Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Mary 1553-1558. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1861.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by the Arts and Humanities Research Council. All rights reserved.
|515. Peter Vannes to Sir William Petre. Doubts not that of the occurrences of Italy depending on the Pope's proceedings, Petre has more assured information than himself. Writes, however, under correction. It is first to be considered with what kind of Pope they have to do. It is true that from the beginning of his pontificate he has by words, tokens, and deeds shown his mind; has taken the time of year and the weariness of Princes propitious for his of long time imagined devices; has brought the French King and other potentates to his practice; and though, no doubt, each minds his own advancement, in the meantime they serve the Pope's turn, under an honourable pretence called the protection of Christ's Vicar and the conservation of the Catholic Church, &c. This some men say to be so much in heart and in consideration with the Emperor and the King that they will in no way move any hostility against the Pope or the Church of Rome, or to prevent him from punishing his vassals, feudatories, and subjects at his pleasure. Does not know the meaning of the restoration of Marc Antonio to his estate, whether it be for friendship or for the greater security of the realm of Naples. If any such thing be, as it is to be thought, many think that too much time has been spent in provisions, commissions, and looking for answer sending to and fro. The small stirring at Naples, and the coming out of Sicily of 2,000 Spaniards, has been a sufficient warning to the Pope, who has and does still fortify and furnish with all necessaries all places and castles on the land and sea sides, and the frontiers of Naples, as may stand him in any stead, and they are all so prepared that they cannot be disturbed with a mean provision or shortness of time. He still makes men of war and captains, as appears by a bill inclosed; what he further intends, besides the maintenance of his friends in their new estates, leaves to wiser men's discourse and judgment. Learns from an assured place that the French King has already sent him 50,000 crowns; though it is a small sum, it may be taken for a beginning ad majora. He has made him many great offers. The French say they have in deposit 35,000 crowns for their King, and 150,000 for the Pope. Does not quite believe it. The French King has agreed, with a show of very good will, that the General Council should be held at Rome, at St. John of Lateran. He will send his Prelates to it to be obedient to the Pope. There is much babbling in secretis what kind of things will be taken in hand in virtue of this Lateran Council, and what ways will be devised for the reformation of the spiritual and temporal estates. Cardinal Caraffa is shortly looked for, well accompanied by captains and gentlemen, and with the whole army of the French King's gallies, 40 in number, wherein are like to be more in number than the Cardinal's family. There has come abroad a letter from the said Cardinal to the Duke of Paliano, a copy of which is inclosed; by this will be seen how things are handled, and the great hope that a general peace may be had by the good means of the Pope. Understands by a French gentleman's report made to a secret friend of his that the French King will send an army into Scotland, and that the old Queen there is likely to come into Lorraine, on the confines of which the French King has and does fortify Metz; and it is said that he has sent to the Catholic Cantons of Switzerland to hire 3,000 Swiss to do him service. Prays that he may be no author of the premises, to avoid offence. The plague in Venice increases daily; passages in all places are stopped; and licence is required to be had from the Seigniory in going anywhere. Commerce with the state of Ferrara, of Mantua, Urbino, and Romagna is prohibited. The danger is great, the rumour greater. All the Ambassadors will depart within two days. Will not show himself wiser and bolder than the others; intends therefore within three or four days to leave for the country of Friuli. [Five pages.] Inclosing,|
|515. I. Cardinal Caraffa to the Duke of Paliano, Fontainebleau, June 1556. Will give him an account of what passed yesterday in his first visit to the Constable. Yesterday about 20 o'clock went to the King, and after saluting and giving him benediction in name of his Holiness, presented his credentials, and then told him that though he presumed the Constable had explained to his Majesty the object of his legation as he had declared it to the Constable yesterday evening, yet he would explain it again; and then did so at ample length, conformably with the instructions that he brought with him from his Holiness, going minutely into the reasons which moved him to convoke the Council, and rather in Rome than in any other place in Italy, as being more convenient and more public in all respects, besides having the presence of his Holiness, who in consequence of his age, could not travel, and without his presence it is well known that a Council in the present times can be of small avail, and then