Mary: July 1554

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Mary 1553-1558. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1861.

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'Mary: July 1554', Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Mary 1553-1558, (London, 1861), pp. 101-110. British History Online [accessed 12 June 2024].

. "Mary: July 1554", in Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Mary 1553-1558, (London, 1861) 101-110. British History Online, accessed June 12, 2024,

. "Mary: July 1554", Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Mary 1553-1558, (London, 1861). 101-110. British History Online. Web. 12 June 2024,

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July 1554

July 2.
231. Same to the Council. Thanks them for the joyful tidings brought to him by Francisco of the celebration of the marriage between her Majesty and the Prince of Spain. The Emperor took the news in most thankful and gladsome part, as appeared by his talk, had a good time with Francisco, and the reward given to him at his departing. Beseeches their Lordships, as occasion may serve, to have him now and then in like remembrance, which shall do these men to understand that he lies not here altogether as a cipher. Sends herewith statement of the Emperor's troops. The season advances too fast for any notable exploit in the field. "The constellation of giving of battle is long sithen expired. Princes have gotten in these days another kind of fight, and have learned to fear to adventure the hazard of the whole matter upon the trial of one day." [Half a page.] Incloses,
231. I. The Emperor's bands of footmen and horsemen; the names of the commanders, and number of their troops. [One page.]
July 2.
232. Sir John Masone to Sir William Petre. Thanks him most heartily both for his letter signifying the King and Queen's style, and for sending the bearer hereof, with the most gladsome news of the marriage, wherein he has received such pleasure as he shall for ever remain in Petre's debt; therefore, "Francisco hath had his bellyfull of talk with the Emperor, and bringeth home in his purse 100 crowns reward, and so returneth on a merry pin." Begs he will continue the like good office to him; did not conceive that the Ambassadors in England have sent any despatches hither, which makes him the more grateful. He can very well be content to allow the charges of the post out of his diets, rather than to lack the commodity of the knowledge of such things as were meet for an Ambassador to know. Yet, if the matter does not require much haste, it may be sufficient to direct the letters to Titchet with charge to him to send it out of hand, and so may half the money be saved and more too. Thinks shortly there will be a coronation; when the day is fixed requests to be informed. Would gladly know the occasion of the French Ambassador's absence from the marriage. [One page.]
July 7.
233. Same to the Council. On the 3d the French having removed their camp from Marienburg, leaving there only a sufficient number to keep it and defend a thousand pioneers engaged upon its fortifications, marched straight to Dinant, whither they had previously sent a good part of their cavalry. To-day it is reported that they have taken the town which was neither of any great strength nor considered tenable, but the castle, in which is Captain Julian with five ensigns of Spaniards and Liégeois, still holds out; if it be taken, which is not likely, being strong and well manned, the country of Liege will not long tarry after; when, if the enemy makes this way, battle must try the matter, as within the duchy of Brabant there is not one town strong enough to hold out an army royal, Antwerp excepted. Men marvel why the French King has not tried such enterprise before now, as it would have put this country in great peril, the Emperor's troops being dispersed in so many quarters. Many think it proceeded from a disinclination to fall out with England, knowing the capitulation with that country for the defence of Flanders; and indeed, with the exception of the spoiling of a few small villages and gentlemen's residences, he has not entered into any parts which the English are bound to defend. Although Marienburg belongs to the Emperor, it is in the territory of Liege, and came lately to his hand by exchange. Meanwhile the states here seem much discontented; the nobility, because the whole trust of the defence of their country touching the captains is put to strangers, and the commonalty, because, paying continually such notable sums, they do not find the country so well defended as they expected. This is aggravated by the quartering of the Emperor's army in the country and within six miles of this town, so spoiling both in the fields and men's houses that, excepting the carrying away of their bodies, no greater extremity could be showed if the French army were in the same place. The Emperor has long lain still penned within the park in his little house without showing himself to any but a very few; and this has been no small discomfort to the people, as they think their misery and fears are unknown to and kept from him. Of this they shall be satisfied out of hand, as he intends in a day or two to go to the camp in person. The Prince's longer tarrying has doubtless marvellously disappointed the Emperor, who had expected before now a good band of men and some treasure. Of this he appears to have lack, otherwise he would never suffer his army for want of payment to eat the poor men as they do. By the saving of a month's wages, his troops have been so far asunder, that it appears his enemy has taken him tardy; but if the castle of Dinant hold out eight or ten days, it is to be trusted they have done their worst. The Emperor's horse amount to 6,000, and within six or seven days will be augmented by 3,000; his infantry, also, by the coming of the Counts of Meghem and Nassau, is well increased. To-day the camp removes two or three miles farther to a strong place, where they are like to continue till the whole force is assembled. Matters of Italy are like to be ended by battle, of which it is thought there will be news in the next letters. In Germany things remain in competent quietness, Marquis Albert being put to silence, and the Dukes of Mecklenburg and Brunswick fallen to an agreement. As he writes, news from Italy have arrived. The Marquis of Marignano had left the siege with a great band of horse and foot to encounter Pietro Strozzi and his troops, who were gone to conduct the Grisons that lately came for defence of Sienna. Don Juan de Luna, who has charge of the castle of Milan, had also left with 4,000 foot and 500 horse to come on their back; so it was surely thought the battle must have been to the disadvantage of the French faction, who are much fewer in number. But Strozzi had so politicly managed by the employment of skilful guides, perfect in the knowledge of the country, that he returned secretly and safely back to the territory of Sienna. This will probably bring the Duke's affairs to a disagreeable termination. [Two pages and a half.]
