East Indies: July 1627

Calendar of State Papers Colonial, East Indies, China and Persia, Volume 6, 1625-1629. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1884.

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'East Indies: July 1627', in Calendar of State Papers Colonial, East Indies, China and Persia, Volume 6, 1625-1629, (London, 1884) pp. 362-386. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/colonial/east-indies-china-japan/vol6/pp362-386 [accessed 1 March 2024]

July 1627

July 2.
The Hauge.
455. Dudley Lord Carleton to Sec. Lord Killultagh. The States Deputies brought him a verbal answer to the points of his first proposition with so small satisfaction touching the East Indian affairs (especially the revocation of Coen) that it struck some heat between them, which he could not forbear, seeing them deal so coldly in a matter of such moment. Purposes in their Assembly tomorrow to demand their answer in writing. [Extract, Holland Corresp.]
July 4. 456. Court Minutes of the East India Company. Petition of Thomas Drake, who married the widow and executrix of Nicholas Sadler, sometime clerk of the yard at Deptford, for remission of a debt charged on Sadler's account. The writings for the purchase at Blackwall ready to be sealed; after search in the Statute Office and in the Rolls there was found no incumbrance, but the search for judgments and executions would not be finished in a fortnight; whereupon ordered that on Dalton giving bond in 500l. to perform covenants and sealing the writings he be paid 360l., 10l., or 20l. to be reserved until possession be had, and that he be given a suit of satin he had been promised. Ordered that a copy of Greete's will be delivered to Sir William Russell, according to promise; it was held meet to call a Court purposely to set down the reasons why the Company challenged the estate, and meantime to look out the orders of Court therein. Gratuity, at the mediation of a gentleman of Lord Conway, to Ales Shorting, whose husband was cast away in the Unicorn on the Coast of China and afterwards taken by the Portugals. After debate whether to declare to the General Court in the afternoon the reasons of the cessation from trade this year, some holding it unfit to be debated in a public Court whence it might be certified to the Hollanders, who would undoubtedly make use of it to the Company's disadvantage, resolved to propound that a select committee of the generality join with the standing committee to consider that business. The disposure of the three ships at home referred to another time. The difference about the price of Crewe's masts referred wholly to Mr. Abdi. Colthurst unwilling to undertake the employment and Lee dismissed, there was no one to call for the debts of the Company; this business left to further consideration. 3 pp. [Ct. Min. Bk. IX., 580–583.]
July 4. 457. Minutes of a General Court of Election. Relation by Mr. Governor of the proceedings and opinions of the Courts of Committees concerning the managing of the Company's trade, and which he thought not necessary to be argued in public, so advised them to choose some 10 to 20 of the chiefest and greatest adventurers of the generality to join with the standing committee to discuss and resolve what should be thought best for the welfare of the Company. Petition of Robert Washburne to sell in town four bags of pepper, granted as a charity and in consideration of his having been an old servitor of the Company and the quantity small, whereupon Mr. Governor moved that "an honourable personage" might have a like liberty for six bags, but was denied. Discussion as to whether there was enough pepper in the kingdom to serve till more come, and if not if it not better that the brethren of the Company should make benefit of what they have not transported than buy of the Hollanders, who would enhance the price, as they have already of nutmegs, cloves, and mace; answered that there was pepper enough in town to serve for two months at a farthing per lb. profit; that the whole kingdom spends but 1,000 bags yearly; that there were 800 bags not yet transported, and if liberty were given to sell them in town all sale would be shut up to the Company for 18 months or a year at least; and that if the general order of the Company should thus be violated it would discourage adventurers from subscribing to transport; whereupon resolved that the order of the Court of Committees of June 29th denying the grocers' petition should be confirmed. Concerning the election of Governor, Sir Morris Abbott said he had been called to serve in a place of eminency (sheriff) in the City for next year, which required his continual attendance, and he desired to be excused, and prayed not to be put in election, but he, with Aldermen Freeman, Campbell, and Ducie being nominated, was again elected Governor for the ensuing year. Alderman Clitheroe re-elected deputy, and Robert Bateman, who excused himself by reason of his age and his place of Chamberlain of London, alleging that last year he received and paid 400,000l., besides 40,000l. in specie sent into the Indies, which he could not have performed had he not been greatly assisted by his servant, John Massingberde, for whom he desired recompense, but on the nomination of five others with himself he was again, for the ninth time elected Treasurer. It being the custom to change six Committees yearly, and none to be chosen who had not 2,000l. adventure in the second joint stock, Alderman Fenn, Nich. Crispe, Humphrey Browne, Samuel Armitage, Hugh Perry, and Richard Bladwell were chosen. Upon reading the names of last year's 24 Committees, out of whom 18 were to be chosen, it was observed that the stock and trade were small and the charge great, and questioned whether the number of Committees might not be reduced one half, or part of their gratification abated. Opinion of Alderman Garway on this subject, who was to leave his place of a Committee, having been chosen a sheriff of London; he advised the Court not to think of lessening the poor thankfulness of 1,200l. to so many worthy gentlemen, concluding with the proverb, that it is not fit to muzzle the mouth of the ox that treads out the corn. Mr. Governor showed by the patent that 24 Committees were to be chosen, and after several remarks told the Court plainly they must not expect that he would serve them as Governor for nothing, well knowing what sinister interpretation would be made thereon. It was propounded to bring this stock to a conclusion and think on a third, but answer was made that it was not yet ripe, for it would require 600,000l. to buy out remains of this stock, and it was ordered in a General Court of 7th Nov. 1623, to be continued four years after the expiration of the first eight, which four years would determine at Christmas next. Election of 18 out of 24 Committees, Aldermen Cambell, Ducie, and Garway, and Messrs. Mun, Styles, Bell, Abdi, Kirby, Warner, Clement Harby, Job Harby, Williams, Wm. Garway, Smith, Mustard, Spurstowe, Cordell and Gayer chosen, and Sir Edwyn Sandys, Sir John Wolstenholme, Alderman Freeman, and Daniel Gorsuch, Jo. Langley, Jo. Milward, Nich. Leatt, Geo. Stroud, Tho. Bownest, Ri. Bourne, Ri. Woodward, Hen. Poulstead, Wm. Clarke, Mr. Cotton, Wm. Cater, Wm. Cokayne, and Robt. Jeoffryes, or any 10 of them, chosen to join with the standing committee to consider of the businesses aforesaid, but it was ordered that if any of the said 17 were not an adventurer in the sum of 4,000l. he was to be excluded from that Committee. Also that hereafter the Governor, Deputy, and Committees do not take their gratifications as formerly, but be referred to the General Court, and that the election of the officers of the Company be referred to the Court of Committees as best acquainted with their sufficiency to do the Company service. 11 pp. [Ct. Min. Bk. X. 1–11.]
July 6. 458. Court Minutes of the East India Company. This meeting chiefly appointed according to custom for administering the oath to the newly elected Committees for the year ensuing, the Secretary was commanded by Mr. Deputy to make tender of the oath to them, but the Committees remembering how exceedingly they were slighted by some of the generality at their last meeting, and being persuaded this neglect proceeded only from some discontented members and such whose unjust demands had been denied, expect that the generality will right them by a public declaration, and free them from that obloquy and disgrace which they conceive hath been unjustly cast upon them otherwise the Committees are resolved not to take their oaths, but leave the Court to make a new election, holding it much more honour to depart from their places with preservation of their credits and repute of honest men than to serve for nothing, and therefore to be accounted either negligent or unfaithful in their trust. Upon the recommendation of Mr. Misselden, Mr. Elrington who hath lately translated Purchas's work into Latin, and therein inserted the bloody passages of the Dutch against the English at Amboyna, and who after questions asked concerning his said work was observed by his discourse to be a very proper and able man, it was thought fit to gratify him with 5l. out of the poor box to supply his present necessities which appeared to be great, and he was wished to repair again to the Court in two or three months to see if the Company had any fit employment for him. 2pp. [Ct. Min. Bk. X. 12, 13.]
