East Indies: December 1623-January 1624

Calendar of State Papers Colonial, East Indies, China and Japan, Volume 4, 1622-1624. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1878.

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'East Indies: December 1623-January 1624', in Calendar of State Papers Colonial, East Indies, China and Japan, Volume 4, 1622-1624, (London, 1878) pp. 190. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/colonial/east-indies-china-japan/vol4/p190 [accessed 19 April 2024]

Dec 1623-Jan 1624

Dec. 11 to 1624,
Jan. 9.
359. Examinations of John Weddall, Richard Blythe, Charles Clevenger, Gamaliel Embrey, surgeon of the London, and Jas. Beversham. Concerning the value of the prizes taken by the East India Company's ships under their command, Portuguese and Chinese; also the value of the spoil at the taking of Ormuz, in diamonds, jewels, chains of gold, plate, monies, &c. Capt. Weddall says it was between 22,000l. and 25,000l. [Sixteen pages, with marginal notes in the handwriting of Ed. Nicholas. East Indies, Vol. II., No. 84.]
1623? 360. "Propositions concerning the profits to be raised to his Majesty from the island of Ormuz." The King of Persia cannot hold Ormuz one year without aid by sea, and it is doubted whether that King or our merchants have possession of it now; it is reported that the latter, upon the taking of Ormuz, had the customs of that island and half the spoil. The customs were worth to the King of Spain 400,000l. per annum [sic], and would be again if merchants might traffic in safety. It is said that our merchants now make 100,000l. per annum of the customs. Six men of war and 200 men in the castle under a governor, at a cost of about 50,000l. per annum will defend the island against the Spaniard. No fear of the Portugals but two months in the year. All customs from other nations will come into his Majesty's coffers. The King of Persia should be moved to deliver up Ormuz to his Majesty, under certain conditions, and it should then be the mart town for our merchants. [Endorsed as above. One page. East Indies, Vol. II. No. 85.]
1623 ? 361. Petition of Thomazin Powell, with 30 other poor distressed widows, to Viscount Mandeville, President of the Privy Council. Set forth the loss of their husbands' and children's lives and goods, violently taken from them at the Moluccas by the Hollanders. The Council promised that as the States of Holland gave the merchants satisfaction, so the merchants should give the petitioners satisfaction, who were thereupon referred to the Trinity House [see ante, No. 292], and thence to the Admiralty Court to produce proof of their losses. Sir Henry Marten, Judge of the Admiralty, will allow them nothing but wages, out of which deductions are made by the East India Company. Pray for further relief, as being ready to starve and destitute of all comfort. [Domestic Corresp., Jac I., Vol. CXXIV., No. 105, Cal. p. 329.]
1623 ? 362. Abstract of divers petitions and complaints against the Dutch for wrongs done in the East Indies. The names of the petitioners are as follow, viz.:—
Chambers, Marie. Lambert, Gartwright.
Cobb, Eliz. Langram, Susan.
Coke, Katherine. May, Margaret.
Cowley, Barbara. May, Thomasine.
Echill, Sam. Meade, Valentine.
Garlick, Eliz. Miller, Marie.
Greene, John. Powell, Thomasin.
Grice, Ann. Rickman, Priscilla.
Howlett, Robt. Selbie, Maudlin.
Johnson, Marie. Thomson, Martha.
Jourdain, Charles. Tucker, John.
Jourdain, John (decd.). Vinney, Susan.
Knight, Alice. Watkins, Nat.
—[Two pages. East Indies, Vol. II., No. 86.]
Dec. 12.
363. Court Minutes of the East India Company. Great sums of money having been brought to account for fresh victuals expended aboard their ships outward bound, and the former allowance having been an occasion to draw a great number of strangers aboard to the Company's great charge; ordered that no fresh victuals shall be thenceforth allowed after they are once past Tilbury Hope. The Lord Treasurer, desiring to buy 40 or 50 silk quilts, ordered that he shall have them at 6l. per quilt. An offer of Dutch merchants to buy 325 bales of silk at 22s. per lb.; accepted on certain conditions, but to be kept secret. The project for fresh water to be made of salt water, and what recompence will be fit to be given to the inventor re ferred to another time. Concerning the sufficiency of Henry (George, in the margin) Wheatley, mate in the Jonas. Examination of Capt. Weddall, as to the value of the goods taken at Ormuz; he said he esteemed them at 20,000l., "but that the service stood the Company, one way and another, in three times that value:" further that he had received summons to attend the Lord Admiral; the Court advised him to deal clearly and to make true answer to anything that shall be demanded of him. In reference to the complaint of Widow Powell and others to the Council their Lordships have ordered that according to such payment as the Dutch have agreed to make to the English for pillage, the Company shall make restitution to the mariners that lost their goods and no otherwise; the Court remembered that in the late treaty, the motion being made before the Lords, the Dutch rejected the same, and as for Powell's widow, she had received money at several times, and the Company had sent her son into the Indies to ease her (though able to do them no service), but since she has become so troublesome it was now resolved to send for him home again. Committee appointed to attend the Lords and give them satisfaction concerning that business. Complaint of Messrs. Moore and Buggins, servants to the clerks of the Council, that they have not been considered for services in the late treaty; to be gratified with 20s. each. The Lord Treasurer to be moved about the exportation of calicoes. The Company's secretary to be present at the meeting of the Generality concerning Mr. Prusson. Report ef the committee appointed to consider the purser's book of the Jonas; that they find no vouchers, and it is a common thing for pursers to deliver such accounts; ordered that all masters and pursers be at the Court on Wednesday next, where they shall be reproved and admonished: some of opinion that if one of the pursers be removed, the rest will be warned. [Three pages and a half. Court Minute Book, VI., pp. 304–308.]
Dec. 12.
364. Protest by John Goninge, Richard Welden, and George Bruen, by order of President Thomas Brockedon, against the Dutch General, Pieter de Carpentier and Council. That they have to the uttermost of their power inviolably kept the articles of the treaty of 1619 concerning the general trade, but that the Netherlanders have wilfully violated and broken the most material and important articles of which the English have often complained in vain, and have long laboured to reconcile and reform. They will in this instrument only insert the chief heads of their complaints, and so leave them to the consideration of competent judges. First, the Netherlanders exact custom in Batavia against the fourth article, and in Banda constrain the English to pay excise, and will not suffer them to make sale of slaves. Secondly, they protest against the intolerable exactions of the Nethelanders in the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda, under pretence of maintenance of garrison and fortification, the English Company being forced to pay twice as much as they are bound by the contract; all which abuses they collected into 36 articles and delivered to the Dutch General on 9 January last (see ante, No. 236). Thirdly, they protest against the Netherlanders assuming legal authority over all the subjects of the King, and subjecting them to seizures, bodily punishments, and confiscations, "and of late Harman Van Speult, your Governor of Amboyna, after he had with most unsufferable and hellish torments, not heretofore heard of amongst Christians, forced certain Japans to accuse our people of treason, and then with the like torments constrained our people to confess such impossible conspiracies as no mortal enemy of our nation would ever have believed, so that the very heathen did exclaim and wonder at those cruel procedings, and last of all proceeded to the barbarous execution of Capt. Gabriel Towerson and nine others, factors and assistants of his Maj. subjects in Amboyna," which said execution the General and his Council have approved, and have denied the English copies of the examinations and forced confessions. Fourthly, that the Netherlanders restrain them from the commerce of Bantam, being the main pillar of all their (the English) employments in these parts, notwithstanding their protest of 25 June last, wherein they amply confuted the vain pretences of the Netherlanders to the contrary, who still declare their resolution to oppose the English going to Bantam by force of arms, whereby the English remain destitute of cheap lading, and are constrained to procure pepper elsewhere at intolerable rates; that the Netherland's committee make a show of besieging Bantam for their own ends, those of Bantam having egress and regress as freely as ever they had in times of peace, and the Netherlanders using all means to provoke them to bring pepper aboard their ships and suffer others to go and come under their free passes; only the English are debarred; that the Netherlanders suffer the Chinese freely to buy pepper brought from Bantam, and at Sangora and Ligor the English are prohibited trade under pretence of a contract made with the King before the articles of Accord, which is expressly against the meaning thereof. Fifthly, that by the 10th article of the treaty, the defence was chiefly to be employed for gaining the trade of China, to which end the English had set forth two stout fleets for the Manillas in company with the Netherlanders; notwithstanding the Netherlands General dispeeded a great fleet to surprise Macao, and failing there have fortified the Piscadores, hoping thereby to gain the trade of China to themselves, for Capt. Clevenger arriving before Macao in the Palsgrave, offered to land his forces in the same attempt with the Dutch, but their commander, Reyerssen, scornfully rejected Capt. Clevenger's assistance, saying the exploit was for their own Company alone, and the English had no interest therein. Sixthly, that in the fleet, by joint consent set forth for the coast of Goa and Mozambique, in 1622, Admiral Jacob Dedell, in contempt of his commission, and against the will and consent of Capt. Humphrey Fitzherbert, sent away two of his ships about private merchandizing to the Red Sea, which proved the utter overthrow of the voyage; for when they came before Mozambique with three English and two Dutch ships they met three caracs and a galleon, exceeding rich, the Viceroy being in person, and had taken them all if their forces had been united, whereas they only got a small sum of ryals out of a carac they sunk. And the more to confirm Admiral Dedell's faithless and obstinate proceedings both commanders agreed to sail from Choul, and the English fleet accordingly went there and lay there almost a month; but Dedell sailed directly for Surat about the particular affairs of his master's, and meantime another carac and galleon arrived safely in Goa, "which double dealing of you of the Netherlands Company hath given us just cause to, to suspect your sincerity in such actions of defence," or rather offensive war, seeing your performance extends no further than makes for your particular ends and benefits. Seventh, that they refuse to deliver up to us the island of Pooloroon absolutely, according to Article 9 of the Accord, but with restrictions and limitations, and having formerly put to death all the inhabitants under the pretence of treason, refuse to let the English people the island. Lastly, that the General of the Netherlands' Company on 2/12 August 1623, protested against the English for not continuing "those hostile and offensive exploits shadowed under the name of necessary common defence; but the premises being seriously weighed, namely, their appropriating the trade of China, their exactions and bloody executions in the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda, their opposing free commerce with Bantam, Sangora, &c., and their faithless dealing in the common defence, who can justly blame the English for refusing to unite in exploits where their trade is no way opposed. Therefore the President and Council in behalf of the English Company protest against the Netherlands Company, and their General and committees in particular, for all the losses and damages sustained by the English Company, and more particularly against their usurpation of power and authority over the subjects of our gracious Sovereign, and for those indignities drawn upon him by their "reproachful oppressions, barbarous executions, and confiscations;" against their unjust exactions in the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda (a principal cause that they are constrained to desist from trade there); their refusal to deliver Pooloroon, according to agreement and the articles; their opposition of free commerce at Bantam and elsewhere; their advantageous and cautelous proceedings in remote defence or rather offensive war; and more particularly for all losses sustained by the sinister practices of Admirall Dedell, and for the attempt against Macao and fortification of the Piscadores, without their knowledge and consent. Also, they disclaim the charge pretended for the siege of Bantam, and refuse to join in any action otherwise than is expressed in their former Act. Endorsed, "Received in London 29 May 1624, out of Holland, by the Pinnace Hazewindt." A copy of this paper was inclosed by Sec. Conway to Carleton in letter of 25 June 1624 see ante No. 364. [Eight pages. East Indies, Vol. II., No. 71.]
