America and West Indies: September 1721, 6-10

Pages 403-451

Calendar of State Papers Colonial, America and West Indies: Volume 32, 1720-1721. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1933.

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September 1721, 6-10

Sept. 6.
651. Lord Carteret to the Governor of Carolina. Encloses copy of letter from Marquis de Pozobueno, Spanish Minister, 30th April, complaining of hostilities committed against the inhabitants of Florida by the Indians, who are under the protection of H.M. Governmt. in Carolina, that they could not stir out of their houses to cultivate their lands, nor turn out their cattle without apparent danger from the sd. Indians, whereupon they had requested His Catholic Majesty to give them leave to retire into some other Province etc. It is H.M. pleasure that you take the most effectual care, that neither H.M. subjects in Carolina, nor the Indians under the protection of His Government there, be suffered to commit any manner of violence agt. the inhabitants of Florida, but on the contrary that you use your best endeavours to preserve a good correspondence with the sd. subjects of Spain, it being H.M. intention that the Conventions made between him and His Catholic Majty. be strictly observed on the part of his subjects. Signed, Carteret. [C.O. 324, 34. p. 62.]
Sept. 6.
652. Lord Carteret to the Council of Trade and Plantations. You are to prepare an Instruction for Lt. Governor Hope agreable to those which you have already prepared for the present Governors of Barbados and the Leeward Islands (v. 5th July, and 4th Aug.). Signed, Carteret. Endorsed, Recd. 7th, Read 13th Sept. 1721. 1 p. [C.O. 37, 10. No. 20.]
Sept. 8.
653. Mr. Popple to Mr. Lowndes. Encloses Governors' Instructions as requested 29th Aug. [C.O. 324, 10. pp. 294, 295.]
Sept. 8.
654. Council of Trade and Plantations to the King. Reply to Order in Council, Sept. 5th. When Sir Nicholas Laws was appointed Governor of Jamaica, we did then propose, 11th Oct., 1717, several alterations in the Instructions for the said Governor, and gave our reasons for the same, which your Majesty being pleased to approve, we thought ourselves obliged in all the Instructions that we have prepared since that time to inset the said alterations without troubling your Majesty with the repetition of our reasons for so doing etc. The alterations in Col. Hart's Instructions are conformable to those of Sir N. Lawes and of the Lord Belhaven. Whereas by the 13th Instruction the Governor was restrained from suspending any of the Council without the consent of the majority, which in some cases might prove of ill consequence, we have added at the end of that Article, "Nevertheless if it should happen that you should have reasons for suspending of any of the said persons, not fit to be communicated to the respective Council to which he belonged, you may in such case suspend such person without the consent of that Council; But you are thereupon immediately to send to us by one of our Principall Secrys. of State and to our Commissioners for Trade and Plantations an account thereof with your reasons for such suspension as also for not communicating the same to the Council, and duplicates thereof by the next conveyance." In the 24th Article forbidding the Governor to pass bills of an extraordinary and unusual nature etc., we added the words, Or that might anyways affect the trade or shipping of this Kingdom, pursuant to your Majesty's directions in that behalf; and after the words, deferring the execution thereof until our pleasure shall be known concerning the same, we have also added which you are likewise to observe in the passing of all Acts that shall repeal any Act or Acts that have had the Royall Assent. We made some small alterations in the 21st and 22nd Articles only to inforce them and to prevent their being liable to be in any manner misunderstood. By the 56th Article the Governor was required upon the suspension of any Patent Officer or his Deputy to take care that the person appointed to execute the place during such suspension should give sufficient security to the person suspended to be answerable to him for the profits accruing during his suspension in case he should be restored; But as this might in some cases prove a very great hardship to the person appointed to officiate during the suspension, we added the following words. It is nevertheless Our will and pleasure that the person executing the place during such suspension, shall for his encouragement receive the same profits as the person suspended (if a Deputy) did, or a moiety of the profits in case of suspension of the Patentee. Whereas in the former Instructions it used to be said that with other powers of Vice–Admiralty the Governor was to receive from the Commissioners for executing the Office of High Admirall of Great Britain, authority to suspend any Captain or Commander of any ships of war for refusing or neglecting to obey such written orders as should be given him by the said Governor for your Majesties service etc. But the Lords of the Admiralty not having thought fit to add to the Commission of Vice Admiralty, which they have given Col. Hart, any such power, we altered the clause in the manner it now stands in the 73rd Article, However as it may be of great consequence to the service of the Plantations that such ships of war as shall be sent to protect the said Plantations and the trade thereof respectively shou'd be during their stay there, under the direction of the Governor more particularly with relation to convoys and sailing orders; we are humbly of opinion that it will be for the publick service that all the Governors in the Plantations should be impowered and authorized accordingly. In the 62nd Article, after the words, You are not to prefer any Minister to any ecclesiastical benefice without a certificate from the Lord Bishop of London, we added or some other Bishop, as believing the certificate of one Bishop in such case (relative only to the life and conversation of the person) equal to that of any other Prelate; besides it has been represented that it would be expensive and inconvenient to Clergymen to be obliged to travel to London purely to obtain a certificate when a more convenient place of embarkation might offer for them at some other port. After the words, said Lord Bishop of London, in the 66th Article we thought it necessary to add the following words, but when such persons so qualified as above shall be wanting for the promotion of learning and good education you may yourself licence such other persons as you shall think qualified for such employment. At the end of the 52nd Article which seems calculated to discourage vexatious appeals to your Majesties Council in England, we added the following words, In any case where a judgement first given by an Inferior Court in any of our said Islands shall have been confirmed by the Governor and Council there; as being desirous to follow the original design of the Instructions so far forth as the same may be agreeable to the practice in the Courts of Judicature in England, where every appeal to a Superior Court stops the execution from the Inferior, reserving out of that general rule such cases only as carry in the very face of them an appearance of being vexatious. [C.O. 153, 14. pp. 75–81.]
[Sept. 8] 655. Governor Shute to the Council of Trade and Plantations. It was with great satisfaction that I received the honour of your Lordships' letter of the 17th of March, 1720/21, since you are pleased therein to approve of those parts of my conduct which have given the greatest umbrage to the people of this Province. Your Lordships are desirous to know how it comes to pass that the Paper Bills daily sink in credit. When [I] first arrived, which is about five years since I could for £16[O] in Paper Bills have had £100 sterling in London. But now I can't have the same sum under £230 or £235. Our import is much greater than our export, and from hence in my humble opinion this high discount upon the Bills proceeds in a great measure; and from the low prices of all the commodities of this Country in the Port of London, as [well] as from the great quantity of Paper Bills we have been obliged [to] make having no other medium of trade, which the People were grown so fond of, that if I had not received an Order from their Excellency's the Lords Justices to restrain my power, [?and] theirs in that point it's hard to say where they would have st[opped]. Another reason of the low credit of the [?bills] is, that we have many merchants come from London, who [?when] they have traded here for two or three years are willing to get ho[me] again and give any price for silver which is now sold for 12 and 13s. pr. ounce and proportionably for gold, and indeed these are the best returns that can be made from hence. Thus our gold and silver is drain'd out of the Country. If neither of these can be procured they give any rate for Bills of Exchange. I have desired some of the most eminent merchants to imploy their thoughts in finding out a remedy in a matter of so great consequence. When I meet with any plausible scheme I shall transmit it to your Lordships. For the present the order from the Lords Justices I have mentioned before, will keep the Bills from sinking any lower: And as they are drawn into the Treasury the value of the outstanding Bills will be raised. I have herewith sent your Lordships the answer of the House of Representatives now sitting at Boston to my Speech at the disolution of the last General Court, and my reply to it annexed, my Speech to the present General Court, the answer of the House of Representatives to it, and my reply to it annexed together with a message referred to in my Speech. By the first of these papers your Lordships will perceive how little effect anything I have said has upon the proceedings of the House of Representatives. [     ] I'm sorry it may be observed from the other, that your Lordships and Mr. Attorney Generals joynt opinion has been very far from decideing the controversy with respect to the election on a Speaker. You may please to take notice that the answer to my speech to the present General Court is signed Elisha Cooke, pro tempore. It seems very strange that the Representatives should take the oppertunity of their Speakers absence (who left the Chair under some pretext) to put Mr. Cooke into his place, while the paragraph of your Lordships letter signifying your approbation of my not accepting that person as Speaker in 1720 was lying before them on their table. This was apparently done to elude the force of your Lordships' Instruction. But upon my motion to the Council of this slight put upon your Lordships and myself, they told me that it was usual with the House to appoint a temporary Speaker and that the Governours for the time being had never interpos'd. I hope the replys I have made to the two several answers before mentioned may most conduce to H.M. service, as they recommend the matters in dispute to a determination at home. The General Court this present Session have disputed my power of adjourning them from place to place. I have sent your Lordships the opinion of an eminent lawyer in this place together with the Act which has induced them to dispute this matter with me. By my 40th Instruction I am required to appoint and settle an Attorney General for this Province. I find that the General Court have constantly nominated that Officer, and they have the opinion of Sr. Edward Northey whilst Attorney General of England that it is their right so to do. I should be glad to receive your Lordships positive commands herein, the General Court having deferr'd their annual choice of this Officer and suffered the Province to be without one since the May Sessions. The Indians have broken the Treaty concluded at Arowsick by marching 200 into one of our towns in a hostile manner under French colours and sending me a letter in the most haughty and menacing terms. It appears to me to be penn'd by Monsr. Rallé the Jesuit who constantly attends them with two other Frenchmen and has taken this opertunity to divert the Eastern tribe from falling upon the French [     ] I am informed. I shall indeavour if possible to bring them to obedience without a war, tho' they have already refused to see the Commissioners I sent to demand the reasons of their breach of the late Treaty. There's [a] sufficient number of men gone down to the Frontiers in order to cover our harvest, which is the only time they can do us any great damage. I shall only observe one thing more that the printing presses are continually imploy'd in the service of scandalous libelers to the great dishonour of H.M. Government; and it is not in my power to give a cheque to this practice, they having no regard in this matter to H.M. Instructions. Signed, Samuel Shute. Endorsed, Recd. 6th, Read 10th Nov., 1721. Edges rubbed. 2½ pp. (Without date, but the date is fixed by letter. Dec. 13). [C.O. 5, 868. ff. 128–129v.]
Sept. 8.