it was necessary that the King and the Emperor should resolve to be reconciled and conclude a firm peace, by means whereof his Holiness could effect this his pious intention of the Council to obviate, by God's help, the infinite evils that otherwise would happen to Christendom in addition to the many others which have already happened by reason of heresy. Wherefore his Holiness desired and besought his Majesty, that from this time forward he would permit it to be understood by the Prelates of his kingdom, that not only does he not seek to prevent them from going to the Council, but rather he desired that every one should go in accordance with the precept of his Holiness when the time should come, so that from henceforward each of them should keep himself in readiness. And as to peace, as being above all other things necessary for this end, his Holiness, after having made and ever since the commencement of his pontificate caused the most ferment warmest prayers to be continually made to God that He of His mercy would grant it (of which by His divine grace a good sign had been seen in the truce concluded) had now appointed as Legates for this purpose two of his Cardinals, the Cardinal of Pisa to the Em peror, and himself (Caraffa) to his Majesty, to make a final attempt to persuade, pray, and constrain both for the service of God to condone their respective injuries and sufferings; knowing well that the truce, though by chance it may possibly last some time, is nothing else than a limited cessation to reinforce dissensions and war, in which case the affairs of religion would always go on deteriorating in the manner wherein, to his intense dissatisfaction, they are seen to proceed daily. To provide for this without delay his Holiness is admonished by his duty. Wherefore he has committed to his Legates opportunely now to urge this holy and necessary peace, hoping that by all means it may be obtained, and in case God should not grant it to show clearly which of their Majesty's fault he is avenging. Therefore besought the King to make to that request a good and pious response of such a nature that the Cardinal of Pisa may be enabled to obtain a similar one from the Emperor, and his Holiness may have ground for consolation, and at once may begin to hope that he shall be able shortly to convoke the Council, and in his own days behold the Princes of Christendom in peace and union, with religion and the Catholic faith in a better state than that in which, for their sins, it has been. His Majesty listened with much attention and, entering upon the question of a Council at much length, commended his Holiness for his holy proposition, wherein he heard with satisfaction that he held firm, and approved all the reasons which Caraffa alleged, as well of the place and circumstances as of the urgent causes set forth. And said that for his own part he could assure his Holiness that he never sought to impede the Prelates of his kingdom from going to the assembly of the Council in Rome, but shall now let all of them understand that when they go they shall do what is in accordance with his own mind, and will now cause this his desire to be promulgated, greatly desiring that the Council may have a good result, and that by its means such fruit may be produced as is needful to religion, of which he said, as the eldest son, he thought he had so far well deserved, and that another time he had something to tell Caraffa herein for communication to his Holiness. Respecting the peace, the King said that he had never been opposed to it, but had always shown a desire for such by all convenient and just means. Finally, when the terms on part of the Emperor are proposed to him, he will make it appear that he seeks not to diverge a tittle from what is right, adding, that whenever any difficulty was found in the terms he would be content to remit it freely to the judgment and will of the Pope in obedience to his advice and precept, and would persist always in that intention. Such is the summary of his conference with the King, an account of which he thought right to give to the Duke and by him to the Pope, apprizing him that he will direct the Cardinal of Pisa to be made participator of all, to the end that he may elicit a good response from the Emperor, and commence as soon as possible in the management of this affair, whereof it appears to Caraffa his Holiness may have more hope than he can have had for a long time. [Italian. Five pages.]|
|515. II. Intelligence from Rome, July 8. The command of the cavalry has been given to Sig. Ascanio della Cornia, and to Sig. Giulio Orsino that of the infantry; which it is intended shall go to aid the defence of Paliano.|
|The Marquis of Monte-Bello, i.e., Don Antonio Caraffa, is appointed to the Governorship of Bologna, of the Romagna and the country thereabouts.|
|Sig. Camillo Orsino della Mentano has been requested by the Pope for his service; he has replied that he is under obligation to the Duke of Ferrara to serve his Holiness no more, because he has issued a proclamation that no feudatory vassal, a captain subject of the Church, shall take pay or serve any Prince, "dalli Deputati infuori."|