Dec. 12. 365. Copy of the latter part of the above protest. Imperfect. Four pages. The following memorandum is added in Latin: "This schedule was shown to Jeremiah Sambrook the 24th July 1654, and mention is made thereof in his deposition given on the part of the Anglo-Indian Company before the Anglo-Dutch Commissioners, Guilh. Chrymes in the presence of John Theod. Borchloon." [O.C. Vol. X., No. 1128.]
Dec. 13.
366. President Thomas Brockedon to William Hallidaie, Governor of the East India Company. Whereas in several private letters to their President deceased, the Governor gave order for examination of divers offences, whereof Augustine Spaldinge was accused more than a year before, Spalding made request to the President and Council, that they would examine the matter, and give certificate to the Company if they found him guiltless; and finding after examination that most part of those matters whereof he was accused were false, a certificate was delivered to him, copy whereof is sent herewith (wanting). From private trade he cannot wholly clear himself, but that he should drive so prejudicial a trade as is reported is most untrue. The order for suppressing private trade shall not want their endeavours to execute so far forth as they may. In reference to his own employment; has often been a suitor for license to return for England; his covenanted time was but five years, but was content to stay one year longer. Cannot conceive a fitter man for "this prime place of President," than Henry Hawley. Is sorry his poor endeavors have not given the Company content, but entreats his favorable construction in such matters wherein he has failed, and imputes the same to the many businesses heaped upon him by the death of the President. Hopes he will not construe amiss his resolution to return next year. The factors in Jambi, Japan, Siam, and Patani are not yet arrived, nor have they given account as they ought, but next year he intends to balance up the general accounts. Sends by Spaldinge a "Caccatoa" to his worship, and a China bedstead to Mr. William Freeman, legacies from Mr. Fursland. Prays that, seeing he is destitute of friends, he will take him into his protection. [Two pages. Endorsed, "By the Exch[ange]." O.C., Vol. X., No. 1129.]
Dec. ?
367. Thomas Brockedon, Aug. Spaldinge, Henrie Hawley, and John Goninge to Robert Johnson and the rest of the merchants at Jambi. Stevinton's letters and accounts sent by the Moon, came to their hands the 30th October, and they were not a little grieved to understand the great leak sprung upon the Moon, whereby her intended voyage for England is made void. They take notice of the great trouble caused of their unruly people; Powell they will call to account for his "beastly fault." Are sorry to understand of their continual trouble and danger by "that perverse king and people"; all which might be easily remedied if the Dutch did not so obstinately oppose their going for Bantam, the want of which trade constrains them to suffer more indignities than were otherwise tolerable. Can prescribe no certain order to redress or prevent those abuses, but they must make no breach with the King, or give over trade there, for the Company exceedingly press for returns which must chiefly come from Jambi, seeing Bantam continues shut and small hope of alteration without further order from Europe. If they think it needful for security to keep on board a ship before the town, and out of her to make sale of their commodities, hold it not amiss, so it may be done without giving offence to the King. If no fair courses may prevail with him, and he is obstinately bent to overthrow their trade and endanger their lives, then refer it to them to prevent his mischievous purposes in the best manner they may. The Coast and Surat ships not yet arrived, wherefore they will dispeed the Rose with such cloth as they advise for. If they can not put off the Japan silver, let it be sent to them. Intend to give John Bailey his deserts; when bodily punishment will not restrain the unruliness of their people, they should be punished in the purse by fines, for which the Company has given full authority. The Diamond, the Abigail, which long since is sent to the coast of Sumatra, and the Roebuck all draw too much water to go over the bar at Jambi. Concerning the price of pepper; our masters complain exceedingly of the high price. Require that they "inviolably observe" their agreement with the Dutch. To bring pepper lower than 6½ ryals the picul they hold it not convenient. To use the pinnace Spy to carry their goods and monies up the river. Weakness of the Dutch in the Straits of Malacca. Do not a little wonder that there should be such great difference betwixt his (Johnson's) accounts and Stevinton's; he had done well to have sent back Jonas [Colbach]. The Unity arrived lately from Tecoe with pepper, and upon advice of Mr. Man, &c. they dispeeded the Discovery and Abigail thither. Daily expect the Elizabeth and Reformation laden from Acheen. In want of their accounts, for the Company require an inventory of all their stock in India. Wax from Japara is very dear; they need buy no quantity. They cannot send a ship to Malacca on purpose to carry the Portugals to their own doors. They did well to put Oliver Strank from his stewardship. Johnson's request to come from Jambi upon the Anne and so for England they have granted, and have sent Thomas Staverton to succeed him as principal, to whom the goods, monies, provisions, moveables, slaves, &c. belonging to the Company are to be delivered by inventory, to be subscribed by Staverton and Bogan. All debts standing may be acknowledged before the King or Sabander, and a distinction be made between good and desperate debts. Have determined to lade the Moon's pepper aboard the Royal Exchange, and hope to have the Elizabeth from Acheen to dispeed for England in her company. Instructions as to the employment of the Coaster, the Bear, the Bee, and the Rose. Hold it dangerous to send one ship for England alone, because of the abundance of pirates lurking in all places. Have sent three chests of money and other goods. Hope to furnish them plentifully with cloth. Two assistants go with Mr. Staverton, viz., Robert Randall and Richard Croft. Desire they furnish themselves plentifully, having such choice, and send hither the unprofitable drones that they may be sent for England. To communicate their letters to Thomas Staverton, and take his advice in all matters of consequence. Send a Portugal captain whose ship was taken by the Coaster, having given him his liberty on promise to use his uttermost endeavours to obtain the release of our people at Malacca. Our employers have after much trouble concluded with the Dutch for matter of restitution, and are in hand to frame certain orders for reglement of trade in these parts; it is high time, for as it now stands our masters must needs be great losers. Have delivered Staverton a commission for government of the Company's servants in Jambi both ashore and aboard the ships, and certain orders from England, strictly to be observed. Express order was sent by the Anne to seize the estate of Tho. Turner, purser of the ship, whose dishonest practices at the taking of the caracs are made more manifest, and yet Johnson advises nothing of what he has done. Require him to put that order in execution as he will answer the contrary. Hope they will procure the Anne's lading so that she may be dispeeded for England this year. Postscript.—President Richard Fursland departed this life the 18th October last, to the inestimable loss of our employers. [Six pages. O.C., Vol. X., No. 1153.]
Dec. 14.