656. Council of Trade and Plantations to the King. In obedience to your Majesty's commands, we have prepared the following state of your Majesty's Plantations on the Continent of America; wherein we have distinguished their respective situations, Governments, strengths and trade, and have observed of what importance their commerce is to Great Britain, whereunto having added an account of the French settlements, and of the encroachments they have made in your Majesty's colonies in those parts; we have humbly proposed such methods, as may best prevent the increase of an evil, which, if not timely prevented, may prove destructive to your Majesty's interest; and have likewise offered such considerations, as, in our opinion, may contribute to the improving and enlarging your Majesty's dominions in America etc. Have not included Newfoundland and Hudson's Bay, neither of them being a Colony with a civil Government, though both are parts of H.M. territories in North America, etc. Continue: Nova Scotia, as appears by the patent granted etc. by K.James I. to Sir William Alexander, (afterwards created Earl of Stirling) etc., 1621, contains all the lands and islands, lying within the promontory, commonly called Cape Sables, being in forty three degrees of North latitude, or thereabouts, thence westerly to the Bay commonly called St. Mary's Bay, and from thence northerly in a strait line by the mouth of that great bay (which runs easterly up the country and divides the two nations called Suriquois and Etechimenes) to the river St. Croix, thence westerly to the head of that river, thence northerly to the next bay, which discharges itself in the river St. Lawrence; thence easterly along the coast to the Bay of Gaspe, thence south easterly to the Bacalio Islands, or Cape Breton, and leaving that island on the right, and the Gulph of St. Lawrence and Newfundland and the islands thereto belonging on the left, thence to Cape Breton, in the latitude of 45 degrees or thereabouts, thence south–west to Cape Sables again. We have made use of this ancient Charter fixing the boundaries of Nova Scotia, because the French are daily setting up new pretensions to a very great part of this Province altho' the 12th Article of the Treaty concluded at Utrecht, expressly provides, that Nova Scotia shall be given up with its ancient boundaries, and nothing is excepted out of this cession but Cape Breton, and other islands lying in the mouth of the river of Saint Lawrence and Gulf of the same name. The government of this province, both civil and military, is entirely in your Majesty; but as there are hitherto only two or three English families settled here, besides the garrison of Annapolis, there is very little room for the exercise of civil government; neither has your Majesty any revenue in this country, the lands not being yet peopled, and granted out upon quit rents as in the other Colonies. There are two towns in this Province, besides Annapolis; Minas and Scheganektoo, both settled by french inhabitants, about 2500 persons in number, who have remained there ever since the cession of this country etc., but are entirely in the French intrest and by their communication and intermarriage with the neighbouring Indians, have gained them to their party, whereby they are enabled upon any occasion to engage the said Indians in a war against your Majesty's subjects; and by some late accounts from Nova Scotia, there is too much reason to believe, that they do at this present juncture use their endeavours to instigate the said Indians against the garrison of Annapolis and others your Majesty's subjects fishing at Canco, and upon the coast of Nova Scotia. The little trade driven in this country at present is intirely in the hands of these French inhabitants; it consists chiefly in fish, which is more plentiful here, than on any other coast of America; they have likewise some furrs and cattle, but whatever products or merchandize the French inhabitants have to dispose of, is transported by them either to Cape Breton, Quebeck, or directly to France, which is to the prejudice of Great Britain: For which reason, as well as many others, it is absolutely necessary for your Majesty's service, that these French inhabitants should be removed, for it is not to be expected that they will ever become good subjects to your Majesty, and there is all the reason in the world to apprehend that upon any rupture between the two Crowns, they may openly declare in favour of France. It was provided by the Treaty of Utrecht that the French inhabitants of Nova Scotia should have a year allowed them to remove from thence with their effects; but they have long since lapsed that time, and such as remained beyond it, were by the said Treaty to become subjects to Her late Majesty; but these people being influenced by their priests have hitherto unanimously refused to take the oaths of allegiance to your Majesty unless they may be allowed an exception in favour of France, which would render their engagements to your Majesty intirely ineffectual. But as we foresaw that difficulties were likely to arise upon this subject, so in the Instructions which we prepared for Col. Philipps, your Majesty's Governor, a provision was made for this case, and he is enjoyned to prohibit the sd. French inhabitants refusing to take ye oaths, the liberty of fishing on the coast, and to prevent their removing their effects till your Majesty's further pleasure shall be known; and considering their behaviour, we are of opinion it will be for your Majesty's service that they should be ordered to quit the Province. But as to their effects, in regard of the friendship subsisting between the two nations, provided the said French inhabitants do leave their immoveable effects. such as barnes and dwelling houses, in good condition; we should humbly conceive they might by your Majesty's special grace and favour be allowed to carry off to such place as they shall think most convenient, all their moveables. Upon their removal this Province will become almost intirely unpeopled; and as it is the Northern frontier to your Majesty's Colonies, we think it is of the highest consequence that the same should be settled as soon as possible; for which reason we would humbly propose to your Majesty the sending four regiments thither; and altho' we are sensible of the expence this would occasion for some time to Great Britain, yet we believe the same will not be thought unreasonable, considering the inclination the French have shewn to incroach upon your Majesty's frontiers in these parts, the great strength they have at Cape Breton in the neighbourhood of this Province, which will be increased by the removal of the French inhabitants from Nova Scotia (altho' that will be a much less evil than suffering them to remain where they are) and that no other way so speedy as this can be proposed for peopling of Nova Scotia. We are likewise of opinion that all due encouragement should be given to such of your Majesty's subjects as shall be willing to settle in this Province, and that your Majesty's Governour may be enabled to preserve his Instructions upon this head, we take the liberty to lay before your Majesty the necessity there is that your Majesty's Surveyor General of the Woods should be forthwith ordered to repair to Nova Scotia there to set apart 200,000 acres in certain tracts of lands contiguous to the sea–coast or navigable rivers proper for producing of masts and other timber for the service of your Majesty's Royal Navy; for after this shall be done and not before, the said Govr. is empower'd by his Instructions to make grants of land etc. Continue:—If this country was well settled it would be capable of a very extensive trade. There are to be had as good masts as any in all America, in great plenty; pitch, tar, rozin and turpentine may be made in all parts of the country, and hemp and flax might be raised there without great expence: To which in our opinion all due encouragement should be given that Great Britain may in time become independant of her Northern neighbours for naval stores. But the branch of trade in this country, which seems most capable of immediate improvement, is that of the Fishery upon the coast from Cape Sables to the Gut of Canco; which is perhaps more valuable than in any other in America: But for want of protection against the Indians inhabiting Nova Scotia, who are intirely in the French intrest, few British vessels dare venture to cure their fish there, and the French from Cape Breton contrary to the Treaty of Utrecht (by which they are expressly excluded from all kind of fishing on the coasts which lye towards the East, beginning from the island commonly called Sables inclusively, and thence stretching along towards the south west) ingross almost ye intire benefit of this valuable trade, to wch. they have set up an unreasonable pretence, as appears by ye daily disputes we have with them concerning ye fishery at Canço: For which reasons it wou'd be for your Majesty's service that some small forts might be built without loss of time in proper places upon the coast and islands from Cape Sables to ye Gut of Can¸o for the security of this trade, and particularly on St. George's Island, which is one of those that form the Cape of Can¸o and has the greatest command of ye little bay there; which will be the more necessary in regard that there are no forts or fortifications in this Province but one at Annapolis Royal etc., with a garrison of 5 companies of about 40 men each; whereas the French at Cape Breton are very strong, having built 2 considerable forts there, give all manner of encouragemt. to such people as are willing to settle with them, and are directly settling some other islands on ye coast of Nova Scotia. It will likewise be of great importance that a small man of war should be constantly employ'd to attend this Colony, which has at present so many difficulties to struggle with.
New Hampshire. The soil belongs to a Proprietor but the Government is in your Majesty etc. Sketch situation, boundaries and history. Continue: The number of people etc. in 1716, was computed at about 9000 of which there were 1500 men, very few white servants, and 150 blacks; the increase during the last four years was about 500. The Indians that border upon this Province are those which are called the Eastern Indians, intirely in ye French intrest. Lumber, fish, masts for the royal navy, and turpentine are the chief produce; they build some ships, but not so many since the last war, as before; they have some mines which produce very good iron, tho' but little of it hath been hitherto forged; There are likewise great quantities of stone in which 'tis believed there may be silver. The annual produce of these commodities is very uncertain, the price falling and rising according to the demand, seldom exceeding £50,000 per ann. of New England mony. This Province would produce hemp and flax, if proper incouragemt. were given for it; and the people had good seed for the first sowing. They export their lumber and some part of their fish to the neighbouring Governments of the West Indies, and to the Western Islands (from whence they get their wines); they likewise have sent some lumber, tar and turpentine, of late, to this Kingdom in exchange for linnen and woollen manufactures; but they have some supplies of this kind from Ireland also, either directly or by way of other Plantations; their best and most merchantable fish is exported to Portugal and Italy and the produce of it generally remitted to this Kingdom, except what is returned in salt for the fishery. Their fishery is much increased since the peace with France, but the lumber trade decreased by reason of the low price it bears in the West Indies, and the little encouragement there is to send it to this kingdom, because of the duties on that commodity here. The ships trading directly from this Province to foreign parts, are now very few, not exceeding 20 in number. But they have about 100 fishing vessels, and the number of seafaring men are near 400, tho' many of them not settled inhabitants there, and there are no manufactures carry'd on in this Province. There is but one fortification, etc., Castle William, etc., and it is in a tolerable state of repair. The constitution is the same with all others immediately under your Majesty's Government in America; they have a Govr. Council and Assembly etc. The Assembly are elected by the people and consists of fifteen. But the revenue of this Province is hitherto very insignificant.
The Province of ye Massachusets Bay was by Letters Patents from King James I etc. granted to the Council established at Plymouth, and the said Council did etc. in the reign of King Charles I. grant all the lands mentioned therein to certain persons etc., which was confirmed by the said King Charles etc. However in 1684 a judgment being given in the Court of Chancery upon a Scire facias, the said patent was vacated by King Charles the Second. But upon a petition of the Agents of that Colony to their late Majesties King William and Queen Mary, praying to be re-incorporated as formerly, their said Majesties were graciously pleased to grant a Charter to the inhabitants of the Colony etc. Quote boundaries defined in Charter. Continue:—But we beg leave to observe to your Majesty that altho' Nova Scotia is expressly included in this Charter, yet the same being at the time the Charter was granted in possession of the French by virtue of the Treaty of Breda, this part of the grant has always been esteemed of no effect, and the people of New England do not pretend any right thereunto. The Governmt. consists of a Govr. Council and Assembly; the Govr. is appointed by your Majesty, the Council consists of 28 persons, who are annually chosen by the Assembly; the Governor has a negative voice upon the nomination of any of them, and also upon all elections of officers in that Province. The Assembly are chosen by the People and consist of 98. There is a Secretry. appointed by your Majesty and paid by ye Assembly. Thus altho' the Governmt. of this Province be nominally in the Crown and the Govr. appointed by your Majesty, yet the unequal ballance of their Constitution having lodged too great a power in the Assembly, this Province is, and is always likely to continue, in great disorder. They do not pay a due regard to your Majesty's Instructions. They do not make a suitable provision for the maintenance of their Govr. and on all occasions they affect too great an independance on their Mother Kingdom. It has generally been thought, that an Act of Assembly passed in this Province in the 5th year of His late Majty. King William (which by virtue of a clause in their Charter not having been repealed within three years stands as absolutely confirmed as if the same had received the Royal Approbation) has not a little contributed to the present disorders there, in as much as by the said Act it is provided that no person shall be capable of representing any town or Borrough where such person is not a Freeholder and settled inhabitant; from whence it happens that the Assembly is generally filled with people of small fortunes and mean capacities, who are easily led into any measures that seem to enlarge their liberties and privileges, how detrimental soever the same may be to Great Britain or to your Majesty's Royal Prerogative. The inhabitants are very numerous and daily increase, and are computed to be at present about 94,000 souls. The Militia of this Province consists of sixteen Regiments of Foot and fifteen Troops of Horse, in which were mustred
Anno. 1702. Men, 9,642 besides 500 in Service.
1710. " 10,917 " 300 Officers.
1718. " 14,925 " 800 Exempts.
By this account it appears that the Militia is encreased above one third in 16 years, and if the said Militia be supposed to bear only the proportion of one sixth to all the rest of the inhabitants including old men, women and children, it will naturally follow that upon a proportional increase, there must be at present above 30,000 more inhabits. in New England than there were there in 1702. There are also in this Province several families of the Native Indians who have been civilized by degrees; these make some profession of the Christian Religion, improve their own lands, and dwell in perfect friendship with your Majesty's subjects; their number (including women and children) amounts to about 1200. The products of this country proper for the consumption of this Kingdom, are timber, turpentine, tar and pitch, masts, pipe and hogshead staves, whalefins and oyle and some furs; they supply Spain, Portugal and the West Indies with considerable quantities of fish and lumber. We are likewise informed that they have mines of several kinds which might be wrought upon proper incouragement. Their trade to the Foreign Plantations in America, consists chiefly in the exportation of horses to Surinam, and (as we are informed) to Martinico, and the other French Islands, which is a very great discouragement to the Sugar planters in the British Islands; for without these supplies neither the French nor the Dutch could carry on their sugar works to any great degree; and in return for their horses they receive sugar, molasses and rum. In this Province there are all sorts of common manufactures; the inhabitants have always worked up their own wool into coarse cloths, drugts. and serges; but these as well as their home spun linnen, which is generally half cotton, serve only for the use of the meanest sort of people; a great part of the leather used in the country is also manufactured among themselves; Some natives have lately set up their trade in the principal towns, and several Irish families not long since arrived and settled to the Eastward, make good linnen and diapers; However ye excessive price of labour enhances the value of all their manufactures. It is therefore to be presumed that necessity and not choice, has put them upon erecting manufactures, not having sufficient commodities of their own to give in exchange for those they do receive already from Great Britain: and the most natural method of curing this evil would be to allow them all proper encouragement for ye importation of Naval Stores and Minerals of all kinds.
The branch of trade which is of the greatest importance to them, and which they are best enabled to carry on, is the building of ships, sloops, etc.; and according to our advices from thence they have annually launched from 140 to 160 vessels, of all sorts, which at 40 tons one with another amount to 6000 tons; and altho the greatest part are built for account of or sold to the merchants of this Kingdom, and in the Plantations, nevertheless there belongs to this Province about 190 sail which may contain 8000 tons and are navigated with about 1100 men, besides 150 boats, with 600 men, employ'd in the fisheries on their own coast. Their iron works, which were erected many years past, furnish them with small quantities of iron for common use; but the iron imported from this Kingdom, being esteemed much better, it is generally used in their shipping etc. Fortifications and cost of garrison described. Continue:—In the neighbourhood of this Province, there are but few Indians well affected to us, except the Five Nations near New York, who are in Alliance and Friendship with that Government, and maintain for the most part Neutrality with the French Indians. To the Eastward there are but two Tribes of note, the Kennebeck and Penobscot Indians, whose number doth not exceed 500 fighting men; the best are scattered up and down in small parties; they are generally inclined to the French, whose missionaries always reside among them and seduce them to their interest, but the Canada Indians viz. the Hurons, Illinois, and other nations who are intirely directed by the French are numerous, and in the late long wars, being assisted by them, often fell upon our Western Settlemts. ravaging and destroying all before them, and barbarously murthering many of the inhabitants, whereby this Province was involved in the great debt they are still labouring under, and having no money, nor any Provincial product, such as tobacco in Virginia, or sugar in the Islands, they have been constrained ever since to support their credit by publick bills, which are current in payment, but they have till very lately raised mony every year for sinking them by degrees, and according to the Treasurer's accounts, they burnt as many of their old bills as amounted to £21,792 1s. 8d. in 1718, and £22,244 18s. 5d. in 1719, and issued new Bills to the amount of £15,000. But amongst many other irregular and unaccountable proceedings of the last Session of Assembly there, we find they have passed an Act for emitting new Bills of Credit to the amount of £50,000, in direct opposition to your Majesty's Instructions upon that subject. The total expence of this Province in time of war with France was generally computed at £35,000, and since the Peace at £17,000 per annum. In the year ending in May 1719, the land Poll Tax was given for £8250 0s. 0d.; the Excise with some arrears produced £2858 11s. 7d.; the impost on wine and other goods, £5119 9s.; the tonnage on shipping, £622 7s. 1d.; the lighthouse account and fines, £98 11s. 5d.; in all, £16,948 19s. 1d.; but deducting what is apply'd for discharging their former debts, the certain annual charge of the Governmt. is about £11,000.