July 15.
The Hague.
459. Dudley Lord Carleton to Sec. Lord Killultagh. The Dutch West India Company have requested him to get one of their ships stayed at Falmouth released; if any of the East India Company's ships were stayed would not so readily; intercede for them, for hitherto he receives no further satisfaction than that for the business of Amboyna, the States are appointing an express judicature, and for the revocation of Coen they expect what the 17 directors now assembled at Amsterdam can say against it. It has fallen out unluckily that the States of Holland have been assembled ever since his arrival, amongst whom the Bewinthebbers have much power, and during their session the States General conclude nothing without their consent. [Extract, Holland Corresp.]
July 18. 460. Court Minutes of the East India Company. Counter bonds presented by Treasurer Bateman for security of those Committees that stand engaged to the Chamber of London for moneys taken up for the Company's occasions. Mr. Treasurer then urged the Committees by divers arguments to take their oaths as heretofore, saying the distaste given them proceeds not from the body of the generality, but from some few of the members, and those of the meanest, who are altogether ignorant of the work and pains of the Committees, and because it may not be said the Committees who have hitherto endeavoured to support the trade are now the first to give it over, and assuring them he is able to testify how the chiefest adventurers worthily and reverently esteem the labours of the Committees; notwithstanding the Committees deferred to take their oaths, conceiving that if once sworn they are bound to attend the service though without reward. Mr. Governor then called for the names of the mixed Committees chosen by the generality, but many being found incapable by their adventures to stand, the following chief adventurers were named to assist the rest, viz., Aldermen Hodges and Backhouse, Sheriff Bromfeild, and Messrs. john Barker, George Bennett, William Bonham, Nathaniel Deards, Rich. Edwards, Hen. Elwes, Daniel Harvey Abraham Reynardson, and Thomas Wight, the beadle was commanded to warn them to meet this Court on Friday afternoon to consider the affairs of the Company, and also how to dispose of their three great ships, some thinking it would not be amiss to have them set out by some private men of the Company against the Portugals. Ten quilts chosen by Mr. Oliver, the Duke of Buckinghnm's gentleman, and rated at 10l. per piece; the Court conceiving they were for the Duchess rated them at 9l. each. On complaint that their powder is landed at Bull's Wharf, where many times it remains two or three days, and is then conveyed through the city in carts, which is both chargeable and dangerous, ordered that henceforth all powder sent from the mills remain in barges until the tide serve for it to be carried in wherries to the storehouses. Proposition to provide "pole davies" instead of canvas for pepper bags, there being no expectation of supply from Bridewell or of French canvas but at unreasonable rates, deferred. Resolution on a report that Henry Wheatley, late purser of the Royal James, had notoriously broken the Company's order by paying servants some half and some all their wages, whereas he should not have exceeded a third. Petition of Richard Downing, nail maker; for 11l. 5s. detained from his wages for the rent of a house a Deptford; also another petition for consideration of his loss on his contract for iron, the price having risen from 15l. to 19l. per ton, referred. Request of Mr. Felgate to be furnished with 40 or 50 barrels of powder at 5l. 5s. per barrel and to return the like quantity of Mr. Evelyn's powder within three months at same price, denied. 6pp. [Ct. Min. Bk. X. 14–19.]
July 18.
461. Henry Hawley, President, and Richard Bix, George Muschamp, and Richard Steele of the Council to the East India Company. Dispeeded their last of 17th February upon a short summons, after the ships London and Reformation, partly to enclose letters received by the Christopher from the President and Council at Surat, but chiefly to advise concerning the concealed sentence and intended proceedings of the Dutch in the cause of Jno. Maria Moretti. The incredible reports in their last concerning the Dutch were set down rather to show their own vigilancy than sincerely conceiting it possible that professed friends could so much digress from civilities. Further account of the Dutch proceedings in Moretti's cause. No sooner were the Dutch sure of the ship's departure than the concealed sentence became public, which long before most burghers well knew was deferred only to hinder it being sent to England in those ships. Gave the Dutch General notice how unjustly the Court had proceeded, which it was intended to answer at the next Court, but was answered it was a definite sentence. Relation of what took place after they had appealed, when Jaques Specx, Judge of the court, and other prime personages of the Senate, and capital officers came to do execution and "strain." Answer of President Hawley that they were strong enough to strain by violence and robbery, but to yield the keys or any assistance were to betray their employers goods. After many speeches the Dutch finding they could not pick the warehouse door, broke it open, and took out five chests of Japan plate, wherewith they marched on men's shoulders through the heart of the town to the wonder of Dutch and heathen. In all this time the Italian never showed himself, the Dutch officers did it all, and made sale of the plate in their public town house. Delivered their protest 10th April. On 17th April the Dutch returned the surplus of the Japan plate, one chest and one bag, with an account, as by the copy sent will appear. Unless his Majesty and the State take these things to heart they will ever suffer the like or worse. The Dutch plot is to exterminate them in all places; nothing but sharp executions in Europe is the remedy. These indignities to themselves and the whole nation are so intolerable that they may not cease complaining till the remedy appear. The Dutch aim at three main ends, to extirpate the English so that they themselves may be the sole possessors; to overbear the English so that all concourse may come to Batavia; and to rob the English by blind pretences. The use of money is so sweet in India that a five-fold restitution in Europe is no satisfaction. Their ships are reported to be 90, and their stock not able to employ half, and the rest busied in diverting trade where the English have to do, or haply in spoiling small vessels of Macao, Malacca, and the coast of Coromandel, but not in quest of galleons at Manilla, Malabar, Goa, or the Gulf of Persia. To proceed to the next unpleasant ditty. The London and Reformation being dispeeded with their letters dated the 7th Feb. [? 6 Feb., see ante No. 255]. Secretary Robinson and Henry Woolman "burst out into a vaunting manner how they were revenged of such and such by letters written to your Worships So-and-so," until by often reiterations and as many denials notorious villany appeared, and Woolman's letter being revealed it grounded such probability of the like effects in Robinson, that after strict examinations it plainly appeared through Christopher Flemming, in some sort innocently confederated, that factions were drawn to incense the Company against them, and particular persons maimed in their reputations, which summoned them to anatomize [annottomis] the cause, as in the writings now sent will appear [see enclosure]. Have not rashly bereaved the Company of such servants as Robinson and Woolman may seem to be, but with well advised deliberation, finding their actions abominable and their dispositions desperately addicted to evils and malicious slanders. Our number is so small that we must have no division in its members. All your affairs stood shivering, for so dangerously had these delinquents, especially Robinson, incensed party against party, that as men enraged hardly could they speak one to another. God has guided them to peaceable and private examinations of these questions, but in respect of punishment there is a difference of opinion, some thinking the fault, though of a high nature, not to deserve death, while the President understands it to be criminal. Robinson is condemned to stay prisoner in India until a copy of Robinson's letter or his sentence be received from the Company. For his conduct in incensing the rude multitude and passing from ship to ship he was restrained in irons five days, since which he has had liberty from the Exchange to the Christopher. Commendation of Robinson in respect of his Portugal language, his scholarship and ready writing, but he was ever a gamester, an evil liver, prodigal, and contentious above measure, and his love of vices and idleness so grew on him that his books cried out for a whole year behind. Relation of the beginning of these broils from Robinson applying himself to win Gabriel Hawley for private accommodations to treacherously drawing him to calumniate superiors. Find his books falsified, and his own augmentation of wages in January 1623 scraped out and October put in its place, and much suspect the like sophistication in other writings, and therefore send transcript of their last, and desire the Company to suspend judgment on any strange passages in others. Robinson's stay as prisoner is determined until advice from England, and both his and Woolman's wages are cut off as malefactors. Arrival of the Christopher from Surat with provisions from London and a cargo of commodities to the amount of 26,136 ryals, which they understand will be enlarged, and the factory at Masulipatam likewise remembered, so as to enable them to relieve Surat with this country's commodities and the Company in Europe, for all their hope is in supply from the Company or Surat. The Christopher's cargo was instantly disposed, one-third by the Swallow to Macassar, a large third by the Coaster to Jambi, and the rest reserved for Batavia or sent by the Expedition to Japara. Since which the Eagle from Macassar has brought news of the Swallow's arrival and cargo instantly sold; the Expedition made also a short return from Japara full laden with boards, plants, and provisions in expectance of the ships from Surat; and the Coaster they suppose came wishedly to Jambi, where neither goods nor moneys remained, but such store of pepper as in few former years has been seen, which is their no small grief to see all their irons cold at once, but they still hope for means in the next ship, and trust the Lord will think upon them. Preparations to intercept the Portugals at Macassar to no purpose, the Dutch coming from Macao, Malacca, and St. Thome caught them, some being rich in