368. Thomas Brockedon, Henrie Hawley, and John Goninge to the East India Company. Their last was of the 9th of February by the Palsgrave (see ante, No. 264), since which time the Abigail, Roebuck, Hart, and Coaster have arrived; the Abigail making a long passage, whereby she lost seven men. Through the deep lading of the Roebuck she narrowly escaped the same rock where the Trial was cast away. She lost four men. The Hart lost but three men. By the passages of these three ships it appears that in that southerly latitude of 40° the winds are most constant and strong from May till October. The Coaster lost two men. About 500 leagues short of the Cape she took a Portugal vessel of 150 tons after a doubtful fight of 12 hours; this vessel, which was "so spoiled in fight" as to be unable to proceed for India, came out of Lisbon with three caracs, three galleons, and another vessel, for the regaining of Ormuz; she had 86 men in her, but nothing of value. The captain and nine men were brought to this place. At Saldanha Bay the Abigail met the Lesser James in company of her consort the Dutch Lioness and the Maid of Dort; the Roebuck met the London, Jonas, and Lion, all well. The Hart found letters of the arrival of General Coen at the Cape, but the Palsgrave was not arrived, though more than three months from this place. Have received the full number of chests of ryals, lead, and provisions, according to invoice; also several letters, "the book of the tractate, articles of agreement for restitution, the King's Commission, declarations," &c. Will endeavour in future to be as perspicuous as they can in all important matters. The satisfaction required by the Company for the murder of George Cokayne cannot with justice be performed upon the Chinese, for those who committed that vile fact were not men of any account, but rogues, who after they had acted their bloody villany fled to Malacca. Besides, your worships have found by experience how the Dutch here have handled us for meddling with the Chinese in a case more clear than this; and though you write us we should not be deterred by them, yet when you shall understand their late abominable and detestable proceedings against your servants in Amboyna, we doubt not but you will confess that we have reason to beware how we incur their unlimited tyrannous injustice. For those of Cheribon the case is the same; for the Clove in her last voyage brought in a praw of that place, but General Coen "in a kind of between entreating and threatening fashion" sent to wish us to deliver over the praw and men; and had we not granted his will, we well perceived he was resolved to have forced us with disgrace to have released them, so that we must forbear to meddle with them until by strong power and authority from our Sovereign we may be freed from the yoke we are now subjected under. Concerning the benefit of trading in Sangora and Ligor, will best be able to relate, when the Bee shall return from Siam. Remarks on the Company's view of ordering the trade in conjunction with the Dutch in the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda; answer the points referred to them by the Company, which they say are worthy of better consideration: they were not so well experienced as they could have wished, and had none to direct them but their competitors the Dutch, unto whom the Company referred them for information. Conceived that some things in their agreement would be to their prejudice, yet found not sufficient reasons for them to break off with the Dutch, and not make trial of that trade; whereas if they had refused to join, the Dutch might justly have complained and protested against them for breach of the articles. Are now better acquainted with the manner of trade in those parts; in reference to the "fruits" which are yearly reaped and the charges: the manner of growing and receiving cloves is once a year. Their debts come not in so speedily as they supposed, and they can get nothing but frivolous answers from the Dutch. The stock sent to those factories was not sufficient, but if Dutch had suffered them to pay their third of the charges as themselves did (viz., in cloth and victuals), one third part of that might have been advanced to the Company's profit. Hope the Company will receive full satisfaction for the sums they can prove the Dutch have unjustly extorted for them. Yielded conditionally to the clothing and feeding of the soldiers by the Dutch with their own provisions. Under pretext of necessary cloths and victuals, the Dutch pay the soldiers their whole wages therein, and thereby defeat the Company of the vent of their merchandize, contrary to the articles of agreement. Acknowledge it to be very needful that a limited number of soldiers be established by the Council on both sides for the several garrisons, but the Dutch will not suffer them to meddle or make herein, which notwithstanding it be absolutely contrary to the articles of accord, yet in this and all other matters of importance their wills are laws, and by their forces they do and will so maintain it, without regard either to reason, justice, or equity; which may also be applied to Coen's going in person to the Moluccas, where the Company say he ought not to have undertaken any such service before he had propounded it to the Council; it is most certain he made them not acquainted for what place and purpose he intended his forces, though he said all men knew he went for Banda. Concerning trade in the Moluccas; will deal as cautelously with the Dutch as they may, and hold them to the articles of the treaty, but to reduce them to conformity and concurrence with themselves in that trade is utterly impossible. To prevent all wrongs there is but one way, and that is wholly to separate ourselves from them. Wherefore have begun to give over that trade, and have just cause wholly to relinquish it except other order come from the Company. Reasons why the Company's project of sending a ship for the Red Sea from Masulipatam cannot be effected in so short a time as they conceived; have written to the factors there to advise them what goods are fitting for such a voyage. In reply to the Company's order that they yield no conformity to the usurped sovereignty of the Dutch, but protest against all their proceedings; they heartily wish the Company had sent them such orders from the King as might have freed them from that intolerable yoke, for until such absolute power come they have no hope to obtain remedy. Perceive the slow proceedings of the Dutch Commissioners; but if the Company had rightly weighed the desperate state they now stand in, they would have found it most needful to have sent sufficient order before all other business, to release and free them from such mischievous and devilish practices against their persons and affairs. Are in hope to receive orders for their freedom, and in the interim commit themselves to God, who hath hitherto preserved them out of the jaws of those more fell than lions. The Dutch have at least 16 ships on the coast of China and at their fort of the Piscadores, but if any good be done they will let the Company have no share in their achievements. The English factors have not sufficient capacity to prevent the manifold deceits, fraudulent tricks, and circumventions of the Dutch. Some more resolute and discreet should be appointed to undertake the great charge the Company has, contrary to the writer's desire, put upon them. Have not been wronged by the Dutch in the matter of their joint consultations, as the Company conceived; but confess they (the English) have not taken the place of precedence which every other month is due to them in regard of the greatness and sovereign power in this place of the Dutch. Do not repent in this, but if they have done wrong ask pardon for their ignorance and error (if any be committed). The Company's blame of them concerning Capt. Fitzherbert is undeserved; have always given him his due respect, and he had little cause to write that he was your water-bailif, for never man of his place did less in that charge. If not admitting him in the Council of Defence were the cause of his discontent, they only followed the Company's orders. After his return from the Moluccas, where he was appointed principal for directing those affairs, he was admitted one of the Council of Defence, but how little help they had from him, himself well knew; "more we could say concerning him, but being dead we leave him." Having now better help of writers, they will send in future double copies of their letters by the Dutch ships. Plainly perceive by "the book of the tractate" sent to them the Company's sincere and royal proceedings with the Dutch Commissioners in handling the differences which "our lordlike competitors here will never be brought to, as derogating from their greatness." The Company seem to be very jealous that there should not be faithful dealing in the buying of diamonds; those that bought them are since returned to England, and can best answer for themselves, and clear suspicion. Have written to the factors at Masulipatam that if the mine be open again they may see "how you were opinion'd and what you will have further performed in providing greater quantities of that commodity." The Bezoars received of George Ball were belonging to the old joint stock. Cannot excuse Robert Johnson's irregular courses, yet cannot "miss him in that factory"; hope he will make amends for what he hath done amiss, for the misery of that place (Jambi) is such that not one new comer in ten can have his health there. Smelt's many debts will hardly satisfy what he owes the Company; both his brothers are dead at Amboyna. Concerning dead men's estates. The want of good carpenters is exceeding great; not the fourth of those sent know anything what belongs thereto, nor indeed ever were of that profession. Will endeavour to reform the "vain and idle shooting of powder." Do not marvel they found many of the pursers' accounts so confused; many that could scarce write, much less keep any formal account, have been employed. The death and removing of pursers for their insufficiency is a principal cause of this disorder. They take notice of the reducing of both stocks into one; the "implements at the factory of Japan of small value, and the houses there will be seized on by the Kings or must be left at the coming away of the factors from Japan, Patani, and Siam, so that little or nothing will be made of them. There were no anchors remaining at Jacatra when the Dutch sacked the Company's house there, nor any other goods or provisions. Their accounts by the Star will make plain they had no great stock remaining, the want thereof was the cause the Company had no more returns. The adventurers if they had rightly understood the state of their affairs in these parts, and how their stock was employed, would have small cause to fall into admiration and never enter into consideration of the charges they are at by entring into that new defensive or rather offensive business with the Hollanders, and how the Hollanders sent out as much money in one year as they did in three. As for the reports that the pursuit of pleasure by most of the factors, and the negligence and improvidence of