The publick accounts are all annually examined and audited by the General Assembly, and no payment is made before it is voted and ordered by the said Assembly; which method as far as it relates to the Govrs. and some other officers' salaries, we humbly conceive may be one time or other prejudicial to your Majesty's service; and it is certain the last Assembly have retrenched the Governor's salary there very considerably, probably because he hath done his duty to your Majty. and refused to comply with their inclination in methods contrary to your Majesty's Instructions.
Rhode Island has usually been reputed a part of New England—lying in the Narranganset Bay etc. Limits described. Continue: This is a Charter Government granted by King Charles the Second in the 15th year of his reign, and consists of a Governor, Council and Assembly. The King appointed the first Deputy Governor etc., but they have since been annually chosen among themselves; by which means they evade the Act of the 7th and 8th of King William whereby it is enacted that all propriety Governors shall be allowed and approved of by your Majesty before they enter upon the Government. But by choosing their Governor annually, tho' 'tis generally the same person, his term is expired before any such approbation can be had, if they did apply for it, pursuant to the above-said Act, which hitherto they never have done. Quote instruction to Lord Bellomont (v. C.S.P. 1697), that the Governors of Connecticut and Rhode Island be required to give security for observing any instructions sent to them from H.M., or any acting under his authority, pursuant to the several acts of Trade etc. Continue:—But the said Instruction having not been continued to the succeeding Governors: we conceive it necessary that it should be repeated. As to the number of inhabitants in this Colony, their trade and state of their Government, we have but very imperfect accounts; and indeed the misfeazancies of this and most of the other Proprietory governments are so numerous that we shall not trouble your Majesty with them in this place but will take leave to give our humble opinion concerning them in the concluding part of this representation.
Connecticut. Describe boundaries. Continue:—This Government is upon ye same foot as Rhode Island, under the same regulations of government, and lyable to the same inconveniencies.
The Government of New York. Describe boundaries and form of Government. Continue: The Governor in this, as in all other Provinces under your Majesty's immediate government, has a negative in passing laws. His salary is £1200 per annum, payable out of the revenue of the Province. Here is no fixt revenue belonging to the Crown besides the Quit Rents, wh. have been established only since the year 1702, by an Instruction from Her late Majesty to the Lord Cornbury, then Govr. of that Province, at the rate of 2/6 on every 100 acres of land to be granted from that time, and are to be accounted for here in this Kingdom. These Quit Rents have not hitherto amounted to much more than £400 a year; but having been put under a better regulation by Brigr. Hunter the late Govr. it is expected they may amount in some time to more than double that sum every year. The Revenue raised by ye Assembly for the support of the Government has never been granted for any term exceeding five years. The last grant of it was to expire this year. But Mr. Burnet the present Governor has got it prolonged for five years more. The natural produce of this country consists in provisions which are sent to the British Islands in the West Indies, in horses sent to Surinam, Curacoa and St. Thomas; and in whale oyle and peltry to this Kingdom; besides some naval stores, which this country is capable of producing in very great quantities, if proper measures were taken for this purpose.
Recount history of Palatine settlement for making tar there. (v. C.S.P. 1709 et seq.), and their claim, which has been referred to Governor Burnet for his report. Continue:—This province could likewise furnish iron in great quantities; it has some copper and lead, but at a great distance from the British and among the Indian settlements. There are coal mines in Long Island, which have not yet been wrought. The several commodities exported from this Kingdom to New York have, at a medium of three years, commonly amounted to about £50,000 a year. The imports from thence, have not, upon the same medium, risen higher than £16,000 a year, so that the ballance in favour of this Kingdom, as far as can be judged of it by the Custom House Accounts, has been upwards of £25,000 a year. The vessels belonging to this Province are small and not considerable in number, being employ'd only in carrying provisns. to the Southern Islands, and in ye coasting trade to the neighbouring Colonies on ye Continent. The number of the inhabitants in this Province encreases daily, chiefly from New England and from the North of Ireland. The Militia consists of 6000 men. Here are four Independant Companies maintained at the expence of the Crown, and employ'd to garrison several forts; one whereof is at New York, another at Albany, and a 3d. at Shenectady. There is likewise a small fort in ye country of the Mohack Indians. The fort at N. York has 4 regular bastions, faced with stone and mounted with 50 guns, but has neither ditch or outworks; The other 3 forts have only palisadoes. This Province, by reason of its situation, being almost in the middle of ye British Colonies on ye Continent, and the nearest of any to ye French Settlemts. on the River Canada, and to their Indians, as well as for the immediate influence or command it has over the 5 nations of Indians, might most properly be made ye seat of Governmt. for a Capn. General if your Majesty shall think fit to appoint one, and a barrier to ye neighbouring Colonies; for this reason particular care should be taken to put ye forts already built in ye best condition they are capable of, and to build others in such places where they may best serve to secure and enlarge our trade and interest with ye Indians, and break the designs of ye French in these parts; for this purpose it would be of great advantage to build a fort in ye country of ye Seneca Indians near the Lake Ontario, wch. might perhaps be done with their consent by ye means of presents, and it shou'd the rather be attempted without loss of time, to prevent ye French from succeeding in ye same design wch. they are now actually endeavouring at. We should here give a particular account of the abovementioned five nations of Indians, if we had not occasion to do it in another part of this representation, relating to the consequence of the communication between ye French Settlemt. at Canada and Mississippi, and to wch. we therefore beg leave to refer.
New Jersey. Boundaries and government described. Continue:—The greatest number of the inhabitants are Quakers, of which ye Council and Assembly chiefly consist. This Province raiseth by their Assembly about £1300 p. annum, for the support of their Government; but they think it a hardship to pay a salary to a Governor who resides in another Province, and wou'd be willing to raise still a further sum for the maintenance of a Govr., who could reside amongst them wch. they conceive wou'd greatly advance the trade and welfare of this country. This province produces all sorts of grain or corn; the inhabitants likewise breed all sorts of cattle in great quantities with which they supply the merchants of New York and Philadelphia, to carry on their trade to all the American Islands; but were they a distinct Governmt. (having very good harbours) merchants would be encouraged to settle amongst them and they might become a considerable trading people; whereas at present they have few or no ships but coasting vessels, and they are supply'd from New York and Philadelphia with English manufactures, having none of their own. The inhabitants daily increase in great numbers from New England and Ireland, and before this increase the Militia consisted of about 3000 men. There are but few Indians in this Government and they very innocent and friendly to the inhabitants, being under the command of the 5 nations of Iroquois, and this Plantation not lying exposed, as some other British Colonies do, they have hitherto built no forts. There is great quantity of iron ore and some copper in this Province. They have only two Patent Officers vizt. an Attorny General and a Secretary; and as all Patent Officers appointed in Great Britain are generally unwelcome to the Plantations, so by several Acts of Assembly their fees are so reduced (especially the Secretary's) that they are not sufficient for his subsistance.
Pennsylvania. This Province is a Proprietary Governmt. granted by Charter of King Cha: the 2nd to Wm. Penn Esqr. in the year 1680. Its boundaries, agreeable to the sd. Charter, are new Castle County on ye South the River Delaware on the East unto 43 degrees of Northern latitude, and from thence a Meridian line run westward, which is to extend 5 degrees in longitude. There are likewise certain lands lying upon Delaware Bay, commonly called the Three Lower Counties which are reputed part of Pennsylvania, and are now actually under the same Governmt. These lands were granted to the said Wm. Penn in the year 1682 by King James the 2d. then Duke of York. But as ye validity of that grant has been more than once question'd, particularly in ye year 1717, upon the Petition of ye Earl of Sutherland praying a Charter from your Majesty of the sd. lands, ye same was referred to ye then Attorney and Solr. General, who made a report, dated 21st Octor. 1717. But there having been no further proceedings on that petition, we need only mention, that it appears from the said report, that your Majty. is at least entituled to a moiety of the rents, issues and proffits which shall arise on the said lands contain'd in the said grant of the Duke of York made in the year 1681, altho' the same shou'd be valid in law. And we the rather take notice of this, because we find that in ye reign of the late Queen Ann, about the year 1712, an agreement was made by the then Treasury with Wm. Penn Esqr. for the purchase of his Government of Pennsylvania and the Three Lower Counties for the sum of £12,000, one thousand pounds of which was paid by Warrant of Her late Majesty bearing date 9th Sept. 1712, and as we think it our duty on all occasions to represent the advantages that wou'd accrue to your Majesty and the Publick, by taking Proprietary Governmts. into your own hands where it may be done agreeable to law and justice, we now beg leave to offer our opinion, that it would be for your Majesty's service to have the said agreement compleated by payment of the remaining £11,000, and whether the rents, issues and proffits before mentioned, ought not to be accounted for and made part of the said payments is humbly submitted. This Province being a Proprietary Governmt. as hath been before mention'd the Proprietor thereof has the appointment of a Govr., who nevertheless must be first approved of by your Majesty; he likewise nominates the Council; and the Assembly are elected by the freeholders. There is one circumstance very particular in this Charter vizt., that the Proprietor hath five years allowed him to transmit his Laws for ye Royal approbation, but the Crown hath but six months for the repealing them, within which time if they are not repealed, they are to be reputed Laws to all intents and purposes whatsoever; from whence it frequently happens that several laws unfit for the Royal Assent continue in force for 5 years, and after having been disallowed by the Crown are enacted again, and by this practise become in a manner perpetual; and this in our humble opinion is a further reason why the aforementioned purchase and agreement should be made and compleated. The soil of this country is various, light and sandy near the rivers, but rich and of a deep black mould further from the water; being well cultivated by the industry of the inhabitants; it produceth whatsoever is necessary for life. The River Delaware (the only one of consequence to trade in this whole country) is exceeding commodious for navigation, except in the two months of Decr. and Janry., when it is usually frozen up. The natural produce of this country is wheat, beef, pork and lumber; their trade consequently consists chiefly in ye exportation of these to the several parts of the West Indies and Maderas, from whence in return they take rum, sugar, cotton, Spanish mony and wine; they likewise build many brigantines and sloops for sale: but having few or no manufactures of their own, they are supply'd therewith from G. Britain to the yearly value of about £20,000. And as this Province does greatly abound in iron, so we have good grounds to believe, that if proper encouragement was given in G. Britain to take off that, and their timber, the people would thereby be diverted from the thoughts of setting up any manufactures of their own, and consequently the consumption of those of Gr. Britain considerably advanced. For it must be observed that this Plantation is in a very flourishing condition, greatly increased in its inhabitants; and although the informations we have received touching their numbers differ extreamly, some computing them at about 60,000 whites and 5,000 blacks, and others not above half that number. yet they all agree in their opinion concerning the flourishing state of this Colony, and that the produce of their commodities may well be reckon'd at £100,000 p. annum. Four fifths of the inhabitants of this Province being Quakers, there is little care taken of their military affairs; only one old ruin'd fort at New Castle with six useless guns belonging to it; nor can we learn there is any establishment of a Militia for their defence; but it must be allowed that to supply this defect, they have taken care to cultivate so good an understanding with their neighbour Indians, by going yearly to their principal town (Onistogo, Conostogo) to renew their Peace and by their fair and just dealings with them, that hitherto they have found no want of any force to protect themselves, and probably may not, for some time to come, if the Indians are not instigated by the artifices of the French to insult and disturb them. But the endeavors of the French to debauch the Indians from ye int'rest of your Majesty's subjects in America, and likewise the importance of maintaining and improving ye strictest friendship with those Indians, with ye proper methods of doing ye same, being particularly treated on in another part of this Report, we shall mention nothing further upon these heads at present.