cloth, and some rich in gold and silk. Our coming to Macassar in that hostile manner was tenderly taken both by the King and Portugals. As to their request for the like freedom as the Portugals enjoyed, the King requires that both may be alike free in the port of Macassar, but as loath to displease either, and his affection is very constant to the English, so as no politic prince in Europe could do more, but his country cannot be supplied without the Portugals, so the best we can expect is to stand in equal balance, and that neither shall annoy the other in the King's havens, but from the coast of Celebes do the best against each other. His Majesty's letter was received with much pomp, and a complemental answer returned, but had it been accompanied with the great piece, which is still expected, it would have infinitely added to those ceremonial rites; if you send it not we are utterly shamed, for the King is so continually intent upon it, and the Portugals and Dutch so mightily persuade him that we do but juggle, for there wanteth none at his elbow to aggravate against us and in respect of the great trade we might have there had we stock to supply it, we may not miss that factory, for it is one of the especialest flowers in our garden had we means to maintain the trade the place requires, therefore still expect a cannon royal or a cannon at least, and you need not doubt a large satisfaction in cloves, but fearing you fail in sending, have procured one of the Surat pieces out of the William to supply that want. Had hoped that matters were not so desperate as they seemed in the brief relation sent by the London and Reformation concerning the factors and people cast away at Macassar, but understand by the Eagle that neither book, scrap, nor scroll is extant, but cannot understand that any such writings were laden in the wrecked frigate, for all Short's chests, "scretors" (?secretaries), and like receptacles were on shore, which moves them much to doubt evil dealings; Short's preparation to come to us assures to us assures that he had accounts to deliver, and his own estate was supposed the best of any English in India, but must have patience until further examinations. Reasons why they are "brought to a nonplus" concerning the Italian [John Maria Moretti]. Find by examinations, as alleged in their suit, the vessel Diana and her cargo belonged to the parties mentioned, but suspect it was Short who disbursed, for the Italian was deemed not worth a doit, but particulars will appear under Short's hand that by chance have come to light. Concerning their reconciliation with the King of Bantam, referred to in their last letters, "To covenant upon presumptions where there is no certainty may bring us home by weeping cross." Urge the Company either to furnish them with means or resolve them what to do for remove and replantation, for they are now in a Bay of Uncertainties. Their residence, security, health, trade, provisions, building, &c. must all be considered before they leave their mansion in Batavia. Yet as despair is the basest of all resolutions, so intend when supplies come instantly to parley with Bantam. Were lately solicited by their old neighbours at Lagundy to return, and if the Company still stand affected to fortify by themselves, a better habitation in all these parts cannot be wished, if Bantam oppose it not, and for conveniency of wood and stone quarries no part of India can parallel Lagundy main. Things must be so ordered that the Dutch dare not affront us, for disgrace with the natives cannot lightly be recovered. May not conceal their opinions that fortification, though a matter of charge and difficulty, should be effected, for no nation under heaven hath those hopes of India as hath the English, for England can raise silver there with more facility than can the King of Spain from West India, and as for the Hollanders' potency, it is in weapons not their own, the commodities of England being their originals Considerations of the effects of trade in the East Indies. Necessary for the Company by every shipping to Surat to proportion at least 100,000 R of 8 to be invested in that country's commodities and transported to the Southern Presidency, so as to arrive in February or May, for Java, Sumatra, and Macassar will easily vent that proportion, and if they resettle on the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda more will be required. Masulipatam must also be remembered with a ship to sail with the Surat ships, with cargazoon in gold rather than ryals, lead, alum, quicksilver, brimstone, broadcloth, kerseys, and perpetuanoes, mostly stammetts, poppinjay green, blue, watchett, azures, and orring (? orange), these capital colours are for garments, for saddles, and to cover palanquins, and light kerseys more fit than broadcloth; mean red cloth is also used for servitors' coats, but no sad colour, especially black, is respected. The Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda, if resettled in, will vend much cloth, and if they expect saltpetre, cotton yarn, and cloth from Masulipatam for England, 200,000 R. is the least that yearly must be invested there. The ship sent directly from England would arrive in September or October, and might stay till December or January, and if fully laden with lead, alum, and some brimstone, for a trial, they need not doubt its consumption before the next year's shipping arrive. If the President of Surat constantly furnish them, will supply him with commodities of these parts, otherwise neither can support the trade. The two seasons for sending shipping from Surat aptly answer their accommodations, for arriving in February it is fit for Macasaar, or in May for Java and Sumatra. Conceive all dispeed of shipping for England to be better from Batavia than immediately from Masulipatam, for their turns are accommodated with part of the lading, and the rest dispersed in other ships; and one ship yearly must also be dispeeded from Batavia to Masulipatam in March or April, to return in September with that year's gathering of southern commodities to furnish the coast of Coromandel, which they suppose differs little from what serves Surat, viz., cloves, nuts, mace of the Moluccas; sandal wood in great quantities and turtle shells from Macassar; copper in great quantities from Japan; China roots and alum, supposed much worse than English; tin of Pera, under the King of Acheen, in great quantities; brimstone from Acheen, supposed far worse than English; gold of Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and Pegu easily got at Batavia and more current than silver; all which vend in great quantities in the northern parts, and will yield two, three, or more for one. The 300,000 reinvested at Surat and Masulipatam may in six months after arrivel at Balavia be vented for 600,000 R. or more, and invested in pepper and the aforesaid commodities, and in gold, whereon great profit will be raised on the coast of Coromandel, where only gold passes in payment, especially to the weavers, being easily concealed from their Governors; silver yielding but 4s. 6d. the ryal, while at Pegu it will pass at 7s. in exchange for gold. July is the fittest season to send shipping from Batavia to Surat, for about that time arrive the ships from Macassar and the East with cloves, sandal wood, and turtle shells. These accommodations between the northern and southern parts are the life of all their trade, and must at no time be neglected. The commodities of Java. Sumatra, the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda are chiefly for European returns, as pepper, cloves, mace, &c., and might have been purchased alone with cloth of Surat and Coromandel, iron and steel of Coromandel, all yielding three for one or more, had not the emulation or evil disposition of the Dutch beat down the price of those commodities, raised that of the fruits, and brought in the demand for ryals. This Plutonical policy still continues at Acheen, and lately at Beniemas, where to beat out the Danes the Dutch sold cloth better cheap than it cost on Coromandel, which agrees with all their affronts on the English and shows how willingly would they be deep losers might they obtain India for themselves. Java, Sumatra, Macassar, Celebes, Borneo, &c. will easily vend all the cotton cloths they and the Dutch can bring from Surat and Coromandel, and would more willingly accept cloth than ryals, clothing being of use, but coin, save a little for ornaments, being buried in the ground from posterity to posterity, as it well may, for their occassions require it not. There is no part of Java, Sumatra, Celebes, Booton, Pegu, and Borneo but affords gold after the rate of 7, 8, 9, and 10 ryals in silver for one ryal weight of gold, which gold on Coromandel yields 10, 11, 12, and 13, far more current than silver at 4s. 6d. per ryal, and at Japan 15 for one ryal weight, and this is no secret, though not formerly observed by factors, to the Company's infinite loss. Yet must the Company continue sending ryals into these parts and withdraw not themselves until trade be reduced to its true current, which unity and discretion will soon do, to make it the most facile and commodious trade in the world. The European commodities vendible in these parts are lead in bars, iron, stammett, and scarlet cloths for great men, and for an experiment low-priced red cloth for an ornament for their soldiers and attendants, in whom they seem to glory. Jewels amongst all great princes are grown in high esteem, especially diamonds sumptuously set, and are twice as dear as in Europe, and all rarities that are beautiful, even toys of small value such as Frankfort mart affords, will vend at great rates and are the most acceptable present in the world; the great princes though covetous valuing a rarity far higher than ten times the worth in things common. State of the trade of Java and Sumatra. As places affording their European returns they are most necessary for your prime plantation, other parts being visited by coasting voyages, except Amboyna and Banda, which if ever reverted to must be fortified. These two parts of the East India trade, the northern clothings united with Java and Sumatra, might well content the most avaricious traders in the World. The third part of East India's trade, Japan and China, is more than all the rest, and seemeth offered only to the English. These mighty monarchies abound with riches, are civilised peaceably to respond with all, but in a climate requiring clothings which can only be supplied by the English. Their clothing is silk, passable in summer, but in winter they are forced to bombast or wear 10 coats one over the other. And the silk all growing in China, by a stop of their intercourse, silk in China would be as dust or dung, and Japan beggared