|Three days since came letters from Cardinal Caraffa in which hope of obtaining peace was expressed by reason of the good words said by the King of France to him upon that matter, in consequence of which it was intimated to the Cardinal of Pisa that he should continue his journey with the greatest possible speed, although it had been at first written to him that he was to remain in the place where the courier had found him.|
|It is understood that the Duke of Alva is levying troops everywhere, and that the men at arms are marching towards Abruzzi; that the Duke of Florence has dispatched captains and prepares for battle. Six captains have been recently dispatched from Rome. [Italian. One page and a quarter.]|
|July 12||516. Extract from the Register of the Notaries of Rouen. Deed of sale by Katherine l'Hermite, widow of Raoulot Blancbaston, Esq., Seigneur Dubosc-Regnould, Richard, John, and George Hun [Hume?], all dwelling in Dieppe, of a rent of 180l. a year to Dame Katherine Dequieuremont, widow of John Grombavet, Esq., advocate, for a sum of 18,000l. paid down to them by Master Alexander le Francoys, priest, curé of Soteville-lez-le-Pont-de-l'Arche, on the security of Nicolas Aoustin, Seigneur de Hanruart, 13th Oct. 1539. The contract was erased and in margin to this effect: That the said Katherine Dequieuremont acknowledged to have received by the hands of Charles Blancbaston, her son, the discharge of the principal and arrears of the rent aforesaid, &c. 28th November 1542. [French. Broadside, vellum.]|
|July 12.||517. Extract from the Register of the Notaries of Rouen. Bond by which Richard, John, and George Hun, merchants resident in Dieppe, become security for the repayment each of one-third of a sum of 100 crowns of the sun, which Katherine l'Hermite, widow of Raoullot Blancbaston, Esq., Seigneur Dubosc-Regnould, binds herself to sell to Master Regne Debecdeleure, Seigneur de Sazillay, Consciller Du Roy, on the security of Nicolas Aoustin, Seigneur de Hanruart, and the said John, Richard, and George: provided a sum of 1,000 crowns, credited to the said Katherine, be applied to the payment of a fine, in which the said Richard and their colleagues have been condemned, to Bastien Moins Bareto and Dominique Gonsallez. Rouen, 13th October 1539. [French. Broadside, vellum.]|
|July 12.||518. Extract from the Register of the Notaries of Rouen. Sale by Katherine l'Hermite, widow of Raoullot Blancbaston, Sieur de Bosc-Regnould, to Regne Cerdclyeure (sic), Seigneur de Sazillay, of a certain rent arising out of the seigneury of Coquercaumont, in the parish of Aucourt in the Vicomté d'Arques, of 100 crowns of the sun for 1,000 crowns, on Friday paid down to her. 13th Oct. 1539. [French. Broadside, vellum. Acknowledgment of discharge in margin, dated 27th November 1542.]|
|519. Dr. Wotton to Sir William Petre. On Midsummer-eve the King required the Ambassadors to be at Court next day, to witness the presentation of a sword sent to his Majesty by the Pope. On their arrival they found that the Queen had been delivered of a daughter, and that another was expected. She travailed till 8 o'clock p.m., and brought forth another daughter, still-born; herself escaping not without very great pains and danger. Because of her confinement, and that the King himself was almost all that while never from her, the ceremony of the sword was deferred until the following day, After mass, the Legate Caraffa sat down before the high altar, and the King knelt before him, while he read out of a book all that he had to say, which continued a good while, the King kneeling all the time, and so received the sword. The Pope has sent also a rose to the Queen. Two days previously Wotton had requested to know when he might wait upon the Legate, who appointed Midsummer-day, which chanced not amiss, as it saved him a day's riding to the Court. Wotton's talk was of general matters; expressing their Majesties' invariable affection, reverence, and obedience to the See Apostolic, and their Holy Father that now is, with his own great desire to pay his reverence for the Cardinal. The Legate made long discourse of her Majesty, how constantly, not without great peril, she had continued obedient to the Holy See, and of her zealous efforts to reduce her realm again to the unity of the Church; mentioning that the object of his mission hither was to treat of a peace, to which he found the King well inclined, and also for a general œcumenic Council to be kept at Rome, because the Holy Father, being aged, was unable to travel, and yet would be present thereat himself. Wotton observed, that for these two most necessary points all Christendom was most bounden to his Holiness, who did well answer to the expectation which the world had conceived of him when he was called to this supreme dignity, for the virtuous and holy life which he had lived before did promise no less of him than now was found in him by experience. They conversed at considerable length as to the peace; and with respect to the Council, the Legate said his Holiness most earnestly laboured to have it, therein not only intending to do what may be done for the extirpation of schisms and heresies, but also for reformation of abuses in men's living, and specially of the spirituality. The Legate has gone to make his entry into Paris, and thereafter