the rest, has been the cause of their small returns, can prove the contrary. Are glad to hear that the Hart, Roebuck, Charles, Star, and Eagle arrived safely, and hope that the other three ships from Surat, with the James and Palsgrave, are since arrived also safely, and will again add some life unto their declining affairs. Their uttermost endeavors shall not be wanting to send returns, but if their potent enemies the Dutch forcibly cross their designs, it lies not in their powers to remedy it. Have not yet absolutely accounted with the Dutch for the freight of monies and goods, but doubt not they will be brought to more reason. Have proceeded with their resolution according to the Company's desires to withdraw their ships from the Manilla fleets. It is most true that the Dutch in those exploits intend chiefly conquest and sovereignty, and "the issue on your part cannot be other than the consumption of your ships and ruin of your stocks, than which the Dutch desire nothing more." On account of the proceedings of Admiral Dedell, so faithless and contrary to the meaning of his commission on his last voyage and exploit at Mozambique, to the inestimable loss of both Companies, as may appear by their declaration, they have utterly refused to join in a second exploit for Goa, or in any other like exploits of those remote defensive or rather offensive wars in places where they have no trade or residence, until their losses by Dedell be first repaired and their freedoms restored, according to the articles of agreement, yet in cause of just defence their utmost forces ever are and shall be in readiness. Send copies of the demands of the Dutch committees and their replication. The business of Admiral Dedell was here referred to the committees of both Companies, but they found the Dutch so obstinate in maintaining Dedell's actions that this business could not be brought to any conclusion, but is referred to Europe. The opinion that the Company shall receive good recompence for the damages they sustained on the voyage. The whole proceedings are at large declared in a book herewith sent. One thing only they will note, that Michael Green charges the Admiral with 63 bags of money received by him for which he gives no account. In reference to their supplies of money and the factories at Acheen and Jambi, cannot find they have sent monies to many unprofitable factories as the Company write; how long it was before the Company despatched any supply is best known to themselves, but it pleased God to send relief before any came from the Company, and again to put life into their affairs, then at the last gasp, the like whereof they hope shall never befall them. The supplies now sent had come as happily as they could have wished for buying pepper at Bantam; if their malicious friends, or rather enemies, the Dutch, would consent they might go thither to open trade, which would not be denied [by the King of Bantam]; but the Dutch, seeking to confirm their sovereignty in this place, delay them with slight reasons and trivial excuses. The Dutch are well content with what their masters have fraudulently obtained from you for one year's pretended charges of their lying before Bantam, and hope of the like for the next year. The proceedings of the French in Roanne with the Dutch. What was done jointly could not be less, except free trade should have been permitted them at Bantam. See no reason why the French have to question the Company for it. Concerning the seeking a convenient harbour for security of the Company's shipping; there are manifold difficulties, for they are certainly assured the Kings will oppose with all their power the English fortifying in any part of their dominions. Sent by the Charles draughts of the principal forts in the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda. If they intend to have forts there, those of most importance are best worth the demanding and keeping, viz., the fort in Amboyna, the fort Neira upon Banda, and the fort at Malaya. Are of opinion that the Netherlands committees never intended the Company should have any footing in any of their dominions; wherefore it were much better to separate from them upon any conditions. Will observe the cautions and limitations the Company have prescribed in the power given to them of increasing wages to men of desert. Are sorry they are not thought to have deserved increase of salary as well as others, but as they intend to come home shortly, will rest contented. Have admitted Henry Hawley to be one of the Council of Defence, and wish the Company had sent two or three such men; but the number of factories being reduced, will not need so many new men as formerly. Death of John Povey, master's mate of the Abigail, but entertained master carpenter on 29th Sept. The Globe, Fortune, and Clove all so rotten they can swim no longer, and the Peppercorn and Bear must also be laid up. Hector's Island more commodious than Japara for trimming ships. The late bloody executions of the Dutch in the Moluccas give us just cause to abandon that trade, notwithstanding your order to the contrary, which we doubt not you will approve. The Danish ship went from the coast of Pulicat but half laden with pepper, and left divers of their people and 36 pieces of ordnance in pawn till means are received from Denmark. The wormwood wine is thought very wholesome drink outward bound. Thos. Batten died in the Exchange in the exploit for Goa and Mozambique. The Dutch, false to all agreements made with them, to bring down the excessive price of pepper. Mr. Methwold gone home in the Palsgrave. Ambergris and Sanguis Draconis very seldom to be had. Will forbear any further investments in calicoes. The Pulicat powder is not so good as Thos. Mills advised; it will not keep, being ill-corned, and grows into clods. The Dutch lade home quantities of saltpetre yearly from thence. Copy of ledger of the general books is sent herewith; are exceedingly troubled with the imperfect accounts received from all subordinate factories, especially in the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda. The surgeon's provisions and "phisical drugs" would be much more beneficial if there were a sufficient man to administer them; more need of a physician than a surgeon; and the one at present here, named Bradshaw, is such a continual drunkard that nothing can reclaim him, so that though he have reasonable skill, that beast-like vice overthrows all his other good parts. Will give special charge to the homeward-bound ships to be prepared "against the invasion of that cursed crew of pirates." The obstinacy of the Dutch the reason pepper is not cheap. The exceeding low price given by the Company for nuts (nutmegs) in Banda makes the people neglect curing them as scarce worth their labour. Have given orders for procuring a good parcel of diamonds of the coast, if the mine be open. Will make the best use they may of the final accord for restitution from the Dutch. Touching the first article, will attend their further order about transporting the Netherlanders' goods in their ships for Europe. As to the second article, they have not received any of their ships from the Hollanders, more than the Star, for they utterly refuse unfurnished ships, perceiving how prejudicial it would be to the Company's affairs to take them. The Solomon and Defence were laid up for wrecks at Banda. Concerning the spices taken by the Dutch at Lantar; demanded the like quantity from them in Batavia, but were refused. Were never made acquainted by the Dutch General with "that service of Lantar." It is impossible to have restitution of Pooloroon in the same state as it was taken by the Dutch, according to the ninth article, for the Dutch (under colour of treason) have murdered all the people of the island, the most part with exceeding torments, so that there is not one of the naturals left. Are persuaded that the people of Banda, who are fled to Seran (? Ceram) would repair to the English at Pooloroon if they would undertake their protection; but the Dutch would use all opposition possible; however, will demand Pooloroon from the Dutch. If they think good to fortify there to any purpose the charges will be great, for the Bandanese are an idle people, and will not be brought to work at any hand, and it were needful that agreement be made with the Dutch. Pooloroon is a good island, and in time will yield good benefit, if not molested by the Dutch; if the Company are resolved to fortify there it were needful that agreement be made with the Dutch. Cannot learn that any ryals were given the Company's people out of the fort (Jacatra), but certain Japan plate was given to Denton, and one chest of plate to Sir Tho. Dale, as a present from the Dutch, hoping thereby to have the better usage from him. Are persuaded the Dutch will not be able to prove that any of our people received anything but of mere gift. Send the book of charges of the fort of Pulicat; began 13 June 1620. In several writings against the Dutch, mentioned in the book of defence, have at large declared the reasons moving them to depart from Pulicat. Cannot sufficiently marvel that the Company write they have contributed 8,000l. towards the pretended charges of the siege of Bantam, for in writings delivered to the Dutch General they have sufficiently proved the Company to be no way liable, and have disclaimed all past and future charges. Have had occasion to handle this point at large with the Dutch, copies whereof are herewith sent in the book of defence, which they entrcat may be seriously perused. What their endeavours have been to open the trade of Bantam, and how strongly opposed by the Dutch, will also plainly appear. Would have been very glad to have received "an absolute and authentic reglement for trade." The Dutch much slight the copies sent, not being subscribed; so that until there be further order and confirmation of them, are like to enjoy no benefit thereby. Have good cause to desist from joining with the Dutch in offensive wars; refer to their consultations and the handling of the matter with Dedel. Concern ing the Dutch forcing payment of the garrisons with victuals and apparel; must have yielded to them or have had no trade in those parts; neither yet are like to have, unless they continue to contribute to their unreasonable exactions and subject themselves to their bloody tyranny. Have handled at large the Dutch General's proceedings in taking Banda in their answers to the Netherlanders of 5th Sept.; it was a great neglect that our people did not protest against his proceedings in Banda. The Dutch have built forts upon Lantar, and to require them to demolish them might " bring our persons in danger for meddling with their sovereignty." Have sent the Rose with John Brook to search out the most convenient place to fortify in. It is not strange that the Dutch have great advantage in their consultations; themselves proceeding in all sincerity according to the contract, whereas the Dutch contrarywise. If the writings now sent be seriously perused concerning the common defence, besieging of Bantam, their desistance from the trade of Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda, their complaints against Dedell, and answers