for want of clothing; but such is the natural enmity between those two nations that could Japan be furnished with any other clothing not one Chinan durst peep into their country, and now they come by stealth, which would cost their lives if known to their governors in China. This by ancient relations and diligent, inquiries from those lately come thence they know to be true, and English cloth is in such high esteem that none dare wear it but great men, yet have they only base cloth raised to excessive rates. Have entered into parlance with divers Japons, who assure them that 100,000 cloths would soon be sold and not 10 men to buy them for ready silver. This quantity of cloth is a mountain and an Indian mine, and not to be effected but by a nation like England, whose dependence is on cloth. The colours and sorts were advertised in their last. How the success of this trade would infinitely enlarge the dyeing and dressing of cloth throughout England. Cloth sold in Japan would furnish all the trade of India with silver and spare a large proportion to be returned in specie for Europe or invested in gold at Pegu to make two for one, if not in other Indian treasures. Argue that this trade of Japan is the summum bonum of East India, and how wonderfully it would further the design, if his Majesty would countenance the first expedition with his letter to Japan's Emperor, who is more moved with one bare word from a King than with submission devised by subjects; which seconded by discreet messengers to solicit the Emperor's edict for free admittance of commerce, would be far more available in the great city of Yedo than 40 years' management with care and industry at the seaside in Firando. Suppose that more than ordinary respect will be used to win this great monarch, which is not to be done with wealth, wherein he abounds, but new stratagems of war is their chief delight, and one or two experienced leaders to show our manner of chivalry and two practical engineers for device of fortification would give more pleasure than four large ships laden with treasure. The reward of an Emperor and to return at pleasure need not be doubted, for no nation under the sun observes more humanity, their word is law, and their country open to all to come and go at pleasure. Suggestions for presents: very long fowling pieces, snaphances for special show amongst the Emperor's guard, also fair armour for the Emperor's man and horse, large Venetian looking glasses 18 to 24 inches in length, and a fair contemplative globe, celestial and terrestrial. Presents sent by the Dutch in their last ships to Japan by a special Ambassador. with many musketeers and much state; two great brass pieces on field carriages, with many other species of greater value. The Dutch cargo is unknown to us, except 100 bales of English broadcloth and divers serges and stuffs of their own country. Though store of gold in Japan, yet their expense is so great in gilding their houses that the ryal weight always yields 15 or 16 ryals of eight, more than two for one from any of these parts. Dutch hopes of Japan trade exceeding great; the copper and silver of Japan provide them with silk of China from Formosa, which yields two for one, silk in Japan yielding little less than in Europe. Beseech the Company not to fear the Dutch, for it is the maxim of the Japanese that the English have a King and country of their own, while they imagine that the Hollanders live on the spoil and roam about with their wives and children, which they infinitely dislike, the Emperor as well as the rest. The Portugals, heretofore gracious in Japan, were all banished since the busy practices of the Jesuits, the Emperor being infinitely incensed against them and their religion, that bound the people rather to obey a priest than his command, and this cost many thousand naturals their lives in Japan. Considerations concerning the trade to China, "our next step." Three things especially known, viz., the abundant trade it affords, no stranger admitted into their country, and that it is as life to the vulgar, who in remote parts will seek it with the hazard of all they have. The Dutch saw the folly of their long continued roamings on the coast, and have planted on Formosa, where should the English show themselves, it will be warded as a diamond mine. Understand that none of the Dutch nation are publicly tolerated, but only some proportioned to trade with the King of Siam and all that will with Cochin China, but all other trades are unlawful and attempted at the risk of life. Are persuaded rather to settle on Cochin China, but seven days journey from Chinchew with free intercourse by sea and land, than on Formosa; Cochin China is a kind of tributary to the great Emperor, but of late free. The harbours on Cochin China far more secure than Formosa; are doubtful whether the King will permit them to fortify on the main, but will not be opposed on the island of Champessa, which is "most champion," 30 miles about, planted with fruits, and inhabited by poor fishermen willing to be protected, with a spacious harbour. The Noquedes rejoicing in our motion profess that if we will settle there, they will beat up their gongs in China and we shall want for nothing. Urge the Company by many arguments to consider this project and return their advice, the trade of China is the world's treasure, and abounds with all riches. The silk and silk stuffs of China feed all India and sufficient for all Europe besides. In Japan whole shiploads sold two for one ready silver, pepper and spices also good commodities, English lead, tin from Pera, &c., and so may English cloth. It will therefore well suit with the magnificence of the English nation to accommodate the first adventure with a valuable parcel of cloth; the finest will find best vent, yet for the vulgar a meaner sort, but the ignorant must not be deceived in its goodness, otherwise it may once sell but ever after be slighted; this both in Japan and China is above all things to be observed. The colours ordinarily used in China are light, viz., scarlets, stammett, "orring" (?orange), blue, watchett, purple, peach, &c., with some orient sad "cochonella" colours, for as the Chinans wear all light colours, so the Japons will be their opposites, and wear all sad colours, and so in all other things. There is no more difficulty in this China trade than to make a beginning. Other places to be visited, but needing no residing factory, as Siam and Camboja, where much cloth of Coromandel may be vended, and European returns procured, with skins, varnish, &c, which yield two, three, and four for one in Japan; Pegu also vents much cloth of Coromandel, and will exchange gold for silver where it a ton weight, for it is pletifully sold in markets on tables as ordinary merchandise, and may be used to furnish the coast of Coromandel rather than undergo the greatest loss in ryals and other silver at Masulipatam, for at Pegu, Japan silver may be exchanged at well nigh two for one. Divers other coasting voyages may be used to raise much profit. Reflections upon the "weighty affairs" which will require substantial order and government when there will be no need to doubt a plentiful harvest. Are exceedingly destitute of sufficient factors, and the times of those that remain are either expired or nearly out. Hope to be supplied by the next with men of especial quality, for a succession of experienced directors is above all things to be Wished. None need shun the voyage from supposed danger, heats, or intemperate airs, and nothing lies in the Way but intemperance; men may drink Wines and peradventure live, but whoso leaves them and drink only water never feels infirmity in India. Remarks on the folly of drink Suggestions for "arriving at order which in this great building is to be especially observed." It is not sufficient for the Company to provide stock, give good directions, and send sober, sufficient, and well qualified men, there must be " prescription of order," for if President after President, Governor after Governor, and factor after factor govern according to his own imagination, dissensions and confusion will daily arise, therefore nothing is more necessary than that the Company's learned counsel, once for all, prescribe acts, orders, and laws how each shall demean himself in his place, which should rather be printed than written for continuance. Beseech the Company to take this into consideration for the time to come. In these times of trouble with Spain there may be difficulty in getting ryals for exportation, gold is better for Coromandel and Acheen, but on the west coast of Sumatra, Jambi, and Java ryals must be provided. If they trade where the Dutch reside, the Company may well send 1,000l. now and then in Dutch dollars, which go at 3s. 6d. or 21 whangs as they are called at Batavia, or double stivers, whereof 24 make a ryal of eight. Send a piece of each, which are of base alloy, and termed by the natives iron money, yet this strong trade and plantation of the Dutch makes infinite sums of these sorts passable. The like effect works at Surat. Were the English planted by themselves, would not counsel the like base coins, for were it possible for these poor people to find trade elsewhere, few would come to Batavia. Recommend "the erecting of coins" for the abolishing of ryals most facile to effect if his Majesty will countenance his subjects though no further than the agreement of 1619. Must put them in mind to provide European toys for presents to these Princes; whatsoever seems rare and has its beauty would be acceptable, and if also of use would be of high esteem. It is strange to see the earnest emulation of these Princes to procure rarities that others have not, to impress conceit of greatness in the vulgar; a wild mastiff dog because not common has his attendants, and is fanned from flies with as much observance as a principal personage. Many of the dogs sent grow faint and die, as they suppose for want of fresh Water and too much salt meat aboard, fresh oaten meal or ground barley is the only food for dogs, and a chain and comely collar to grace them ought ever to be remembered. A Turkey cock and hen given by Capt. Moreton were so much admired that a "sleight" Chinaman to make a friend by presenting them would willingly buy the like at 100 ryals of eight, and these were sent for by the Governor of Condall for the great Materam. No price shall stumble them for ornaments if liked, rings, jewels, antique pieces of plate which by motions go alone, clocks if they rust not, small brass cannon on carriages, tweezers in cases, and every thing not common; wherein the Portugals please them more than either Dutch or English, which may all be provided from Frankfort mart more plentifully than from any other place of Europe.
