BHO

Mary: September 1557

Pages 332-339

Calendar of State Papers Foreign: Mary 1553-1558. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1861.

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September 1557

[1557.] Sept. 3.
Venice.
661. Vincentius Carellius to Sir William Petre. Because the Ambassador in sending him his letters from Padna, where he is at present, enjoins him to inform Petre of a matter deserving to be transmitted, he therefore sends these few lines to say that a person had arrived from the Pope to communicate to the Senate the progress made by the Duke of Alva, and to request assistance might be given to the Holy See; in particular asking a certain number of men-at-arms and artillery. After three deliberations the Senate resolved yesterday to send back the Nuncio without any decision, and to send one of their Secretaries to the Duke to exhort him in their name (so far as is understood) to lay down arms and desist from molesting the Pope and his States; because if the Holy See shall suffer more injury from him, they will be constrained to give the best aid that may seem expedient for the service and defence of his Holiness. The Secretary is to set off by post on his mission this evening. [Italian. Two pages.]
1557. Sept. 4.
Rome.
662. Sir Edward Carne to Queen Mary. According to his promise on the 28th the Pope assembled the Cardinals of the Congregation of the Inquisition, and proponed her Majesty's request concerning the legation; but some of the Cardinals friendly to the Queen, perceiving his Holiness to be somewhat moved and in a choler, thought it advisable to move that the matter should be deferred until the messenger, whom they understood to be sent by the Cardinal of England, was heard, as the informations which he brought might be such as would greatly move his Holiness to the performance of what her Majesty required. The Pope said he would glady hear him; whereupon Cardinal Trani warned Ormanetto, the Cardinal's messenger, to repair to him next morning, which he did, and was then informed that he should have audience yesterday at 20 of the clock. He tarried there till night, and then was directed to return to-day. Would have sent to come to him if it had not been thought best that Ormanetto should speak with his Holiness first, as until then he should do no good with him, seeing it was so determined in the Congregation, whose counsel the Pope only uses in this matter. Mislikes this, as the most part of the Cardinals are of his Holiness' own making, and know his pleasure before what he will have them to do; and in this matter, were he well minded to satisfy her Majesty, he need not to make so great difficulty therein. Cardinal Trani, who is great with him, thinks the Pope will do what she wishes; but others doubt, as his proceedings are such that they satisfy no man, and therefore men have little hope of any goodness at his hands. His Holiness is in a peck of troubles for his Majesty's late victory over the French, which has broken their backs both there and here; and both he and his adherents take it for such an overthrow that they shall not be able to recover these many years. There is daily posting to and from the Duke of Alva relative to the peace, of which there is much speaking but small hope here, the Pope being so stiff in his own opinion. He stays the French as long as he can, thinking thereby to bring the Duke of Alva to other conditions; but on Wednesday last he received a letter from the Duke of Florence concerning the peace, which pleased him nothing. To-day a Secretary arrived with the advice of the Senate of Venice to his Holiness, as supposed. In three or four days it is said the Duke of Guise, who came here last Tuesday, will leave with all his gentlemen and the chief of his army for Civita Vecchia, where the gallies lie to convey them to France by sea. The Duke of Alva is reported to be at the siege of Paliano. When the French have left, the Pope has no force; and his Holiness is said to have observed to the Duke of Guise, who advised him to make peace, that rather than he would agree to such conditions as the Duke of Alva required, he would into Castle Angelo and die there. Hears this evening that the Venetian Secretary has spoken with the Pope, and to-morrow goes to the Duke of Alva to treat of this peace, which being so necessary to his Holiness he must needs come to it. He has set forth a jubilee to pray for peace, a copy of the bull for which shall be sent to her Majesty herewith. [Four pages.]
[1557.] Sept. 12.
Rome.
663. Captains Marc Antonio and Ronca, who were in Frassinone with four companies of infantry and one of cavalry, have received orders from Giulio Orsino that should the enemy go off with the artillery abandoning the place they are to retire into Anagni. Marc Antonio Colonna, Pompeo Tuttavilla, and Ascanio Della Cornia having pushed on to reconnoitre the place without seeing the enemy, abandoned the place very dishonourably, and since that the Imperialists have taken Veroli, Banco, Alatri, and Valmontone, and without going further forward went under Anagni. Meanwhile the Duke of Alva remains at Ponte Corvo, where Torquato Conti is with seven companies of infantry, but no artillery and little munition. Because news arrived that Pompeo Colonna intended to come to Tivoli, Aurelio Fregoso was sent forward with four companies of horse and six of infantry to meet him and give him battle, but he was found to have retired. Cardinal Caraffa came in two days from Antibo, bringing six companies of Gascons and 150,000 crowns with Strozzi, Lansac, Monluc, Guise, and many French gentlemen, who have brought joy to the city, which was all in confusion. Negotiations of peace, moved by Cardinal St. Jacomo, are discussed, but there are no securities; many hope for it and many do not. His Holiness has sent Mons. di Pola to Parma to these lords to find out their intention as to giving him the castle which he wishes. Captain Justino da Faenza has been sent this night with three companies of infantry and one of horse to put munitions and troops into Anagni, and the Germans are to be brought from Milan. [Italian. One page and a half.]