Maryland. Boundaries, Charter and history of Government described. Continue: There is no revenue arising to ye Crown in this Province, but a very considerable one to the Proprietor. The ordinary expences of ye Governmt. are defray'd by a duty of 12d. per hogshead on all tobacco exported, and 3d. p. ton on all shipping inward; and the extraordinary charges of the Governmt. are likewise provided for by the Assembly as occasion requires. The number of inhabitants was computed in the year 1704 to be 30,537, men, women, and children and 4475 slaves, young and old, in all 35,012. In the year 1710 was computed 34,796 whites, and 7,945 negroes, in all 42,741. And in the year 1719, was computed 55,000 white inhabitants, and 25,000 blacks, in all 80,000. From whence it appears that the inhabitants of this Province have increased to above double the number in 15 years; and altho' some part of this increase may have been occasioned by the transportation of the rebels from Preston, by the purchase of slaves, as well as by the arrival of several convict persons, and of many poor families who have transported themselves from Ireland; yet it must be allowed that Maryland is one of the most flourishing Provinces upon the Continent of America. The Militia is about 8,000 men, well arm'd and excellent marksmen. There are no forts or places of defence in this Province, but there has been lately built at the publick charge a large magazine at Annapolis which is well provided with spare arms for 1200 foot and 600 horse, with a great quantity of Ammunition, to maintain wch. and to make a further provision of arms and ammunition there is a duty of 3d. p. hogshd. laid by Act of Assembly on all tobacco exported. The Indians who dwell within this Province do not exceed 500, and they live peaceably with the inhabitants. The neighbouring Indians are reported to be many formidable nations, with whom the people have but little commerce, this country being a peninsula; but they have been careful to make those on the frontiers their friends, by which means they have for sometime enjoy'd a perfect tranquility. The soil of this country is of different kinds, but most of it sandy; when cultivated, with little labour, it gives a vast increase and produces all things necessary for life, that G. Britain affords, with wch. the inhabitants plentifully provide for their subsistance: Tobacco is the staple commodity of this Province of which about 30 or 35,000 hogshds. are yearly exported to G. Britain; the inhabitants export some tobacco to the others plantations, as also grain, beef, pork and lumber, for which they have in return rum and sugar. They likewise send some corn to the Maderas for wine, but the most part of the wine they have from thence is purchased by Bills of Exchange. Whilst tobacco answers, in its price, the planters' labour, all manufactures and all other trade, that might arise from ye product of the country are laid aside. The inhabitants wear ye like clothing and have the same furniture within their houses with those in this Kingdom; the slaves are cloathed with cottons, kerseys, flannel and coarse linnens, all imported, and it is computed that this Province consumes of British manufactures to the value of £20,000 p. annum. No mines are yet discover'd here; except iron, which are very common but not wrought for want of a sufficient stock and persons of skill to engage in such an undertaking. The number of ships belonging to this Province are only four small brigantines, and not more than 20 sloops for the sea. The inhabitants not being inclined to navigation, but depending upon British bottoms for the exportation and importation of the bulk of their trade; and there has been employ'd of late years above 100 sail of ships from Great Britain.
Virginia. Describe boundaries etc. Continue:—The strength and security of this Colony, in a great measure, depend upon their Militia; their plantations being usually at too great a distance from one another to be cover'd by forts or towns. James Town or Williamsburgh are the only towns in ye whole country, and there is no fort of any consequence for the security of their great navigation and trade but at James Town. However for their protection against the Indians who inhabit among them, and that line to ye westward, they have erected Christiana and some other forts; and the Council and Assembly have lately proposed to your Majesty a scheme for securing ye passes over the great ridge of mountains which lye on the back of this Province, dividing them from the French and Indian nations in the French intrest. Whereupon we have some time since reported our humble opinion to your Majesty, and beg leave upon this occasion to repeat, that we conceive their proposal to be deserving of all reasonable encouragement. Their militia in the year 1690 consisted of 6570 horse and foot. In the year 1703 there were mustered 1403 officers 2161 horse, 1794 dragoons, 5198 foot=10,556. And in the year 1715, they were increased to about 14,000 in all. From whence we compute, supposing the militia to be a sixth part of ye whole, that the total number of the inhabitants (exclusive of negroes) amounts to about 84,000 souls. The Province is divided into 25 counties, and the proprietors of all lands that have been taken up in 20 of the said counties, pay an annual Quit Rent to your Majesty of two shillings in mony or 24 hwt. of tobacco for every hundred acres. But the propriety of the Northern Neck (containing the other five counties) was granted by King Charles the 2d and King James the 2d to the late Thomas Lord Colepepper upon a Quit Rent of £6 13s. 4d. p. annum. The land in the aforesaid twenty counties, on which the said quit rent to your Majesty is paid, contained in 1704, 2,238,143 acres, in 1714, 2,619,773½ acres. However the produce of this Revenue is very much governed by the price of tobacco in the country. For example; on a medium of 10 years ending in 1713 (during which time the tobacco was low) the proceed amounted to £1411 7s. 7¼d. p. ann. And on a medium of the four following years (when the price of tobacco was high)—£2,270 11s. 8d. per annm. There is another revenue in this province that is settled and appropriated by the Assembly for the constant support and charge of your Majesty's Governt. This consists of several duties vizt. on every hogshd. of tobacco exported 2s., on every ton of shipping 1s. 3d., and on every poll imported, 6d. besides the rights for taking up of lands and fines and forfeitures. On a medium of six years, ending the 25th of Octor. 1710, the whole produced clear of charges £2,845 15s. 11d. p. annm. And upon the same medium the established salaries etc., amounted to £2,821 12s. 3d.; the ordinary charges, £176 12s. 5d.; and the contingent expences, £97 3d. 2d. The total annual charge as aforesaid, £3,095 7s. 10d., which exceeds the amount of the revenue £249 11s. 11d. And this excess hath been generally allowed by your Majesty as well as by your Royal Predecessors out of ye produce of the Quit Rents. But besides the said standing and certain charge, for which provision is made as aforesaid, this Province has been always obliged, for maintaining their guards and a garrisons on ye Indians frontiers, for erecting several publick magazines and buildings and discharging other necessary expences, to levy certain quantities of tobacco, at so many hwt. p. head on every tythable, which comprehends all persons exceeding sixteen years of age, except white women. The number of the said tythables according to their respective lists. In 1698 amounted to 20,523. In 1705 to 27,053. In 1714 to 31,540. The principal product of Virginia is tobacco, and in general its of a better quality than that of Maryland. Before the conclusion of the last Peace with France, the Virginia planters, exported to this Kingdom at least 30,000 hogsheads p. annm. but about that time the trade declining for want of foreign consumption, an act was passed in the 12th of Her late Majesty's reign, for encouraging the tobacco trade; and your Majesty hath been since graciously pleased to give your Royal Assent to an act for continuing the same. But as this commodity is of such consequence to the trade of Great Britain, not only with respect to our home consumption, but likewise to our foreign exportation; all further occasions should be laid hold of for giving some ease and encouragement to the same, by a further reduction of the duty so soon as it may be done consistant with the present appropriations thereof. The other branches of the trade between this Kingdom and Virginia consist in pitch and tar, pipe and hogshd. staves; skins and furrs; and a few druggs; they also export to the other plantations some small quantities of tobacco, provisions and lumber but their dependance is almost wholly on the produce of tobacco.
Carolina. Describes Charter, boundaries and Government; Continues:—
North Carolina was formerly part of Virginia till granted to the Lords Proprietors by their second Charter. And it was at a certain place in this province called Roanoke, that Sir Walter Raleigh's servants made their first settlement. The boundary that separates this Province from Virginia being conceived in very disputable terms hath never yet been finally settled tho' commissaries have been formerly deputed by the two colonies for that purpose, who could never agree either upon the latitude or upon the true position of Wyanoke Creek; for ye Indians from whom this place derives its appelation, having often wander'd as their usual custom is, over that part of the Continent, and fix'd for certain times at different places there, they have left their name to many creeks. The South limits of this Colony have likewise admitted of some disputes the commissionrs. of the Lords Proprietors having frequently named Cape Fear instead of the river of that name for their boundary. The Government of North Carolina is something different from that of the Southern Province, resembling more nearly that for Virginia, of which as hath been observed it was formerly a part, being divided into two counties and seven precincts with petty courts for each, from whence in all matters exceeding a certain value, appeals lye to the Supream Court held by the Govr. and Council, which liberty of appeal as we are informed your Majesty's subjects in South Carolina do not at present enjoy. There are great tracts of good land in this province, and it is a very healthy country, but the situation renders it for ever incapable of being a place of considerable trade, by reason of a great Sound near sixty miles over, that lyes between this coast and the Sea, barred by a vast chain of sandbanks so very shallow and shifting that sloops drawing only five foot water run great riske in crossing them. The little commerce therefore driven to this colony is carry'd on by very small sloops chiefly from New England; who bring them clothing and iron ware in exchange for their pork and corn, but of late they have made small quantities of pitch and tar, which are first exported to New England, and thence to Great Britain. We are not throughly informed of the number of inhabitants; but according to the best accounts we cou'd get, the number of persons in their tythables or Poll Tax, were not long since above 1600, of which about one third were blacks. The Government. of this Province having for many years been a very disorderly one, this becomes a place of refuge for all the vagabonds whom either debt or breach of the Laws have driven from the other Colonies on the Continent, and pirates have too frequently found entertainment amongst them. There is no great prospect that these mischiefs should be redressed unless your Majesty shall be pleased to resume this as well as the Southern Province into your immediate Government; in which case North Carolina might in our opinion be restored again to Virginia and put under the care of your Majesty's Governor of that Colony. South Carolina extends from Cape Fear to the River of St. Mathias. The inhabitants of this Province conceiving themselves to be ill-used, or greatly neglected by the Lords Proprietors, have lately deposed their Governor and Council, and chosen a new Governor and Council of their own, which great disorder induced your Majesty to reassume the Government. thereof. This colony is the Southern frontier to your Majesty's plantations on the Continent, and will, no doubt, under ye happy influence of your Majesty's immediate protection become a flourishing colony. The trade of this province with respect to their own shipping is not hitherto very considerable, the inhabitants not having above 20 sail of their own amounting to about 1,500 tons; and as they chiefly apply themselves to the plantation work, they have not many sea-faring men; but their trade is carried on by the merchts. of Great Britain who reap a considerable advantage thereby. The commodities the people of Carolina take from Great Britain, are all manner of cloathing, woollen linnen, iron ware; brass and pewter; and all sorts of houshold goods, having no manufactures of their own, and their southerly situation will make them always dependant on G. Britain for a supply of those commodities, whose consumption may be computed at about £23,000 p. annum; besides ye cost of a considerable number of negroes with which the British merchants have for some time yearly furnished them, taking their returns in rice and naval stores. There is a small trade carried on between Carolina and the Maderas for wine, and the commissioners of the Customs have a Surveyor General, a Collector, a Comptroller, a searcher, a Waiter, and a Naval Officer to put the Laws of Trade and Navigation in execution here; But daily experience shews that illegal trade is not to be prevented in a Proprietary Government. The natural produce of this country is rice, pitch, tar, turpentine, buck-skins, furs, corn, beef, pork, soap, mirtle-wax-candles; various sorts of lumber, as masts, cedar boards, staves, shingles, and hoop poles: But the soil is thought capable of producing wine, oyle, silk, indico, pot-ashes, iron, hemp and flax. The number of white inhabitants in this province have some time since been computed at 9000, and the blacks at 12,000: But the frequent massacres committed of late years by the neighbouring Indians at the instigation of the French and Spaniards, has diminished the white men, whilst the manufacture of pitch and tar has given occasions to increase ye number of black slaves who have lately attempted and were very near succeeding in a new revolution, which wou'd probably have been attended by ye utter extirpation of all your Majesty's subjects in this province. And therefore it may be necessary for your Majesty's service that the Govr. should be instructed to propose some law to the Assembly there for encouraging the entertainment. of more white servants for the future. The Militia of this Province does not consist of above 2000 men, and therefore considering the circumstances and situation these people are in, exposed in case of a rupture on the one side to the Spaniards, on the other to the French, and surrounded by savages, who are for the most part in an interest opposite to that of Great Britain, unless your Majesty shall be graciously pleased to send a military force to this country sufficient to protect your subjects, this valuable province in all probability will be lost. For this reason we took the liberty of representing to the late Lords Justices the necessity of sending four regiments thither to prevent the further incroachments of the French in those parts. We likewise propose, that as well to ascertain the bounds of this province which have not hitherto been fix'd any other way but by the Charters to ye Lords Proprietors, as to extend and protect the trade of your Majesty's subjects there; several small forts should be erected in proper places, and that particular care should be taken to secure the navigation of the several rivers emptying themselves in those parts to the northwd. of Fort St. Augustine into the Westward ocean, but more especially that of the River Alamatahama, which ye French have some time ago new christned by the name of the River May. We were humbly of opinion that no time should be lost in a matter of this consequence, because the great difficulties the French have found in the navigation of the River Mississippi; made it necessary for them to secure a better part, and they did some time ago take Pensicola from the Spaniards, which being since as we are informed restored, it is very probable the French may think of opening another communication from their great settlement at Mobile down the River Alamatahama to ye western ocean, wch. wou'd be a more fatal blow, than any that has hitherto been given to your Majesty's intrest in America. The fortifications of this country at present are but very few, and their situation not the most advantagious. Charles Town, for instance, is regularly fortify'd and hath about 100 guns mounted on the walls, the largest not exceeding 12 pound ball. There is likewise a small fort of about 10 guns at Port Royal and a pallizado fort at the late Savana Town, of 5 or 6 small guns, which lyes about 140 miles west from Charles Town towards the head of Santee River. 120 miles from Charles Town is also another small fort; in all which places there are about 100 men in garrison. But Port Royal seems to have been a good deal neglected, considering it is at present the frontier town, lyes ready for the supply of the Indian trade and the protection of the out garrisons, and has an excellent harbour; for which reason we should think that place ought to be better secured. It would likewise be for your Majesty's service that other forts should be built in this Province in proper places, for the reasons which shall be mentioned in that part of this Representation relating to the means proposed for preventing the encroachmts. of our European nei'bours. The Indian nations lying between Carolina and the French settlemts. on the Mississippi, are about 9200 fighting men, of which number 3400 whom we formerly traded with, are intirely debauched to the French intrest by their new settlement and fort at the Albamas. About 2000 more that lye between your Majesty's subjects, and those of the French King, trade at present indifferently with both; but it is to be feared that these likewise will be debauched by the French unless proper means be used to keep them in your Majesty's intrest. The remaining 3800 Indians are the Cherekees, a warlike nation inhabiting the Apalatché mountains; these being still at enmity with the French, might with less difficulty be secured; and it certainly is of ye highest consequence, that they should be engaged in your Majesty's intrest, for should they once take another party, not only Carolina, but Virginia likewise would be exposed to their excursions. Besides the Indians above mentioned there are about 1000 savages dispersed in several parts between Carolina and Virginia, from whom we have not much to apprehend, provided your Majesty's governors of these provinces live in that perfect harmony and good understanding which they ought to maintain with each other, and do justice to these poor people, who seldom give ye first offence. It were to be wished we had not so much reason to complain of our European nei'bours in these parts, but besides the encroachmts. made by ye French, your Majesty's subjects meet with ill treatment from the Spaniards, more particularly at Fort St. Augustine where they have a garrison of 3 or 400 white men, and about 200 Indians, who give shelter to all our runaway slaves, and without regard to Peace or Treaties, commit frequent acts of hostility upon your Majesty's subjects. We are not as yet informed whither the Spaniards have resettled Pensecola, or what force they have there; but they have a fort at the mouth of the Calahooche River with about 400 or 500 men in garrison, and we shall give your Majesty an account of the French force in the nei'bourhood, in that part of our Report which relates particularly to their settlements on the Continent. This province having hitherto but few inhabitants; the quit rents of the Lords Proprietors amount only to about £500 p. annum; but there is a duty of 3d. p. skin for the benefit of the clergy; and the contingencies of the Government, which vary every year, are raised by the Assembly. There are no officers in Carolina that have patents from ye Crown, and none appointed at present by Yor. Majty's. authority but those of ye Govrs. and Custom: house: officers. All other officers both civil and military hold their employments immediately under the Lords Proprietors, their Governors or ye Assembly. Rice being the principal and staple commodity of this Province, and the merchants trading to Carolina having often complained that the advantage they formerly reaped by supplying Portugal with rice, hath been almost entirely lost since the Act of the 3rd and 4th years of Queen Ann, whereby rice is made one of the enumerated commoditys. and the importation thereof restrained to Great Britain; we think it necessary before we conclude what we have to offer concerning this Province, to lay before your Majesty a particular state of this trade. Before the production of rice in Carolina the Kingdom of Portugal was supply'd with very great quantities every year from Italy. And the great consumption thereof in Portugal, with the liberty of transporting it directly thither from the Plantations, as freely as any other grain, first induced the people of Carolina to plant and propagate it. Their labour and industry being by degrees rewarded by an abundant increase of this useful and valuable product, they had a very fair prospect of wholly supplying the Portugal markets therewith. But being deprived by ye foresaid Act, of the liberty of transporting their rice directly to Portugal, and the additional freight (from this to that Kingdom) with all other charges thereon, amounting to about one third part of its value; no rice could be carried from England to Portugal but when the price has happen'd to be very high there. But the true state of this affair will best appear by the following account of the quantities of rice imported and re-exported communibus annis, on a medium of five years from Christmas 1712 to Christmas 1717 vizt.: Imported from Carolina and the other plantations, 28,073 cwt.; from East India, Turkey and Italy about 250 cwt.; the Total Import, 28,323 cwt. per ann.