Arrival on 27 May from Surat of the William, Blessing, and Discovery, the Palsgrave and Dolphin detained until 4 June; all in good condition, having spent last seasan in the Gulf of Persia without any encounter of enemy; their coming was only for a wintering repose, and to support the wants of the factory with such cargo as there own occasions afforded. Send copy of the President's letter from Surat, and of the Commander's commission. The cargo came so happily as heart could wish, for all our means were at an end, and the overplus uninvested will hardly provide victuals for a very few months. A supply of moneys earnestly looked for. The first design of this fleet for Mozambique frustrated. Have added the Exchange to Capt. Moreton, who with six ships sailed on 19 June for Surat, conceiving this to be a most necessary employment. Capt. Moreton dealt not fairly with us, for at his departure he secretly carried away from the Roebuck at Hector's Island five sailors and three carpenters, and from this factory Wm. Perry, nailor. No commander ought to be his own carver. Had extraordinary need of the nailor; let him have a smith on promise to leave an armourer, but he has taken nailor, smith, and armourer, not leaving for all our occasions one of those sciences that can stand on his legs. If he pass with these pranks it is but vain to look after business. Confess that a business of this nature concerning the defence of both Companies ought to have been communicated to both, but the neglect and discourtesy of the Dutch are sufficient warrant not to seek after such seeming friends. Remarks upon these "high flyers". The Morris sent to help home the cargazoon from Masulipatam, where as the President's letter specifies, the Abigail has got some mischance. Arrival of the Falcon from Jambi without lading, albeit pepper abounded money was wanting, the Coaster able to supply every occasion. In the Falcon was permitted for passage the King of Jambi's Ambassador, sent to solicit assistance for recovery of Palembang, fallen by decease of that King to the grandchild of the King of Jambi, who married the King of Palembang's daughter, and enjoyed it until an usurper forced him to fly. In the embassage was employed the capital person next to the King, with letters both from the old and young King of Jambi, and order to deliver them first to the Dutch; so with all the Surat ships barges, trumpets, sackbutts, and still music, they fetched him from the Dolphin with his King's colours flying and all his people, but coming into the creek the Dutch General's barge met him and conveyed him to the castle. Consideration of the letter delivered by the Ambassador to help the King recover his grandchild's rights on condition of liberty of trade and custom free for 10 years, passed their promise for assistance, thereby preventing the evasive practices of the Dutch. In the action of Surat's defence no conference was sought either by the Dutch or themselves. Relation of what took place with the Ambassador, and that the Eagle set sail with him with 52 men, the Falcon with 41, and the frigate with 20, also of the behaviour of the Dutch, who refused him their letters unless he would go in their ships, which he utterly denied. Have ordered Gabriel Hawley their substitute at Palembang to respond to every civil action. On 26th June the ships set sail for Jambi with instructions for Gabriel Hawley to pass with the Ambassador to the King, and on 29th June the Dutch followed with five ships. Informed the Ambassador before his departure of his King's hard measure in seizing the junk Refuge for Abdy's transgression two years past; his excuses, and promise to commend the matter to his King. Complained also of the detract of justice against the Company's debtors. Doubt not better correspondency in Jambi than before. Arrival of five ships 10th June out of Holland, but five months on the voyage, one new and of great burden. Explanations concerning a drug called black amber, sold by James Slade to Mr. Chamberlain, and found to be counterfeit. Henry Short and Samuel Clay, both deceased, were the original sellers; know that the like amber has been in suspicion and sold at 3, 7, and 8 R. per cattie. Opinion of Stephen Porter, who seems a sober and well ordered young man, and stands them in great stead in forwarding their late Secretary's arrears, which he and Thomas Taylor will hardly bring to a period in four months, doubt not he will deserve increase of wages. This ship Expedition sent for Jambi 30th April last returned full laden with pepper 13th July, hope it will arrive in England before the Company's dispatch of shipping for these parts. Their Secretary's [Henry Robinson] seditions, who, not content to exasperate ourselves one against the other, frames falsities to incense the Company against them all, utterly to dishearten and distract all our proceedings. Send copy of letter from Jambi partly to show the dangers incident to wants, partly to make known the report of Capt. Arnold Browne's concealing of Colbach's estate, but especially to acquaint them with Henry Sill's complaint against their late Secretary Robinson, the like of which they may expect from all places. Would have sent Robinson in this ship, but some of them conceived it a dangerous precedent to dispense with such gross mutiny; beg the Company to take the papers seriously into their consideration and guide them as shall be found necessary. The President commends to the Company's perusal Robinson's daring letter of the 14th inst.; his prison is the liberty of the ship Christopher, his chains for contempt, that either himself or Robinson may receive condign reward for example's sake before they leave India; he delights not in blood and desires no favour, but to prevent the perverting of justice. Return Robinson's companion Woolman, who comes far short of him in mutiny, wanting brain to effect it, in this ship without punishment. Were lately like to come into trouble about Woolman, for being indebted to sundry burghers, he is also indebted to the Company, but has no estate. His most vile carriage in Acheen and complaints against Willoughby; find nothing recorded by Robinson but what was inserted in their letter by the London, and that a proportion of the Company's stock is converted to his use. Supposed in their sentence against Willoughby that all exceptions by Woolman, Allen, and Coward were ended, and finding him rather erring in judgment than by wilful fraud, intended his further employment; but learning how Woolman had maimed him by letters in the London and Reformation, he desired leave to return in this ship to give satisfaction; he is a sober sufficient merchant, an excellent linguist, and ready accountant. Request of Henry Brough, one of the Company's free masons, concerning an annual payment to Anthony Brampton out of his wages. Find some difficulty in manning this ship; one White, a sober, honest man, dangerously stabbed by a treacherous Dutch drunkard, and John Carter fallen sick. John Head, carpenter, appointed Jesson's chief mate; he was mate to Wm. Butler in the Roebuck. Hold Jesson to be sufficient and exceeding pliant in all businesses, yet eclipsed in the opinion of many for troublesome, and "an evil name is half a hanging." John Head is sober and well tempered; his merchant, George Willoughby, will doubtless be a good assistant. Answer to Woolman's objections in the case of the 2,000 ryals missing at the Moluccas. Send by Geo. Willoughby a Japan winter garment, usual both for men and women, inconvenient for travel or weather, but indoors most pleasing, exceedingly warm and delicate; in summer the same fashion is worn, but thin; it is named kerremoon. The Dutch prepare six ships and a pinnace for Surat, old William Johnson commander. Sundry Chinans have solicited us to procure our best spectacles, and have robbed us of all we could spare; 1,000 pair or two in the best gilt cases would sell for more than we can ask. Must reiterate four capital considerations, which if omitted all the Company's designs will prove fruitless:—1. A continual supply of ships, men, and means sufficient to dare enemies and maintain trade. 2. His Majesty's protection against the devices of the Hollanders. 3. To obtain the inestimable treasure of the trade of Japan, which must by his Majesty's mediation, for unexpected courtesies from a King are more than millions of treasure from commons. 4. Supplies of experienced commanders and sufficient merchants.