1557. Sept. 18.
Rome.
664. Sir Edward Carne to Queen Mary. Since his letter of the 11th peace has been concluded, and the news thereof was brought to his Holiness on the 12th about six hours of the night; the conditions, as far as he can learn, her Majesty shall receive herewith. On the 13th went to offer his congratulations, and secure his Holiness for letters concerning her suit for the legacy, and had answer to repair to him at 20 of the clock. On coming to the Court, finding a full dozen of Cardinals tarrying for audience, the Pope directed him to come on the following day, there being so many waiting that he could not dispatch all that day. On the morrow was there by 20 of the clock, at which time his Holiness was going to dinner, where he tarried till 22 of the clock; and in the mean season arrived thither ten Cardinals to have audience. On coming to his chamber, perceiving Carne among the Cardinals, the Pope called him, saying he would speak to him before them; and on his coming, before he could speak, his Holiness began a solemn oration to tell him of the conclusion of the peace, imputing to her Majesty's good help next to God, a great part of this, speaking so much good of her Majesty as Carne is unable to express, "holding my head in his hands by his cheek almost a quarter of an hour." At length when allowed to speak, he told his Holiness that a post from her Majesty had been here for seven weeks waiting his good resolution in the matter of the legation, and requested some declaration of his good mind therein, which, with the news of the peace, should be instantly dispatched to her Majesty; showing how earnestly she had travailed with the King for peace, although of his own good inclination his Majesty had shown himself most desirous thereto. The Pope said that at that time he would not talk of the matter, but it should stand till another occasion. Being pressed as to what hope her Majesty might have of his answer, the Pope said she need have no mistrust of him, but for divers reasons, which at that time he could not explain, he must commune with his brethren; and then, on the ground that he had to give audience to many Cardinals there, "took my head in both his hands and set his cheek to mine, and then could have no other of him, so that I perceived he called me to him first to be the sooner rid of me." That evening Cardinals Caraffa and Sancto Flore returned with the peace, and next day should have been bonfires and great triumphing on that account, but that night the Tiber so increased that next morning, the 15th, half Rome was under water, "insomuch that many were suddenly drowned and taken away with the water by night, and amongst other in one house 36 prisoners were drowned and divers others were seen carried away; and by that day at night all Rome was drowned, and no street free; being under the hills, no man could come to another but by boat. Once afore, about 26 years past, I saw it in like case, and though the hurt then was inestimable, now it was, as men say, a great deal more. All the provisions that men had in the lower part of their houses were lost; it was the height of a morrispike in some of the best streets in Rome. The violence of it was such that besides many mean houses that were taken clean away, many great palaces were destroyed upon the river side. All the mills be so destroyed that men can have no corn grinded. There is in this city left neither bread neither drink; the waters in the cisterns clean marred. It was so violent that it made such pits in the streets here that no horse can pass. It carried away half the goodliest bridge in all Rome, that Pope July the Third made of new, with a goodly chapel of our Blessed Lady thereupon, and clean gone with the stream. All my lodging in the lower parts was drowned, and is yet, that I can come to no drink but that I took out in pots and pans with as good diligence as I might when the flood came, which was, as God would, to my lodging by daytime. Here is no bread to be had, for that the mills be down and the ovens drowned and fallen down. I am not able to descrive the misery that is here and the loss that hath happened here, much more, as men say, than if it had been sacked. As the Pope was coming towards Castle Angel to see how the water had ordered the new bastions and bulwarks of earth there, as his gentleman was going before to prepare for his coming, a piece of the wall where he should pass fell down before him." On the night of the 14th the Cardinal of Compostella [Juan Alvares of Toledo] died here. To night the Duke of Alva's son comes with his obedience to the Pope, and Cardinals Caraffa, Sancto Flore, and Vitallosso [Vitelocci Vitelli] with Signor Antonio Caraffa, have gone to bring him in. Many things are said to be privily agreed on in this peace which are not spoken of, but shall be done hereafter; and then much talk of the Prince's liberality in making of Cardinals, giving of bishoprics and pensions, and delivering prisoners. Cardinal di Medicis requests him to beseech her Majesty to write to the King that he may be preferred to be Protector for Germany here in room of the late Cardinal of Compostella, and if it be in the gift of the King of the Romans to have his Majesty's letter to him. Begs this may be taken in good and gracious part, as the Cardinal shows himself very glad to further all her Majesty's affairs. [Six pages.]