Re-exported to Portugal, Spain and other parts to the Southward of Cape Finisterre, 2,478 cwt.; to Holland, Germany, and other countries to northward of Cape Finisterre, 20,458 cwt.; the Total Export, 22,936 cwt. per ann.
Remained for Consurripton, 5,387 cwt.; total 28,323 cwt.
It is evident from this account that the exportation of Rice from Great Britain to the northward is very considerable; and that the exportation of this commodity to the Southward is very small, which can arise from no other cause but the great expence that attends the same in double freight; the rice of Carolina being esteemed the best in the world; but by that means it happens that the Italians being near at hand have almost entirely beaten your Majty.'s subjects out of this trade; which proves very detrimental to the navigation of Great Britain: for if the Italians had not a vent for their rice in Portugal, they would hardly be able to carry on a trade to that Kingdom and Spain in their own shipping, they having no other gross goods but rice and paper, sufficient to furnish a lading for great ships; and they dare not adventure in any others for fear of the Algerines. We would therefore humbly submit to your Majesty whether it might not be for the advantage of the Plantations and of Great Britain likewise, to allow that rice might be carry'd from Carolina directly to Portugal or any other part of Europe to the Southward of Cape Finisterre; upon giving security that every vessel so freighted shall touch in Great Britain before she returns to the West Indies. The consequence of ye Plantatn. trade. Thus having gone through the several Colonies on the Continent in order to demonstrate ye consequence their trade is to Great Britain; we have drawn out from the Custom House books an Account No. 1 containing the total amount or value of all goods imported from and exported to the said Colonies, communibus annis, on a medium of 3 years from Christmas 1714 to Christmas 1717. And forasmuch as the trades to Africa and Madera may be accounted branches of the Plantation trade, the returns of the goods exported to those countries being generally sent from thence in negroes and wine to the Plantations; we have included the amount thereof in this account. But having enquired upon this occasion into the valuations of the aforesaid goods, we are inform'd that tobacco, sugar and some other of the Plantation products are over-rated; the prices of those commodities having been considerably reduced since the valuations were adjusted in the books of the Inspector-General of the Customs, from whence this is drawn; however as we have not ye same objection to the valuations of our own manufactures and products, we shall lay the same before your Majesty upon ye foot it now stands. From this account it will appear that the Plantations in America take from hence yearly to the value of one million sterling, in British products and manufactures and foreign goods. And altho' the exports charged in this account to the several Colonies on the Continent, amount to no more than £431,027 16s. 5d., yet as the Continent has undoubtedly a great share in the general article of Entry to the West Indies as well as in the Articles of Entry to Africa and the Maderas, the exports to ye Contint. may well be computed at £500,000 0s. 0d. But before we enter into the particular circumstances of ye Plantation trade on the Continent, it will be necessary to ascertain the principal commodities wherein their trade consists; and how much they respectively amt. to, which will appear Account No. 2. It may be observed from this account that the exports to the Continent of America exceed the imports from thence about £200,000 per ann. which debt falls upon ye Provinces to the northward of Maryland who probably are inabled to discharge the same by the trade they are permitted to carry on in America and to Europe in commodities not enumerated in the Acts of Trade, as may be gathered from a state of their shipping and tonnage hereunto annexed, number 3, 4 and 5; altho' the same is not so perfect as it might otherwise have been for want of returns from the Proprietary Governmts. Besides the advantages accruing to Great Britain from so large an exportation to the Colonies on the Continent of America, from whence as hath been already shewn, there doth arise a ballance of £200,000 sterling; it is to be observed that your Majesty's revenue of the Customs is very considerably increased by this trade; that great part of ye commodities which we receive from thence are such as we should otherways be obliged to take from foreign markets; and that there is a very great profit arising from the re-exportation of such of the said Plantation commodities to foreign markets as are not expended at home. Our home consumption of tobacco only may be computed at lb wt. 8,175, 226, per ann.: and the tobacco re-exported lb. wt. 17,142,755 p. ann.: as may appear by the account number 6, wherein the sugars as well as the tobacco imported and exported for five years from Christmas 1712 to Christmas 1717, are distinctly stated. And we have the rather chose to joyn them, because they are the two staple commodities of the islands and of the Continent, whose intrests are inseparable, nor would it be possible to support the sugar Islands without the assistance of the Continent. There still remains to be considered another great advantage that arises to this Kingdom from the Plantation trade, which is, the constant employment it gives to our British shipping. The number and tonnage of the ships cleared from England for His Majesty's Dominions in America, and for Africa and Medera in three years, from Christms. 1714 to Christmas 1717, is as follows:—
Cleared in the said years,
For Ships. Tonns. Medium of the tonnage p. ann
New England 240 20,276 6,7582/3
New York 64 4,330 1,443⅓
Pennsylvania 55 5,429 1,8092/3
Maryland 108 17,651 5,8832/3
Virginia 340 47,009 15,6692/3
Carolina 92 8,033 2,6772/3
For the Continent 899 102, 728 34,2422/3
Barbados 347 37,849 12,616⅓
Antegao 111 11,092 3,697⅓
Montserrat 25 1,770 590
Nevis 33 2,963 9872/3
St. Christophs 30 3,170 1,0562/3
Jamaica 162 22,913 7,6372/3
Bermuda 4 160 53⅓
For the Islands 712 79,917 26,639
West Indies 123 16,687 5,562½
Hudson's Bay 7 732 244
Total for the Plantatn. 1,741 200,064 66,688½
For Africa 92 10,823 8,899
Madera 181 15,875
In all 2,014 226,762 75,587
that is communibus annis 671 75,587
And whereas there was clear'd from this Kingdom, on a medium of the said three years ending at Chistmas 1717, for all foreign parts.
Ships. Tons.
British 5,663 419,681 p.annum.
Foriegn 330 17,446
In all 5,993 437,127
It is evident that the shipping employ'd annually in the Plantation trade only, was more than a sixth part of the whole tonnage for that time from the several ports of England to all foreign countries. But computing that the other five sixths parts of the said shipping may be employ'd (a little more or less) as follows:—
1/6 in the Trade to spain, Portugal, the Streights, Canaries, East India, Newfounland and Archangel.
1/6 to Denmark, Norway and the Baltick; 9/6 to Germany, Holland, Flanders and France, and 1/6 to Ireland, and the other British Islands.
And it being obvious that the ships employ'd in the trades near home make two or three voyages whilst the ships bound to the Plantations are performing one, it is very probable that the trade which is carried on between England and the American Plantations, imploys at least one fourth part of the shipping annually clear'd from this kingdom. And upon casting up the tunnage of the Plantation products re‐exported in the year 1717, it appears there was imploy'd near half as much shipping in transporting these goods from hence to Germany, Holland and other foreign countries, as was employ'd in the trade therefore it may be concluded that about one third part of the shipping imploy'd in the foriegn trade of this Kingdom is maintained by the Plantation trade. But notwithstanding the advantages at present arising from the Plantation trade are so very considerable; it is not to be doubted but that they might still be render'd much more useful if sufficient encouragement were given to induce them, to turn their industry to the production of the naval stores of all kinds, and of such other commodities as our necessties require, and which are purchased by us with great disadvantage from foreign countries; from whence this convenience amongst many others would naturally result, that the more northern Colonies would be thereby enabled to pay their ballance to England, without laying under the necessity of carrying on a trade to foreign parts, in some respects detrimental to their Mother Kingdom.
Number 1.
The total value of the Imports from The total value of the Exports to
£ s. d. £ s. d.
187,059 0 0 Antegoa 30,855 19 9
364,557 6 10 Barbados 140,697 14 5
332,266 0 10 Jamaica 147,931 5 6
34,485 5 9 Montserrat 4,921 11 6
85,078 15 6 Nevis 12,729 10 0
98,772 18 5 St. Christophers 11,182 7 1
1,102,219 7 4 348,318 8 3
65,016 7 2 New England 139,269 14 6
22,607 16 4 New York 50,314 6 6
5,051 7 0 Pensylvania 20,176 14 2
92,675 10 6 209,760 15 2
250,994 10 6 Virginia and Maryland 198,276 4 9
38,906 16 1 Carolina 22,987 16 6
382,576 17 1 On the Continent 431,027 16 5
1,102,219 7 4 On the Sugar Islands 348,318 8 3
3,391 17 0 West Indies in General 96,986 6 2
412 19 6 Bermudas 1,396 3 3
6,898 6 10 Hudson's Bay 1,951 6 2
1,495,499 7 9 879,680 0 3
27,236 12 9 Africa 87,415 16 11
4,960 14 8 Madera 81,427 7 1
1,527,696 15 2 Total 1,048,523 4 3
Number 2.
The Principal Imports from New England, New York, Pensylvania, Virginia, Maryland and Carolina are as follows:—
£ s. d.
In skin and furrs 17,340 14 10 Products of the Indian trade.
Turpentine 12,082 19 5 Of the said Plantations.
Pitch and Tar 34,990 0 0
Train Oyle 7,680 18 7
Whale–fins 3,679 14 3
Tobacco 236,588 18 1
Rice 19,206 18 4
Sugar brown 9,834 7 3 Of foreign Plantations.
Logwood 21,060 6 4 Of Campeche.
362,464 17 1
In all other goods 20,112 0 0
The total Import according to the aforesaid General Account 382,576 17 1 p. annum.
But the tobacco being overvalued about 80,000 0 0
The said Import cannot amount to more than 302,576 17 1 p. annum.
And the principal exports to the said Provinces, are as follows, In British Manufactures and Products.
£ s. d.