July 19.—Complaint of certain of Henry Woolman's creditors to the Court of Burghers, who demanded the delivering up of said Woolman, which was utterly refused, as he was the Company's servant and the King's prisoner, and not subject to any other government. Have cited all Woolman's creditors to assemble this evening, and if more deliberation is necessary will keep him for the next conveyance, but he shall remain their prisoner unless taken from them by violence. Commend to their notice two sorts of gold in ingots now sent by Richard Steele to his wife, and to be had in Batavia in exceeding great quantities, but on Java and Sumatra the better sort alone, which is abased by the Chinans. This gold is gathered by Chinans, who sell cotton cloths in Java and Sumatra, or by Javans and Sumatrans. Advantages of being in Bantam or in any place by themselves, "which we hope will so effectually be understood that at long last we may once be enabled to stand upon our own legs without dependance on those that profess your undoing with as much devotion as they either eat or drink in time of necessity." 64 pp. Annexed,
Inventory of writings sent by the Expedition.
Letter of 7th Feb. per London and Reformation. [? 6th, see No. 399.]
Papers in the suit of Jno. Maria Morretti; also concerning Thomas Robinson and Henry Woolman; and the King of Jambi's Ambassador.
Letter and Commission from the President of Surat.
Attestations concerning the estate of Henry Short, and the black amber sold by Jno. [? Jas.] Slade.
Particulars of stores lent to the Dutch at Surat. Abstract of goods laden in the Royal James and Jonas from Surat.
Brief of particular cargazoons sent from factory, Batavia.
Bill of lading for the ship Expedition.
Letter from Henry Sill, dated 11th June.
Letter for his Majesty from the King of Macassar, in yellow satin.
Box sealed with two bands in James Barlow's chest.
Letter to Sir Morris Abbott.
Packet from the General Purser.
Remembrances commended by Richard Bix.
Commission for Randall Jesson.
Thomas Robinson's daring letter to the President.
"A paper wherein certain Hollands species."
Steele's letter to the Governor and Committees.
A box with musters of gold from Rich. Steele, all in a black box sewed up in dutty, sealed and delivered to Randall Jesson.
General letter with invoice and relation concerning China and Japan in one packet, and a large packet for the Netherlands Company delivered to George Willoughby to be delivered to the Company.
The full text of the Commission and Instructions by the President and Council at Batavia for Randall Jesson, Commander of the Expedition; and also of the "Particulars to be considered" [by the East India Company], by Richard Bix.
Questions and answers concerning trade with China and Japan. The Emperor of China resides 70 days' journey from the sea in a city called Pequin. The usual dwellings are houses, high, large, and very sumptuous; the nobility use wainscot of sweet wood, very costly and pleasant. The Emperor resides in a circular castle, walled fivefold, the innermost, some miles in compass, being pure massy gold; he seldom shows himself unless on extraordinary occasions, nor goes out of the castle hardly once in seven years, but passes edicts and governs by four sage men, who yet are not permitted to converse with him but by writing. No people may travel within the land, nor will the Emperor admit converse or commerce with any prince or people. In some places on the borders, trade is tolerated by inferior governors with certain limitations, and of the ships to 150 tons. The usual clothing of the people is silk and linen both winter and summer, their different degrees being shown by distinct ornaments, and the number of garments, the nobility, gentlemen, and merchants wearing six, eight, or ten vestments one upon the other, which expresses the greatest state; in their houses they disrobe and hang two, three, or four garments on pins against the wall; the inferior hold their state in linen after the same manner, and their gilded shoes most glorious. In no part of the main is trade admitted, though in some islands bordering on the main it is tolerated. There is no current coin, but the common people usually go to market with small pieces of silver sold by weight; worth of the ryal. Diamonds are not esteemed, or jewellery unless made by themselves; rubies and emeralds are much requested and used in decking their women, but most of all amber; plate is much used, no nation can surpass them in manufactury of all sorts. Fine cloth is so highly esteemed that none under the degree of a governor are tolerated to wear or use it; they employ it for furniture for horses, coverings for beds, carpets, and some for garments, but sparingly, which sparing use is occasioned by the excessive rates, but chiefly in respect that none but mean sorts are ever seen amongst them; in no part of the world is fine cloth more necessary than in China. Light colours most requested amongst the common people, but amongst the nobility and gentry black, stammell, purple, and all sad colours. There is no lack of munition for war according to their fashions, but English artillery being longer and of greater effect would be very acceptable. Metals of all sorts are in infinite plenty, stones not esteemed, amber in great esteem. Drinking glasses and looking glasses well accepted as gifts, but no merchandise; they are not accustomed to tapestry, but esteem wainscotting of sweet woods far better. Silk and other commodities of these parts belong to particular men, and he that is best able hath most commodities, keeps most silk worms and "professes" most merchandise. The nobility interpose in nothing but government, which they execute with much severity and justice, maintaining trade, giving employment to all, affecting arts and literature, honouring men learned, and in places of government preferring none others.
The opinion and relation of the Noquedes concerning the English situation in Cochin China. That that King loves peace and desires trade, and affects the English above other nations. The country affords pepper, great quantity, lignum, aloes, with other sweet wood seven times its value in gold, elephants' teeth, buffaloes' horns, and turtle shells, all principal commodities for China, for which return rich silk stuffs and fine white silk, the silk of Cochin China being yellow and of a lower rate. The English should settle on Champesla, an island half a day's journey from Cochin, 30 miles in compass, with wood, fresh water, and wild fowl in abundance, and a very secure harbour; ships of 400 tons may ride five miles up the country in a fair fresh river; the inhabitants are poor fishermen desiring protection; the place may easily be purchased from the King of Cochin China.
Questions and answers concerning Japan. The clothing usual in Japan is silks and linen, chiefly furnished by their professed enemies, the Chinese, with gold, silks, procelain, &c., Siam, Cochin China, and Camboja assisting with stag skins for shoes and buskins, and the coast of Coromandel and St. Thome with "skade" skins to make scabbards for their cuttans; hardly one in 20 wears a silk coat or one in 40 shoes or buskins, and if by chance the junks come not once a year all estates are forced to endure penury. Custom has caused a liking for their own clothing, but a small experience will soon wean them from it as nowise suitable to their cold climate and martial expeditions. None under the degree of a gentleman may wear English cloth, for it is so precious that cloths of 15l., 16l., and 17l. are sold at 500, nay 600 ryals of eight per cloth. There is no doubt of the acceptance of fine cloth, and example being set by the greater sort there will be little difficulty in the inferior, and easy rates will doubtless occasion infinite quantities to be vented. The people are sober and very majestical, affecting only sad colours, as black, scarlet, stammell, purple, French russet, damson colour, French green, tawny, or the like. The commodities of Japan are chiefly silver in bar and bullion, and copper at 5 ryals and 10 ryals the pecull in infinite plenty, transported to China, Siam, Camboja, Cochin China, the coast of Coromandel, and most parts of India, and not unnecessary for England, considering the price and use for great ordnance and other manufactures. Elephants' teeth, China commodities, and spices in no great quantities are supplied by the Portugals of Macao or the Chinese, Siamese, and Cambojans. Their silver is in bar and bullion, and but two small coins about the court, called a combouge, in value 2s. and 1s. Spanish money. Gold is worth 15 or 16 ryals the ray weight, and brought in by the Chinese, Portugals, and Hollanders, &c., yet is there great store of both gold and silver, especially silver, and within three days of Firando the Emperor possesses a mine which yields monthly 350,000 ryals of eight, and this is but one amongst the rest which yield infinite treasure. Neither jewels nor gold or silver plate are esteemed, their drinking vessels are of procelain of China, and their dishes wooden, of their own making and curiously painted. Fine glasses out of England would be an acceptable gift, but no commodity. Novelties are infinitely desired, and to the Emperor nothing more acceptable than long snaphanee pieces, tents for his often removes, martial ornaments and martial men to instruct his people in European discipline; and with engineers, fortifications, &c. he will be infinitely delighted, for chivalry is their chief course. Together 14 pp. "Letter to the Honble Comp. per the ship Expedition."