July 8.
234. The Cardinal of Mantua [Hercules de Gonzaga] to Queen Mary. Sends Monsignore di Nola to offer his congratulations on her marriage, which is so full of promise for the future welfare of all Christendom. [Italian. One page.]
July 9.
235. Sir John Masone to Sir William Petre. After the closing of the last letters, news were received that the French have taken by assault Chateau Thierry on the Moselle, not far from Dinant. This, although neither great nor strong, it is said will serve the French well for conveying of victuals to them, and could it have been held might have served the Emperor's purpose for keeping of that commodity from them. It was very well defended, and few remain alive that were in it. [Half a page.]
July 10.
236. Same to same. By the letter to her Majesty he will understand that the Emperor has suddenly ordered his camp to Namur and gone after it in person. This has been done in both instances against the advice of his Council and all others. The Duke of Savoy, Castaldo, Gonzaga and Andrea Doria have done their best to stay him, both by letter and viva voce, alleging the power of his enemy, the inability of his army yet to encounter them, the danger of their chopping between him and this town, the hazard of himself, his estate, and all these countries in case of an overthrow, and twenty other arguments; yet was there no remedy, but forth he would, and commanded them to march sans plus replique. His headiness has often put him to great hindrance, especially once by land at Metz, and another time by sea at Algiers. This enterprise is more dangerous than both. God send him better fortune than multi ominantur ! Ten or twelve days will try the matter. God keep them out of the fire, that they may at the least see what another winter will breed before they enter farther but as they may safely come out again. Great many signs of the Emperor's lack of money. Sir Philip Hoby has not had access to the Emperor, who has shut himself up from all men; but he has had right good entertainment at the Queen's hands and those of M. D'Arras and the best of the Court. The Queen had a long talk with him of his disease, and has told him where in her fancy he shall have best remedy, the bains of Liege being at present too hot. This morning he has departed towards Aix-la-Chapelle, but shows himself in great fear to offend her Majesty in any point, as is manifested by the selection of the places where he intends to sojourn for his health, and by the company that he shall haunt during his absence. Sir John Cheke is at Padua. [Two pages.]
July 13.
237. Peter Vannes to the Council. The French at Venice affirm that their army, long expected from Marseilles, had arrived at Porto Ercole, and on the way, nigh an island called Elba, took seven ships of the Imperialists laden with wheat. If it be so, at this harvest-time it is a great hindrance to them, provisions being very scant. It is said that Pietro Strozzi had put most part of his army in divers towns and holds of the Siennese, and strongly accompanied, had taken his journey towards Porto Ercole to bring more safely into Sienna the soldiers who arrived in the said gallies, and join them to the rest, and so have a complete army. The opinion of many wise men is, that Strozzi intends to make an attack by sea and land upon the state of Piombino, now in possession of the Duke of Florence, as being a place most commodious for the French King's affairs, where a few days since the Prior of Capua, his brother, was slain at the taking of Scarlino. The Duke has sent Carlo Gonzaga and others to recover the castles taken by Strozzi on his entry into the state of Florence. As yet, nothing has been done and many men lost; but there is good hope that want of provisions and munitions will force the garrisons to surrender. The Marquis Marignano had returned with his army and encamped near Sienna; he was about to make another fort opposite Porto Romano, and in divers places to annoy the town. The Duke's army by help of the Emperor grows daily bigger and able well to answer the Frenchmen. It is written from Piedmont that the French being about Val Ferrara in great numbers, the Imperialists attacked them in ambush and slew the most part. [Two pages. Indorsed by Petre.]
April 17.