Woollen Manufactures 147,438 11 7
Silk wrought and thrown 18,468 7 1
Linnens and Sail Cloth 11,464 9 0
Cordage 11,284 5 9
Gunpowder 2,392 15 5
Leather wrought and saddles 15,161 12 6
Brass and copper wrought 2,565 6 7
Iron wrought and nails 35,631 13 6
Lead and shott 2,850 9 3
Pewter 3,687 6 11
In many other goods 43,941 5 6
294,886 3 1
In Foreign Goods
Linnens 86,413 0 0
Calicoes 10,102 4 0
Prohibited East India Goods 10,523 12 9
Wrought Silks 1,189 11 1
Iron and Hemp 6,152 5 11
In other foreign goods 21,760 19 9
136,141 13 6 Foreign Goods
294,886 3 1 British Goods
The said export amounts to according to the aforesaid General Account. 431,027 16 7 p.annum.
But as it been already mentioned, the total export might probably amount to at least £500,000 p.annum.
Number 3.
Ships, sloops and other Vessels. In three years from 24th June, 1714, to the 24th June, 1717, there was cleared from boston:— Tons Men.
495 For the British Islands in the West Indies 27,831 3,830
58 Foreign Plantations 2,597 393
23 West Indies 1,335 175
45 Newfoundland 1,835 274
23 Europe 1,865 210
34 Madera, Azores, ect 1,690 236
678 37,153 5,118
143 Great Britain 11,956 1,412
390 British Plantations on the Continent 11,589 1,883
25 Bay of Campeche for Logwood 1,675 221
11 To ports unknown 415 63
1,247 The total in three yeres that is 62,788 8,697
415 Communibus Annis 20,929 2,899
N.B. 1,199 of the aforesaid
1,247 ships and vessels
Containing 58, 152 tons were Plantation built.
Number 4.
In the said there years there was also cleared from the Port of Salem (Mass.)
Ships, and Sloops, Etc. Tons. Men.
59 For the British Islands in ye West Indies 2,296 328
2 Surinam 75 10
10 West Indies 304 46
117 Europe 9,122 1,152
9 Madera, Azores, etc. 421 59
197 12,218 1,595
4 Great Britain 208 29
31 British Plantations on the Continent 1,005 158
232 The Total in three years that is 13,431 1,782
77 Communibus Annis 4,477 594
Number 5.
And from New York there was clear'd in 3 years from 24th June 1715 to 24 June 1718.
Ships, Sloops, Etc. Tons. Men.
63 To Great Britain 4,382 638
205 British Plantations on ye Continent 4,234 897
250 British Plantations on the Islands 8,776 1,904
9 Newfoundland 395 67
85 Foreign Plantations 2,595 603
24 Maderas, Africa, etc. 1,395 282
9 Europe 615 122
645 Total in three years that is 22,392 4,513
215 Communibus Annis 7,464 1,504
Number 6.
Sugar, Brown.
Imported cwt. Re-exported cwt.
In 1713 503,528 183,201
1714 512,235 157,036
1715 617,414 142,701
1716 684,378 161,519
1717 762,735 289,994
In the sd. 5 years 3,080,290 934,451
Or Communs. Annis 616,058 186,890
Remained for Consumption 429,168
Imported lb. wt. Re-exported lb. wt.
In 1713 21,598,807 16,597,796
1714 29,264,094 19,650,246
1715 17,810,864 13,479,110
1716 28,316,088 16,601,441
1717 29,600,053 19,385,186
In the sd. 5 years 126,589,906 85,713,779
Or Coms. Annis 25,317,981 17,142,755
Remained for Consumption 8,175,226 p.ann.

The French Nation having always been desirous to extend their Dominions in America, have lost no opportunity of encroaching upon their neighbours there; and altho' your Majesty, and your Royal Ancestors have an uncontestable right, as well by discovery as possession, to the several British Colonies in America; yet the French Kings have at sundry times made grants thereof to their subjects; such were the Letters Patents of Lewis the 13th in favour of the French West India Company bearing date the 29th of April 1627, and those of Lewis the 14th to Mons. Croisat some time since surrendered to the United India Company of France, upon which they build their title to ye Mississippy; many other instances of ye like nature might be given, were they necessary to the present purpose. But these two which comprehended almost all your Majesty's Dominions in America may be sufficient to show the unlimitted inclination the French have to encroach upon your Majesty's territories in those parts. However as the French are convinced that a Charter without possession can never be allowed by the law of Nations to change ye property of the soil, they have imploy'd another artifice and without embarrassing themselves about former discoveries made by the subjects of other Princes, have built small forts at the heads of lakes and rivers along that vast tract of land from the entry of the River of St. Lawrence, to ye embouchure of the Mississippy into the Bay of Mexico, not so much with intention probably to bound their own territories as to secure what they have already got till a more favourable juncture shall give them occasion to make further intrusions upon their neighbours. And if the late war in Europe when the Allies made so successful efforts against the exorbitant power of France; had not found Lewis the 14th imployment at home, it is very likely the French would have been much more formidable than they are now in America; notwithstanding ye Treaty of Neutrality for those parts made at London in 1686 ought to have secured to Gt. Britain the several Colonies whereof your Majesty's Royal Predecessors stood possessed at the time of making the said treaty. But the little regard the French have to that Treaty, will evidently appear by ye invasions and frivolous pretences set on foot by their Ministers during the debates in ye year 1687 at London when the Lords Sunderland, Middleton and Godolphin were appointed by King James to confer with ye then French Ambassadors Monsr. de Barillon and the Sieur Dusson de Bonrepeaux concerning the boundaries of the Hudson's Bay Compy. And altho' that Conference terminated in a confirmation of the aforesd. Treaty of Neutrality, together with a resolution of settling the boundaries between the English and French Colonies in America by proper Commissaries, which resolutn. has since been enforced by the 10th Article of the Treaty of Utrecht; yet the French could never be induced to enter sincerely upon so necessary a work notwithstanding Commissioners were lately appointed for that purpose, and met with others deputed by the French Court at Paris. It is therefore very apparent from these transactions, that there remains no way to settle our boundaries, but by making ourselves considerable at the two heads of your Majesty's Colonies north and south; and by building of forts, as the French have done, in proper places on the inland frontiers. The French territories in America extend from the mouth of the River St. Lawrence to the embouchure of the Mississippy, forming one continued line from north to south on the back of your Majesty's Plantations; and altho' their garrisons in many parts are hitherto but very inconsiderable, yet as they have by the means of their missionaries debauched several of the Indian Nations to their intrest, your Majesty's subjects along the Continent have the utmost danger to apprehend from this new settlement, unless timely care be taken to prevent its increase. But this will be the proper subject of another part of this report, and therefore we shall at present proceed to give your Majesty an account of the forts ye French have built, and the settlements they have made to secure their communication of the several routs they have practised from Quebeck to the Mississippy, of the Indian nations in those parts whom they have gain'd over to their intrest, and of those who still remain friends to your Majesty's subjects. And as the most perfect account we have of these particulars was transmitted to us some time since by Mr. Keith the present Govr. of Pensylvania, we hold ourselves obliged upon this occasion to acknowledge how much we are indebted to his exactness and application therein. It is evidently from Father Hennipen and La Salles Travels, that ye communicatn. between Canada and Mississippy is a very late discovery, and perhaps such an one as no nation less industrious than the French would have attempted. But it must be allowed that they have a great advantage over us in this particular, to wch. even the nature of their religion and Government do greatly contribute. For their missionaries, in blind obedience to their superiours, spend whole years in exploring new countries. And the encouragement the late French King gave to the discoverers and planters of new tracts of lands, doth far exceed any advantages your Majesty's Royal Predecessors have hitherto given to their subjects in America. And as your Majesty's European Dominions have long been burthen'd with the expence of two successive wars, the Parliament of Great Britain have hitherto only been able to assist the Plantations with a very sparing hand; altho' considering the great revenue they bring your Majesty in your Customs, and the vast importance they are of to the trade and navigation of these Kingdoms, it is now to be hoped they may be thought worthy of greater attention. And indeed had this matter been sooner considered, the French Dominions had never been extended from north to south thro' the whole Continent of America. For your Majesty's subjects who had much greater convenience of discovering and making treaties with the Indian nations on the Lakes which lye so contiguous to the back of the British settlements, might effectually have prevented this communication which may prove highly inconvenient to the trade and welfare of your Majesty's Colonies. However it is not even yet too late to think of applying a remedy, nor will it be at all impossible to interrupt a rout which your Majesty may perceive by the following detale hath many natural obstructions, and could never have been rendered practicable without ye greatest industry. From Mount Real on the river St. Laurence the French generally sail in canoes about three leagues to the falls of St. Lewis, where they are obliged to land and travel about half a league before they embark again in order to row up the stream about 60 leagues farther to Fort Frontenac, situate on the north side of the river at the entrance of the Lake Ontario, where they have a garrison consisting of one or two companies. From thence they proceed on the said lake, reputed about 80 leagues in length, to the Great Fall of Niagara, which lies between the Lakes Ontario and Erie, where they are obliged to travel overland again about three leagues before they enter the Lake Erie which is about 130 leagues in length. From this lake to ye Mississippy they have three different routs, the shortest by water is up the River Miamis or Ouamis, on the south-west of Lake Erie, on which river they sail about 150 leagues, without interruption, when they find themselves stopp'd by another landing of about 3 leagues, which they call a carrying place, because they are generally obliged to carry their canoes over land in those places to the next river, and that where they next embark is a very shallow one called la riviere de Portage; hence they row about 40 leagues to the River Oubach, and from thence about 120 leagues to the River Hohio into which the Oubach falls, as the River Hohio does about 80 leagues lower into ye Mississippy, which continues its course for about 350 leagues directly to the Bay of Mexico. There are likewise two other passages, much longer than this, which are particularly prickt down in Hennipen's map, and may be described in the following manner. From the north east of Lake Erie to a fort on the Lake St. Clair called Pont Chartrin, is about 8 leagues sail; here the French have a settlement, and often 400 traders meet there; along this lake they proceed about 7 leagues further and thence to the great Lake Huron about 10 leagues; hence they proceed to the Straits of Missillimackinack 120 leagues; here is a garrison of about 30 French and a vast concourse of traders, sometimes not less than 1000 besides Indians, being a common place of rendezvous; at and near this place the Outarvas an Indian Nation are settled. From the Lake Huron they pass by the Strait Missillimackinack four leagues, being two in breadth and of a great depth, to the Lake Illinois; thence 150 leagues on the lake to Fort Miamis situated on the mouth of the river Chigagoe; from hence came those Indians of the same name; vizt. Miamis who are settled on the forementioned river that runs into Erie. Up the River Chigagoe they sail but 3 leagues to a portage of a ¼ of a league, then enter a small lake of about a mile and have another very small portage, and again another of two miles to the River Illinois, thence down the stream 130 leagues to Mississippy. The next rout is from Missillimackinack on the Lake Illinois to ye Lake de Puans 90 leagues; thence to the River Puans 80 leagues, thence up the same to a portage of about 4 miles before they come to the River Ovisconsing, thence 40 leagues to Mississippy. These distances are as the traders reckon them, but they appear generally to be much overdone, which may be owing to those peoples coasting along the shores of the lakes, and taking in all the windings of the rivers. They have another much shorter passage from Mount Real to Lake Huron by the French river on the north of St. Lawrence which communicates with the two latter routs, but it abounds with falls and therefore it is not so much used. They have also by this river a much shorter passage to the upper lake or Lake Superieur. The French have at all times used their utmost endeavours to bring over the Indians to their intrest; and the missionaries have been so successful in this point, that they have even seduced some part of the Iroquois commonly called by the name of the Five Nations, from their ancient friendship and dependance on your Majesty's Colony of New York; and altho' provision was made by the 15th Article of the Treaty of Utrecht to prevent the like inconveniencies for the future, yet experience hath shewn that such treaties made with the French as cannot be afterwards executed without their assistance, are likely to prove ineffectual. We would therefore follow their example in this particular; and lose no time, at least in securing such of the Indian nations as are not already in league with them. Of this sort are the Miamis—settled upon the river of the same name; which runs into the Lake Erie, and are about 2000 in number. The gaining of this Nation to the British intrest would be of very great importance, and as we are informed might be done by settling a trade with them, and building a small fort upon the Lake Erie, where ye French in 1718, had no settlement. What they have now is not as yet come to our knowledge, tho' in all probability they have or will soon begin to build one there. This will appear to be the more necessary when we shall consider how many Indian nations on the back of the British settlements the French have already gain'd to their intrest. The Illinois are about 3000 men on or near the river of that name. The Ottoways or Missillimackinacks were formerly 3000, but now scarce 500. The Nokes 100 the Fellesavoins 200, the Sakes 200, the Puans 600. All these joyn'd the French against the Five Nations in the late war, and all of them except the Miamis are seated about or near to ye Lake Illinois, which is now commonly called by them Michegan and on the rivers that run into it, and on the Lake Puans and the River Illinois. On the Mississippy and the branches of it there are many great nations especially to the west, as the Missouris, Ozages, Acansias (different from those of Acansa on the east) with many more, not less, as is affirmed, than 60,000 men, with all whom it is said the French have peace or some alliance. On the other hand all the English to ye northward of Carolina, have not 1500 fighting men in their intrest to be depended on, except ye Five Nations. In New England and Connecticut they have very few: in New York only ye River Indians besides the 5 nations. In Jersey and Pensylvania their own or home nations called Delawares are exceedingly decreased, and being in subjection to the 5 nations take their rules from them. In Maryland and Virginia there are very few except those towards the south-west, whom Col. Spotswood with great industry has lately gain'd by treaties and hostages. Those of Carolina and the nations lately in friendship with them, have been very numerous, but are not so at present: the French having made great encroachmts. in those parts and gain'd many of the Indians there, over to their intrest. Thus by one view of the Map of North America, your Majesty will see the danger your subjects are in, surrounded by the French who have robbed them of great part of the trade they formerly drove with the Indians, have in great measure cut off their prospect of further improvements that way; and in case of a rupture may greatly incommode if not absolutely destroy them by their Indian allies; and altho' the British Plantations are naturally fortify'd by a chain of mountains, that run from the back of South Carolina as far as New York, passable but in few places; yet should we not possess those passes, in time this would rather prove destructive than beneficial to us.