Consultations of the President and Council at Batavia concerning letter written by their Secretary, Thomas Robinson, and Henry Woolman to the East India Company, by the ships London and Reformation, accusing President Henry Hawley, his nephew, Gabriel Hawley, and Rich. Steele, Brooks, Brewin, Sill, Willoughby, Mann, and Thomas Taylor of defrauding the Company by private trade, of bribery, partiality, or spleen, with the answers of those chiefly accused. 1627, March–April. Imperfect. 28 pp. Together 106 pp. [O.C., Vol. XI., Nos. 1255–1256.]
July 18. 462. Extracts of preceding letter with No. of page of the original, from whence taken, and the following note. "Upon the receipt and reading of these two letters [i.e., this letter and ante No. 399] concerning the Japan trade (the Governor and major part of the Committees being Turkey merchants, and many merchant adventurers also amongt them), much offence was taken against the factors for their advice, the letters cast aside, and they called for home shortly after; for if silver can be had in Japan, as is pretended, for cloth, easily may all the silk of Persia be obtained by way of India, and much silk also from China; and so the Turkey merchants in their trade would lose the bringing home by the Levant seas a small part of the Persian silk which they commonly buy in Turkey with silver raised within the Straits by Indian wares sent hence, which silver would otherwise be returned hither, and much more by the vent of silk from hence into other parts of Europe, and yet no less of our cloth vented in Turkey or elsewhere." This letter was received in Loddon 23 Dec. 1627. 1 p. On same sheet as No. 399. [East Indies, Vol. IV., No. 27.]
July ? 463. Reply of the President and Council at Jacatra [on behalf of the Macassar factory] to the Dutch Governor-General and Committees in reference to their sentence at the suit of John Maria Moretti, who had deserted their service. They bewail that their allied friends, contrary to the contract of King's and Princes, nay against the course of Christian courts of justice, should entertain a cause without any manner of evidence; nay, more, that Moretti, the phoenix of infamy, should in the time of service be rent from them, the consideration of which is so grievous, and so highly concerns their sovereign and nation, that they are bound as friends to enter this caveat to stay the perverting of justice, lest the babe unborn have cause to bewail Batavian policy. Certified copy by Thos. Robinson, Secretary. 1½ pp. Mutilated by damp. [O.C. Vol. XI., No. 1254.]
464. Depositions and proceedings in the College of Justice of the Castle of Batavia, concerning the seizure of the Dutch pinnace Diana, and imprisonment of the master, John Maria Moretti of Venice, by Henry Short, English factor at Macassar. 1626. May–Dec.
Extract out of the Civil Book of the Justices of the Castle of Batavia, in the cause between J. M. Moretti and Henry Hawley, President of the East India Company, and Henry Short. The defendants are condemned in the sum of 5,507 ryals of 8, the amount of pinnace and contents, and 1,982 ryals of 8 for the hindrances and charges of the plaintiff, and all other charges to be paid by defendants. Moretti and owners of said pinnace are condemned in the sum of 164½ ryals. 1627, March 3.
Petition of J.M. Moretti to the Dutch President and Council of Batavia. Prays for execution of the sentence against President Henry Hawley for payment of his charges, which with loss of time amount to 1,200 ryals of 8: also order of the Council [in the margin] that President Hawley and the other defendants be summoned by the officers, assisted by the Secretary, for performance of said sentence, and that the officer cite the said President to appear on the next Court day to hear the plaintiff's declaration of charges, and that the Secretary deliver to defendants copy of this petition and order. 1627, March 12. Together 35 pp. [O.C., Vol. XI., No. 1270.]
July 20. 465. Minutes of a mixed Court of the Standing Committees and of Committees named at the last General Court, and others of the greatest Adventurers to consider of the cessation of trade to the East Indies for a time. Representation of Mr. Governor of the proceedings to secure a Committee of the Generality whose adventures exceeded 4,000l., to the end that at this meeting the proposition in hand may more effectually be discussed, which proposition was a cessation from trade for a time now to be argued, and either to be confirmed or disannulled. He then briefly demonstrated the continual injuries practised against the English by the Dutch, which palpably proved a settled resolution in the Dutch to drive the English out of the Indies, as the bloody massacre at Amboyna, the underhand practices, exclusive contracts, and open violence in restraining them from trade everywhere, confirmed by their own writings, viz., Coen's instructions and commissions to Carpentier, Lemen's articles, and other secret writings, by which the trade of the Moluccas, Banda, and Amboyna for nuts, cloves, and mace, and the trade of Bantam for pepper are taken from the English, nay Jambi the only place left for buying pepper was shut up before the last ships came from Jacatra by reason of an exclusive contract which the Dutch had made with the King of that place, yet two days before our ships set sail the Dutch politicly made show to disannul said contract. These and other particulars had given the King and Lords full satisfaction that the Dutch intended nothing more than utterly to expulse the English and appropriate the sole trade, whereupon the Lords had proposed (1) that the six Amboyna judges now in the Low Countries be proceeded against and put to death, (2) that a pinnace be forthwith sent by the Dutch for revocation of Coen, and (3) that Dutch Commissioners come over to make satisfaction for former injuries, and settle a reglement of trade for the future; which resolutions at that time gave good satisfaction to the Company, but Mr. Governor declared that many letters have since been received out of Holland, importing a resolution in the Bewinthebbers, nay, in some of the States, to justify the Act of Amboyna, and give satisfactory reasons for sending away Coen; all which letters conclude that the Government of the Low Countries is so intermixed with the Bewinthebbers that whenever the business shall come to a judicial trial they will be both parties and judges, and there would be no hope of redress by treaty; that the only course is to lay hold on the Dutch ships, which is much desired by some of their own Company, without which the Court of Committees hold it better for a while to suspend their trade in expectation of better encouragement than to go on with a losing one, the Netherlands not caring to undo themselves so they may drive the English out of the Indies, which malicious intention is confirmed by their enhancing the price of pepper from 1½d. or 2d. per lb. to 4½d. or 5d., besides charges. All these inducements to a cessation having been at large handed at sundry times, but more particularly at a Court of the 23rd May, which was now read, Mr. Governor propounded.—(1) Whether to pursue the trade until his Majesty and the State give better encouragement by redressing former injuries and settling a reglement for the future? (2.) Whether to forbear divisions until such a stock be raised as is necessary for supply of said trade? Opinions of some of the committees: Sir Edwin Sandys represented that though he was no merchant, yet seeing the business was to be argued by point of reason and judgment he declared that four things were considerable to be debated—Whether the trade in its present state is to be continued? Whether removing all inconveniences it be profitable? What are the causes of the present trade being unprofitable? and if the redress expected be obtained, how then to pursue the trade? Objections of Sheriff Fenn and others as to the dangers of a cessation of trade and whether the Dutch would thereby be encouraged to seize upon the Company's stock in the Indies answered, and the question put in these words: As many of you as understand this cessation or desisting from pursuit of the trade to be a suspension for a time in expectation of better encouragement, hold up your hands; and this by general vote of the Court declared to be so understood. The Governor then declared that this resolution not with standing is not to be understood an absolute cessation, for pinnaces of advice are to be sent both ways, and a ship is purposely sent with letters from his Majesty to remove from jacatra to Bantam, so that if news of opening that trade arrive this summer it would be necessary to send shipping and stock to fetch commodities thence. It was left to Mr. Governor and such Committees as he should call to make known this resolution to such of the Lords and in such manner as they should think meet. Discussion as to the employment of their three ships, whether for security of their own ships abroad or to lay wait for the carracs at St. Helena or Mozambique, or to right themselves against the Hollanders; but this business was left in suspense until by answer from Lord Carleton the Company should better understand what to resolve. Debate upon the proceedings of the Court held on the 6th instant, wherein the Committees declared their discontent at the injuries done them at the General Court, and resolved not to take their oaths; they were entreated to take their oaths and cheerfully proceed in discharge of their trusts, for it was argued that the words of a few were not the opinion of the General Court, and as to their gratifications, it was never conceived the meaning of the Court that the Committees should bestow their pains and care for nothing. Those (if any) who came to the Secretary and bade him remember to make an order that the Governor, Deputy, and Committees should have nothing for the year ensuing were exceedingly condemned, as they well knew the Secretary is not to be directed by any private man out of Court. 11 pp. [Ct. Min. Bk. X. 20–30.]