to the writings of the Dutch, are confident that the advantage will not appear so great. It is worth noting that ever since they refused to yield unto all points, they could never agree on any matter of importance. The Dutch "will have their wills or conclude nothing." Have received the King's commission, and will to the uttermost of their power endeavour to govern those under their command with moderation, but desire some form of law for proceeding in capital causes. The Dutch are very precise in this kind, for they have an express rule set down for punishment of all offences, from the least to the greatest. The Company's seal-at-arms is so great they can make no use thereof, having none but hard wax. John Humphrey hath leave to go home in the first ship; continue to send home those that have been longest in the country. Will send home by every ship the tamarinds advised for. The journals and ledgers of the pursers are herewith sent, also the books of John Booth, purser of the Star. Thomas Sprake (Spragge) is long since dead, who in his lifetime was a common drunkard, and fit for no employment; he was sent from Surat with others of the like quality ("being such as commonly that factory can afford us"). Concerning the accounts of Robert Hayes; can give no reason how the money was taken up by Courthope. Send herewith a journal of daily passages, beginning with the departure of the Palsgrave, 11 Feb. 1623, and continued by the late President, Richard Fursland, until 22 Sept. 1623. The 16th Oct. it pleased God to take him to his mercy, and the next day he was buried. The journal has been continued by Thomas Brockedon, who was desirous to have gone for England, but preferring the Company's service before his particular benefit, was contented to remain one year longer. The Goa fleet, viz., the Royal Anne, Exchange, and Diamond, arrived in this road in May and June, having in a manner made a lost voyage, through the perfidious dealing of the Dutch Admiral Dedell, chiefly by sending away two of his best ships for the Red Sea about particular merchandizing, the want whereof was the only occasion of not taking three rich caracs and one galleon. The value taken amounts to 36,591 ryals. In this, as well as in the Manilla voyages, there has been exceeding gross pilfering by the commanders as well as mariners. Michael Green, elected chief commander of the English forces after Capt. Fitzherbert's decease, short in his account 8,453 ryals, part given to Bartholomew Goodale, master of the Ann, and Thos. Turner, purser; have ordained his estate to be seized to the Company's use, and send him to England to answer his demerits. Intend calling the others to account on their return from Jambi. Send certain relations against Mr. Munden in his Manilla voyage. Edmond Lenmyes, commander of the Elizabeth, accused to have embezzled great matters in his Manilla voyage; only a small matter found at his death. Send draughts of several places in the Straits of Sunda, whereof the isle of Great Bessee is the most convenient to fortify in at small charge; an excellent harbour, and no place better situated for trade; but without inhabitants or victuals, unless the Pengran of Bantam give his consent (of which they have little hope) the difficulties will be exceeding great, and they must bring everything in their ships from elsewhere. The late loss of the master of the Rose and five others, sent upon discovery of this business, has taught them that no trust is to be given to those barbarous people. Have motioned this matter to the Dutch, but received a doubtful answer, so cannot without further order begin any fortification. Their goods in no small danger of fire in straw houses; shall be constrained to build warehouses. Complain of the quality of provisions sent; the casks so slight and thin that half the arrack and butter leaks out before it arrives. The cordage is likewise very bad. The cheeses utterly spoilt by laying in tar. Lead in pigs not so vendible as in bars, and above 30 per cent. difference in price. Broad cloth and "fine perpetuanos of good and lively colours" would yearly vend in these parts; also four or five mastiffs "of a fair and stout kind;" five or six cases of strong waters (of red and yellow colours), and some fair pictures of small value very acceptable for presents. The King of Macassar is very kind to our nation, and would willingly pay for several things noted herewith. Send an abstract of the stock in India in all places, except Jambi, Japan, Siam, and Patani: the three latter factories dissolved. Have trimmed this year the Exchange, Ann, Rose, and Unity, and there remain to be sheathed the Moon, Ruby, Bee, and Diamond; exceeding want of carpenters, the mortality very great, principally through their own disorderly drunkenness. The ships remaining in the Indies are, the Moon, Ann, Hart, Discovery, Ruby, Roebuck, Diamond, Coaster, Abigail, Unity, Bull, Rose, and Bee. Hope to lade the Moon and Ruby for England next year, and the Ann, now at Jambi, and Discovery, on the coast of Sumatra, this year. The Coaster and Rose are sent for Jambi, the Abigail for Sumatra, and the Roebuck for Macassar, to lie out for Portugals coming from Macao. The Bear must be laid up. The Bull not yet arrived from Japan, nor the Bee from Siam. Will send the Hart, Diamond, and Unity to Acheen and the coast of Coromandel. The Clove, Supply, Fortune, Peppercorn, and Globe laid up; the Peppercorn lying at Hector's Island for a careening ship. Have augmented the wages of the following men:—Robert Johnson, long chief at Jambi, offered 120l. per annum if he would remain two years longer, but he refusing, returns for England. Thomas Staverton to remain three years at 100l. per annum and to succeed Johnson. John Hutchins, clerk of the stores, to have 50l. per annum rising 10l. for three years; the same to Edward Chapman, who is since dead; and to Andrew Coggins, who has served eight years and is now chief at Japara; and 5l. per month to Robert Hackwell, master of the Rose, the better to encourage deserving men of his coat. Have made choice of Langton, mate in the Coaster, to succeed Povey, deceased. Others, earnest suitors, either to go home or have their wages augmented. Request of Thomas Staverton to pay two thirds of his wages, and other sums due to him from Edward Pike and Capt. Towerson to Capt. John Watts, of Matton [? Watton] in Hertfordshire; he is an honest and sufficient man. Fursland on his death-bed much complained that he had not kept so exact account of his particular estate as was requisite; he brought a good stock out of England, and Brockedon can witness his manner of augmenting it; disposition of his estate; the account for his mother sent open for the Company's perusal. Have appointed Robert Adams commander of the Elizabeth, Capt. Lenmyes being deceased, John Brooke, commander of the Moon, and Mr. Munden, to go home master of the Exchange under Aug. Spaldinge. Commend Richard Swanley, long time master of the Exchange, for preferment. The Danes have laden this year at the Coast about 400 tons of pepper with some calico from Denmark. The Prince of Tanjore or Naick of those parts hath often invited us to live in his country, promising great privileges and favours, and now by the Ruby is come an Englishman named Johnson, who hath lain about 18 months at the Naick's court, "as a pawn for the pepper first sent home by the Danes," who reports that the Naick, having heard the English to be a peaceable nation, has a great desire that they should trade in his dominions, wherefore have resolved to send a ship thither. The Portugals have lived long in his country, but he refuses to have the Dutch, and has demolished a fort they began at Tinegapatan, saying "he hath heard how they encroached upon other Prince's dominions, and therefore should not live in his." Think it best to defer sending a ship from Masulipatam to the Red Sea until further advice from Surat, unless the expected trade for Tanjore should fail. Variations in the price of gumlac. The coast will yearly vend good quantities of coral, lead, and broad cloth. The Dutch sell great quantities of cloves, nuts, and mace there at very great profit. Have great store of Japan silver, which in vain they have tried to "put off," and has much hindered their employments; unless they can do so at the coast (of Coromandel) will be forced to send it for England. Great error committed by Denton in the accounts received from Patani. Edward Long daily expected from Siam. Have delivered Aug. Spaldinge four signets [described] of deceased men, for their wives or friends, viz., Capt. Fitzherbert, Walter Bennett, Nicholas Ufflete, and another. Augustine Spalding goes home in the Exchange, and Richard Welden, late chief in Banda, in the Elizabeth. When he went to Amboyna he "found our people executed your business in a confusion and the English Company much indebted; he received certain goods from the Dutch which he sold and paid the said debts, and brought all our people from thence except two men, to lie in our house until further order, affirming that he had left order with Henry Sill, in Amboyna, to accept of no goods or housing from the Dutch Governor, seeing he had seized upon the said goods, and suffered them to be spoiled and part embezzled, while they were in the Netherlanders' hands, in the time that our people were attacked and murdered. Upon which advice, we have made the Dutch debtor in Amboyna, accounts for the said goods and money, which we found wanting to balance the dead men's several accounts, all amount to 30,000 ryals. but contrary to the advice of Mr. Welden we have since received letters from Henry Sill imparting that according to the order left him by Mr. Welden he hath received part of the goods from the Governor, which were in so ill condition that by his report they will not yield one fourth part of the aforementioned sum." Blame Welden for leaving such an order with Sill and reporting to them the contrary, but it seems Welden chose rather to please them with an untruth than to report he had agreed to receive back said goods. Have, however, brought the valuation of said goods and wants upon the account of the Netherlands Company and will protest against them for the same, "for if the persons had lived they must have made good the wants in their accounts, and if the goods be spoiled in the Dutch Company's hands by them violently seized upon, we see no reason but that they ought to make good the loss of them unto your accounts." Send herewith particulars of said goods, and what Welden and Beamont received back, as also what debts were lost by the Pooloroonese, put to death by the Dutch in Banda. The Dutch General offers to make good said debts of Pooloroon if we can prove them, but he knows it is the custom to take their word only; the particulars will not content the Dutch, so are referred to England. Great wants in the accounts of the factors murdered at Amboyna, which the Dutch utterly deny to have received; by whom such wants are to be made good must be decided in Europe. Have charged upon Welden's account 22 barrels of powder and 3,000 lbs. of shot by him wastefully spent at a feast in Banda,—the powder at 30 ryals per barrel, the shot at