Considerations for securing, improving and enlarging your Majesty's Dominions in America.
Having laid before your Majesty the state of your Plantations on the Continent, etc., what further remains is, that we should humbly offer to your Majesty's consideration such methods as have occurred to us, for securing improving and enlarging so valuable a possession as that of your Majesty's Dominions in America; which we conceive might most effectually be done: 1st. By taking the necessary precautions to prevent the incroachments of the French, or of any other European nation. 2nd. By cultivating a good understanding with the native Indians. And lastly by putting the Government of the Plantations upon a better foot. In order therefore to secure your Majesty's Colonies from the encroachments of their European neighbours in America; whereof we receive daily complaints from the several governors on the Continent; it will be highly necessary to begin by fortifying ye two extremities to the north and south. This will appear ye more necessary when it shall be considered how much the French have strengthen'd their settlemts. In the neighbourhood of Nova Scotia and Carolina, whilst your Majesty's subjects either thro' neglect or misfortune, are much weaker in these two provinces, than any other part of America. It has been already observed that there are not above two British families in all Nova Scotia besides the garrison of Annapolis consisting of at present only six companies of 34 men each, but there are still near 3000 French inhabitants remaining in this Province, who contrary to the Treaty of Utrecht refuse to take the Oaths of Allegiance to your Majesty, and in combination with their countrimen at Cape Breton, are daily instigating ye native Indians not only to commit insults upon your Majesty's subjects fishing upon the coast of Nova Scotia, but even to set up a title to the whole Province in opposition to your Majesty's right. The French likewise pretend that only the Peninsula of Accadie (hardly one third part of Nova Scotia) was yielded to the Crown of Great Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht, and notwithstanding this pretence is sufficiently refuted in the former part of this report, by comparing the Charter to Sir William Alexander the first proprietor of Nova Scotia, with the Article of Cession in the Treaty of Utrecht, yet from these unreasonable cavils in time of profound peace and friendship between the two nations may be collected how desirous the French are to make themselves masters of this Province, which they may easily over-run on the first rupture, the same being in a manner already surrounded by their settlements at Cape Breton, Long Island and Quebeek. In our humble opinion therefore no time should be lost in putting of this Province into a better posture of defence; and we humbly beg leave to repeat our proposal for sending of four regiments of foot to Nova Scotia. Without some assistance of this nature it will be in vain to think of settling Nova Scotia; for planters will never fix where they can have no security for their persons or effects; but whenever this main point shall be sufficiently provided for, it is to be hoped so fertile a country will not want inhabitants, all reasonable encouragemt. however should be given to adventurers to settle there, and in some former reports to Yr. Majesty, we have humbly offer'd it as our opinion that it would be greatly for Your Service that the present inhabitants of Newfoundland should be engaged to quit that place where they drive a trade prejudicial to ye fishery of Great Britain, and settle in Nova Scotia where they may be useful to this kingdom. We shall not trouble your Majesty with the repetition of the particulars mentioned in former parts of this representation concerning the fortifications proposed to be erected on the Coast of Nova Scotia, but shall beg leave in general to observe that bays and harbours shou'd be secured and some forts built in proper places for the protection of your Majesty's subjects fishing upon this coast. In that part of this report relating to the French Settlements we have taken notice that nature has furnished the British Colonies with a barrier which may easily be defended, having cast up a long ridge of mountains between your Majesty's Plantations and the French settlements extending from South Carolina to New York; but there are doubtless several passes over these mountains which ought to be secured as soon as they shall be discovered, and we had the honour not long ago to recommend to your Majesty's approbatn. a proposal for fortifying the passes on the back of Virginia. In our opinion all possible encouragement should be given to discoveries and undertakings of this nature; for if all the passes over this ridge of mountains are not secured, your Majesty's subjects will be lyable to the insults of the French and of the Indians under their influence, who are very numerous. But altho' these mountains may serve at present for a very good frontier, we should not propose them for the boundary of your Majesty's Empire in America. On the contrary it were to be wished that the British settlements might be extended beyond them and some small forts erected on ye great lakes in proper places by permission of the Indian proprietors; and we would particularly recommend ye building of a fort on the Lake Erie, as hath been proposed by Col. Spotswood your Majesty's Lieut. Governor of Virginia, wherby the French communication from Quebeck to the River Mississippy might be interrupted, a new trade open'd with some of the Indian nations, and more of the natives engaged in your Majesty's intrest.
There will be the same reason for erecting another fort at the falls of Niagara, near the Lake Ontario. Mr. Burnet your Majesty's Govr. of New York hath already form'd a scheme for this purpose which we hope he may be able to execute by the consent and assistance of the Seneccees, one of the Five Indian nations dependant on your Majesty, to whom the soil belongs. But because these lakes lye at a very great distance from the settlements already made by your Majesty's subjects, to secure intermediate stages a third fort might be built at the head of the Potomack River which divides Virginia from Maryland, and a fourth at the head of Sasquehana River, wch. runs thro' Pensylvania into the Bay of Cheasapeake. Carolina likewise being the southern frontier of your Majesty's Plantations, and lying much exposed to the incursions both of the French and Spaniards, as well as to ye insults of the Indians; demands your Majty's. immediate assistance and protection. It would be for your Majesty's service, that the heads and emboucheurs of all rivers running thro' this Province should be secured; in our humble opinion, a less force than four regimts. of foot will not be sufficient for the protection of your Majesty's subjects there, especially considering how many places will require garrisons; for besides those already mentioned under the head of Carolina, it will be highly necessary that three others should be erected on the Savanah, Catahooche and Hagaloge rivers; for at Palachakolas on the Savanah river the French had formerly a Settlement in the time of Charles the Ninth, and intend to settle there again if not prevented. A fort on Catahooche River would secure a communication with the Bay of Apalatche, and another on Hagaloge River might not only interrupt the communication of ye French settlements, but likewise give your Majty.'s subjects an opportunity of gaining the Charokees, a war-like nation and the only Indians of consequence in those parts that have not already made peace with the French. We are very sensible that this proposal will be attended with expence; but we hope it may be fully justify'd by the necessity thereof, for the preservation of the British Colonies in America.
In relation to the Indians. The second particular wherein your Majesty's intrest is highly concerned wth. respect to the trade and the security of the British Plantations, is that of cultivating a good understanding with the native Indians, as well those inhabiting amongst your Majesty's subjects, as those that border upon your Majesty's Dominions in America; and herein at all times hath consisted the main support of our French neibours who are so truly sensible of what consequence it is to any European nation settling in America to gain the natives to their intrest, that they have spared no pains, no cost nor artifice to attain this desirable end; wherein it must be allowed, that they have succeeded, to ye great prejudice of your Majesty's subjects in those parts, having debauched as hath already been observed, some part of the Five Nations bordering upon New York from their ancient league and dependance on the Crown of Great Britain. For this purpose their missionaries are constantly imploy'd, frequent presents are made to the Sachems or Kings of ye several nations, and incouragement given for intermarriages between the French and natives, whereby their new empire may in time be peopled without draining France of its inhabitants. It was for this reason that in the draught of instructions for the Governor of Nova Scotia, we took the liberty of proposing to your Majesty that proper incouragement should be given to such of your Majesty's subjects as should intermarry with the native Indians; and we conceive it might be for your Majesty's service, that the said instructions should be extended to all the other British Colonies. Your Majesty and your Royal Predecessors have frequently made presents to the Indian chiefs, more particularly to those of the Five Nations; but as the same have always hitherto been a charge upon the civil list, which is generally overburthened, so those presents have not been very regularly or seasonably sent to America, and consequently many opportunities of improving the British intrest in those parts, must have been lost for want of them; for which reason it is to be hoped that more exactness will be had in this particular for the future. It is likewise much to be lamented that our zeal for propagating of the Christian faith in parts beyond the seas, hath not hitherto much enlarged the pale of the British Church amongst those poor infidels, or in any sort contributed to promote the intrest of the State in America. But as it is not so immediately our province to propose anything particular upon this head; we can only wish that the same may be hereafter put upon a better foot. There is however one other method left for gaining the good will of these Indians, which Providence hath put into our hands, and wherein ye French could not possibly rival us if we made a right use of our advantage, and that is the furnishing of them at honest and reasonable prices with the several European commodities they may have occasion for; but even this particular from the unreasonable avarice of our Indian traders, and the want of proper regulations, has turn'd to our detriment, and instead of gaining us friends, has very probably created us many enemies. But as we are intirely of opinion that the Indian trade, if fairly carried on, would greatly contribute to the increase of your Majesty's power and intrest in America; we should humbly propose, that the same may be put under as good regulations as ye nature of the thing will admit; for on the succesful progress of this trade, the inlargement of your Majesty's Dominions in those parts doth almost intirely depend; in as much as all the settlemts. that may at any time hereafter be made beyond the mountains, or on ye lakes, must necessarily build their hopes of support much more upon ye advantage to be made by the Indian trade, than upon any profits to arise from planting at so great a distance from the sea. This trade then ought by all possible means to be encouraged, it ought to be equally free in all parts to all your Majesty's subjects in America; and all monopolies thereof discouraged, that no one colony or sett of people whatsoever may engross the same to the prejudice of their nei'bours. All your Majesty's Governors in their respective governments should use their utmost endeavours to prevent the traders from imposing upon the Indians, upon complaint of any injustice done them cause satisfaction to be made, and upon all occasions shew the utmost resentments against the offenders. And that your Majesty's subjects may be the more easily induced to extend this trade as far westward, upon the lakes and rivers behind the mountains as the situation and ability of the respective colonies will permit; forts should be built and garrisons settled in proper places, to protect them. It would likewise be for your Majesty's service that the sevl. Governmts. of your Majesty's Plantations should endeavor to make treaties and alliances of friendship with as many Indian nations as they can, in which treaties all your Majesty's subjects should be expressly included; all the Indian nations in amity with your Majesty's subjects should, if possible, be reconciled, to each other; and all traders should be instructed to use their endeavors to convince the said Indians, that the English have but one King and one interest. And if any Indian nation in league or friendship with any of your Majesty's Colonies, should make war, plunder or any way molest any other Indian nation in friendship with the same colony, your Majesty's Govr. should use all possible endeavrs. to oblige the sd. Indians to make satisfaction for their breach of faith to ye party aggrieved. And that all the Governors of your Majesty's Plantations may be informed of the State of every other Government, with respect to the Indians; it will be necessary that every Governor upon his making any treaty with any Indian nation, should immediately communicate the same to all other your Majesty's governors upon the Continent. We are likewise of opinion that it might be convenient to imitate the French in sending home some chiefs of the most considerable clans or nations to whom they take care to shew the glory and splendor of the French nation in Europe; that the sd. Indians may upon their return instill the greater respect for them amongst their countrymen. All which particulars would in our humble opinion much conduce to the securing of the natives in your Majesty's intrest, and to the enlargement of your frontiers in America.