the child is to be christened, his Eminence standing godfather to her in the Pope's name. The King is said to have given the Legate since his arrival benefices to the value of 10,000 crowns per annum. After presentation of the sword, the Ambassadors dined with the Constable; thereafter the conversation turned upon the Killigrews, who, as the Emperor's Ambassador had heard, had taken a ship of the Spaniards. The Constable said they were pirates, who had robbed certain Frenchmen on the sea, and the King had sent commandment that they should not be suffered to land with any prizes taken from the English or the Spaniards, and that they had sold certain of their prizes in Guernsey. Wotton remarked that they were indeed notorious pirates, and long since known to be such, as the King himself had granted letters to Sir William Pickering, Wotton's predecessor, to cause them to be apprehended: wherefore it was the more strange that they should have been suffered to serve here all this while, and that they ought not to have been permitted to depart from the French ports being armed, but that the King should have known their intent, and have taken such caution of them as the treaty requires. The Constable could not deny that such caution ought to have been taken, but said the King knew nothing of their designs, and would by no means defend them. He then said that some English pirates had lately robbed a Frenchman of which the Admiral reminded Wotton he had sent him a remonstrance, and which Wotton told him he had sent to her Majesty within two or three days after receiving it. All concurred that such would occasionally happen, and that the offenders must be punished, and justice rendered to the sufferers. Understands that post-horses are forbidden to strangers without a special licence, and that the hire of such has been raised; so that now strangers having such licence must pay for themselves and their guide 40 sols at the least, or, as some say, a crown of the sun. This is surely against all reason, for the postmasters' gains were great enough before; and it were pity but these men should be paid home with some like device in England. Though the Ambassador Noailles has been for some time in France, and is now at the Court, cannot perceive that his brother, the prothonotary, prepares to go to England; yet, as the Constable says he is going thither, seeing no preparations knows not what to think of it. Albeit the Legate says that he has come for a peace, yet the truth seems to be that he has come to conclude the treaty for which the Cardinal of Lorraine went last to Rome between the Pope, the French King, the Duke of Ferrara, and others, wherein, inter alia, that the King shall take upon him the protection of the Duchy of Paliano, as he has done. This duchy had belonged to Marc Antonio Colonna, from whom it was forcibly taken by Pope Paul III., and the present Pope has given it to his nephew, the Legate's brother. All the circumstances connected herewith (detailed at some length) are deemed by the Imperialists to be innovations, and they are in arms to recover the duchy; this will cause the Cardinal to leave immediately after the christening, who, having been a soldier the most part of his life, delights more in war, wherein he can do service, than in matters of peace wherein he is not very skilful. So now it is generally thought this truce will not continue. The Abbot of St. Saluces is continually with the Legate, and says he will return to Rome with him. He is very gentle and familiar with Wotton, showing to bear a good affection to matters of England, but otherwise rather French than Spanish. He said three or four days past to the Emperor's Ambassador, "I ween we shall lose the Earl of Devonshire." Of late there came out of Scotland a French gentleman, who passing by England spake with her Majesty and the Cardinal, and who, as Wotton hears, has reported that their countenance and words were not so friendly to him at his return as when he went to Scotland. It has been commonly reported that a number of soldiers were to be sent to Scotland, but now a good number have come thence; knows not what is meant thereby. Henry Killigrew has returned, and was here at the Court three or four days. In the mean season, he lay one night with Captain Crayer, to whom he said, "I know as much of the Earl of Devonshire's mind as another, and he will be here at the Court very shortly, and trusteth well that you will take part with him." Crayer has been informed by others of the rebels that when they make any enterprise on England, they will have safe landing at Harwich or Yarmouth, and be well received, because the people of Harwich, who are privileged to take up victuals for Calais, have good store of provisions for them, and at Yarmouth the Bailiff is their great friend, and the bulwarks in that quarter are in their favour. He suggests the examination of said Bailiff. Further, the Deputy of Calais will rather deliver it to the French King than to the King of England, provided he will assist these rebels. Crayer will give all information of their proceedings, and though he has here a pension of 300 crowns and little less in land for life, yet if he could obtain a meaner living than this in England, he