238. The Magistrates of Dantzic to Queen Mary. Having heard with great regret of the publication here of a libel against her Majesty and King Philip, of which a copy is inclosed, they had summoned before them the printer and his son; who confessed that the work was printed by them in ignorance of the language or the purport of the libel, they only knowing the form and character of the letters required in type, by order of William Hotson an Englishman, who had promised them indemnity, and in whose presence some hundred copies had been sent home. The printer and his son have been committed to prison, as shall also be any others found participant in the libel, and they request her Majesty will employ some one to prosecute the parties, for which purpose they shall be kept in close detention. [Latin. Four pages and a half.]
Eod. die. 239. Duplicate of the preceding: with postscript on separate fragment of paper annexed, to the effect that for want of time they have been unable to procure the copy of the libel intended to be inclosed. But this, with any other matter that may be obtained in connexion therewith, shall be forwarded by a special messenger. Annexed,
239. I. Further postscript. Had deemed it more prudent not to send the printed libel in case of accident by the way, but send a copy faithfully made and compared by members of the Council familiar with the English language, and which corresponds verbatim with the original. Hotson on being interrogated, states, that a mariner of the name of Harry Broder, a Londoner, had requested from him such sort of writings, and that the writer had received some likewise from the said mariner. The mariner had brought with him a learned person, but he is not certain whether he was a priest. These writings were for the purpose of being thrown in the streets and highways that people might read them; also confesses that he had received these writings from an Englishman of the name of Thomas Gothfort. [Latin. One page.]
July 22.
240. Sir John Cheke to Sir William Petre. Although since his coming out of England he has heard little of his own affairs and the advancement of his suits, and what he has heard has not been such as to alleviate the extreme necessity of himself and his wife, he ever remains assured of Petre's friendship and good will. Were he a single man, without wife, children or charge, he would judge the cruelty of men to him an easy exercise of many good virtues: now, although the greater the matter the more duty it were to take it well, yet it spreads too far for a weak mind to carry without some moving. He is here in a country much esteemed in opinion, of which yet being somewhat unskilled, he cannot judge certainly without rashness, else at first sight he would say that neither for private order, nor yet common behaviour, is it any thing to be compared to their own supposed barbarous country. "Courtesans in honour, haunting of evil houses noble; breaking of marriage a sport; murder, in a gentleman, magnanimity; robbery, finesse if it be clean conveyed,—for the spying is judged the fault and not the stealing; religion, to be best that best agreeth with Aristotle de anima; the common tenant, though not in kind of tenancy, marvellously kept bare, the gentleman, nevertheless, yet bare that keepeth him so; in speech cautious, in deed scarce; more liking in asking than in giving." The farther they go into Italy it is said to be the worse. Commends himself, wife, suite, and whole state to Petre.
P.S.—4th August.—Narrates the particulars of an engagement between the Marquis Medequiene [Marignano] and Pietro Strozzi, wherein the latter was wounded in the arm and the flank, and 58 ensigns of the French were put to flight Whether Strozzi is in Sienna or not is doubtful. The Marquis being returned to Sienna intends to finish his fortress at Porto Romana. In honour of this victory 25 ensigns are set up in the market-place at Florence, and it is said the Duke scattered among the people 2,000 crowns, and the Duchess as much in silver. [Two pages.]
July 25.
241. The Council to Dr. Wotton. All here is in good and quiet state, and the Prince of Spain has arrived safely. The Lord Privy Seal and Lord Fitz Walter, who were sent to ratify the marriage treaty, had been very honourably received at the Groyne [Coruña] in Gallicia, where they were requested to remain until the Prince, who was then at Valladolid, nearly 100 leagues distant, should come. This he could not do so soon as he wished, in consequence of the sickness of his sister the Princess Dowager of Portugal and other matters; but at length the Ambassadors met him at St. James' in Compostella, where the contract was solemnly ratified, and in a few days thereafter they embarked from the Groyne, accompanied by 150 sail well appointed. Prior to their leaving the Prince bestowed upon the Ambassadors and their retinue most valuable presents and chains. Lord Howard of Effingham, High Admiral, who with a fleet of 28 ships, accompanied by the Vice-Admiral of Flanders with 14 of the Emperor's navy, has been cruising upwards of three months, met the Prince on the 19th inst. at the Needles and escorted him to Southampton, where he arrived on the following day. Before landing, the Lord Steward met him on the water, and on coming ashore presented him with the George and Garter, he having been elected at the last Chapter. He was received by the Lord Treasurer, the Bishop of Lincoln, Lord St. John and others, who conducted him first to the church and then to his lodging. Next day the Lord Chancellor came to welcome him on part of her Majesty, and during his stay at Southampton