In relation to the Government of the Plantations. The laws and constitutions of your Majesty's Colonies are copy'd from those of Great Britain, but fall short of them in many particulars; some of which have however from time to time been corrected and amended by your Majesty's instructions to the respective Governors of the different colonies under your Majesty's immediate Government; and they might be rendered still more perfect if your Majesty's commands met with due obedience in the Proprietary and Charter Governments. This is the great obstacle which has hitherto made it impracticable to put the Plantations in general upon a better foot; and therefore we shall beg leave to mention some of those inconveniencies that have arisen from the large powers and privileges subsisting by virtue of several Charters granted by your Majesty's Royal Predecessors, whereby not only the soil but likewise the dominion or government of several colonies is absolutely alienated from the Crown, to certain Proprietors, who far from imploying the said powers and privileges to the use for which they were designed, as we find by former reports from this Board, have frequently refused obedience to such orders as have been given by your Majesty's Royal Predecessors, have broken thro' the laws of Trade and Navigation, made laws of their own contrary to those of Great Britain, given shelter to pirates and outlaws, and refuse to contribute to the defence of the nei'bouring Colonies under your Majesty's immediate government, even in cases of the greatest emergency, altho' they would not have been able to subsist themselves without the assistance of their nei'bours. And altho' in justice to some of the Proprietary Governments, it must be allowed, that they are not all equally involved in this charge, yet certain it is that great inconveniencies do arise from so many different forms of governments, and so many different intrests on the Continent of America; nor is it to be expected that either our Indians or European nei'bours, should pay that respect to your Majesty's subjects, which all those who have the happiness to be under your Majesty's protection might otherwise reasonably hope for; until it shall appear, that all the British Colonies in America hold immediately of one Lord, and have but one joint intrest to pursue; for which reason, and many others, we shall first humbly propose that all the Proprietary Governments should be re-assumed to the Crown, either by purchase, agreement or otherwise, as conceiving this to be one of those essential points without which your Majesty's Colonies can never be put upon a right footing, it might likewise be further observed upon this head, that some of the Proprietary and Charter Governments have shewn too great an inclination to be independant of their mother Kingdom, and have carried on a trade destructive to that of Great Britain, wherein they might undoubtedly be more effectually restrained if they were all of them under your Majesty's immediate government, and were by proper laws compelled to follow the commands sent them by your Majesty; and it hath ever been the wisdom, not only of Great Britain but likewise of all other States, to secure by all possible means the intire absolute and immediate dependancy of their Colonies. On the other hand, it were but just to consider the planters, whatever governments they may live under, as your Majesty's subjects; and that in all reasonable things not prejudicial to the intrest of Great Britain, they should be favour'd and incouraged, more particularly in the raising of naval stores of all kinds, whereby they may greatly advantage themselves and contribute to render their mother Kingdom absolutely independant of all the Northern Powers, and that their religion, liberties and properties should be inviolably preserved to them. We have already had a very successful proof of what due incouragements produce in the particulars of pitch and tar, which at present are made in as great perfection in your Majesty's Plantations, as in any other part of the world, and in such plenty as will enable us to supply foreign parts, since it hath reduced the common price of those commodities one third of their former cost within the space of a very few years, whereby the importation of pitch and tar from the Baltick is greatly decreased, and much mony saved in the ballance of our trade; nor is it to be doubted but iron, flax, hemp and all sorts of timber, might likewise be had from your Majesty's plantations, with the same success upon sufficient encouragement, whereby the trade and navigation of these Realms would be highly advanced, and the Plantations diverted from the thoughts of setting up manufactures of their own interfering with those of Great Britain, and from carrying on an illegal trade with foreigners; but we shall have an opportunity of explaining ourselves more particularly upon this head, in a separate representation to your Majty. relating to such further premiums as we conceive necessary for promoting so useful a design. Your Majesty's revenues arising from the Quit Rents reserved upon grants of land made by your Majesty and your Royal Predecessors, bear no proportion to the extent of your Majesty's territories in America; for such has been the improvident management in this particular that whole provinces have been granted without any, or upon very small reservations to the Crown, and the Governrs. of your Majesty's Colonies, who are by their commissions and instructions usually impowered to make grants of lands, have frequently abused their authority herein, by making exorbitant grants to private persons, and the small quit rents that have been reserv'd, have not been so punctually collected and accounted for, as they ought to have been; the registers of such grants being very imperfectly kept, and no due obedience paid to your Majesty's Auditor of the Plantations. There are likewise other abuses practised in the manner of taking up of lands, whereby ye grantees preserve their claim whilst Yr. Majesty is defrauded of your quit rents, ye lands remain uncultivated, and the industry of the fair planter is discouraged.
To prevent these abuses it may be necessary for your Majesty's service, that the Governors of your Majesty's colonies on the Continent, should, for the future, be restrained from making grants without reservation of the usual quit rents to your Majesty, and from making any grants exceeding 1000 acres to any person in his own, or any other name in trust for him, and that all grants hereafter to be made should be void, unless the land granted, or at least two thirds thereof, be cultivated within a certain term of years to be fixt for that purpose.
That no person should be allow'd to hold any lands for which a patent hath not been actually pass'd, either under the seal of the respective Plantation, or the great Seal of this kingdom, and that all persons petitioning, for the future, to take up lands, should be obliged, upon allowance of such petition, to pass a patent for the same within the space of six years, and pay the usual duties due thereon to Yor. Majesty; in default whereof the said allowance to be void and the lands to be grantable to any other person. That an exact register be kept of all grants already made or to be made, that the quit rents arising therefrom be duly accounted for to your Majesty's Auditor of the Plantations; and that likewise all mony whatsoever levy'd in your Majesty's name; in any of your Majesty's Colonies be accounted for to the said Auditor; which we the rather mention because some of the northern provinces (particularly that of New York) have of late refused to account with your Majesty's Auditor, for monies raised by their Assemblies; which is a practise detrimental to your Majesty's authority, and tends to ye shaking of that dependency which they owe to your Majesty and to their Mother Kingdom. The preservation of the woods in America, which hath hitherto been much neglected, is another particular of very great consequence to your Majesty's service; in as much as the same might prove an inexhaustible store for the Royal Navy of Great Britain. And altho' several Parliaments have been so sensible of the importance of this article, that laws have been made in England for this purpose; yet the daily complaints from America are a proof how ill these laws are executed, and how little regard is paid to your Majesty's Commission and Instructions to Your Surveyor General of the Woods; which is not so much to be wondered at, considering the present Surveyor only acts by Depty. no ways qualify'd for that employment, altho' so extensive a trust would require the constant attendance of a capable and well experienced officer, and ought not to be left to the management of a deputy.
But the many inconveniencies that arise from the granting of offices in the Plantations to persons acting by Deputy there, may deserve your Majesty's animadversion; and we would humbly propose that no offices in the Plantations may be granted for the future without an express clause in each Patent obliging the grantee to attend and discharge the duty of his office in person. We beg leave further to observe that the laws at present in force for the preservation of your Majesty's woods, are very defective; for the exception therein made whereby liberty is given for the cutting of timber growing upon the lands of sevl. persons, hath given rise to many pretentions for destroying timber fit for the service of the Royal Navy; wherefore we wou'd humbly propose that further provision should be made, by act of Parliament in Great Britain for ascertaining your Majtys. right to the woods and the boundaries thereof. But the most effectual way to put in execution what we have already offered upon this subject to your Majesty's consideration, and to render the several provinces on the Continent of America, from Nova Scotia to South Carolina, mutually subservient to each other's support, will be to put the whole under the Government of one Lord Lieut. or Captain General, from whom all other Governors of particular provinces should receive their orders in all cases for your Majesty's service, and cease to have any command respectively in such province where the said Captain General shall at any time reside; as is at present practised in the Leewd. Islands, where each island has a particular Govr., but one General over the whole. The said Captain General should constantly be attended by two or more Councillors deputed from each plantation, he should have a fixed salary sufficient to support the dignity of so important an employment, independent of the pleasure of the inhabitants; and in our humble opinion, ought to be a person of good fortune, distinction and experience. By this means a general contribution of men or mony may be raised, upon the several colonies in proportion to their respective abilities; and the utility of this proposal is so evident, that we shall not trouble your Majesty with any further reasons to inforce the same; but in case your Majesty should be graciously pleased to approve thereof, we shall take a further opportunity of explaining in what manner it may best be executed. But we humbly crave leave to inform your Majesty, that it will be further necessary for your service that whoever presides at this Board, may be particularly and distinctly charged with your Majesty's immediate orders in the dispatch of all matters relating to the Plantations, in such manner as the first Commissioner of the Treasury and Admiralty do now receive and execute your Majesty's Commands, with whom the said Captain General, and all other Governors of your Majesty's Plantations, may correspond. We the rather mention this, because ye present method of despatching business relating to the Plantations, is lyable to much delay and confusion; in as much as there are at present no less than three different ways of proceeding herein, that is to say, by immediate application to your Majesty, by one of your Secretaries of State; by petition to your Majesty in Council, and by representation to your Majesty from this Board; from whence it happens that no one office is thro'ly informed of all matters relating to the Plantations, and sometimes orders are obtained, by surprize, disadvantagious to your Majesty's service; whereas if the business of the Plantations were wholly confined to one office, those inconveniencies would be thereby avoided.
Printed, N.Y. Col. Doc. V. 591–630; and Mich. Pioneer Soc. Coll. xix 1–13; and, in part relating to Carolina, N.C. Col. Rec. II. 418–425; and, in part relating to New Jersey, N.J. Archives, 1st Ser. V. 20. Signed, M. Bladen, E. Ashe, J. Chetwynd, P. Docminique. [C.O. 324, 10. pp. 296–431; and (draft of above report upon Pennsylvania, 3¾ pp.), 5, 1266. ff. 15, 16.]
Sept. 8.
657. Council of Trade and Plantations to Lord Townshend. In reply to Aug. 21st, enclose following. Annexed,
657. i. Same to the King. This Board has always been of opinion, that nothing can be of greater importance to your Majesty's service than ye matter which your Majesty is now pleased to refer to them etc. Refer to reports on importation of Naval Stores from the Plantations. Continue: The latter end of 1718, the Board did apply themselves particularly to this subject, when being assisted therein by some of your Majesty's servants from the Treasury, the Admiralty, the Customs and Navy Board, as well as by the advice of the most eminent traders in the several sorts of Naval Stores, it was thought expedient that a Bill should be brought into Parliament for taking off the duty on iron and wood of all kinds imported from the Plantations, and for continuing ye premium upon hemp for 16 years beyond the time already fix'd by Act of Parliament; and a bill for that purpose was brought into Parliamt. accordingly, but some difference in opinion arising about the importation of iron from the Plantations in barrs the bill was dropt. But as we humbly conceive that the said bill only of pigs and sows instead of barrs in the particular of iron might greatly contribute to encrease the importation of Naval Stores of all kinds from your Majesty's Plantations, we would humbly propose that a bill to the same effect may be brought into Parliament the next Sessions. We are also of opinion, that a clause should be added to the said bill giving leave to import all kinds of mineral oars unwrought from the Plantations to Great Britain duty free. But whenever premiums or encouragements are given for the importation of any commodity from the Plantations, the same should be placed amongst the enumerated species.
657. ii. Copy of bill entituled an Act for giving further encouragement for importing Naval Stores, as passed ye House of Commons and sent up to the Lords in 1713/19. [C.O. 324, 10. pp. 432–435.]
Sept. 9.
658. Lord Carteret to the Council of Trade and Plantations. H.M. having been pleased to appoint his Grace the Duke of Portland to be Governor of Jamaica, you are to prepare draughts of his Commission and Instructions for H.M. approbation etc. Signed, Carteret. Endorsed, Recd. 9th, Read 13th Sept., 1721. ½ p. [C.O. 137, 14. ff. 32, 33v.]
Sept. 9.
659. Same to the Council of Trade and Plantations. Encloses following for their report. Signed, Carteret. Endorsed, Recd. 9th, Read 13th Sept., 1721. ¾ p. Enclosed,
659. i. Governor John Lord Belhaven to the King. By a clause in his Commission Memorialist is impowered to dispose of H.M. lands, not yet granted, at a moderate quit-rent etc. But by the 88th article of his Instructions he is not to encourage any planting nor grant any lands in any of H.M. Islands under his Government, untill he shall receive further orders from H.M. Great improvements may be made in planting spices, indigo etc. "and setling such other Islands within your Memorialist's Government as are yet unplanted particularly in the Island of Tobago to the increase of the trade of yr. Maty.'s Plantations and for the benefit of this Kingdom." Prays further orders for encouraging the planting and granting lands and tenements now in H.M. power to dispose of within Memorialist's Government particularly in the Island of Tobago etc. 1 p. [C.O. 28, 17. ff. 179, 180, 182v.]
Sept. 10.
Boston, N. England.
660. Governor Shute to Mr. Popple. Encloses Journal of Representatives of the Massachusetts Bay begun May 31, 1721, etc. Concludes:—I shall take care that the fees for the last Councellors for New Hampshire shall be paid into the Office so soon as you let me know what they amount to. Signed, Samll. Shute. Endorsed, Recd. 6th, Read 10th Nov. 1721. ¾ p. Enclosed,
660. i. Address of the House of Representatives to Governor Shute, 30th Aug. 1721. Signed, John Clark, Speaker. 9¼ pp.
660. ii. Reply of Governor Shute to preceding. 1st Sept., 1721. ½ small p.
660. iii. Speech of Governor Shute to the House of Representatives.(? Sept. 1721). 2 pp.
660. iv. Reply of the Representatives to preceding. Sept. 1st, 1721. Signed, Elisha Cooke, Speaker pro tempore. 2¾ pp.
660. v. Reply of Governor Shute to preceding. Sept. 5th, 1721. 1 small p.
660. vi. Copy of Vote of Representatives, and message from the Governor, Aug. 23, 1721. 1 small p.
660. vii. Opinion as to the Governor's power of adjourning the Assembly according to the Charter of the Massachusetts Bay. Signed, Robt. Auchmuty. 1¼ pp.
660. viii. Act of the Massachusetts Bay for establishing the form of the writ for calling a General Court etc. Copy. 1¾ pp. [C.O. 5, 868. ff. 130, 131v.–137, 139–142, 143, 145–146v., 148v.]