would not remain. Has just received their letter of the 24th ult. Gower has not heard anything from Henry Killigrew, who has willed the rebels at Paris to go to Rouen with the rest; but Gower, partly from want of money, partly from being unasked, remained at Paris, and said to the elder Tremaine ere he left, that seeing they suspected him, he would trouble them no longer. Tremaine bade him not think so, for the Earl of Devonshire esteemed him as much as any man here, and promised that on his return from Rouen he would tell him all he knew. Gower is destitute, and unless helped by the Queen knows not what to do. Advises that he should be considered, if they wish to make use of him. No appearance of the Prothonotary Noailles going to England; if the person at present there is able to execute the office, they will probably appoint him, and by a letter from the Constable, of which he sends a copy (missing), he seems to call him Ambassador already. Bourdillon had been named to go to Scotland, when it was thought King Philip should go with an army into England; he has now gone to Champagne, where the Imperialists and French dispute the possession of a town. The soldiers from Scotland, in number about 500, are sent to Piedmont. The Duke of Guise is reported to be going as General in Italy, which seems to indicate a design upon Naples, to which the Anjouins have long pretended right, as one of the house of Anjou has always been sent when they have such intention. Reiffenberg is sent to Germany to raise troops. War evidently in view. The French are ever beforehand; fears they will be so now if King Philip suffers them. Sends a letter from Gower under a fictitious name (missing), whereby they may perceive his estate. [Eight pages. The greater part in cipher, deciphered.]|
|520. Dr. Wotton to the Council. On the 30th ult. had received their letter of the 24th, and on the 3d inst. had audience of the King. His Majesty allowed well his Admiral's behaviour and answer made to their Majesties' Council of Calais when he was on those frontiers, and misliked that of Senarpont, to whom he should write, his mind being none other than to preserve peace and amity. As to St. Engelvert, he maintained that it had ever belonged to his ancestors, and marvelled that his right thereto should be questioned; nevertheless, required him to deliver a remembrance of those matters to the Constable. As the latter part of the answer seemed to Wotton to sound to a delay and protracting of time, he reminded his Majesty that the harvest was nigh, and that at least so far as reaping was concerned, he desired to know his pleasure. The King promised he should shortly hear of it. The Constable likewise seemed not much to like Senarpont's words; but as for St. Engelvert, he makes it very clear on their side "by all the old stories, and, namely, by our Froissart (for so he named him)." He is, nevertheless, to have the subject considered upon the remembrance. Touching the receiving of Killigrew and his fellows at La Rochelle, he wondered it should be so, as his Majesty had given orders for their apprehension if they landed, and the Admiral had sent out ships for that purpose, as they had robbed French as well as other vessels; and since her Majesty had in like manner sent forth vessels against Cole and these pirates, he trusted she would do justice upon them. Had complained to the Constable, that a servant of his bringing now the Council's packet to him, was constrained all the way from Boulogne to Morette to pay a crown of the sun for every post, whereas previously they paid but 30 sols, which is an excess of 17 or 18 sols for every post on their former payments, or on what the French pay now. The Constable replied that in this they followed the practices of other nations, and their men had to pay at the same rate in England and Flanders. Informed by Wotton that he was mistaken as to England, the Constable promised an answer on this point also. On the following day sent his remembrance, specially urging reply as to the corn, but received no answer. Next day being Sunday, the King's daughter was christened, the Pope's Legate being godfather, and Madame de St. Pol and the Duchess of Montpensier godmothers. The child was named Victoria, after the Pope's mother. The Ambassadors were required to be present, and thereafter to sup. The King, the Legate, the Cardinal of Lorraine, the Queen of Scots, the Dauphin, the King's two eldest daughters, and the godmothers supped at the King's board. At another long table were the Ambassadors at the upper end, all on one side; and over against them were the Duke of Lorraine, the Prince of Ferrara, the Prince of Mantua, the Duchesses of Valentinois, D'Aumale, and Castres, the Duke of Ferrara's brother. On the side beneath them, the two Duchesses of Guise, and so downwards a great number, specially of ladies. While at supper, the Ambassadors received a message from the Legate, requesting them to meet him in the chapel after supper. His Eminence stated that the cause of his coming hither was in regard to a peace and a General Council. Touching the former, the French King and Council were all reasonable and content, should any questions of difference arise in the settlement of peace, to