five ryals per cent. Have granted Matthew Duke, employed at Masulipatam, leave to return, his time being expired. Commendations of Michael Holman, employed in a prime place in the Moluccas, and of George Robinson, principal at Acheen since the death of Daniel Wright; that tyrannical King forced him to go, because he would not continue the prejudicial custom of giving presents, begun by Nicolls. John Beamont was employed chief in Looho [Lugho]; he was seized by the Dutch, when weak with sickness in Amboyna, and by them tortured and condemned; refer to his examination with the rest taken in Batavia concerning that butcherly execution of Amboyna. He was condemned by the Dutch, but again reprieved and sent here, and though the innocency of him and the rest be apparent, yet for order sake, have ordered him home in the nature of a prisoner, the better to prove his innocency. John Perry, purser of the Sampson, and second merchant in the Moluccas, and Malachi Martin, purser in this factory of Batavia, worthy of future employment. John Powle, George Sherricke, William Webber, and Ephraim Ramsey have been employed as assistants in Amboyna; neither their sufficiency nor good carriage deserve commendation. Edward Collins was an assistant in Amboyna; has run much out of cash, and deceived several men of good sums of money. The Company should give no future employment to such untrusty unthrifts; he was also condemned to die, and by drawing lots saved his life. Can no way commend the diligence or sufficiency of Thomas Daukes and Zachary Downman, who have been assistants at Banda. "Thus much we thought good to insert concerning the factors sent home." List sent of what factors remain, and how employed; most of those from the dissolved factories to go for England by the next. Concerning invoices of lead and iron sent by [Rich.] Cocks and the factors of Japan; John Neeve, purser of the Moon, and Robert Turberville, purser of the Elizabeth, to give account. The general disorder in the pursers' accounts will require great circumspection. Will briefly touch the chiefest points wherein those of the Netherlanders' Company have wronged your trade and the persons of your servants, which are particularly registered in the book of the Council of Defence. First, how often and earnestly they have urged the Dutch to open the trade of Bantam, and how obstinately the Dutch have opposed the same, yet they themselves receive the Javas in the night aboard their ships, and buy pepper of them; the inconveniences that arise thereby; are persuaded that the Netherlanders' want of capital is one cause of their obstinate denial of trade, but especially they fear that free trade with Bantam will ruin or much decay their new erected sovereignity of Batavia; so have no hope of that trade without express order from Europe, except upon great disadvantage; for it is the only aim of the Dutch to establish their kingdom of Batavia, and draw the customs to themselves. Have protested to the General that they ought not to contribute to the siege of Bantam. Cannot conceive why they should contribute such an excessive sum towards the first year's charge, for it is most false that the Dutch kept any praus before Bantam, as they pretend; the most part of that time, "we kept ships there as well as they;" and most part of the Dutch ships were utterly decayed and unserviceable for any voyage. Secondly, the intollerable exactions and bloody executions committed by the Dutch in the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda, which have justly constrained us to give over that trade until further order from Europe. The Dutch exactions are more than one half of the charge of the garrisons and fortifications and the gifts. Exploits of the Governor's, charges of his table, and vain expenses of powder, amount to far more than the necessary charge, but can get no allowance from the General. The Dutch General will give way to no reason; so send the original accounts of the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda. By paying their soldiers, mardikers, &c. in cloth and victuals, our goods lie rotting on our hands, the market being glutted by the soldiers. Our third part paid in money will pay the total charge; so the best agreement to make with the Dutch is to receive our third part of all the spices there. The gains of the Dutch in those parts amount to more than 300,000 guilders per annum; the charge they now bring to account is intolerable, and will eat out all the profits of that trade. Another benefit the Dutch have to themselves is from customs and excise. Their pride and insolency is grown to such a height that "we can no longer live under their subjection." Long since advised the great danger their persons were in from Dutch tyranny; for when the Bandanese were executed in Batavia for pretended treason, the Dutch General caused them in the extremity of their torment to declare whether the English were not conspirators with them; and the like the Governor of Banda did by the Pooloroonese executed there. If the extremity of torment had forced confession from them, as the Dutch it should seem desired, we had undoubtedly suffered the like torments and cruel death that our people did lately at Amboyna, the manner whereof we will briefly relate:—Having given order to our people to come from the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda on the Dutch ships, the Governor of Amboyna caused a certain Japon to be taken upon suspicion, and caused him to be tortured, thereby to confess of several others of his nation (sic) to be accessory of treason and taking the fort of Amboyna, and afterwards by extremity of torment forced him with nine others to accuse the English to be conspirators with them; whereupon Capt. Towerson and all the rest of the English thereabouts were apprehended and laid in irons, and after most inhuman tortures, were forced to confess what the tormentors pleased, and Towerson and nine were executed. "It is worth the noting that the Japons lying in irons as our people passed by and were carried to be tormented, they railed upon them, demanding when they spoke with the English at any time, so that they made the Japons believe our people had accused them; but when the Japons saw our people were tortured, and afterwards led to execution, as well as themselves, they then exclaimed against the Dutch tyranny, and both English and Japons look upon their death to be guiltless. The impossibility of performing such an action with 20 men is sufficient to clear them of this supposed treason. Besides several letters written by Capt. Towerson a little before his attachment show that he bare a good affection for the Dutch, and if he had found himself guilty of any such crime he might have fled, being eight days at liberty after the Japons were apprehended. With the examination there goes a psalter of Mr. Colston's, wherein is written in two several places he takes it upon his salvation he died innocent, and a bill made by Capt. Towerson declares as much." Think the Amboyna Governor would not have put this "hellish project" in execution without order from Coen, who reported "that our people had been exceeding insolent in those parts, and it was a shame for the Governor to suffer it." It was the Dutch policy to make known to the inhabitants how basely they esteemed our nation, those people having always had the English in respect, and honoring the Dutch more for fear of their power than love for them. Refer to the Company's wisdom whether those exactions and bloody executions be not sufficient motives to remove the remainder of our people until further order; for who would live under such cannibals, that with tortured confessions can have colour to execute any one under them that shall oppose their unjust proceedings. Not long since an Englishman "falling at some words" with a Dutch soldier, with the help of another was thrown into the river and drowned; but the Dutch were cleared, and nothing was done to them. Thirdly, the trade of China, for which the [fleets of] defence were chiefly erected, is wholly appropriated to the Dutch. The demand to settle the China trade upon Pulo Condor and the Liguros, according to the contract, was received with a frivolous answer. Fourthly, the Company may perceive by the faithless proceedings of Admiral Dedell how much they are wronged by joining in defence with such perfidious people. The Dutch imagine to have a great matter against us for leaving the common defence; motives are described "more than sufficient to give over those hostile and offensive exploits." Have likewise given over Pulicat, seeing the trade thereof depends wholly upon the sales of the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda. Hold it good to refuse Pulicat, for the goods of the Niack's country far exceed Pulicat in colours, goodness, and cheapness, without paying such a costly garrison. Want rather time than matter to relate the continual wrongs of the Dutch. More particulars; at Siam the Dutch pursuaded the great men to put Edward Long to death. Besides the goods seized upon in Amboyna and the debts lost by their (the Dutch) occasion in Banda, have paid them in the Moluccas and Amboyna 36,963¾ ryals more than the first year's charges; for which the Dutch offer them 1,434 lbs. cloves, 23,374 lbs. nuts, and 7,287 lbs. mace, Holland weight. This proved a bad year for cloves, so think the Company may get spices better cheap in England than the Dutch deliver here. Money due to the late Wm. Reeks. On John Ferrar's request to the late President to further a collection for a free school in Virginia, a collection was made both on shore and aboard the ships, and is entered in the purser's accounts. Wm. Morgan, chief mate of the Elizabeth, preferred master. Edward Grant—Half a page torn away. [Thirty-one pages, closely written. O.C., Vol. X., No. 1130.]
Dec. 15. 369. Court Minutes of the East India Company. Request of Mr. Tyler to take out in cloves what he had underwritten for in pepper, calicoes, &c., but the Court made answer they could not do it. The diet for the committees when they come aboard the ships in harbour to be limited. Offer of Abraham Chamberlain on commission from some Dutchmen, of 21s. per lb. for the whole parcel of the Company's silk; the Court gave no ear to that motion, and referred his own request for 10 or 12 bales to the committees of the warehouse. Ordered that the time "to consider" the estates of deceased persons, formerly set at six months, be reduced to four months, when if there appear no just impediment, will be paid what shall appear due. Thomas Eyans to be one of the four auditors in the place of Nicholas Cranmer, who does not accept of his election. Mr. Hopkins being content to serve cloths to the Company and take payment in indigo and silk, Alderman Ducy is entreated to assist the committees in viewing them. Doubts whether cloths of winter's dressing will serve, and care to be taken that they be not sappy but clean cloths. Letter from Thompson, a factor in the Moluccas, for some Devonshire kerseys; also a motion to send 300 or 400 pair of stockings to Surat, but nothing at present resolved. [Two pages and a half. Court Minute Book, VI., pp., 308–310.]
Dec. 15.