he received daily visits of congratulation. On Monday the 23d he came to this city, whither her Majesty had removed from Bishop's Waltham on the previous Saturday. On his way, besides his own retinue, he was attended by the Marquis of Winchester, the Earls of Arundel, Derby, Rutland, Worcester, Bedford, Pembroke, and Surrey; Lords Clinton, Cobham, Willoughby, Dacre, Maltravers, Talbot, Strange, Fitz Walter, Lumley, Fitz Warren, and others to the number of above 2,000 horse, who first brought him to the Cathedral, where he was met by the Lord Chancellor and the Bishops of Durham, Ely, London, Lincoln, and Chichester, and after service conveyed to his lodging at the Dean's house; the Queen being lodged in the Bishop's palace. Next day her Majesty, who abode his coming there with a right goodly company of noblewomen and ladies, received him in the hall of the palace; whence after the interview he returned to his lodging, where he passed the night, and this day the marriage is openly solemnized in the Cathedral of this city, when the contract was again openly declared and newly confirmed by the Prince in the hearing of all the assembly. At the marriage were present the Ambassadors of the Emperor, King of the Romans, King of Bohemia, Venice, Florence, Ferrara, Savoy and other States of Italy; but not the Ambassador of France, who besides being himself somewhat ill at ease, and his wife newly brought a-bed, had been on this occasion desired to stay at home, because of a dispute as to precedency between him and the representative of the King of the Romans, who had been expressly sent to attend the marriage. This desire had been declared by Sir Richard Southwell to the Ambassador, who seemed to take it in good part; and if anything is said to Wotton on the subject, he is to state that these were the sole reasons why the Ambassador was not sought to be present, and not for any lack of good will on the Queen's part. On Saturday her Majesty and the Prince intend to go to Basing, two days thereafter to Reading, and thence to Windsor, where the Prince shall keep the feast of St. George, and shortly after make his entry into London, where there are great preparations made by the citizens for his reception. Had written to Sir Hugh Poulett, Captain of Guernsey, in reference to the complaint made by the French Ambassador as to the usage there of one La Bretoniéres, and have communicated to the Ambassador Poulett's official reply in French, whereby it appears that the Frenchman, so far from having cause to complain had occasion rather to be thankful for the treatment which he met with. Send him copy in English of the reply. May assure Randall of her Majesty's pardon. [Six pages. Draft.]
July 26. 242. The Council to Peter Vannes. [Identical with the preceding.] [Eleven pages. Draft, autograph of Petre.]
July 29.
243. Dr. Wotton to Queen Mary. Edward Randall has delivered to him the inclosed letter from Peter Carew, and informed him that the latter had finally determined to leave France; and that having on his first coming promised to the King that he should not depart without leave, he had sent the younger Killegrew to Court to declare his mind. The Constable detained Killegrew there four days, and at last "complaining much of the inconstancy of Englishmen, who ever showed how little they were to be trusted, and rehearsing what the King had done for Carew," said he might go if he pleased. This answer Carew receiving upon Tuesday the 10th inst., he left Paris the day after about midnight in post for Italy, intending to rest at Venice, trusting to find her Majesty merciful to him. Randall says that Carew had much difficulty in finding sufficient money for his journey, and when at its end is like to lead a most miserable life, unless her Majesty have compassion and give some order for his entertainment there. Both Randall's report and Carew's letter show his repentance, and his departure proves it. Is certain that Pickering's leaving of him has not only much abashed the other rebels, but will thoroughly discredit them here. Randall says that the number of rebels, whose leaders are Staunton and Brian Fitzwilliam was never above 150, among whom are some Scots and French; and although among these be many tall men and divers young gentlemen, they have neither arms nor money to buy any, and having spent what wages they have received, must fall to stealing if they will live till they receive money again. Besides they do not agree well, but fall out and make forays, as well among themselves as with others in Neufchatel in Normandy, where they reside, so that there is great disorder among them. Of these the cause is Staunton, who does all he can to make them misliked by the French King, and prevent them finding employment. Randall suggests a general pardon on the Prince's coming into England, as a means of turning their minds, and thinks that in such event, were they near the frontiers, Staunton could carry many with him into the service of the Emperor if he could receive them. Randall has gone to the French camp to see whether he can learn anything for her Majesty's information. From the French camp hears that certain captains were appointed to go to the assault of Dinant, some of whom, when it came to the point, feeling their stomachs feeble, and therefore doubting how they should be well able to digest good pellets of lead, a kind of meat of somewhat hard digestion, shrunk at it. Wherefore the King, with sceptre in hand it is said, pronounced sentence upon them; some to be hanged, others to be degraded from their nobility and dignities. Among the exemptions now forfeited