Sept. 19.
Camp Hansur-Somme.
665. Instructions given to Christopher D'Assonleville on his mission to England and Scotland [by King Philip]. He is to go as speedily as possible to England and to deliver to Mons. John de Figueroa, his Majesty's Ambassador, the letters written to him in order to put in train his audience with Queen Mary, to whom he is to deliver his letters of credence, and to state that in consequence of his Majesty having heard that since his departure from her the Scots had made hostile incursions along the English coast about Berwick contrary to the treaty between England and Scotland, and having received her requisition that, in pursuance of the confederations between the Emperor and King Henry VIII., he would, as King of Spain and Prince of Flanders, declare against the Scots, and give the aid promised by the said alliance, he has sent D'Assonleville to the Queen Dowager of Scotland, the Duke of Chatelherault, Earl of Hamilton, Governor, and the inhabitants of Edinburgh, to declare to them that his chief object since his accession to power has been to keep perfect peace and friendship between Christian Princes, and especially with the kingdom of Scotland, on account of its proximity to Flanders, the intercourse between the two, and more particularly their ancient alliances, discord having once only by the practice of the French divided them. To better perpetuate this friendship and not to allow any occasion which could alter it, and in consideration of the position he holds as King of Spain, Prince of the Low Countries, and King of England by marriage, he could have wished the realm of Scotland had remained at peace with England, as it was when he departed. Does not know the cause of the outburst, the more so as he understands the Queen is not answerable for it, and he cannot believe the Queen Dowager of Scotland, her Council, Governor, and the States of the same have caused it, but rather the intrigues of foreigners; has therefore sent D'Assonleville to persuade her to desist from hostilities and to assure her that his Majesty desires only friendship with Scotland, and to make her declare her intentions with respect to the maintenance of the treaties with England. He is then to proceed to Scotland to the Queen Dowager after procuring safe conduct, and to present his credentials to her, declaring his charge and commission in manner already specified, He is to deliver other letters also to the Earl of Hamilton, Governor, giving him to understand that the King is astonished at the changes (not believing him, however, to be the author of them but attributing them to the agents of the King of France), and trying to persuade him to prevent the falling out of the Scots and the subjects of the Flanders. He is to say the same to the Provost, Sheriffs and Chief Magistrates of Edinburgh, with suitable remonstrances. He is not to forget before going for Scotland to hear from Queen Mary herself the cause of the troubles and the actual form of the invasion. Also in the same way he is to find out the sentiments of the Queen Dowager towards the King, his subjects, his Queen, and her states. He is to make secret inquiry as to the feelings of the Governors, chief towns, and common people, their inclination to peace or its rupture, their means of war, their [secret] designs, practices, factions, and other matters important to be known. [French. Four pages and a half.]
Sept. 22.
Rome.
666. Sir Edward Carne to Queen Mary. On the night of the 18th the Duke of Alva's son arrived, brought in with no man but his own train. The next evening the Duke himself came by the persuasion of Cardinal Caraffa, who left the son and went to the father, and he with the Duke of Paliano received him at the gate of the city and brought him to the palace by torch light very honourably. On his passing the bridge at Castle Angelo there was a great shot of ordnance from the castle. They rode straight to the palace, and on his dismounting he went direct to the Pope, who received him with such gladness as if he had been his own natural son, with as cheerful countenance as might be. Hence he was conducted to his lodgings in the palace, where all things were prepared for him upon his Holiness' cost and charges in the best and most sumptuous sort. On the following morning went to the Duke, who in course of conversation inquired how Cardinal Pole's matter went forward. Being informed of what had passed on the 13th, the Duke said he would speak to his Holiness thereon, and Carne said it might do good and he should inform her Majesty of his gentle offer. On the same day a Consistory was held, where the peace was published and two Cardinals appointed to go to treat of peace between his Majesty and the French King. Cardinal Caraffa goes to the former out of hand, and Cardinal Trivulci, the Legate at Venice, is to go to the latter. Sign. Garcilasso and all other prisoners of war have been liberated, but Cardinal Morone is still in confinement. Hears that the Duke of Alva will go with his army to Lombardy as soon as he can. The camp of the Duke of Guise retires homeward by land; himself has gone by sea, having left Civita Vecchia on the night of the 17th. The Duke of Alva showed to him that he spoke with his Holiness concerning the legacy on Tuesday evening, "and had a great combat with him thereabouts," but could get nothing of him, beyond that her Majesty should be advertised of his mind. Divers Cardinals had also moved the Duke to speak on the same subject. As the Duke had offered, could not refuse him, but thought if the Pope would not do it at her Majesty's request, his Grace could little move. The Duke, who was very honourably entertained here, departed towards his camp this evening. [Two pages and a quarter.]