370. John Goninge to the Company. Will briefly relate the estate of the Moluccas during his abode there. Eight castles and forts possessed by the Dutch; eight also possessed by the Spaniards; Malaya on Ternate their chief seat; where situated. Four forts dissolved by the Dutch since our joint trade. The King of Ternate is allied with the Dutch, and the King of Tidore with the Spaniards. The Dutch, finding themselves in quiet possession of Amboyna and Banda, which yield spices enough to furnish all Christendom, have resolved only to hold defensive war with the Spaniards. The Ternateans holding it no reason that they should war with their neighbours and kindred, the Tidoreses, to their own disquiet and hindrance of commerce for content of the Dutch, made a truce with them in 1621, who now sell spices to the Spaniards at a dearer rate than they can to the Dutch. The blacks receiving many discontents from the Dutch have not cared to pluck their cloves as in foretimes, having by peace found other means to maintain themselves. Since the truce he has always found the blacks but indifferent friends to the Dutch, because of their cruelty to their allies in Banda, and encroaching upon the King of Ternate's possessions, and desire to hold the Spaniards and Hollanders in equal balance. The Dutch hold only a defensive war in that quarter, and care not to drive out the Spaniards, though they could; that they may keep the blacks in better awe, who equally fear either nation that should get the upper hand. Arrived at Batavia on 10th Oct. last in a Dutch ship from the Moluccas, where he dissolved seven fruitless factories, and brought all the English away with him, except two or three persons left according to order. How the Dutch have abused them in all points the Company will understand from the general letters, &c. It is too late now to wish their worships had at first only made a mere contract of peace with the Dutch, and not joined with them in matters of defence, and in consent to force Bantam, through which, and their dishonest practices, "the consequences have been your more disprofit than the losses sustained by the former hostility." But it is not too late to wish to follow their own affairs without leave of the Dutch. "The bloody massacre of your poor innocent servants at Amboyna, committed by the Dutch, hath strooken as well fear as grief into us, finding no security of our persons and your worships' means under their yoke." All hope their worships will prosecute that business in such earnest manner as the Dutch shall have small cause to rejoice in such villanies. Desires that two thirds of his salary may still be paid to Nicholas Crispe for his use. Endorsed, "Received by the Exchange." [Three pages. O.C., Vol. X., No. 1131.]
Dec. 15.
aboard the
371. Capt. John Bickell to the East India Company. Arrived safely at the Cape 29th May and left a letter to give their worships to understand of all ships passed for England; viz., the London, Jonas, and Lion from Surat and Persia, and from Batavia the Lesser James, all of which, with the Palsgrave, he hopes have arrived in England. Arrived at Batavia the 3rd August, being five months and six days on their passage from the Lizard. Pipe staves very needful. Pitch and tar precious. Could find work for more carpenters; many die here. The Hart has lost 22 men. [One page. O.C., Vol. X., No. 1132.]
Dec. 16.
aboard the Blessing.
372. John Hall to the East India Company. Set sail for Gombroon on 6 Dec. [1622] with the Blessing, Whale, Dolphin, and Reformation. By the 18th Jan. had got off all their goods, being 800 bales of silk. The Persian sent his chief noble and solicited them to go to Muscat, but was put off with fair words. Set sail from Ormuz on 26 Jan. "with a very storm of wind and dirt and rain." Sold the small ship, "which we found to be a very bauble, to the 'Caunn,' being very desirous of her," for 400 demaunds, (1,330l.), 1,000l. more than she was worth. Arrived at Swally bar Feb. 11, and the next day the President and Council came aboard and willed him to go for Dabul with the Blessing and Reformation, the latter to touch at Choul. Brought the Blessing to anchor in the road of Dabul, where they had very good, refreshing, and kind usage, and Robert Hutchinson went ashore every day. For having beaten two Malabars from the coast, "the people did like marvellous well of our nation." Account of the taking of two frigates which lay afore the custom house, supposed to be bound for Mocha, very rich. He told the Dabulers "they knew well in what manner they had robbed us," and that our coming was for satisfaction. Had them both off in less than half an hour, but at the entrance they let fly small shot and arrows so thick that they could hardly walk upon the deck. They let fly into the town and at the castle almost 1,000 great shot, all that night and the next day, battering the town; their loss in drowned and slain was 20 men, including Richard Wedmore, "a proper young man." Set sail with the two frigates, and came to anchor in Swally road 23rd March, and the 31st were despatched for Mocha, where they arrived the 24th May, and found the Dolphin. Having commission from the President and Council to seize all junks, not one escaped: they took "one belonging to Choul unto the Deckeneis (Deccan) country, wherein was found 40,000 ryals, besides goods also," "the great Shawhee," "the Conjava," and one belonging to Gogo. Met off Damoan two Dutch ships in the night, and "making account they were Portugals, I let fly five or six pieces at them before I could get them to anchor." Anchored in Swally road on 5 Oct. with eight junks, where they found the William, Capt. Christopher Brown, and "gave them (the Surat people) to understand of our demands," and now "our merchants are better used than ever they were, but how long it will last I know not." The Blessing and William bound for Gombroon, and the Reformation for the southwards. Hopes at their return to lade for England, with the William, but if they cannot get clear of the coast by the last of March they must winter there. Endorsed, "John Hall, Mr. (? Captain) of the Blessing." [Four pages. O.C., Vol. X., No. 1134.]
Dec. 16.
Swalley Road,
aboard the
373. Emmanuel Butta to the East India Company. Account of "the passages and navigation" of the Blessing in company with the Discovery and Reformation. Left the Lizard, in Cornwall, 3 April 1622, and anchored in Swally road 3rd Oct., and met there the London, Jonas, Whale, Dolphin, Lion, Rose, and four Flemings. The 24th Oct. the Exchange, Anne, and Diamond came in; and the 22nd Nov. the Exchange, Anne, and four Flemings set sail. Set sail on 6th Dec. with the Whale, Dolphin, Reformation, and Primrose for Persia; and left the London, Jonas, and Lion bound for England, the Discovery for Jacatra, the Diamond and Rose for the fleet of defence, and two Flemings in the road. Arrived at Gombroon 30th Dec. and four factors came aboard, viz., Messrs. Dorrell (who died before we came away), Barker, Benthall and Thompson; and Rawson they left on shore. On Jan. 9, the Whale and Dolphin set sail for Surat with 250 bales of silk, "we finding the coast to be clear of Portugals." Sold the Primrose to the "Caunn" for 400 tomans, every toman 3l. 6s. 4d. The Blessing and Reformation set sail with 570 bales of silk; and anchored at Swally on the 11th Feb. Five Malabar junks taken, but let go, having passes from the fleet of defence and from Mr. Saltbanke and Haines from Mocha. Account of the taking of two frigates out of Dabul harbour and of the fighting which "continued most part of the night and the fourth day we beat down their 'barracathoes' and dismounted four pieces of ordnance that played on us all night." Capt. (Hall) would needs go ashore with 90 men to take the town, but was glad to run to the boats again losing 19 men outright, slain and drowned. Took the two frigates with them to Surat, where after taking the goods out of one, she was set on fire. Mutiny on board the Blessing, forty of the men saying they would not weigh anchor unless they had the goods of the frigate aboard; so a council was called and some were punished and the principal condemned but not put to death. Met "the Dolphin who told us the unlooked-for news that great misfortune to the Whale." Went back to Swally 24 March, "and so ended our Dabul voyage, 1623." Account of their Mocha voyage where they arrived 24th May and found the Dolphin. Set sail for Surat Aug. 7th. Gave chase to the Courtmamotos of Choul, took her monies and goods out of her and dismissed her; other vessels taken. Heard of Mr. Wedmore's death in Persia. "Stood up altogether" 4th Nov. in the road of Swally, and on the 12th "our President and the Governor firmed to the articles of peace between us, and the 17th day they went all ashore, and so we ended our Red Sea voyage." Are now bound for Persia. Endorsed, "Emanuell Butta mr of the Blessing. Received by the Dolphin from Plymouth 30 July 1624." [Four pages and a half. O.C., Vol. X., No. 1135.]
Dec. 17. 374. Court Minutes of the East India Company. Gratification to Mr. Browne, lecturer of the parish of Great Saint Helen's (4l. as last Christmas), for the pains he taketh in preaching at his appointed times. Agreed by erection of hands that 53 chests of coral at Leghorn, to be laden on board the London for London, be not insured. Grievances of John Holloway about his stock. Concerning the accounts of Robert Smith, purser of the Jonas; he is thought to be honest, but takes no right course to appear so. Remarks of Capt. Weddall and Mr. Browne on the great sums disbursed for victuals; also in reference to the surgeon's chests. Examination of Henry Wheatley, purser in the former voyage, as to the money paid by passengers from the Red Sea, whereof they were sometimes 80 or 100 at a time; also as his sufficiency for master's mate in the Jonas. [Robert] Smith to go purser. Concerning the complaints made by Powell's widow and the rest, to the Privy Council, for their husbands' goods aboard the ships taken by the Dutch; their Lordships having been truly informed said, "that if those women did further trouble them they should be whipped." The salaries of John Blunt, one of the clerks of the warehouse, and of the Company's secretary are increased 30l. and 20l. respectively. [Three pages and a half. Court Minute Book, VI., pp. 313–316.]
Dec. 17.
Aboard the Royal Exchange.