take the Pope as indifferent judge between them, and to stand to his determination, specially seeing that the Pope is, and ought to be, judge over all Christian Princes. He then mentioned that he could not await the return of the other Legate to the Emperor and King Philip, because the Pope had revoked him in consequence of Marc Antonio Colonna having threatened to sack Rome; in which matter he "began to wax somewhat warm, and not only spoke very evil by the said Marc Antonio, but also by all the Colonneses generally; and not only of them that now are, but generally of them that have been in times past, saying they were naughty men, and ever rebels to God's Vicars, the Popes for the time being." The Spanish Ambassador, having suggested that a private matter of Colonna against the Pope should not cause the Legate to depart until the return of the other Cardinal, when their coming hither was for the common wealth of all Christendom, provoked a very vehement reply from the Legate, who charged some Spanish captains with aiding Colonna. "The talk betwixt them continued a good while, the Cardinal's high words increasing more and more, and spoken so loud that all they who were in the chapel (where I suppose were 50 persons or thereabout) might well perceive his talk. I cannot learn that any of the Ambassadors liked the Cardinal's communication; and for my part, to say plainly as I think, I must needs say that he lacked a great deal of that soberness and modesty which a man of his degree and vocation, and come for such a godly intent, as he gave the world to understand that he came for, ought to have showed." On Monday and Tuesday had sent to the Constable for a reply, but received none; on the latter day his servant urging such, especially as to the corn, for fear of inconvenience that may ensue, "the Constable, as it seemed, scant being contented to be importuned, bad him go his way; and made him no other answer." On Tuesday, a young man named Middlemore brought him from Sir Nicholas Throckmorton a packet, which on opening he found contained a letter to her Majesty, and others to the Cardinal, Lord Chancellor, M. Englefield, and himself. These he forwards. Middlemore informs him that Throckmorton arrived at St. Malo about 16 days before; and on his way to Paris his horse fell upon him, so that he is sore sick, and so was fain in small journeys to ride to Paris, where he trusted to have found Wotton; but being unable to ride farther, had written to him by Middlemore in post. Middlemore affirms that hitherto he has spoken with no Englishman in France, nor intends to do so except with Wotton. But Wotton said it were very hard for him so to do, and therefore would have wished (if he means as he writes) that he had not tarried here, but had gone to Cologne or Cleveland, and had abode the end of the matter there, since he pretends so much to fear Flanders. Middlemore replied, that if he knew so much of Wotton's mind, he thought he would not fail so to do, if his inability to travel, and want of sufficient money for so long a journey, did not let him. Had dismissed him with an assurance that the letters should be forwarded, and any replies thereto transmitted to Throckmorton, if he knew his address; exhorting that he should take good heed by no means to have any communication with the rebels, for that would so damage his business, that Wotton would never thereafter have anything to do with it. On Wednesday the 8th, again sent to Court for his answer. The Constable promised he should receive it next day. It did not arrive, and that day both King and Constable left for Fontainebleau; whither he was obliged to send again on the 10th, and at length received the reply, of which he sends a copy (missing). By this,—so dark and general that he is never the nearer for it,—they will perceive how they that shall run post here in France for her Majesty's affairs shall be ordered, and that he shall be able to send none but by a special letter at every time; which besides being a great let if haste be required, their Ambassador shall never send letters without its being known. They will also perceive the Constable's request concerning a merchant vessel of Dieppe, which he alleges conveyed Killigrew to England. Had on the 11th written to the Constable for more explicit answer, on pretext of imperfect knowledge of the French tongue, and the precise meaning of the words, "make no innovation;" also requiring a billet or letter for post-horses. His reply of yesterday they will see by the copy sent (also missing), which still leaves the point dark enough. Having received no letter for post-horses, doubts much that the posts will deliver none to his men; but yet he will prove what they will do. The Legate has sent his train away, and will follow in post as soon as he receives answer from Rome, for which he looks daily. [Six pages and a half.]|
|521. The Emperor Charles V. to Queen Mary. Had designed that the Sieur de Maltravers, (fn. 1) who brought her letter, should have been the bearer of the reply; but God had otherwise disposed it, having been pleased to take him to Himself, after a few days attack of violent fever. He deeply regrets the deceased, on account of his virtues and ability. [French. One page.]|