Sept. 25.
Rome.
667. "Avisos di Roma." Intelligence from Rome. Containing somewhat more minute details of the ceremonies attendant on the arrival and reception of the Duke of Alva than those given by Carne in his letter of the 22d September antea. [Spanish. One page and a half.]
Sept. 25.
Piacenza.
668. Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Parma, to Queen Mary. Congratulates her Majesty on the victories gained by King Philip. [Italian. One page.]
[1557.] Sept. 26.
Rome.
669. Intelligence from Rome. Cardinal Carpi was the one who by order of the Congregation wrote to the Duke of Alva the resolution touching the conference to be held at a suitable place, to which answer being received on Wednesday evening from the Duke of Alva that next morning he would be at Grotta Ferrata, and that at night he would send the safe-conduct, the two Cardinals prepared to set out; but Caraffa, on his return from the Pope's chambers to his own, forbade the journey, Grotta Ferrata not appearing to his Holinesss to be a convenient place, but that the conference should take place in a plain field and by agreement. It is not known that the Duke was advertised of this veto at the time, wherefore he wrote to Carpi to be at Grotta Ferrata at the hour which he had mentioned, viz., 15 o'clock, and waited up to 22 o'clock, when he returned to the camp to order its removal to wherever the service of the King required. The Cardinal replied according to the order given to him, excusing the matter as above, and adding that the Pope having the same good feeling was prepared to accept a good and secure peace, and up to the present time things are in this position. It is said that the safe-conduct of the Duke was not presented until the time he had appointed for their being at Grotta Ferrata. Cardinal Caraffa for three days has lodged at St. Mark's and attends to the preparation for the defence, and all the friars are ordered to work at the bastions; they are all under the care and command of the Archbishop of Cosenza for this purpose. Yesterday evening the Germans of Montalcino entered; they are little more than 1,000, but a very fine set of men. The horses of more companies are expected, and young Count Petigliano is General of the cavalry. The Romans have dispatched four colonels to raise 4,000 infantry to be paid out of their own purses, and in return it is said that the Pope has given them the mills which at present produce two crowns for every robbia of corn. Eighteen gallies are reported to have arrived at Civita Vecchia with four ensigns of Gascons and eight pieces of artillery given to the King by Caraffa. To-day the Marquis of Montebello arrived in Rome by post. It is said that the demands of the Duke of Alva having been presented to the Pope he would neither see them nor hear them read, but said that having to treat of peace he desired the Duke would first restore all the lands taken, and withdraw the whole army within the kingdom, otherwise he would not allow a single word to be uttered. [Italian. Two pages and a half.]
[Sept?] 670. Copy of demands made of the Pope by the Duke of Alva in the name of his Majesty.
1. That his Holiness shall recognize the King as his obedient son, and show himself as affectionate a father to him as he does to other Princes, and allow to his Majesty and his subjects the same favours as he grants to other Kings and nations.
2. That he shall at no time incite war nor offend his Majesty or his states, nor favour nor aid any Prince or other persons who desire so to make war, as his Majesty will reciprocally do to the Pope.
3. That he shall order all prisoners to be released and relieve all the servants of his Majesty, both Prelates and others, from the securities binding them, granting them a general pardon, commencing the day of the capitulation, restoring them to their offices and benefices, so as to remove every occasion of disturbance which might arise, notwithstanding the (blank in original) have been ill-treated by the servants of his Majesty, who offers to his Holiness his whole power and will to chastise those who in future shall offend him.
4. That he shall receive into his favour Sig. Marc Antonio Colonna and Sig. Ascanio as good vassals, and restore to the said Marc all his estate as it is at present, because without this he cannot have peace or quiet, for reasons so evident that it is unnecessary to explain them, and because it cannot be agreeable to the Pope or his authority that he should be deprived of it for being his servant.
5. That he shall restore the revenues and plunder that he has taken from Sig. Ascanio della Cornia.
6. That he shall not cause any fortifications to be made on the confines of the kingdom, but that they shall remain as they are.
7. That he shall give sufficient security to the satisfaction of his Majesty, that he will thoroughly follow out and observe these conditions. [Italian. Two pages.]