised the Governor not to endeavour to get it repealed till His Majesty's pleasure was known, for besides that it would have begot in the greatest and most eminent part of the Province, who are earnestly solicitous for establishing the Protestant Religion, an odium of His Excellency and us, to drop that which supported their dearest interest, we could not tell what amendments might be required, all which we hope by this revisal in May last is so qualified as to procure His Majesty's gracious allowance. But as to the exceptions taken to the Bill by the "Antient Planters," we answer that (1) there is nothing imposed upon any dissenting Protestants or even Papists but the payment of 40 per pole equal with His Majesty's other Protestant subjects. Dissenting Protestants are permitted the quiet and peaceable enjoyment and use of their religion. (2) The opposition to the law has come only from the Papists and Quakers: we acknowledge some few Papists were at the first seating, but the Quakers, so far from being the most antient seaters, when they first came in were ordered to be whipt out for disturbing the Government, and now will not make the 12th part of the Province, but were this Law down we believe both sects would increase. Signed, Hen. Jowles, Jno. Addison, Tho. Brooke, Tho. Tasker, Jon. Hammond. Endorsed, Recd. Oct. 14, Read Oct. 16, 1700. 2¾ pp. [Board of Trade. Maryland, 4. Nos. 6, 6. i.–iv.; and (duplicates of 617, 617. ii.), 7, 7. i.; and 9. pp. 513–535.]