375. John Beamont to Henry Sill in Amboyna. After his departure from Amboyna it pleased God to visit him with sickness and lameness, and on his arrival at Batavia he was carried before the General and Council of the Dutch, where he was fo[rced to al]ledge the untruth again, for fear they would have tortured him. The General told him they came as condemned men to die there, but in regard of Speult's "gracious letters of me—he did pardon me"; but the President would not be "beholding" to the General, but ordered that we should be sent into England for justice, and that if we were found there guilty by our laws we should have according to our deserts, if not that all the rest were murdered, as he was of opinion they were. The President sent to know of the General if Speult had order from him and his council to put the King's subjects to death (which was against the articles), but hears of no answer he gave but "that Speult had authority from the Prince of Holland." The matter is so bad, they do not love to hear of it, but there is a God above, and no doubt he will revenge their bloody murders of innocent persons. Is glad that now they are clear of "their Bata via," where they lived in fear of some new trick the Dutch would put upon them, for the President and Council "intend not to stay long in their Batavia." If the old President had lived to have gone for England, he would have followed our business closely, but makes no doubt that the Company will "incend" the King, "with the friends of the murdered, that our enemies may not glory in it as they do." Has delivered the particulars of money and gold taken from him at Amboyna by the Governor, which the President demanded from the Dutch General, but he denies to pay, but doubts not to recover it all in England. Requests he will pay any debts he may receive to Mr. Cartwright. The Exchange and Elizabeth set sail from Batavia on 15th Dec. "God send us well into our native country." Augustine Spaldinge, himself, and [Michael] Holman, John Perry, Malachi Martin, George Sherricke, Ephraim Ramsey, [Matthew] Duke, and Munday in the Exchange, and Capts. Welden and Adams, and Messrs. Morgan, George Robinson, [John] Powle, William Webbe, Dawkes, John Chesterton, Harry Doleman, and [George] Collins in the Elizabeth. Found in the road on coming to Batavia the Exchange and Discovery; the Roebuck gone for Macassar, the Ann for Jambi, and the Abigail for Tecoe with the Diamond. Since have arrived the Hart from England with the Coaster, the Unity, [Moo]n, and Elizabeth, with pepper from Sumatra coast and Jambi, the Ruby from the coast, and the junk Welcome from Macassar, with Mr. Staverton, who is gone to be chief at Jambi. Hears from England that the Hollanders are compelled to pay the Company a great sum for injuries done aforetime, that they are to have free trade at Bantam (but what has been agreed upon at home the General and his Council will not agree to here), and to have Pooloroon and half of Lantar. Have ill tidings that the Whale, with a rich cargo from Persia and Surat, "sunk right down in the sea 10 leagues off the road" of Surat, 36 men drowned, and nothing saved of her goods, "by reason of a plank that sprung in her." As yet no ships come from Surat, but this news came overland to Masulipatam. Commends himself to Signor Garatt, "my comadre with her child," William Donn, George Calahira and his wife, Robin Showmakar, old Mr. Johnson and his wife, William Bell, and all the rest of our friends. If he can do him any service in England, he may direct his letters to "Mr. John Buckock's, Haberdasher's house, at the sign of the Hat with the Golden Hatband, in Lombard Street, right over against the George." [Two pages. Mutilated by damp. O.C., Vol. X., No. 1136.]
Dec. 19. 376. Court Minutes of the East India Company. A course resolved upon to remove John Lamperey, [Lemprier] late the Company's servant at Blackwall, who holds still the house there, and "doth not avoid for any warning." Robert Smith, purser of the Jonas, to receive wages due for his last voyage. Examination of William Waulker, the Company's porter, charged with having rudely carried himself towards Mr. Governor Hallidaie's wife, who for some service in her garden had bestowed a piece of gold on him; he made his boast that she had given it for informing against Mr. Hurte; but he answered that he never spake any such words, and desired to justify himself to his accuser's face. The secretary to look up what was given in new year's gifts last year. The bonds entered into by Messrs. Monnox and Roe with the Company for their employment to be cancelled. Touching the will of John Challicombe, Nicholas, his brother and executor, makes choice of Arthur Bray as his curator or guardian (himself being under age), to receive what is due to him. The will must first be proved and the curator allowed. Nicholas Bix entertained as underfactor for seven years, at 30l. per annum for the first two years, rising afterwards 10l. per year. The distribution of money and victuals to the poor of Stepney not to be left to the churchwardens, but the Court were contented they should be present at the distribution if they pleased. [Four pages. Court Minute Bk., VI., pp. 316–320.]
Dec. 20.
377. President Thomas Brockedon, Henry Hawley, and John Gonninge to Harman Van Speult, Governor of Amboyna:—
To the Right Worshipful Harman Van Speult, Governor of Amboyna.
The infallible signs of neighbourly respect between the realms of England and the United Netherlands, being in nothing more conspicuous than in the late agreement of differences between his Majesty of Great Britain and the high and mighty Lords States of the United Netherlands in the year 1619, for the regulating the subjects of both nations in these parts of India with equal place and power by proceeding and successive turns monthly, doth seriously enforce us to admiration how you, Harman Van Speult, Governor of Amboyna, do presume and authorise not only to exact and extort upon his Majesty's subjects of Great Britain, contrary to all that can be intended by any of the said articles, but to imprison, torture, and condemn, and bloodily to execute his Majesty's subjects, with confiscation of their goods, to the violating of that bond of amity and unity in the said articles, and in contempt of those acts so sincerely agreed between his Majesty of Great Britain and the Lords States aforesaid.
Now forasmuch as, contrary to the said articles and in contempt of both our Sovereigns, you have not only assumed the power of magistracy, but proceeded against his Majesty's subjects by tormented confessions and without either voluntary accuser or probable accusation, and thereto have added such tyrannical torments neither usual nor tolerable amongst Christians.
We, the President and Council for the honourable Company of England, are thereby sufficiently grounded solemnly to protest against all your said presumptuous proceedings, and in particular for imprisoning 18 of his Majesty's subjects, whereof 10 bloodily executed, their own proper goods confiscated, and the goods of our noble employers by the execution havocked and ruinated, the majesty and renown of our gracious Sovereign in these parts with disgrace dishonoured, the nation in general scandalised, and in particular the poor innocent released prisoners bereaved of all credit and estimation. For which notorious wrongs, violence, and indignities, together with your former exactions, couched under the name of necessary maintenance for forts and garrisons.
We, the President and Council aforesaid, do by these presents make public your said oppressions, which is not only in and by your own person to be answered and satisfied, but as you are substitute and have your power from superiors, so is it also intended against your honourable employers, the Company of the United Netherlands trading East India, or any else whom it shall or may concern, from whom in general and particular we, in the name of his Majesty of Great Britain and for our honourable employers, the English East India Company, do and will expect satisfaction.
1. First, the breach of confederacy intended by the articles agreed anno 1619.
2. For your barbarous and bloody execution of 10 of his Majesty's subjects aud our honourable employers' factors and servants.
3. For reparation of credit for those poor eight innocents pardoned and acquitted.
4. For the restoration of all their goods and estates, as well theirs executed as theirs pardoned and acquitted.
5. For satisfaction of our honourable employers' goods and estate in those parts by your own occasion havocked and ruinated even in quantity and value, to be restored as they were rated and valued by general consent of both Dutch and English, to be sold at Amboyna without defalcation of whatsoever since sold by Richard Welden or Henry Sill, that had them from your hands after the execution without our order or consent. Yet whatsoever the said Richard Welden or Henry Sill have out of the said capital and means (by you committed unto their ordering) paid and disbursed for the use of our noble employers, that shall be defalked and deducted out of the general estate of those parts. The rest we must expect restorable at your hands and the hands of your noble employers as aforesaid.
6. We expect repayment of all your former exactions passed under the name of necessary maintenance for forts and garrisons.
7. We require repair for the dishonour unto his Majesty of Great Britain and our noble employers for your preposterous dealings to the disgrace of our nation in general.
8. And lastly, for our honorable employers' loss and trade in those isles of Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda, for our loss of houses and building there, and our abandoning of those parts, all which being occasioned by your said intolerable exactions, usurpation of authority over his Majesty's subjects of Great Britain, and this said barbarous execution.
We will (as reason is we should) expect from you and your honourable employers, the Netherlands Company aforenamed, reparation, satisfaction, and really in every part, redress of all our said losses and disgraces, with such interests, damages, penalties, and inconveniences as by our Christian laws for such wilful and presumptuous offences is and shall be found fitting.
For which purpose we, the President and Council for the honourable Company aforesaid, do make this act authentic by our joint subscription, and send the same to Henry Sill, to be delivered unto you, the said Governor Speult, that thereby both himself and his noble employers and those whom it may concern may be prepared for answers to each particular before our competent judges in Europe or elsewhere.
Dated in Batavia,
the 20 December 1623,
stilo Angliæ.
Thomas Brockedon.
Henry Hawley
John Gonninge.
[Two pages and a half. Mutilated by damp; the words destroyed are supplied from the copy below. Endorsed, "* * * intratur." O.C., Vol. X., No. 1137.]
Dec. 20. 378. Copy of the preceding protest. Endorsed, "Received in London, 29 May 1624, out of Holland, by the pinnace Hazewindt." A copy was also inclosed in Sec. Conway's letter of 25th June 1624 to Carleton. [Eeast Indies, Vol. II., No. 71.