July 21.
466. Edward Misselden to the East India Company. His last was of the 14th present, importing his continual attendance on the Ambassador in their affairs, but saw little appearance of any good; his continual correspondence with Barlow; a letter the Bewinthebbers received from Coen in his old vein, calling for more money, munitions, and men, which is not a little displeasing to the Praticipants and the prices set upon their pepper, mace, and silk. Has not heard anything from the Company since June 30. Was told this day by the Ambassador that for the Amboyna business the States were in consultation to choose judges out of all the provinces, as they did in the case of wrongs done to the subjects of the King of France in the East Indies, and that he expected in a few days to receive their resolution. As for Coen the Bewinthebbers had exhibited to the States a writing for their defence, which was read publicly in the College of the States of Holland (a very great assembly composed of the nobility and all the principal cities of this province), the better to blow abroad the business and cry down all contrary opinion; and because this assembly is shortly to be dissolved, has been earnest with his Lordship to get a copy, and that a fit answer may be read in the same place. The Bewinthebbers ground themselves on some words of the States as to whether Coen should never be sent, but has showed his Lordship what poor stuff this is and referred him to his own Remonstrance of Oct. 1625 [see No. 194] and to his Maj. letter of Feb. 1625 [-6, see No. 263], and the States' answer, with exceptions against Coen, the principal disturber of peace, who left a malicious commission with Carpentier and caused Jourdain to be shot and murdered in cold blood, and the States absolutely promised he should not again return. This week four great East India ships arrived from Jacatra, three in the Texel and one at Zealand; in which are two more of the Amboyna judges, so that there are now eight in the land, who brag and brave it out for all that is yet done. Report that no English ships came with them; only two pepper ships were lading departure, but they wanted men, so they conceive but one [English ship] will come thence. Report of the casting away of the Rose on the coast of Masulipatam, her ordnance saved; that the Expedition had arrived at Jacatra with but 36 mon left: that the King of Bantam is dead, and that the English and Dutch have agreed with the new King for pepper at 2½ ryals the sack, which before cost 6 or 8 ryals. The cargo of the four ships amounts to 30 tons of gold, and the lading of their four Surat ships esteemed at 40 tons of gold, a marvellous great wealth. Took occasion to show his Lordship that if his Majesty had stood by the Company all this wealth and perhaps a great deal more had come to England; he said it was not the King's fault, but the Company's want of fortification at their first coming, and that Pooloroon was but a hen's nest. To which Barlow answered that his Majesty did not send his people thither to seek new kingdoms, but to trade as merchants, and that they had employed their means in trade for the benefit of the country. After a great deal more of quick discourse and dispute his Lordship suddenly took him to his cabinet and read him part of a letter to Lord Conway of the 15th, wherein he intercedes for the release of a West India ship at Falmouth, adding that the States gave such small contentment in the East India business that he could wish these four expected Surat ships were laid hold on, and then he doubted not of a good end. So hopes if the Company represent to his Majesty the riches of the Dutch returns, with their own wrongs and desertion of the trade, their cry will be so great for justice and against delay that they may move heaven and earth with their just complaints. 6 pp. Encloses,
466. I. The cargo of four ships arrived in Holland from Jacatra, 14 July 1627, consisting of pepper, mace, pickled nutmegs, silk, cloves, pieces of "betillies" and "salamparies," "paracallies," carpets, cotton, nutmegs, indigo, raw China silk, China dishes, Sapan wood of Siam, and cotton yarn. Four ships daily expected from Surat laden with Lahore indigo, saltpetre, cotton yarn, silk, and cloves.[Holland Corresp.]
July 27. 467. Court Minutes of the East India Company. Concerning the work of building and accommodating lodgings for 20 poor men at the house bought for an hospital at Blackwall. Report of Mr. Governor that the mixed Committee had worthily righted the Court of Committees for the wrong done them by some of the generality, which gave them that satisfaction that those now present condescended to take their oaths. Ordered that those now present condescended to take their oaths. Ordered that Hugh Perry pay 13d. per lb. for his 27 bags of wet pepper. Suit of Browning for 80l. due for timber. Request of Ruddiard to buy dust of indigo. Edward Lee to be dismissed notwithstanding his importunity to be continued in gathering in the Company's debts. Ordered that 11l. 4s. to be given to Andrew Anderson in respect of the hurt he received in the Company's service be paid at his request to Woodall, who had disbursed same for this diet and lodging. 4 pp. [Ct. Min. Bk. X. 31–34.]
July 27.
The Hague.
468. Dudley Lord Carleton to (Sec. Coke). His charge during Lord Conway's sickness to speak with the States Minister touching the East India business makes Carleton render an account of further proceedings. But howsoever the States General were willing to give better content, the States of Holland drew on the time by artifice till the very day before breaking up, when five deputies came with this message: That for the business of Amboyna they purposed to compose a college of judges selected from their two chief courts, to whom would be limited a time for determining that process. Touching Coen, the directors of the Company had presented a writing in justification of his sending and opposition of his revocation, which they hoped might give satisfaction. For answer to the first point Carleton told the Deputies he would advertise what was done, but unless "bonne justice" did now recompense their default of "prompte" it would give his Majesty small contentment. For the second he exclaimed much against their suffering themselves to be so deluded by the directors, and though afternoon a udiences were very extraordinary in this country desired them to meet him at 5 o'clock, when Carleton returned their writing as altogether unsatisfactory for the reasons he delivered in writing. Such as favoured the East India directors cried out that they had done their work, but the major part overbore them and resolved that copies must be taken to their several towns, and order immediately sent to carry their opinions to the States General. Here the matter sticks. 3 pp. Endorsed by Sec. Coke, "Concerning Amboyna and Coen." Encloses,
468. I. Brief memorial of the reasons alleged by Lord Carleton, his Britannic Majesty's Ambassador to the States General, why their Lordships should not be contented with the justification presented in writing of the late sending of Jehan Pieterson Coen as Governor General to the East Indies, in the name of the directors of that Company. 22 July/2 Aug. 1627. French 6 pp. [Holland Corresp.]
July 29.
The Hague.
469. Dudley Lord Carleton to (Sec. Coke). Arrival of four of these East India ships richly laden, in which are two more of the Amboyna judges. Refers to his letter of 27th inst, sends copy of the Dutch discourse about Coen, that the chief of the English Company may make better observations on it than he could do on a sudden, but please conjure them not to publish answers wherein they are too forward, rather to make noise than for any fruit. [Extract, Holland Corresp.] Encloses,
469. I. "The Bewinthebbers' discourse and justification touching their sending of Coen again into the East Indies, presented to the States 29 July 1627." Dutch, 7pp. Endorsed by Dudley Carleton. [East Indies, Vol. IV., No. 35.]