is freedom from ordinary taxation, to which they became subject like any other villains, and they are henceforth unable to serve the King. The French intending to have gone to Namur, the Emperor fortified his camp between two waters, so that neither town nor camp could be besieged, the one defending the other, like as the Emperor used against the Protestants at Ingolstadt. The French therefore returned to the frontiers of Picardy, destroying on their way Binche, Beux and other such places. They are now at Crevecœur, near Cambray. The Queen left Rheims on Saturday the 21st for Compiegne, where she and the Ambassadors are now, to be near the King, who is on this side of Picardy. The French more and more fortify Marienburg, previously well defended; for although they have rased Bouvines, Dinant, and other places, they intend to keep it, and give the Emperor more pain to recover than they had to take it. There has been a great skirmish between the Imperialists and the French on their return; has not heard the particulars, but only that sundry good coffers of writings and money have been taken from the French. The Prior of Capua has been slain with a harquebuse at the siege of Strelingo, a fort in Piombino, which his men have captured. His death is a great loss to the King, and the Queen takes it very heavily, he being so near a kinsman and of such estimation. The succour sent by the King to Sienna from Marseilles is landed safe near Port Hercules, and joined with the rest of Strozzi's army. They are now very strong there, and Strozzi has re-taken from the Florentines the fort next Sienna; but the farther one is still in their hands. The Duke of Florence expects great aid of men both from Naples and Rome. Pietro Strozzi for his great services has been made a Marshal of France, in room of the late Marshal Du Biez. They look shortly for the Turk's navy, hearing that Dragut with 50 gallies left Constantinople on the 7th of June, and at Negropont received 24 galliots and fusts more: these, with the 14 gallies of Algiers and the 24 of the French King, will make a strong navy. The Italians here have news that the Sophy, having made peace with the Tartars on the Caspian, purposes a great army, and that therefore the Turk moves in that direction. It is also reported that the Turk has caused the son of Mustapha, a boy of 14, to be slain in his presence, as he did his own son the child's father.
P.S.—Has just received from the Council the most joyful news of her Majesty's marriage. [Five pages. A large portion in cipher, deciphered.] Incloses,
243. I. Letter from Sir Peter Carew. Expresses his deep regret for the past. Protests before God he never meant evil against her Majesty's person; but only thinking it too great a burden for his country to bear the intolerable yoke of servitude under any foreign Prince, had rashly despised to live as a subject under the King of Spain, and therefore had sought divers means, both here and at home, in that case to let her Highness' purpose, and has wished the same with the loss of his life divers and sundry times. Confesses his error: for these his evil fruits there follows now unfeigned repentance, and in proof of his submission finds no way so good as to forsake France, where he might have lived like a gentleman by the goodness of the King, whom he has found, and is sure would always find, his very good lord, and to go into another country where he shall be utterly destitute of relief, unless the Queen extends her gracious goodness towards him. Beseeches Wotton to befriend him. Paris, July 11, 1554. [Two pages.]
July 30.
244. Sir Thomas Cornwallis to Sir William Petre. Thanks him for obtaining Mr. Heron's suit for the Treasurership of Berwick. Has replied to the letter from the Council desiring to have an account of his expenditure of the 2,000l. delivered to him for the victualling of this town, wherein if he still seems to have written any whit too largely, requests that Petre will interpret it in this wise, that having always desired to serve her Majesty faithfully and diligently, it grieved him to think their Lordships should mistrust the contrary of him, as either not to have applied the money for the purpose intended or to have employed it to his own use. While serving here, does not intend to use any part of the Queen's treasure to his private business, but will content him to live with his entertainment and such other as is his own, although he sees well he shall do it right hardly, the price of all things here being so excessive. Trusts that Petre thinks him void of the inordinate desire of wealth, since having, in the world's opinion, done some service, he has craved as little recompence as any man in England of his degree, although his need has been greater than some others. Had at first been loth to undertake this office of victualling, wherein many after long and painful service had narrowly passed their account, with discredit to themselves and loss to their Sovereign, nevertheless having entered upon the charge, if held only responsible for the 2,000l. he will see the money well and judiciously applied. Knowing Petre to be now cumbered with much business, desires his views by the bearer.
P.S.—Mr. Abington, Under-Marshal of the town, requests leave to go to England on private business. Begs Petre will win with Lord Arundel, to whom Abington has written, that he may have it, the rather because the rooms here are mostly well furnished. [Two pages and a quarter. Indorsed by Petre.]
[July.] 245. Some notes of the Treaty of Marriage between Queen Mary and the Prince of Spain. [Autograph of Petre. One page.]